Maternal age ? 35 years, Nulliparity, High Blood COHb Levels, and Low Serum Nitric Oxide Levels Increased Risk of Preeclampsia
Keywords:Nitric oxide, Carbon monoxide exposure, Tiles-brick smoke burning, Preeclampsia.
Objective: To find out the risk factors for preeclampsia.
Materials and Methods: a case-control study was between March 2018 and December 2018. Pregnant
women who with gestational age of at least 22 weeks live in residential areas, exposed to smoke from
combustion of tile or brick were divided into two groups. Cases were those diagnosed with preeclampsia.
Controls were normotensive pregnant women who had a history of preeclampsia in previous pregnancy. CO
(carbon monoxide) exposure in pregnant women was determined by examining COHb levels in the blood.
Serum Nitric Oxide levels were measured using the ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) method.
Data were analyzed by Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test, Independent T-Test and regression analysis.
Adjusted odds ratio (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated.
Results: The results of Blood COHb levels were significantly higher in preeclampsia (4.58±1.2) than the
case of control group (2.85±0.4). Serum nitric oxide levels in preeclampsia were significantly lower in
preeclampsia (18.28±4.1) than the case of control group (35.15±7.2). Maternal age ? 35 years, nulliparity,
high blood COHb levels > 3.5%, and low serum Nitric Oxide levels < 25 ?mol/L were significantly associated
with increased risk of preeclampsia.
Conclusion: Low serum Nitric Oxide levels (< 25 ?mol/L) due to exposure to CO from the smoke of
combustion of tiles or brick carried an increased risk of developing preeclampsia (ORs 25.5;95% CI 4.3-
29.7). These results can help health workers in pregnancy care counseling and prevention of preeclampsia
in pregnant women located in areas exposed to carbon monoxide from the smoke of combustion of tiles or
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