Incense Smoke Exposure: An Appraisal of Organ Toxicity
Keywords:Heart, incense, liver, lungs, organotoxicity, skin, testes
Background: This narrative type review aimed to address organ toxicity emanating from incense usage.
Methods: An online search using the following MeSH terms “Incense smoke,”, “adverse effects,”
“organotoxicity”, “oxidative stress” and “inflammation” was done to identify studies directly applicable to
adverse effects of incense smoke exposure.
Findings: Exposure to incense smoke demonstrated various toxicity changes in the kidney, testes, lungs,
liver and heart. Renal effects included a decrease in oxidative stress markers GSH and CAT, increase in
MDA, serum creatinine uric acid and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Testicular toxicityrevealed significant
disturbances in spermatogenetic patterns, testicular atrophy, germinal aplasia, hypospermia and damage to
the basal seminiferous epithelia tissue. In the cardiac muscle, ultrastructural changes, increased oxidative
stress, inflammation, and altered cardiac hypertrophic gene expression was noted. Thenegative impact
of incense smoke emanating from free radical (ROS), lipid peroxidation and GSH destabilizes vascular
homeostasis and initiates ahyperinflammatory response, warranting the need to understand the conceptual
basis of the mode of action linked to incense exposure.
Conclusion: We highlight that incense generates ROS which initiates lipid peroxidation through ATP energy
depletion and reduction in the natural antioxidants. This subsequently triggers oxidative stress, inflammation
and endothelial dysfunction resulting in organotoxicity
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Re use and mixing of content policy- We follow Creative Commons Licence Policy. We follow CC BY. Please refer below for all details
This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon our work, even commercially, as long as they credit us for the original creation.
- The journal allows readers to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allow readers to use them for any other lawful purpose.
- The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.
- The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions