A Study Evaluating Correlation between Umbilical Cord Attachment on Placenta in Normotensive and Hypertensive Pregnant Females and its Effects on Fetus
Keywords:Placenta, Umbilical cord, Cotyledon, Hypertension, Hypotension, Fetus.
Introduction: Well nourished newborn is a reflection of adequate placental function.The umbilical cord
that connects fetus and placenta can attach itself to placenta at different placenta.The incidence of central,
eccentric, marginal and velamentous cord insertion is 18%,73%, 7% and 1-2%, respectively. This insertion
type significantly influences fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes.
Methodology: This study was conducted in Department of Anatomy of SBKS MIRC, Vadodara. This was a
comparative study between normotensive and hypertensive group in which 500 subjects, in each group were
included. Insertion of umbilical cord on placentawas determined and fetal growth and outcome with type of
insertion were correlated.
Results: The two groups were comparable in terms of demographics.Higher proportion of those in
hypertensive group had marginal insertion of umbilical cord (23.40%) as compared to 2.90% in normotensive
group. Mean systolic (150.10±7.51mmHg) as well as diastolic blood pressure (91.23±4.00mmHg) was
higher in those with marginal insertion of placenta. Mean fetal birth weight and APGAR score at birth and 5
minute and proportion of fetus reaching full term, live births were low in those in those in the hypertensive
group especially in those with marginal insertion of placenta.
Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded that abnormal attachment of umbilical cord on placenta has significant
impact on fetal growth and influences the outcomes of pregnancy directly and indirectly
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