Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Neuroimaging of Cerebral Palsy with and without Epilepsy in Children
Keywords:Cerebral palsy, epilepsy, neuroimaging
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the main causes of limited activity in children. The prevalence
of CP ranges from 2.6 to 2.9 per 1000 live births. Most of children with CP have at least one comorbid,
including epilepsy. Epilepsy in CP is difficult to control, and can increase the severity of motor impairment
and cognitive function, therefore the prognosis is poor. The incidence of epilepsy in CP is associated with
a specific clinical profile. This study aimed to analyze the comparison of clinical characteristics of cerebral
palsy in children with and without epilepsy.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using medical record of children with cerebral palsy in
pediatric neurology outpatient clinic in Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya in March - May 2020. Children
with CP who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. The variables studied included sex,
perinatal history (preterm birth, low birth weight, and neonatal asphyxia), neonatal seizures, spastic type,
level of GMFCS, head circumference, neuroimaging features, hearing loss, and eye abnormalities. The
study subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of children with CP and epilepsy. Group 2
consisted of children with CP without epilepsy. Data analysis was performed using the Chi-square test and
fisher’s exact test using SPSS.
Result: Significant comparison of the characteristics were found in the history of neonatal seizures and
the level of GMFCS. The percentage of neonatal seizures was higher in group 1 at 61.3% (p=0.049). The
degree of GMFCS in group 1 was dominated by GMFCS III while in group 2 it was dominated by GMFCS
IV (p=0.047). Subjects with GMFCS I and II levels were only found in group 2, while in group 1 with
higher level of GMFCS, they were GMFCS III, IV, and V. More abnormal neuroimaging was found in
group 1, namely 64.3%, while in group 2 it was 57.1%. There was no statistically significant difference of
neuroimaging characteristics between the two groups (p= 0.911).
Conclusion: There were differences in clinical characteristics associated with neonatal seizures and GMFCS
between CP with and without epilepsy.
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