Assessment and Comparison of Total Salivary Protein and Salivary Flow Rate among Type I, Type II Diabetics and Healthy Controls
Keywords:Diabetes mellitus, Salivary flow rate, Protein, Glucose
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus characterized by either absolute insulin deficiency (Type I) or target
tissue resistance (Type II) is associated with oral complications like xerostomia, gingivitis, periodontitis,
odontogenic abcesses and soft tissue lesions of the oral mucosa. Saliva is a unique biological fluid and is also
a characteristic biomarkers for different diseases.Several classes of drugs are found to be associated with
dry mouth or salivary gland dysfunction or hypofunction, which in turn influences concentration of salivary
proteins. This leads to changes of oral health status among individuals using these drugs. Aim of the Study:
To evaluate and compare the total salivary protein and salivary flow rate among Type I Diabetics, Type II
Diabetics and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 individuals have participated in the
study which include 20 with Type I diabetes, 20 with Type II diabetes and 20 healthy controls. The study was
prospective in nature. Patients were asked not to eat or drink 2 hours before the time of saliva collection. The
samples were collected in the same time of the day to avoid circadian variations. unstimulated saliva was
collected using spit technique. Patient was instructed to spit the saliva in graduated containers for a period
of two minutes. The flow rates were determined visually from graduated salivary containers as ml/min.
After measuring the saliva volume the saliva sample was stored in deep freeze until protein estimation. The
total salivary protein in each salivary sample was determined using BioRad Protein Assay Dye Concentrate
method using BSA standard. Results: On comparing the total salivary protein among Type I, Type II
Diabetics and healthy controls, a significant difference in total salivary protein was found among Type I
Diabetics and healthy controls and also among Type I and Type II Diabetics and there was a insignificant
difference in Type II Diabetics and controls. There was an insignificant difference in total salivary flow
rate among Type I and Type II Diabetics and healthy controls. Conclusion: A significant difference in total
salivary protein level among the diabetic and non diabetics emphasized that protein utilization by other
biochemical metabolic pathways has an overall systemic response to glucose intolerance .With regards to
salivary flow rate ,the inconsistent results obtained may be due to the duration of diabetes, age range of
patients and metabolic control of patients, class of drugs taken by the patient .
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