Lip Thickness with Tongue Space Area Assessment By Cephalometric Analysis for Iraqi Adult Sample with Class II Dental and Skeletal Pattern
Keywords:class II, Cephalometric, lip thickness, tongue space
Background: With different skeletal classes, there may be some variability among the lip thickness and
tongue space area that could be the causative factor for skeletal malrelationship so that this study was aimed
to determine the tongue and the available boundary space area with lip thickness and correlate them together
in sample with class II skeletal pattern.
Methods: Seventy Iraqi adult subjects (32 males and 38 females) with cl II skeletal pattern who have
increased over jet and ANB angle greater than four degrees. The cephalometric measurements include upper
and lower lip thicknesses with height and length of tongue and position of tongue base and hyoid bone
from the cervical line. The cephalograms were analyzed using AutoCAD program to measure demanded
areas. Results: This study revealed that a significant gender difference was found between T-Area, V-TT,
TH, V-FP, AH-CL, AH-FP, and upper and lower lip thickness in which higher mean value in males than
females. The correlation between all the measured variables of present sample with SNA, SNB and ANB
angles a non-significant difference was found except for V-CL which shows significant difference. Strong
correlation was found among the T-Area with V-TT, TH, V-FP, AH-CL, AHFP, upper lip thickness and lower
Conclusions: In skeletal class II, the associated cranial base angles shows independent association from the
boundary soft tissues so that these variations not always contribute to be the causative factor for skeletal
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