Swimming Improves Memory Function and Decreases N-Methyl-D-Aspartate in Ageing Rats
A single Memory impairment substantially reduces the quality of life in the elderly. It is associated with the
alteration of neurotrophic (NT) factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glutamate
receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Exercise is often used to reduce cognitive impairment. Previous
studies show that the benefits of aerobic exercises on such impairments are correlated with increasing BDNF
and preventing the production of NMDA. However, some results remain controversial. Thus, the association
between exercise and Memory was addressed by examining increases in BDNF and the reduction of NMDA
in ageing rats. The study used a randomized, post-test-only controlled group of 30 male one-year-old ageing
Rattus norvegicus divided into three groups, namely, K0 (control) and K1 and K2 (aerobic swimming
exercise). K1 and K2 animals differed in the frequency of exercise, which is three and four sessions per
week, respectively. Memory was assessed using Y-maze performance. BDNF and NMDA were analyzed
using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A significant improvement in memory function and reduction
in the NMDA level were observed in K1 and K2 group rats (p = 0.001; p = 0.041). No significant impact on
the BDNF levels was observed (p = 0.387). Swimming may boost Memory by reducing the NMDA level
but not by increasing BDNF. Swimming is a promising method for preventing or delaying memory loss in
degenerative brain diseases. Further investigation is needed to fully understand underlying mechanisms.
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Copyright (c) 2021 Hanik Badriyah Hidayati, Purwo Sri Rejeki, Lilik Herawati, Susi Wahyuning Asih, Suhartati Suhartati, Siti Khaerunnisa
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