Cardiac Haemorrhage: An Extreme Presentation of Leptospirosis


  • Razuin R1,2, Nurquin F. S2 , Nur A. R. P.2 , Julina M. N.3


Leptospirosis; Myocarditis; Pulmonary haemorrhage; Autopsy; Cardiac haemorrhage


Introduction: Leptospirosis is a worldwide disease with significant morbidity and mortality. The severe

form of the disease may present with cardiac and pulmonary involvements resulting in multi-organ

failure. Cardiac manifestations of leptospirosis include arrhythmia, cardiomegaly, petechial haemorrhages,

pericarditis and myocarditis. Case report: We report a case of a 10-year-old boy who was having shortness

of breath and collapsed at home. At the emergency department, he was having refractory hypotension

with electrocardiogram (ECG) showing sinus tachycardia. The liver and cardiac enzymes were markedly

raised. The full blood count showed leukocytosis. It was concluded that he was in septicaemic state with

acute multi-organ failure of unknown cause. He succumbed to the illness approximately 8 hours after the

hospital admission. At autopsy, the lungs, liver and spleen were markedly congested. Pericardial effusion

was noted. The heart showed extensive areas of petechial and confluent haemorrhages involving almost

the entire epicardial surface of the right and left ventricles. Massive subendocardial haemorrhage was also

observed upon sectioning of the left ventricular chamber. Histopathology examination corroborated that

haemorrhages were present in the heart, lungs and the liver. Laboratory investigations revealed positive

Leptospira IgM antibody, confirmed by positive Leptospira PCR. The cause of death was concluded as

cardiac and pulmonary haemorrhages secondary to leptospirosis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular involvement

in leptospirosis may manifest as rapidly deteriorating illness with clinical evidence demonstrable from the

ECG changes and raised cardiac enzymes. Recognizing these signs early may help to improve outcomes.

Author Biography

Razuin R1,2, Nurquin F. S2 , Nur A. R. P.2 , Julina M. N.3

1 Centre for Pathology Diagnostic & Research Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA,

Selangor, Malaysia, 2Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sungai Buloh, Ministry of Health Malaysia,

3Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia



How to Cite

Razuin R1,2, Nurquin F. S2 , Nur A. R. P.2 , Julina M. N.3. (2020). Cardiac Haemorrhage: An Extreme Presentation of Leptospirosis. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 14(3), 2146-2150. Retrieved from