Dental Panoramic Radiographs as Early Signs of Osteoporosis in Pre and Post Menopausal Women – An Observational Study
Keywords:Osteoporosis · Panoramic radiography · Bone density · Fragility fracture · Mandible
Osteoporosis is defined as “a skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural
deterioration of bone tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility, with consequent increase in fracture risk”. An
osteoporotic fracture is an outcome of trauma to bone of compromised strength, commonly first occurring
in the vertebral bodies and distal radius, both sites composed predominantly of medullary (trabecular) bone.
Osteoporosis is an extremely common disease affecting most women during their lifetime. Osteoporosis
reduces bone density, affecting the bone mass and strength without altering the basic chemical composition.
Declining estrogen levels during and after menopause lead to increase bone resorption and increased urinary
excretion of calcium. Thus, estrogen deficiency plays a primary role in osteoporosis, accounting for up to
one half of the bone lost during a women’s lifetime.
Oral signs of osteoporosis might be manifested by excessive alveolar ridge resorption, tooth loss, chronic
destructive periodontal disease, referred maxillary sinus pain, or fracture.
Radiographic evaluation of post-menopausal women and patients with advanced renal failure demonstrated
the loss of cortical bone at the mandible.
The purpose of the study is to evaluate relationship between various oral signs the probability of this
relationship excising in certain patients and to access cortical bone thickness measurements using panoramic
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