Alliance of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Promoter-1562C/T Polymorphism and Metalloproteinase-9 Saliva Concentration of Iraqi Patients with Chronic Periodontitis
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key enzymes responsible for matrix degradation, derived from
polymorphonuclear leukocytes, during the early stages of periodontitis. There is plenty of evidence
for the role of matrix metalloproteinases in the destructive processes of periodontal disease as a viable
target in early diagnosis and chemotherapeutic approach. The aim of this study was to determine the
levels of salivary matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in patients with periodontitis and healthy
controls and the role of gene polymorphisms in the aetiology of the disease. Levels of MMP-9 in
saliva was determined by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) technique in healthy subjects
without any periodontal disease (n = 45) and in the patients with diagnosed periodontitis (n = 45).
Gene Amplification, gel electrophoresis and genotyping were also carried out on MMP-9 gene. The
MMP-9-1562C/T appeared in three genotypes: CC, CT and TT, allele specific gene polymorphism was
amplified by PCR technique. The distribution of different genotypes in patients and controls for each of
MMP-9-1562C/T polymorphism was in a good accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE).
Genotypes in both dominant and recessive models were non-significantly associated with periodontitis.
Significantly higher salivary MMP-9 was observed in cases of periodontitis compared to healthy adults
(p = 0.043). Salivary MMP-9 may serve as a biomarker of periodontal disease monitoring and aid in
the early detection of periodontitis.
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