Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Particles and Chitosan by Sol–Gel Method (in Vitro Study)
Keywords:dental implant, dip coating, sol–gel, chitosan, hydroxyapatite, nanoparticles.
Successful osseointegration of dental implants depends on many factors, including implant stability, bone quality, implant surface condition, and implant materials. Implant surface is coated using different techniques to enhance osseointegration. Sol–gel technique is one of the modern and easy techniques in the production of more bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA). In this study, nano-HA and chitosan were used to coat titanium disc via the sol–gel technique. Materials and Method: The nano-HA/chitosan composite was prepared using calcium nitride and phosphorus pentoxide solutions. The solutions were drop wisely mixed on a magnetic stirrer. Then, 3 mg of chitosan was added to the mixture, and the mixture was stirred for 15 h. Titanium samples were dip coated in the mixture of chitosan/HA on the stirrer at slow speed for 90 min to precipitate the coating layer. Afterward, the samples were removed and dried in a hot air oven. They were sintered at 400 °C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD), light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), FTIR analysis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the surface and thickness. The results of XRD test showed that HA particles had sharp diffraction peaks, indicating high crystallinity of the structure due to the sol–gel preparation. Results of optical light microscopy showed that the coated layer was fairly distributed on titanium samples. SEM results of the coated samples showed different surface features, which present a roughness with the appearance of a crystal pool with irregular accumulation of small, spherical-like granules. EDX analysis showed the presence of ions that comprised HA. AFM analysis of the coated sample indicated peaks and projections with average surface nano-roughness (10.1 nm) and grain size (2022–2057 nm). FTIR analysis showed the presence of a band associated with HA particles and amide groups associated with chitosan. The average of thickness readings was 60 ?m.
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