In Vitro Technique for Heavy Metal, Cobalt Tolerance in Aloe Vera Callus
Keywords:Cobalt, tolerance, in vitro, Aloe
In vitro tissue culture application in plant biotechnology is an efficient plant propagation tool in arising plants resistant to diverse a biotic stresses such as drought and salinity. In this investigation, the aim on the in vitro breeding process applied for plants resistant to heavy metal (HM) stress. The experiment included the following two sequent stages: (i) callus cells initiation, some of which are soma clonal variation with new characteristics, (ii) susceptibility of the callus to HMs as selective factor during multiplication to select variants with enhanced HM-resistance. Aloe callus was grown on media complemented with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l cobalt (Co) plus the control treatment. Cobalt accumulation level, mineral status, and callus growth were examined. Results indicate that the increase of Co concentration in medium had influenced callus growth giving the best growth 737 and 56.6 mg for fresh and dry weight respectively at 0.5 mg/l Co concentration, and that growth decreased with increase of Co concentration in medium. With concern to mineral status, cobalt had increased dramatically in callus cells with the increase of Co concentration treatment reaching 108.63ppm at 2.0 mg/l Cobalt, Fe ion concentration reached its highest level 1712.0ppm at 2.0mg/l Cobalt, Mn ions give the highest accumulation level 126.07 ppm at 1.0 mg/l cobalt. While potassium (K)and magnesium (Mg) decreased with increase of cobalt in callus medium recording their highest accumulation level 22244.0 and 492.47 respectively at plant control treatment. Na ions reached its highest level of accumulation 104.3 ppm at 0.5 mg/l cobalt concentration and decreased with the increase of cobalt concentration in the medium.
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