Coronavirus :- An Emerging Pathogen

Authors

  • Alankrita

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37506/ijfmt.v15i1.13434

Keywords:

SARS-CoV2, pathogenesis, transmission, ACE 2 receptor, alveolar edema, ARDS, prevention, Ground glass opacities, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir.

Abstract

Corona virus disease -19(COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2). Primarily it causes respiratory illness in humans. The pandemic caused by ths virus started in 2019
in Wuhan , China. Later it was declared as pandemic by WHO. In this article I am reviewing the coronavirus
along with its microbilogical structure, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical features and its management.
The virus is a singl stranded RNA virus. The virus enters the respiatory tract via mucous membrane of
mouth or nose. It binds to ACE TYPE 2 receptor and causes alveolar edema and its destruction leading to
decrease in gas exchange which further leads to hypoxaemia finally leading to acute respiratory distress
syndrome ( ARDS). It most patients COVID19 presents with mild symptoms and they doesn’t require any
medical intervention. But patietnts presenting with severe symptoms needs vigilant medical attention and
may require ventilatory support. Most common symptoms are fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, fatigue
, nasal congestion. The infection spreads via droplet from an infected person. Infection with this virus
may lead to severe inflammatory response leading to release of cytoines which causes increased capillary
permeability and vasodilatation leading to hypotension which further leads to decrease in blood supply
to multiple organs leading to multiple organ failure. There is increase chances of morbidity and mortality
among elderly and in those with comorbidities. In eldrely the chance of fatality is way more than young
people. No one drug has been found yet as the ultimate treatment of COVID-19. Many drugs are under
clinical trial and researches are going on for vaccine as well. But untill we get a definitive cure the only
escape we have is prevention and the only means to do that is to practice social distancing , proper hand
hygiene and sanitation.

Author Biography

Alankrita

Intern At Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute Of Medical Sciences, Wardha

Published

2020-12-31

How to Cite

Alankrita. (2020). Coronavirus :- An Emerging Pathogen. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(1), 359-367. https://doi.org/10.37506/ijfmt.v15i1.13434