Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 2021-10-25T01:02:46-05:00 Prof (Dr) S K Dhattarwal Open Journal Systems <p>Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology is a double-blind peer reviewed international journal. The frequency is quarterly. It deals with Forensic Medicine, Forensic Science, Toxicology, DNA fingerprinting, sexual medicine, environmental medicine, Forensic Pathology, legal medicine and public health laws. It has been assigned International standard serial No. p-0973-9122 and e-0973-9130. The Journal has been assigned RNI No. DELENG/2008/21789.The journal is also abstracted in Chemical Abstracts (CAS) database. The journal is also indexed /abstracted with many databases. </p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> Effectiveness of Empowerment Programme on Stress and Care Giving Burden among Care Givers of Chronically Ill Patients Admitted in MMIMS&R Hospital, Mullana Ambala, Haryana 2021-08-16T03:08:22-05:00 Shalini Youssouf Jyoti Sarin Eenu Bindu Joseph <p>Background- One of the most compassionate and self-sacrificing things a person can do is care for a sick<br>loved one. Caring for a family member with impaired mental and behavioral functioning presents the most<br>stressful of care giving situations. Keeping family caregivers healthy and able to provide care is crucial to<br>maintaining our nation’s long-term healthcare system.<br>Aims – To assess the effectiveness of Empowerment programme regarding stress and care giving burden<br>among care givers of chronically ill patients in experimental and comparison group.<br>Material and Methods - A Quasi Experimental non Equivalent control group pretest post test design. 95<br>care givers of chronically ill patients (50 in experimental and 45 in comparison group) selected from hospital<br>by using convenience sampling technique. Empowerment programme was administered in experimental<br>group. Selected demographic characteristics, standardized perceived stress scale and standardized care giver<br>burden scale were used to collect data.<br>Results- The study showed that the mean post test 1 and post test 2 stress score was 12.44 ± 2.10 &amp;<br>12.26±2.05 and 14.11 ± 3.11 &amp; 14.40± 3.12 in experimental and comparison group respectively. There was<br>no significant correlation between stress and care giving burden .There was no association of care giving<br>burden score of the care givers in experimental and comparison group with their selected patient demographic<br>characteristics and there was no significant association of care giving burden scores with their selected care<br>giver demographic characteristics in experimental group and in comparison group except gender.<br>Conclusion- Empowerment programme was effective in reducing stress and care giving burden among care<br>givers of chronically ill patients</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Study of Various Patterns of Azygos Venous System and its Clinical Significance 2021-08-16T02:24:00-05:00 Aarti Rohilla Monika Rathee Kamal Singh Suresh Kanta Rathee <p>Background: The azygos system includes those veins which are straight in course, paravertebral in position<br>and not accompanied with the corresponding arteries. The azygos vein may arise as lumbar azygos vein<br>from the back of inferior vena cava or by the union of right subcostal and right ascending lumbar veins. It<br>enters the thorax, receives lower 8 right posterior intercostal veins, superior intercostal vein, hemiazygos<br>and accessory hemiazygos veins and ends by joining the superior vena cava. The hemiazygos vein is formed<br>on the left in a manner similar to that of azygos vein. The aim of the present study was to investigate the<br>various patterns of the azygos venous system.<br>Methods: A total number of 30 cadavers were studied and were evaluated based on the study of Anson BJ<br>and Mcvay CB.<br>Conclusion: Out of 30 specimens studied, 17 (56%) specimens showed normal pattern, 5 (16%) specimens<br>showed caterpillar pattern and rest 8 (26%) specimens showed ladder pattern.<br>Azygos system of veins serve as an alternative drainage channel between superior vena cava and inferior<br>vena cava in case of obstruction. The knowledge of various patterns could be useful for radiologists and<br>surgeons to prevent intra-operative hazards.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fetal Ilium as a Tool For Sex Determination: Discriminant Functional Analysis 2021-08-16T02:38:55-05:00 Aarti Luv Sharma Kamal Singh <p>Background: Sex determination has been the most intriguing puzzle for forensic pathologists and<br>anthropologists for which efforts are being done since long. Sexual dimorphism is well established in the<br>adult pelvis and it is known to provide the highest level of information about sexual dimorphism. This study<br>was conducted to know whether this dimorphism exists in fetal bones?<br>Method: A total of 34 pairs of fetal pelvis bones (22 Males + 12 Females), age ranging from 4 months to<br>full term were collected from unidentified dead fetuses brought in the Department of Forensic Medicine<br>for the routine medicolegal autopsies, to study for sexual dimorphism in the Department of Anatomy, Pt.<br>B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak. Samples were divided in 2 age groups and various metric parameters were<br>recorded with the help of digital vernier caliper. Data obtained was subjected to descriptive &amp; discriminant<br>functional analysis.<br>Conclusion: Results of Descriptive and Discriminant Functional Analysis showed that sex determination<br>can be done with 100% of accuracy by using different combinations of parameters of fetal ilium. This<br>study illustrates that sexual dimorphism exists from early fetal life &amp; after mid pregnancy; it can be clearly<br>established by discriminant functional analysis.<br>This research was limited in its analysis due to less availability of specimens as this represents only the<br>results in north Indian population. Future studies should be done to explore different populations to better<br>understand the sexual dimorphism in fetal bones of different geographic contexts.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Review on Current Trends in Hypertension 2021-08-16T02:43:06-05:00 Aarti Thakur Ruchi Kumari Sakshi Tomar <p>Hypertension is one of the serious medical condition that has risk factor for developing cardiovascular<br>diseases. Around 33% of individuals having hypertension are undiagnosed and those who are diagnosed are<br>not taking proper treatment. One of the significant reason for hypertension is premature death. In this review,<br>we focused on modern directions of hypertension management with an attention on screening, diagnosis and<br>drug selection. In urban areas of India hypertension incidence is estimated upto 20 to 40% and in rural area<br>it is upto 12 to 17%. Hypertension shows no symptoms and during routine check-ups we can diagnose it.<br>For management of hypertension the guidelines were developed by ministry of health. Various threats were<br>identified regarding management of hypertension.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effectiveness of Lockdown in Reducing the Spread of COVID-19 2021-08-16T03:16:39-05:00 Adyati Satya Puspita Judya Sukmana Lestari Dewi Erina Yatmasari <p>At the end of 2019, a mysterious outbreak appeared, forming an atypical pneumonia suspected of originating<br>from an animal market in Wuhan China. The outbreak is a new type of coronavirus which is named as<br>COVID-19 disease (2019 – nCoV, Novel Coronavirus). COVID 19 disease is a viral infection caused by<br>SARS-CoV-2, namely the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 which emerged in Wuhan, China.<br>Vaccines and antiviral drugs have not been found, meanwhile COVID-19 are prevented by using nonpharmacological<br>interventions, one of the actions taken by several countries is to create policy protocols<br>such as lockdowns.<br>The results of this study indicate that lockdown is effective in reducing the spread of COVID -19, it can be<br>seen from the significant decrease in R0 and Rt, &lt;1 in several countries after lockdown such as UK 0.99<br>(0.96–1.02), Italy 0.89 (0.87–0.91), French 0.76 (0.72–0.82) and Spain 0.74 (0.71–0.78) which means that<br>someone who is infected cannot infect other people and the disease will die (disappear). The value of Rt also<br>shows a consistent decline Rt to &lt;1 (0.88) after 2 weeks of lockdown in Italy.<br>The conclusion from this literature show that lockdowns can reduce the spread of COVID-19 which is<br>shown by the number of incidents before and after the lockdown which has decreased to zero cases in China.<br>The decline in cases also occurred in Europe although at the beginning of the lockdown it was not significant<br>but it was increasingly effective and continued to be significant after the lockdown was imposed.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Comparative Analysis of Misery Index and Its Impact on Health Indicators Across The Globe 2021-08-16T03:23:52-05:00 Aishwarya Rajmohan Suganya.P Prabu.D Bharathwaj M.R.Prashanthy <p>Aim: This study aims to analyze the impact/relationship of the health indicators and the human development<br>index over the globe’s misery index.<br>Materials and Method: In this paper, a comparative data analysis of the misery index, health indicators like<br>mortality rate, disability rate, Quality of life index, and human development index, along with the ranking<br>based on the human development index, were done by tabulating the data collected from the electronic<br>sources.<br>Results: There was a strong correlation between the misery index, human development index, and health<br>indicators.<br>Conclusion: This paper clearly shows that the misery index of a country was highly influenced by the health<br>indicators, such as the mortality rate, disability rate, and Quality of life. Further, the human development<br>index also had a comparative impact on the misery index of a country. Hence, this study depicted a descriptive<br>statistical relationship among the misery index, the health indicators (mortality rate, disability rate, Quality<br>of life) and the Human Development Index (HDI).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Relationship of Perceived Benefit, Perceived Barrier, and Knowledge with Vaccine Hesitancy among Anti- and Pro- Vaccine Community 2021-08-16T03:46:02-05:00 Aisyah Nur Izzati Retno Indarwati Makhfudli <p>Introduction: The phenomenon of basic vaccine hesitancy in parents is the biggest challenge faced by<br>health workers in the global era currently. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between perceived<br>benefits, perceived barriers, and knowledge about vaccines towards vaccine hesitancy among anti and provaccine<br>communities on social media Facebook.<br>Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design. The sample was 150 members of the anti-vaccine<br>community and 234 members of the pro-vaccine community on social media Facebook using a purposive<br>sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire namely; HBM (health belief model)<br>questionnaire which was translated and modified, and Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (VHS) questionnaire. The<br>independent variables in this study were perceived benefits of vaccines, perceived barriers to vaccines,<br>knowledge about vaccines. The dependent variable was vaccine hesitancy. Spearman rho analysis was used<br>to measure the relationship between the dependent and independent variables.<br>Results: The results of the Spearman rho analysis showed that the perceived benefits of vaccines (p=0.363<br>of anti-vaccine, p=0.702 of pro-vaccine), the perceived barriers to vaccines (p=0.410 of anti-vaccine,<br>p=0.341 of pro-vaccine), and knowledge about vaccines (p=0.413 of anti-vaccine, p=0.192 of pro-vaccine)<br>was related to vaccine hesitancy in parents.<br>Discussion: This study results indicated that the perceived benefits of vaccines, perceived barriers to<br>vaccines, and knowledge about vaccines are related to vaccine hesitancy in parents. The implications of the<br>study are essential information for health workers to determine the right and wise strategy in responding to<br>the increasing vaccine hesitancy in public so that basic vaccine coverage will increase.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Medication Error among Nursing Students in a Selected College at Mangaluru 2021-08-16T03:49:13-05:00 Ajanya Shaju Aleesha Babu Dona Sebastian Mary Joseph Pavithra K <p>are all time high. The system of treatment is becoming more hi-tech and more sophisticated which is<br>vulnerable to the errors at the same time. Effective medication error reporting is a necessary tool to prevent<br>and reduce its occurrence. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding medication error<br>among nursing students.<br>Methods: A Descriptive approach was adopted for the study. By Stratified Random sampling 125 Nursing<br>Students were selected. The data was collected using Demographic Performa, Structured knowledge<br>questionnaire and Attitude scale. The data obtained were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics<br>using SPSS version 16.0.<br>Results: Results showed that majority 67.2% of the Nursing students had average knowledge and 88% had<br>positive attitude towards the reporting of medication error. There was no significant correlation between<br>knowledge and attitude among nursing student regarding medication error.<br>Conclusion: The Study concluded that despite sufficient knowledge and favourable attitudes towards<br>medication error reporting, there is still an under-reporting of medication errors when it comes to practice. It<br>was clear that the nurses need specific information about what constitutes medication error.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 An Assessment of Oral Health Status among Lead Battery Factory Workers in Ghaziabad UP a Cross Sectional Study 2021-08-16T03:59:15-05:00 Akanksha Monga Thanveer K Bhuvandeep Gupta Aparna Aggarwal Nisha Yadav Meena Jain Ankur Sharma <p>Introduction: Industrial workers are a well-defined group of a population. They have frequent shifts,<br>low socio-economic status and neglected oral hygiene as they are at risk for health and dental problems.<br>Industrial revolution has provided a lot of scope in employment worldwide for many which has improved<br>the standard of living of many individuals. Health at workplace is considered essential now a days in various<br>countries due to this rapid economic growth and industrial progress. In various industries like acid battery<br>industry, chemical and textile industry, are exposed to hazardous substances and radiations. Studies have<br>also reported a positive association between battery exposures to strong acids and periodontal pockets or<br>gingival bleeding among exposed workers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to assess the<br>oral health status of lead battery factory workers in Ghaziabad Uttar Pradesh. Material and Method: The<br>“World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form -2013” was used to record the clinical<br>findings.25 For the diagnosis of dental caries, WHO type III examination was carried out using mouth<br>mirrors and explorers while using adequate illumination. The components of the form used were - General<br>information, Dentition status (crown, root), periodontal status, loss of attachment, dental erosion, and oral<br>mucosal lesions. Results: The mean DMFT scores were (5.72 3.17) females had more number of teeth with<br>gingival bleeding compared to males. It was also found 72.3% of battery factory workers had pocket depth<br>more than 6mm. 51.5% workers in the study had LOA of score 3 (as per WHO proforma) Mean number of<br>teeth affected with erosion was more in males (4.76 4.02)</p> <p>Conclusion: Oral health statuses of factory workers are highly affected due to lead acid used in industries.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Cytotoxic Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Prepared by Biosurfactant Produced from Pathogenic Bacteria 2021-08-16T04:51:47-05:00 Aleaa abdul hussein jameel Nadhim hussan hayder Amenah Rami Abdullah Laith ahmed yaaqoob 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Review on Medication Synchronization Programs in Community Pharmacies to Improve Medication Adherence 2021-08-16T05:03:14-05:00 Rakshith U.R Srikanth M.S <p>Adherence to the prescribed medications plays an important role in treatment of chronic diseases.<br>Hypertension, Ischemic heart diseases, Diabetes mellitus, Dyslipidaemia’s are major health challenges of<br>21st Century and are more expensive. A total 79% of Projected deaths are caused due to chronic diseases<br>in developing countries. Non adherence to prescribed medications is one of major health threat worldwide.<br>Patients who are on chronic diseases are offen visits multiple health care practioners, numerous pharmacies,<br>and who take multiple drugs results in medication non-adherence. The new primary care models suggest<br>that there is no promotion of close physician-patient-pharmacist relationships. Training for the treatment<br>of chronic diseases is seldom satisfactory and there is inadequate consistency and communication between<br>health care providers. Among health care profession community pharmacist are the ideal position to assist<br>the management of patients with chronic disease. The Synchronization services are offered by several<br>community pharmacies to improve medication adherence. These programs work by overcoming the barriers<br>of medication non adherence by refilling their prescription in their single visits. Although there are Numerous<br>medication synchronization programs are available in community pharmacies effectives of medication<br>synchronization programs are confined to its type synchronization programs implemented.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Articaine: Opening up a New Vista For Pediatric Dentists 2021-08-16T05:08:05-05:00 Ananthu H Ashwin P Rao Suprabha B S <p>Lidocaine has remained the gold standard local anaesthetic agent to perform dental procedures both in the<br>adult as well as in the pediatric patients. However, the invent of articaine has offered the clinicians with a<br>newer and more potent local anaesthetic agent, which causes minimal side effects. Articaine is 1.5 times<br>more potent and 0.6 times less toxic than lidocaine. Also, adequate anaesthesia achieved through infiltration<br>route of administration of the drug, almost eliminates the need for the painful and difficult inferior alveolar<br>nerve block in children, thereby minimising the side effects. Thus, achieving adequate anaethesia through<br>the administration of a small volume of the drug has opened up a new vista for pediatric dentists in managing<br>pain in children, although manufacturers do not recommend the usage of articaine in children less than 4<br>years of age due to paucity of evidence. So, this review article tries to throw light on the use of articaine in<br>pediatric patients, citing evidence from literature and also tries to portray the recent advances in the research<br>on articaine use in pediatric patients less than 4 years of age.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Maxillary Inter-canine Width at Three Stages of Dentition– A Cross-Sectional Study 2021-08-16T05:13:39-05:00 Anita Thakur Seema Thakur Parul Singhal Deepak Chauhan <p>Objective: To determine the palatal intercanine width from deciduous dentition to permanent dentition in<br>5years to 16 years old children.<br>Materials and Methods: the study sample comprised of 168 children who fulfilled the inclusion and<br>exclusion criteria were examined. Study models were constructed and maxillary intercanine width was<br>measured using Vernier digital caliper.<br>Results: Statistically significant difference was found in upper intercanine width (UICW) between males<br>and females in primary dentition (p&lt;0.034). Statistically non-significant difference was found in upper<br>intercanine width (UICW) in mixed and permanent dentition. Data were analysed using SPSS 22 (SPSS<br>Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and t- test were applied to<br>verify the existence of significant differences between the groups.<br>Conclusion: The present study found that there is significant increase in intercanine width in upper dental<br>arch from primary dentition to permanent dentition.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge Regarding Post Exposure Prophylaxis Following Needle Stick Injury among B. Sc Nursing Students 2021-08-16T05:22:11-05:00 Anjana A.P Reshma Thomas Renjitha <p>Background and Objective: A needle stick injury is a percutaneous piercing wound typically set by a<br>needle point, but possibly also by other sharp instruments or objects. Needle stick injuries are more common<br>among health workers during night shifts, and for less experienced people, fatigue, high work load, high<br>pressure, or high perception of risk can all increase the chances of needle stick injury. The present study was<br>conducted with an Objective, to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge<br>regarding post exposure prophylaxis following needle stick injury among B. Sc Nursing students. Methods<br>and Materials: Approach was quantitative approach. The study design was Quasi experimental one group<br>pre test post test design. 157 samples were included in the study by using convenience sampling technique.<br>The knowledge of nursing students regarding post exposure prophylaxis following needle stick injury were<br>assessed before and after the implementation of education programme. The data was collected by using<br>semistructured knowledge questionnaire. Post test was done seven days after the intervention. Results:<br>Application of paired t test revealed a statistically significant increase in knowledge score regarding post<br>exposure prophylaxis following needle stick injury after the implementation of the education programme<br>(t= 9.40, p&lt;0.001). There was a significant increase in the knowledge of each components of post exposure<br>prophylaxis also. Conclusion: Based on the study findings it was concluded that the education programme<br>was effective in improving the knowledge level of nursing students regarding post exposure prophylaxis<br>following needle stick injury.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fatal Poisoning Cases in a Teaching Hospital of West Bengal: a Descriptive Cross-Sectional Clinico-epidemiological Study 2021-08-16T05:26:55-05:00 Ankur Bhattacharjee Saptarshi Chatterjee Partha Sarathi Hembram Sobhan Kumar Das <p>Background: Poisoning is a global health issue and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in<br>India. Pattern of poisoning depends on factors, such as availability of poisons, socioeconomic status of the<br>population, religious and cultural influences, thus creating varied epidemiological trends across time and<br>regions. The present study is planned to address the epidemiological profiles of fatal poisoning cases, with<br>reference to the gastric findings during autopsy.<br>Methods: This is a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study analysing 184 fatal poisoning cases,<br>who attended to R.G. Kar Medical College Police Mortuary during the period of 2014-2015.<br>Conclusion : People of age group 20-29 years were mostly affected, with a male preponderance and an<br>incidence of 8.03%. People from the rural regions constituted more than 80% of the study sample, with<br>suicide as the commonest manner of death. Organophosphorus compounds and acids were the mainly<br>detected, with mucosal congestion and submucosal hemorrhage of stomach as the most reported findings.<br>The authors feel that a prospective study is an option, which could accurately identify the cases and deaths,<br>which could formulate stringent measures so as to decrease the morbidity and mortality due to poisoning.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study to Assess the Knowledge and Practice Regarding Prevention of Deep Vein Thrombosis among Bedridden Patients in a Selected Hospital, Mangalore 2021-08-16T05:32:44-05:00 Ann Sangeetha James Fiona George Grace Violet Jomol Sebastian Prashma Bharath <p>Introduction: The vascular system is a vast network of vessels through which blood circulates in the body.<br>Blood leaving the ventricles is distributed through arteries and arterioles in progressively smaller branches<br>to the capillaries Deep vein thrombosis is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in a deep<br>vein. A world wide survey conducted by CDC shows that 900,000 people could be affected by DVT (1 to 2<br>per 1,000) each year in the United States. Among people who have had a DVT, one-half will have long-term<br>complications. DVT is a serious condition that can be life-threatening. However, it’s largely preventable and<br>treatable. Aim: To assess the knowledge and practice regarding prevention of deep vein thrombosis among<br>bedridden patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the bedridden<br>patients of Yenepoya Medical College Hospital, Mangalore. The content validity of the tool was established<br>in consultation with 7 experts. The reliability of the tools were found to be r (6) = 0.8 and 0.7 which was<br>statistically significant. The tools were found to be reliable. Non probability convenience sampling was used<br>to select the subjects for the study. Pilot study was conducted to find out the feasibility of the study. Data<br>collected from the 95 subjects were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS (Version<br>23). Results: The findings of the study demonstrated that among 95 bedridden patients, that maximum<br>percentage (61%)were belonged to the age group of 47 years and above. Majority (72%) were males.<br>(41%) of were completed primary education. Majority (62%) of the respondents were physically active<br>workers.58% of subjects had inadequate knowledge and 42% of subjects had moderate knowledge and none<br>of the subjects had adequate knowledge on prevention of deep vein thrombosis and 22% of subjects had low<br>practice, whereas majority 66% of respondents had moderate practice level and 12% of subjects had high<br>practice level. Mean knowledge score was 11.14 and mean practice score was 9.85. There existed a positive<br>relationship between knowledge and practice (correlation coefficient =0.662*) at 0.05 level of significance.<br>The study also indicated that chi-square value of demographic variables have no significant association with<br>knowledge scores and practice scores of bedridden patients.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Descriptive Study to Assess the Knowledge and Practice Regarding Prevention of Osteoporosis among Group D Female Workers of Selected Tertiary Care Hospitals in Mangaluru 2021-08-16T05:37:46-05:00 Anumol Shaju Beeda K Jose Geeta Fernandes Jeevan Josna Johney Indumathi <p>Background: Osteoporosis knowledge is one of several factors that are associated with osteoporosis<br>preventive behaviour. Moreover, the educational level of individual has the potential to change the<br>perception of health and illness to a much better level. The objective of the study was to assess the level of<br>knowledge regarding prevention of osteoporosis among Group D female workers ,to determine the level of<br>practice regarding prevention of osteoporosis among Group D female workers,to find correlation between<br>knowledge and practice on prevention of osteoporosis among group D female workers,to find association<br>of knowledge and practice with selected demographic variables. Methodology: A descriptive study design<br>was adopted for this study .The samples were drawn through Purposive sampling technique and the sample<br>comprised of 87 female group D workers.The tool used for this study was demographic proforma, OKAT<br>questionnaire, and self reported practice checklist. Conclusion: The mean percentage of knowledge score<br>was 37.05% and the mean percentage of practice score was 37.18%.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessment and Comparison of Total Salivary Protein and Salivary Flow Rate among Type I, Type II Diabetics and Healthy Controls 2021-08-16T05:43:41-05:00 B.Niveditha M. Kavitha Mutum Sangeeta Devi J. Manju C.K. Vishnu Priya D.K.S.Lakshminrusimhan <p>Introduction: Diabetes mellitus characterized by either absolute insulin deficiency (Type I) or target<br>tissue resistance (Type II) is associated with oral complications like xerostomia, gingivitis, periodontitis,<br>odontogenic abcesses and soft tissue lesions of the oral mucosa. Saliva is a unique biological fluid and is also<br>a characteristic biomarkers for different diseases.Several classes of drugs are found to be associated with<br>dry mouth or salivary gland dysfunction or hypofunction, which in turn influences concentration of salivary<br>proteins. This leads to changes of oral health status among individuals using these drugs. Aim of the Study:<br>To evaluate and compare the total salivary protein and salivary flow rate among Type I Diabetics, Type II<br>Diabetics and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 individuals have participated in the<br>study which include 20 with Type I diabetes, 20 with Type II diabetes and 20 healthy controls. The study was<br>prospective in nature. Patients were asked not to eat or drink 2 hours before the time of saliva collection. The<br>samples were collected in the same time of the day to avoid circadian variations. unstimulated saliva was<br>collected using spit technique. Patient was instructed to spit the saliva in graduated containers for a period<br>of two minutes. The flow rates were determined visually from graduated salivary containers as ml/min.<br>After measuring the saliva volume the saliva sample was stored in deep freeze until protein estimation. The<br>total salivary protein in each salivary sample was determined using BioRad Protein Assay Dye Concentrate<br>method using BSA standard. Results: On comparing the total salivary protein among Type I, Type II<br>Diabetics and healthy controls, a significant difference in total salivary protein was found among Type I<br>Diabetics and healthy controls and also among Type I and Type II Diabetics and there was a insignificant<br>difference in Type II Diabetics and controls. There was an insignificant difference in total salivary flow<br>rate among Type I and Type II Diabetics and healthy controls. Conclusion: A significant difference in total<br>salivary protein level among the diabetic and non diabetics emphasized that protein utilization by other<br>biochemical metabolic pathways has an overall systemic response to glucose intolerance .With regards to<br>salivary flow rate ,the inconsistent results obtained may be due to the duration of diabetes, age range of<br>patients and metabolic control of patients, class of drugs taken by the patient .</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Antifogging Measures for Protective Eyewear 2021-08-16T05:52:04-05:00 Bharti Sachdeva Parul Saini <p>Fogging of protective eyewear is commonly encountered by healthcare workers and there exists a number of<br>ways to combat this. This article presents a comparison various anti-fogging measures of protective eyewear<br>in terms of their mechanism of action, advantages and disadvantages.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Women and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights: Issues and Challenges due to Environmental Pollution and Covid-19 Pandemic 2021-08-16T05:54:51-05:00 Bijaylaxmi Mohapatra Itishri Sarangi <p>The situation emerging out of COVID-19 pandemic is not only just a health issue that has affected people<br>but it has entrenched structural and gender inequalities and inequities in addition to the economic shock,<br>Women as care giver, at home and communities are at the more challenging end in terms of getting attention<br>and care across the societies, be at the rural, tribal or urban areas. degree of vulnerability has increased due<br>to COVID-19 in every sphere be it in domestic space, labour market or access to health care. Worse situation<br>is the provision of sexual- and reproductive-health services where women face innumerable challenges<br>to address them. (Linde &amp; Gonzalez,2020). Further, rising environmental pollution has further worsened<br>the health situation, particularly in case of sexual and reproductive health for women and girls. This paper<br>explores how women’s health is affected by Air pollution during COVID-19 situations. The paper discusses<br>how women’s health in general and particularly, sexual reproductive health is affected by COVID-19 and<br>environmental pollution, particularly, Air pollution.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Relapse Prevention in Mental Illnesses: Concepts, Issues and Strategies with Perspectives of Psychiatric Nursing- Review Article 2021-08-16T05:57:41-05:00 Mudakavi I Rentala S. <p>The aim of this review article was to explore and understand the concepts, issues and preventive strategies<br>of mental health relapse with psychiatric nursing perspectives and also to present a comprehensive concept<br>of relapse and its prevention in a narrative form based on the evidences from the various sources of<br>literature. The review materials were included from the books, journals, news papers, online data base and<br>grey literature of last three decades to 2018. The significant articles were searched by using key words:<br>“Relapse”, “Mental illness”, “Prevention of Relapse”, “Relapse AND Mental illness”, “Relapse Prevention<br>AND Mental illness” in PubMed, CINHAL, PsychINFO SCOPUS and Google Scholar data bases. Based<br>on the relevant and significant facts found with respect to the aim of the review, concepts were evolved and<br>evidence based narration was made under each concepts to understand prevention of mental health relapse<br>with regards to identification of issues and formulating strategies to overcome such issues with psychiatric<br>nursing perspectives. The study concluded that, relapse is a major obstacle for recovery of mental illness,<br>but can be preventable by addressing underlying issues with preventive approaches across various health<br>care settings.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Histopathological Changes in Brain Tissuesassociated Withoral Administration of Tramadol in Male Rats 2021-08-16T06:01:37-05:00 Abbas Ch. Mraisel Sawsan, A. Ibrahim Muntadher H.Dawood <p>Background: Repeated and long treatment with tramadol might lead to accumulation of toxic metabolites in<br>the body and increase the risk for pharmacokinetic interaction and decrease the clearance of tramadol,therefore<br>this studywas performed to investigate the toxic impact of the tramadol on the tissues of the brain in the<br>male rats.<br>Method: The experiment was carried out at Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental<br>Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.Thirty-two Albano<br>Waster male rats weighing (200-250 g) were obtained from the animal house of the Faculty of Medicine,<br>Alexandria University, andgrouping into four groups (8 rats for each group in each cage). The Control group<br>was fed a basal diet and given tap water daily for ten days. In group two the rats were fed basal diet and<br>given Tramadol HCL orally in dose 45mg/ kg .B.W dissolved in (5ml) normal saline (0.9%) by gastric tube,<br>daily for Ten days. In group three the rats were fed with basal diet and given Tramadol HCL orally in dose<br>45mg/ kg .B.W dissolved in (5ml) normal saline (0.9%) by gastric tube, daily for Twenty days. The group<br>for the rats was fed with basal diet and given Tramadol HCL orally in dose 45mg/ kg .B.W dissolved in<br>(5ml) normal saline (0.9%) by gastric tube, daily for Thirty days. At the end of the experimental period Kidney<br>tissues of each rat were immediately removed and after weighted put into 10% neutral buffer formalin as a<br>fixative solution and stained with Hematoxylin –Eosin stain.<br>The Results: The results observed a significant decrease in the weight of the brain in the groups of the<br>rats that were given the Tramadol HCL in dose 45mg/ kg .B.W with increasing the time of administration<br>as compared with the control group. Histopathological changes were observed in rats brain tissues section<br>the rats that given Tramadol HCL orally in dose 45mg/ kg .B.W dissolved in (5ml) normal saline for ten<br>days revealed a mild degree of tissue injury in the cerebral cortex, with few vacuolar degeneration and<br>dilatation of blood vessels, and the tissue sections of grouptwoafter ten days revealed a mild degree of tissue<br>injury in the cerebral cortex, with few vacuolar degeneration and dilatation of blood vessels, whilethe three<br>groupsObserved increase in the vacuolar degeneration, with neural atrophy and degeneration of neurons<br>with reduction the neural process and pyknosis of the nuclei dilatation of blood vessels after twenty days of<br>tramadol administration. The tissue Sections obtained from group four after thirty days revealed an increase<br>in the vacuolar degeneration, with more atrophy of the neural cells and complete reduction of the neural<br>process and pyknosis of the nucleus in the injured neural cells and gliosis.<br>The conclusion of this study there are harmful toxic effects when administrated tramadol for long period on<br>the brain tissues, therefore an abuse of tramadol should be avoided except with medical prescription owing<br>to its toxic effects.<br><br></p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Legal Civil Liability of the Forensic Medicine as a Judicial Expert from a Jurisprudential Perspective 2021-08-16T06:05:25-05:00 Abdelawal Bassiouny Saad Ramadan Majd Manasra <p>This study dealt with the long-term liability of the forensic medicine expert as a judicial expert. This study<br>clarifies the concept of civil liability for the judicial expert, the forensic medicine, for the implementation of<br>it is expertise, through introducing the judicial expert to the forensic medicine, and what is the nature and<br>types of this liability, then the study also addressed elements of the civil liability of the forensic medicine.<br>The study concluded that the civil liability of the expert is a tort liability, provided that the elements of this<br>civil liability arising from the breach and the occurrence of damage, and the existence of causation where the<br>strength of this liability is the damage resulting from the expert’s evacuation of the obligations incumbent<br>upon expert.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Association between Gestational Diabetes and Proinflammatory Cytokine 2021-08-16T06:09:27-05:00 Abdullah F. Yousif Raid M. H. Al-Salih Alaa H. Al-Naser <p>Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) defined according to the (World Health Organization) as glucose<br />intolerance of varying degrees of severity with start or first recognition during pregnancy. This definition<br />applies whether or not insulin is needed and whether or not it disappears after pregnancy. It is not apply to<br />pregnant women with a pre-pregnancy diagnosis of T1DM or T2DM. This study included (150) pregnant<br />women in first trimester (9-13 weeks) of pregnancy, during follow up in [late second trimester and early<br />third trimester (24-28 weeks) of pregnancy], 75 of them diagnosed of GDM, and 75 of them without GDM<br />(Control group).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prevalence of Pediatric Gastroenteritis Disease in Al- Diwaniyah Governorate-Iraq 2021-08-16T06:13:15-05:00 Abdulridha T.Sarhan Enas K. Alkhazraji Takwa S. Al-Meamar <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the gastroenteritis disease among hospitalized children in<br>Women and Children Hospital, Al-Diwaniyah Governorate-Iraq, between August 2020 and January<br>2021.Data about age, gender, feeding, clinical symptoms and the causal agents were collected. A total of<br>723 children were screened, 616 patients (85.2%) of the infants and children under five years old<br>with gastroenteritis disease, including 332 patient males (53.9%) and 284 patient females (46.1%).<br>The lowest infection was recorded among 60 infant patients (9.7%), while the highest infections were<br>recorded among 392 patients (63.6 %) of one year old as compared to 164 patients (26.6 %) among<br>children above one to five years old. Also, results revealed two types of diarrhea, acute and chronic<br>diarrhea. There was no significant difference between patients gender. The acute diarrhea was revealed<br>the highest percentage of all cases (78.4 %) and the remaining cases were chronic diarrhea (21.6<br>%). Concerning the relation between the types of feeding and diarrhea, higher percentage (52.2%) was<br>recorded with the bottle feeding, while the lowest percentage (20.1%) was with breast feeding. The<br>clinical symptoms among infected children hadgastroenteritis were diarrhea, stomach pains, vomiting,<br>fever, urinary tract infection and malnutrition. Also, results showed that diarrhea infections usually<br>happen in the seasons with high-moderate temperatures. This study concluded that most significant<br>factors that caused the incidence of gastroenteritis in children were type of water, feeding or complementary<br>feeding practices and mothers’ lack of care to reduce the risk of diarrhea among children under five years<br>old.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Patients’ Satisfaction about Quality of Health Care Services Provided in Maternity Wards at Al-Najaf City 2021-08-16T06:23:17-05:00 Abeer Miri Abdullah Rehab Lafta Mohammad Zainab Neamat Jumaah Altaei <p>The study aimed to assess patients’ Satisfaction about Quality of Health Care Services Provided in maternity<br>wards at Al-Zahraa teaching hospital at Al-Najaf city. A descriptive study was carried out through the present<br>study in order to achieve the early stated objectives. The study was began from November, 2nd , 2019 to<br>April, 22, 2019. The finding of this study reveals that that the patients are unsatisfied about quality of health<br>care services provided at wards for most domain of health care services quality, while there is few patients<br>satisfied about some health care services provided for them. The study concluded that most patients are<br>unsatisfied about quality of health care services that provided at maternity wards. Recommendations The<br>study recommends Assessing quality of health care services in the wards continuously, so that we can apply<br>the quality improvement and/or quality assurance in wards, The domains and items related to the quality of<br>health care services must be educate to health worker (physician, nurse … etc.) to teach them how they can<br>apply it in the wards.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 An Epidemiological Study of Homicidal Cases Autopsied in the Mortuary of the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, North Bengal, Darjeeling 2021-08-17T04:11:57-05:00 Achintya Biswas Pappu Kumar Sukanta Majumdar Soumeek Chowdhuri Somasish Ghosal Prabir Kumar Deb <p>Homicide is regarded as a notorious crime against the society that causes intentional killing, aggravated<br>assaults resulting in death. This brings a massive burden on national economies, law enforcement and lost<br>productivity. The present study highlighted the epidemiological profile of homicidal deaths which accounted<br>(3.9%) of all unnatural deaths autopsied. Overall trend shows high male predominance with low economic<br>background where illiteracy, poverty and other social circumstances play a considerable role. Homicidal<br>records have their importance in interpretation of socio-economic implications and overall administrative<br>attributes on executing law and order in respect to time, place and conditions.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Incense Smoke Exposure: An Appraisal of Organ Toxicity 2021-08-19T02:01:19-05:00 Adebanji M. Akingbade Samson A. Odukoya Adeoye O. Oyewopo Nalini Govender Thajasvarie Naicker <p>Background: This narrative type review aimed to address organ toxicity emanating from incense usage.<br>Methods: An online search using the following MeSH terms “Incense smoke,”, “adverse effects,”<br>“organotoxicity”, “oxidative stress” and “inflammation” was done to identify studies directly applicable to<br>adverse effects of incense smoke exposure.<br>Findings: Exposure to incense smoke demonstrated various toxicity changes in the kidney, testes, lungs,<br>liver and heart. Renal effects included a decrease in oxidative stress markers GSH and CAT, increase in<br>MDA, serum creatinine uric acid and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Testicular toxicityrevealed significant<br>disturbances in spermatogenetic patterns, testicular atrophy, germinal aplasia, hypospermia and damage to<br>the basal seminiferous epithelia tissue. In the cardiac muscle, ultrastructural changes, increased oxidative<br>stress, inflammation, and altered cardiac hypertrophic gene expression was noted. Thenegative impact<br>of incense smoke emanating from free radical (ROS), lipid peroxidation and GSH destabilizes vascular<br>homeostasis and initiates ahyperinflammatory response, warranting the need to understand the conceptual<br>basis of the mode of action linked to incense exposure.<br>Conclusion: We highlight that incense generates ROS which initiates lipid peroxidation through ATP energy<br>depletion and reduction in the natural antioxidants. This subsequently triggers oxidative stress, inflammation<br>and endothelial dysfunction resulting in organotoxicity</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Covid -19 : The Effects of Distance Learning in Indonesia based on a Commognitive Perspective 2021-08-19T02:24:20-05:00 Adika Setyo Budi Lestari Toto Nusantara Susiswo Tjang Daniel Chandra Nonik Indrawatiningsih <p>Distance learning is a learning system that does not take place in one room and there is no face-to-face<br>interaction between the teacher and the learner. This study aims to determine the impact of implementing<br>distance learning in Indonesia from a commognitive point of view. This research is a descriptive type of<br>research with a total of 543 participants who come from high school students in Pasuruan district, Indonesia.<br>Data collection using a questionnaire. After the questionnaire is collected, it is analyzed using the Miles<br>and Huberman method through reduction, display data, and conclusion, then it will be studied based on the<br>commognitive theory. The results show that based on commognitive studies, students are more likely to still<br>need a visual mediator as a visible object to be used as a communication medium, its realization depends<br>on the material context. Students need to communicate to ask questions related to material that has not been<br>understood. So it can be said that visual mediator is important during distance learning.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Age Estimation by the Morphometric Analysis of Sternal End of Fourth Rib 2021-08-19T02:46:49-05:00 Aditi Bhatnagar Nirupma Gupta Rachna Rohatgi <p>Estimating the age at death in the adult skeleton is problematic owing to the biological variability in age<br>indictors and the differential skeletal response to environmental factors over an individual’s life. While the<br>pubic symphysis and intracortical morphometry have provided successful results in estimating age at death,<br>other methods and sites in the skeleton are needed to improve the accuracy of age estimation. Present study<br>is an attempt to develop a new method for estimation of age from sternal end of fourth rib. Currently there<br>are different parameters available to determine the age of a person like study of teeth, ossification of bones<br>and other ancillary data, but the accurate reliability of these measures is only limited to a particular age<br>group i.e. 25± 5 years. For the age beyond this, many workers in different parts of the world have done their<br>studies to accurately determine the age of a person from the skeleton. A random study of 100 cases for age<br>estimation from sternal ends of the fourth ribs were carried out to estimate the age after death with minimal<br>error.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Age Estimation by the Morphometric Analysis of Sternal End of Fourth Rib 2021-08-19T02:55:54-05:00 Aditi Bhatnagar Nirupma Gupta Rachna Rohatgi <p>Estimating the age at death in the adult skeleton is problematic owing to the biological variability in age<br>indictors and the differential skeletal response to environmental factors over an individual’s life. While the<br>pubic symphysis and intracortical morphometry have provided successful results in estimating age at death,<br>other methods and sites in the skeleton are needed to improve the accuracy of age estimation. Present study<br>is an attempt to develop a new method for estimation of age from sternal end of fourth rib. Currently there<br>are different parameters available to determine the age of a person like study of teeth, ossification of bones<br>and other ancillary data, but the accurate reliability of these measures is only limited to a particular age<br>group i.e. 25± 5 years. For the age beyond this, many workers in different parts of the world have done their<br>studies to accurately determine the age of a person from the skeleton. A random study of 100 cases for age<br>estimation from sternal ends of the fourth ribs were carried out to estimate the age after death with minimal<br>error.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Isolation and Identification of Streptococcus pyogenes from Patients and Objects in Hospital Environment in Thi-Qarcity in Iraq 2021-08-19T03:01:38-05:00 AdyanNafee Abbas Qasim Hassan Wida <p>This study aimed to screen Streptococcus pyogenes in the hospital and investigate the incidence of this<br>bacteria. The genotypes of the S.pyogenes in the study samples will be determined using 16Sr RNA and some<br>virulence factors(emm, scpA, speA genes).The majority of the samples (74.1%) were isolated from patients<br>at the emergency room and (25.9%) were from hospital environment (objects).The current study showed that<br>the total of 215 patients with pharyngitis were included 118 (55%) males higher than 97 (45%) females. The<br>patients’ ages ranged from 2 to 62 years, which were divided into four categories. The majority of patients<br>65 (30.1%) of patients from 3 to 6 years old, 54 (25%) of patients less than 3years, 51 (23.6%) from 7 to 11<br>years old, and 46 (21.3%) more than 12years. Six isolates sent for sequencing were after that submission in<br>NCBI-GenBank database. The results of nucleotide sequence alignment of the isolates revealed that there<br>are multiple point mutations, four of them appeared as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and two<br>appeared in duplicate. Polymorphic sites (Mutations) of 6 S.pyogenes isolates.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Management of Pyogenic Granuloma (Clinicopathological Study) 2021-08-19T03:06:40-05:00 Afrah A. Kh. Aldelaimi Tahrir N. Aldelaimi 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Role of Silver Nanoparticles Against Amoxicillin/ Clavulanate-Induced Liver Damage in the Female Rats 2021-08-19T03:11:27-05:00 Afyaa Sabah Nasir Basheer Sadoon Taher <p>The current study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of silver nanoparticles against toxicity<br>induced by amoxicillin/clavulanate acid. Number of rats in the experiment are nine divided into three groups<br>each group has three rats. The first group is kept as control group and administrated normal saline, the second<br>is administered amoxicillin/clavulanate acid at dose 80 mg/kg and third group is administered amoxicillin/<br>clavulanate acid at dose 80 mg/kg and silver nanoparticles at dose 50 mg/kg for 30 days. The results show<br>significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in the liver aminotransferase levels (AST, ALT and ALP), total protein and<br>albumin in addition significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in the lipid profile total cholesterol TC, triglyceride TG,<br>low density lipoprotein LDL, very low density lipoprotein VLDL and significant decrease (p&lt;0.05) in<br>the high density lipoprotein HDL incompare with control group. In conclusion: silver nanoparticles has<br>beneficial effectagainst side effects induced by amoxicillin/clavulanate acid in rats.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Multilevel Empowerment Approach to Prevent Relapse and Improve Quality of Life of People with Mental Disorders 2021-08-19T03:14:49-05:00 Agustin Widyowati Bhisma Murti Aris Sudiyanto Suminah <p>The global health problem that increases significantly every year is psychiatric disorders. Decrease in the<br>quality of life of people with mental disorders, error in the recurrence rate suffered. This study aims to see<br>the effectiveness of holistic family-centered mental health care in preventing recurrence and improving the<br>quality of life of people with mental disorders in Kediri Regency, East Java Province. The research design<br>used RCT (Randomized Control Trial). The population in the study was people with mental disorders. The<br>research sample consisted of 38 groups of respondents and 38 control groups with the multistage random<br>sampling technique. Dependent variables were disease recurrence and quality of life for people with mental<br>disorders. Va¬riabel independent is a family-centered holistic mental health care. The instrument uses a<br>questionnaire that has been tested for validity and reliability. Data analysis used an independent t-test using<br>STATA 13. The t-test results showed that the increase in the average increase in the treatment group after<br>being given the intervention “family-centered holistic mental health care” while the control group did not<br>change significantly. Holistic, family-centered mental health care with a multilevel approach in this study is<br>effective in preventing relapses and improving the lives of people with mental disorders. It is hoped that it<br>can be used to help improve the quality of life for a wider range of people with mental disorders</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Review on COVID-19 and Current Repurposing Treatment Strategy 2021-08-19T03:25:05-05:00 Ahalya S P Priyadharshini A Dhivya D Nila G <p>A recent outbreak was caused by SARS-CoV-2 was named Coronavirus disease- COVID-19. The first case<br>was detected in China. It continued to spread globally and later was declared as a pandemic by WHO.<br>Pneumonia like symptoms was observed which later led to respiratory illness, renal impairment, and death.<br>Closed contact, respiratory droplets through cough, and sneeze are the mode transmission. Symptoms<br>generally occur 2-14 days after infection. PCR is performed using various samples collected from infected<br>patients and is the standard method of diagnosis. Chest X-ray, CT, and the symptoms observed generally<br>show the extent of progress of the disease. Although there is no effective cure, currently symptomatic<br>treatment and supportive care are available to reduce pneumonia-like symptoms and to decrease the severity<br>of the condition. Preventive measures proposed by the WHO is to maintain proper personal hygiene, social<br>distancing, and the use of the mask.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Role of Forensic Medicine in the Criminal Justice Process in Jordan (Sexual Crimes) 2021-08-19T03:32:40-05:00 Ahmad Alsharqawi <p>This research aims to clarify the role of forensic medicine within the criminal justice method in Jordan.<br>The study showed what’s meant by forensic medicine during investigation and its relationship to law and<br>judicial procedures in Jordan and also the judge’s discretionary authority to require the rhetorical report’s<br>particularly sexual crimes, the study reached to an appropriate conclusion</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Criminal Liability of the Forensic Doctor as a Judicial Expert According to Jordanian Law 2021-08-19T03:37:27-05:00 Ahmad Mohammad El-refaie Ahmad Hussein Alsharqawi <p>The judicial expert forensic doctor in Jordan, with his knowledge and experience he has possess, to provide<br>assistance and to the judge on a specific point, which helps him in resolving the dispute before him,<br>especially since the latter is difficult to get acquainted with the various types of medical sciences, and it is<br>not permissible for him to makes a judgment and judge his personal work On the other hand.<br>The forensic doctor expert is not immune or far from criminal prosecution if he receives a bribe, commits<br>fraud, betrayed trust, or took a false oath, discloses a secret or submits a false report, and this criminal<br>responsibility finds a legal basis for it in Jordanian law</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Efficacy of Clinical Palpation to Detect Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of Oropharyngeal Cancer 2021-08-19T03:56:22-05:00 Ahmad Naeem Mahdi Sabah Abdulaziz Issa Saif Saadedeen Abdulrazaq <p>Background and Objectives: Before excision of the primary tumor in oropharyngealcancer, a decision<br>must be made to treat the cervical lymph nodes (LN) or not. The study aimed to assess the role of clinical<br>palpation (CP) for preoperative detection of LN metastasis.<br>Methods: Twenty patients withoropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), managed by excision of the<br>primary tumor andneck dissection. The histopathological examination results compared to the preoperative<br>assessment of the nodes by CP.<br>Results: There were 20 patients involved, 11 males and nine females. The mean age was 54.5 years. Twenty<br>neck dissections were performed; there was 14 LN metastasis as proved by histopathological examination.<br>On CP, true positive was 12, false negative was two, true negative was two and false positive was four.<br>Conclusion: Clinical palpation performed preoperatively is highly advised as it has high diagnostic<br>capabilities to reach a decision to do neck dissection or not.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Developing an Infection Prevention and Control Educational Program for Critical Care Nurses:Intervention Mapping Protocol and Social Cognitive Theory 2021-08-19T04:09:11-05:00 AhmadSabbah Rehanah Zain Rohani Ismail Siti Suraiya Noor Mahaneem Mohamed Norazliah Samsudin <p>Aim: This study aims to apply the Intervention Mapping protocol and Social Cognitive Theory in the<br>development of an infection prevention and control education program aimed at critical care nurses.<br>Background:Education programs have been widely used to improve awareness toward infection prevention<br>and control, but the development of an integrated theory- and evidence-based education program tailored to<br>critical care nurses has not yet been discussed.<br>Subject and Methods: Data are from the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia infection control records. The<br>6-step Intervention Mapping protocol and the Social Cognitive Theory were used to develop an infection<br>prevention and control education material tailored to critical care nurses. The educational material was also<br>influenced by Previous literature, hospital infection control committee, and in-charge nurses of intensive<br>care unit.<br>Results: The educational material was tailored to target knowledge, self-efficacy, and risk perception that<br>identified as the individual determinants of critical care nurses health behavior during assessment phase. In<br>addition to physical environment and organizational support that determined as external determinants. A<br>matrix of change objectives was mapped out for each health behavior determinant, teaching methods, and<br>their practical applications.<br>Conclusion: Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol and the Social Cognitive Theory is effective in<br>developing educational material tailored to critical care nurses to improve their self-confidence and promote<br>knowledge-based practice in infection prevention and control.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Correlation Study between Some Biochemical Parameters of 256 Covid-19 Cases Considering Diabetes 2021-08-19T04:18:53-05:00 Ahmed Ab. Jabbar <p>Background: Diabetic Mellitus is an independent risk factor in patients with coronavirus disease 2019<br>(COVID-19), but data on the association of diabetes, acute kidney injury, and COVID-19 severityare limited<br>to Middle East populations.<br>Materials and Methods: This cohort study aimed to investigate these associations in 256 patients<br>sequentially admitted between June 2020 and November 2020, at Emirati Hospital/Erbil. The investigation<br>included some main biochemical parameters including liver and kidney function tests. Data analysis was<br>processed by SPSS and the Pearson correlation pathway using log-converted data.<br>Results: Diabetic patients showed the highest correlations between measured parameters, of which glucose<br>level showed a positive correlation coefficient (0.13**) with C-reactive protein and other biochemical<br>parameters. Based on the glycemic status, COVID-19 patients were found in 3 groups, euglycemia group<br>with an abundance of 148 (57.81%),hyperglycemiapatients were 67 (26.17%), and 41 of them were diabetics<br>(16.01 %).<br>The Diabetic group showed a significantly (0.0002) increased level of C-reactive Protein and Glucose in<br>comparison with hyperglycemia [CRP 15.38 mg/dl vs 10.09mg/dl, glucose 429.75 mg/dl vs 160.62mg/<br>dl] with a Significantly (0.00374) higher mortality rate (29.26%) than that (10.44%), and (6.75%) of<br>hyperglycemia, and euglycemia, respectively.<br>Conclusion: Male COVID-19 cases showed higher correlations between the estimated parameters than<br>female cases. Diabetes was significantly associated with elevation of almost all kidney and liver function<br>parameters. Finally, diabetes followed by COVID-19 disease was related to severe complications and higher<br>mortality rates than nondiabetic COVID-19 cases.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Distress among Caregivers of Children with Down Syndrome at Al Najaf Province 2021-08-19T04:20:51-05:00 Ahmed Burhan Abdulameer Arafat Hussein Al-Dujaili <p>Psychological Distress has recently been shown to have a negative impact on caregivers, but there has been<br>little longitudinal research on this subject. A sample (61) caregivers of children with Down Syndrome have<br>been selected Al-Najaf Province centers. The researcher adapts and modifies the questionnaire to fulfill<br>the study’s objectives .The results of the study revealed that caregivers of children with DS have severe<br>level of psychological distress(38.7%). There is a significant relationship (P &lt; 0.05) between Psychological<br>Distress and some of the socio-demographic characteristics (child age , family member and trainings about<br>down syndrome). The present study recommends providing families with Educational programs to increase<br>parents knowledge about etiology, signs and symptom and treatment of stress and Providing scientific<br>booklet, publication and journal about stress. In addition to increasing schools and institutes specialized in<br>educating children with Down syndrome, as they are few in the province of Najaf, and some of them are far<br>from their places of residence</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antibiofilm Activities of Rosmarinus Officinalis Essential Oil Extract 2021-08-19T04:26:14-05:00 Ahmed H. AL-Azawi Kais Kassim Ghaima Noor Saad Latteef Alaa Aziz Abdulhassan <p>Biological activities of essential oils from various plants, including Rosemary, have been attributed to the<br>presence of specific chemical compounds with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.<br>The aim of this study is to estimate the antioxidant and antifungal activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential<br>oil extract. The study included the extraction of essential oil using a Clevenger apparatus. The chemical<br>compositions were evaluated by GC-MS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).The<br>rosemary essential oil extract was tested with regard to antioxidant utilizing 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl<br>(DPPH) assay. Microtiter plate Assay used to determine the antifungal and antibiofilm activity. The result<br>showed that the GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential<br>oil were linalool (17.09 %), L- Borneol (11.92 %), Verbenone (8.52 %), camphor (5.30 %), Eucalyptol<br>(4.79 %), while the chemical compositions identified by HPLC shows four phenolic acids were identified<br>in the essential oil, Rosmarinic acid, Caffeic acid, p-Coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and lignans<br>(medioresinol), while Isorhamnetin was the only flavonol detected. The free radicals scavenging activity<br>increased gradually with the increase in the concentration of essential oil which was 81.59 % when<br>compared with BHT and V.C (92.34 and 97.42) respectively. The results of the antifungal activity revealed<br>that Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of C. albicans and C. krusei was 3.125%, while the MIC of C.<br>glabrata was 12.5% in contrast with the highest MIC which recorded for C. tropicalis at 25% of rosemary<br>essential oil. The current results revealed that the reduction of bofilm formation among C. albicans and<br>C. krusei was obvious at the lower concentration (1.56%), where the percentage of biofilm formation in<br>C. albicans was (91.25%) and C. krusei was (84.25%), while C. tropicalis exhibit (86.32%) for biofilm<br>reduction at the concentration (12.5%) of rosemary essential oil, also it was found that the effect of essential<br>oil on C. glabrata biofilm formation was at the concentrations 3.125% and 6.25%. The findings of this study<br>indicated to the significant effect of rosemary essential oil against the growth and biofilm formation of the<br>important pathogenic yeast C. albicans at low concentrations.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Technical Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonography in Identifying Characterization of Ovarian Cysts 2021-08-19T04:32:35-05:00 Ali Hani Karim Mahmood Radhi Jobayr Lamyaa F.A. Al-Barram <p>An accurate diagnosis of ovarian cysts is of utmost importance to determine the timely treatment to preserve<br>fertility.We sought to determine the effectiveness of ultrasonography and MRI modalities for diagnosing the<br>most common ovarian lesions and differentiate between benign and malignant lesions in order to guide<br>patients to appropriate treatment. This study was conducted on 94 women, the age group between 14-70<br>years, in the period of January 2020 to October 2021. Were all women suffering from abdominal pain,<br>swelling, nausea or vomiting and bleeding and irregular menstrual cycle. Was suspected clinically in the<br>presence of lesions in the ovary was confirmed by tests of ultrasound and magnetic resonance. The entire<br>cases were subjected to transvaginal and transabdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging<br>to assess ovarian lesions in terms of content (somatic, cystic solid), nodules, septal characteristics, wall<br>thickness, vascular lesion and ascites.In USG, there were 16% cases of malignant ovarian lesion and 84%<br>cases had benign lesions. MRI reports showed that 10.6% cases had malignant ovarian lesions and 89.4%<br>cases had benign lesions. Findings of USG with HPE have 100.0% sensitivity, 89.1% specificity and 91.07%<br>diagnostic accuracy. In MRI findings with HPE have 100.0% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 100.0%<br>diagnostic accuracy. MRI had high specificity and more accuracy value in terms of diagnostic performance<br>than USG. The ultrasonography diagnostic value in case of characterization of adnexal mass lesion was<br>significantly lower than in the MRI.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of Gingival Inflammation, Plasma IL-6, and TMJ Clicking after Masseters Muscle Botulinum Toxin Injection and Intra-Articular PRP Injection In Bruxism Patients 2021-08-19T04:45:10-05:00 Ali Sahib Hussein Muhassad H. Al-Mudhafar Karar Abdulzahra Mahdi Ali A. Al-Fahham <p>In this study, thirty patients complaining of bruxism at night and hyperactivity masseters muscle causing TMJ<br>disk changes, TMJ clicking sound and all selected patient complaining of gingival inflammation as included<br>criteria, and 50-unit botulinum toxin type A were injected in both side of masseter muscle. Regarding to<br>T.M.J clicking sound there were three intervals of PRP injection for 3 months. The levels of IL-6 in the<br>blood samples measured by ELISA technique, this study proposed to investigate the plasma IL-6 level in<br>patient with early changes of T.M.J disorder and role of repetitive intraarticular PRP injection on the T.M.J<br>clicking sound and the effect of decreasing stress force microtruma of masseter muscle on gingival score in<br>previously diagnosed bruxism patient with gingival inflammation whether of causative factor of gingivitis.<br>The mean difference of plasma IL-6 in between patient and control (25.6 ± 4.2 and 23.8 ± 1.8) respectively.<br>There were highly significant differences in gingival index score of all sided of oral cavity after botox<br>intramuscular injection. Force stress muscle microtruma of bruxism patient considered a contributory factor<br>that increased gingival inflammation these fact suggested by botulinum toxin injection to decrease this force,<br>and highly statically difference on gingival score after injection and also, the intraarticular injection of PRP<br>in T.M.J disorder patient statically not affected on the clicking sound of joint as well as suggesting in our<br>research for further studies to appear the role of IL-6 in early joint changes locally as an experimental study</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Deleted 2021-08-19T04:58:29-05:00 <p>I</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparison between 3 Different Types of Mouthwash on the Healing Process of Periodontal Diseases 2021-08-19T05:06:54-05:00 Ammar Alwan Ali Zainab Kasim Mohammad Abeer Isam Abdulhameed <p>Dental plaque is the principal etiological agent for the development and progression of gingival and<br>periodontal diseases. Three different mouthwash types were compared in this study for the periodontal<br>healing process based on the results. For all bacterial strains, the culture type collection is used. The serial<br>dilution process is used for preparing every mouthwash and adding it to the tubes with a specific dilution. In<br>certain microorganisms of the respective mouthwash, the last tube dilution that does not show any turbidity<br>will be considered MIC. The three types of mouthwashes were compared in terms of the ability to inhibit<br>microbial growth. Twenty-four hours after the agar was solidified and the colony forms (CFU) units counted,<br>the plates were incubated. This study showed that bacterial growth inhibition might occur in the three types<br>of mouthwash. Boht, Behsa and Kin-gingival mouthwashes had a significant difference in their antimicrobial<br>effect. This study showed that they were unable to perform s after 24 hours of in vitro incubation while the<br>bacterial count was lowered after two weeks of in vivo use in the boht washings. Continuous exposure to<br>bacteria may be necessary to wash the mouth, especially for Behsa and Boht. It is difficult to remove all<br>bacteria from the mechanical plaque controls; antibacterial mouthwash can cause additive. In the current<br>study, three types of mouthwash have compared antimicrobial effects. The results showed only that bacterial<br>counts are affected by mouthwash. Based on this study’s results, Boht mouthwash is more effective than<br>Kin Gingival and Behsa mouthwash for oral microorganisms, but further clinical studies are necessary to<br>confirm our findings.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparison of Different Finishing-Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness of Nanofilled Composite Resin 2021-08-19T05:13:18-05:00 Tay Hatem Kadhom <p>Aim: This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different finishing and polishing<br>systems on the surface roughness of nanofilled (Z350XT) composite resin.<br>Materials and Methods: A total of 60 disc-shaped samples were prepared in composite resin using<br>standardized cylindrical metal mold (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick). The specimens were randomly<br>divided into six groups (n= 10): Group 1- Mylar strip, Group 2- Sof-Lex polishing system, Group 3- Super<br>Snap polishing system, Group 4- OptiDisc polishing system, Group 5- Opti1Step polishing system and<br>Group 6- OneGloss polishing system. The average surface roughness (Ra) of each specimen was measured<br>three times and the mean Ra values were determined using a surface profilometer.<br>Results: According to the one-way analysis of variance, surface roughness was in the following order:<br>Mylar strip &lt; Super Snap polishing system &lt; OptiDisc polishing system &lt; Opti1Step polishing system &lt;<br>SofLex polishing system &lt; OneGloss polishing system. This difference in surface roughness was statistically<br>significant (P &lt; 0.05) in all the six experimental groups.<br>Conclusion: Composite surface roughness depends on the composition, number of steps and flexibility of<br>the finishing and polishing system used.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 2021-08-19T05:16:55-05:00 Noor Abdulkareem Razouki Ban A.Ghani Jamil 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Effect of Acute Bronchitis on Blood Pressure 2021-08-20T00:26:43-05:00 Haider Noori Dawood <p>Background: Acute bronchitis is one of the top 10 conditions for which patients seek medical care. Acute <br>bronchitis is a clinical term implying a self-limited inflammation of the large airways of the lung. A possible <br>link between inflammation and elevated blood pressure has been suggested by several cross-sectional and <br>longitudinal studies.<br>Objective: To assess the effect of acute bronchitis on the blood pressure.<br>Patients and Methods: The cross sectional study was carried out in in Baghdad. 100 patients with acute <br>bronchitis, their age group of 17-76 years were included in the study. Blood pressures (systolic and diastolic) <br>for the patients were taken in sitting position on the right arm during the attack and after improvement (five <br>to seven days later).<br>Results: 100 patients with acute bronchitis were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 45.51±15.46. Female <br>were 54 (54%), and 46 (46%) were male. There was 42 (42%) have history of hypertension. Only 15 patients <br>(15%) have history of smoking. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) during attack was normal in 58 (58%), and <br>high in 42 (42%). MAP after improvement was normal in 84 (84%), and 16 (16%) remain high. About <br>clinical features, 100% have cough, 71% sputum, 36% dyspnea, and 6% hemoptysis. Systolic, diastolic <br>blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure during the attack were higher than after improvement with highly <br>statistically significance (P value &lt; 0.001). There was no statistically significant effect for the history of <br>hypertension and smoking on blood pressure during the attack and after improvement (p value 0.441, 0.309 <br>respectively).<br>Conclusion: Systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure during the attack of acute <br>bronchitis were higher than after improvement.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Common complications of Behcet’s Disease in Baghdad Teaching Hospital 2021-08-20T00:31:08-05:00 Barq Wameedh Azeez Atta AH Al-Sarray Ali H. Al-Hafidh <p>Background: Behcet’s disease is multi-systemic vasculitis, which usually is frequent oral &amp; genital <br>ulcerations as well as eye and skin lesions.<br>Objectives: To determine the proportion of complications of BD &amp; associated epidemiological variables.<br>Patients and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted and performed in the Baghdad teaching <br>hospital’s Rheumatology unit and Dermatology and Venereology Center, involving (116) patients over the <br>course of six months, beginning November 2nd and ending April 2nd, 2020. <br>Results: The patients ranged in age from 13 to 64 years old at the time of the study. The mean age and SD was <br>35.08±10.46 and 70.7% from male while 29.3% from female. Recurrent oral ulceration, Recurrent genital <br>ulceration, Eye lesion, Skin lesion, and Joint symptoms were the most common clinical manifestations of <br>Behcet’s disease, with 96.6 percent, 37.9%, 67.2 percent, 62.1 percent, and 75.9%, respectively. The most <br>common Behcet’s disease complication was ocular complication (34.5 percent), and the first major symptom <br>of BD (94 percent) was oral ulcer. The age at onset of disease at (20-29) years with higher frequency (38.8%). <br>Conclusion : Higher percentages of study sample had ocular complications (83%) while the lower percentage <br>(2%) had gastrointestinal complication. <br>Recommendations: More research is required to determine the etiology, enhance diagnosis precision, <br>and develop new therapeutic strategies. To prevent visceral and ocular involvements, early diagnosis and <br>treatment with the help of a dermatologist with extensive experience is essential.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Clinical Manifestations with Different Treatment Protocols for Iraqi Patients with Wilson’s Disease 2021-08-20T00:36:45-05:00 Fadwa Ghassan Hameed Inam Sameh Mohamed Mahmood Hala Sameh <p>Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in <br>the ATP7B gene. ATP7B is also essential for biliary excretion of copper when cytoplasmic levels are high. <br>Dysfunction of ATP7B therefore leads to accumulation of copper in the liver giving rise to cellular damage <br>and disease, and the release of non-ceruloplasmin bound copper into the systemic circulation. Clinical <br>presentation of Wilson disease can vary widely; therefore diagnosis is not always straight forward. Wilson <br>disease is not just a disease of children and young adults, but may present at any age. The key features of <br>Wilson disease are liver disease and cirrhosis, neuropsychiatric disturbances, Kayser–Fleischer rings, and <br>acute episodes of hemolysis, often in association with acute liver failure. Diagnosis is particularly difficult <br>in children and in adults presenting with active liver disease. None of the available laboratory tests is perfect <br>and may not be specific for Wilson disease. To overcome the diagnostic challenge, several clinical signs <br>(Kayser–Fleischer rings(KF.), neurologic symptoms) and laboratory features (copper in serum, urine, liver; <br>serum ceruloplasmin ; genetic testing) are scored 0 (absent) to 2 (present) and the Leipzig score is calculated. <br>If the score is &gt;4, the diagnosis of Wilson disease is very likely. For asymptomatic siblings of index patients, <br>mutation analysis is the most reliable approach.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prevalence of Drug-Drug Interaction in Hospitalized Patient in Basrah City; Southern of Iraq 2021-08-20T00:48:05-05:00 Zainab Najim Abdul-nabi Noor Kadhim Mohammed-Jawad Jubran K. Hassan <p>Objectives: Although multiple drugs administrationmostly increase therapeutic effect, some combinations <br>lead to adverse drug-drug interactions and increased morbidity. This study was designed to identify the <br>types,frequency, severity, and significance of drug–drug interactions (DDIs)<br>Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2018 to February 2019 in <br>Al-Fayha’a teaching hospital in Basrah, Iraq.The data of 186 patients were collected from hospital patients <br>case sheets. The type and significance of DDIs were analyzed using “Medscape drug Interaction Checker.<br>Results: At least one to two DDI are noticed in about three quarters of the patients, about 30% cases have <br>three to nine DDIs and 15% of them have ten or more DDIs. According to their severity, there are 85 (11.5%) <br>of serious or potent DDIs. The largest percentage of reported interactions 544 (73.5%) were moderate were <br>close monitoring required. Out of 740documented DDIs,65.1% were pharmacodynamics and 19.5% were <br>Pharmacokinetic interactions, in addition, there were 15.4%of DDIs due to Unknown mechanisms. Most of <br>the major potential DDIs occur with the antibiotic ceftriaxone and blood thinning medications (heparin and <br>warfarin).<br>Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed a high prevalence of drug-drug interactions in hospitalized <br>patients particularly in patients withcardiovascular disease. Potential DDIs in this study sufficiently high <br>to alert health care providers to pay more attentions in order to prevent or decrease their adverse effects on <br>patients.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of Implant Stability Following Sinus Augmentation Utilizing Bovine Bone Mixed with Platelet-Rich Fibrin 2021-08-20T01:50:10-05:00 Ali H. Abbas Alhussaini Thair A. Lateef Hassan Heba Basim Mohammed <p>Background: Lateral sinus augmentation and simultaneous insertion of dental implants is a highly<br>predictable procedure and associated with high rate of implants success.<br>Aims: To evaluate implant stability changes following maxillary sinus augmentation utilizing deproteinized<br>bovine bone alone or mixed with platelet-rich fibrin.<br>Materials and Methods: A total of 34 lateral sinus augmentation procedures were performed and 50 dental<br>implants simultaneously installed. The lateral sinus augmentation cases were allocated randomly into 3<br>groups: Group A comprised 13 procedures and 21 dental implants utilizing solely deproteinized bovine bone.<br>Group B involved 10 cases and 16 dental implants using deproteinized bovine bone mixed with leukocyte<br>and platelet-rich fibrin. Group C included 11 operations and 13 dental implants employing deproteinized<br>bovine bone mixed with advanced platelet-rich fibrin. Resonance frequency analysis test was performed<br>immediately after implant installation and 24 weeks postoperatively for the measurement of the implant<br>stability.<br>Results: Implant stability quotient values increased significantly for all study groups 24 weeks after dental<br>implants installation (P= 0.001). The implant stability quotient at T1 (day of implant installation) was 56.93<br>±12.01 for group A, 58.34 ±12.82 for group B, and 61.35 ±8.47 for group C. The implant stability quotient<br>at T2 (24 weeks after implant insertion) was 69.17 ±5.10, 69.43 ±5.32, and 68.50 ±7.44, respectively.<br>Conclusion: The addition of leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin or advanced platelet-rich fibrin to the bovine<br>bone for sinus floor augmentation did not increased the implant stability quotient value in comparison to the<br>bovine bone alone.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluating the Effect of Air Abrasive Polishing on Friction and Surface Micromorphology of Ceramic Brackets Using Different Wires 2021-08-20T01:54:38-05:00 Ahmed R. Mohammed Hassan Shahbaa A. Mohammed <p>Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the Resistance to Sliding (RS) provided by ceramic<br>(Perfect clear) sapphire ceramic brackets using round 2 types of orthodontic wires (Fiber-Reinforced Polymer<br>Composite (FRPC) and Epoxy fully coated Stainless-Steel), before and after the use of sodium bicarbonate<br>airborne particle abrasion, in an experimental model with 3 non levelled brackets and to evaluate the surface<br>micromorphology of these brackets by means of scanning electron microscopy.<br>Materials and Methods: 0ne commercial brands of ceramic brackets were evaluated. The fourty specimens<br>were divided into two groups (n = 20) according to the two type of arch wires and each group was divided<br>into four subgroup of five specimens according to the application or not of sodium bicarbonate airborne<br>particle abrasion for (5, 10 and 20) seconds. A device adapted to a universal testing machine was used to<br>simulate the movement of retraction in sliding mechanics, measuring the traction force needed to slide 10<br>mm of the wire over the test specimen brackets. The test speed was 5 mm/min. The data were analyzed by<br>two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test.<br>Conclusions: It may be concluded that it is not recommended to apply airborne particle abrasion on the slots<br>of ceramic.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Angulation and Height of Canine in Different Type of Malocclusion 2021-08-20T01:59:33-05:00 Iman I. Al-Sheakli Muthanna I. Ali 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Molecular detection of vicR, vicK and 16S rRNA genes of Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Dental Caries of Iraqi’s Patient 2021-08-20T02:09:48-05:00 Zainab Sadeq Ali Raya Ezat Maroof Lateef Essa Alwan Aljorani Abbas Sabah Mohammad Sarmad Sameer Hameed Ali Sadeq Ali <p>Background : This study was carried out to detect the distribution of Streptococcus mutans with dental<br>caries in Iraqi’s patient samples. Out of 100 patient’s samples only (22) with age (3-17) years old were<br>found to be effected with Streptococcus mutans. DNA was extracted amplified by Gradient PCR and then<br>sequenced. vicR was showed highly conserved with no mutation while vicK showed that these were silent<br>mutation and four isolates have missense mutation from eight isolate.<br>Material &amp; Method : In this study, 22 from clinical S. mutans strains were isolated from caries- children<br>to sequence the vicR, vicK and 16s rRNA genes. Genomic DNA was extracted from S. mutans strains and<br>amplified using Gradient PCR. The PCR products were purified and then sequenced.<br>Result : The molecular study include vicR, vicK and 16S rRNA, genes by Gradient PCR. The result of<br>sequencing appear that no mutation in vicR genes, although in 16S rRNA present transion and tranvesion<br>mutation . Finally the sequencing of vicK gene appear silent mutation and four isolates have missense<br>mutation from eight<br>Conclusion the result of molecular study of vicR gene were appear no mutation in all isolates while 16S<br>rRNA although have transition and transvertion mutation, the Sequence of vicK gene that note more of<br>mutation was silent mutation but some of them was missense mutation.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Periotest Evaluation of Stability after Insertion of Temporary Anchorage Device 2021-08-20T02:16:52-05:00 Hussain Jabar Kadhem Akram Fasial Alhuwaizi <p>Introduction: Skeletal anchorage devices was developed for absolute anchorage during orthodontic<br>treatment. Because of immediate loading on orthodontic miniscrews, early stability became a essential<br>requirement for loading forces on miniscrews.<br>Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the early stability of the miniscrews after two weeks of<br>insertion and the effect of the length and the side of insertion of the miniscrews on its stability using Periotest<br>device.<br>Material and Method: Thirty- three orthodontic patients in a collage clinic were recruited who required<br>bilateral miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage. Under local anesthesia, each patient received two miniscrews<br>in the maxillary buccal area (one side 1.6x8mm and the other side 1.6x10mm). after two week early stability<br>measured using Periotest device.<br>Results: There was no significant different in stability of miniscrew between right and lift sides and between<br>short and long miniscrews.<br>Conclusion: length of miniscrew and side of insertion do not affect the early stability of miniscrew.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of Chlorhexidine Application on Shear Bond Strength in Different Brackets and Different Etching Techniques in Vitro Study 2021-08-20T02:20:12-05:00 Bayan Ghdhban Nidhal H. Ghaib 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation Hormonal State in Iraqi Infertility Females Under In-Vitro Fertilization Program 2021-08-20T02:25:14-05:00 Zainab Sabah Hassab Bushra J. Al-Musawi Asmaa M. Salih Almohaidi <p>Background: Uniqueness of the current study at first time in Iraq specially, across the comparison the<br>clinical parameters among Iraqi infertility females according the IVF program outcome: failures and success<br>implantation. While, aspect were neglected in IVF field. Also, to difficulty of some parameters comparing<br>with control.<br>Methods: This study done during (December 2019 to November 2020) on Iraqi infertile females with age<br>range (19 – 45)ys. It included the two groups: success implantation and failure implantation females.<br>Result: The current study revealed to that , secondary infertility is a good marker in implantation success<br>prediction. Central circumference increasing has been associated with implantation failure (P&lt;0.05). When<br>hormonal profile comparison among two groups. Failure implantation females have non-significant increasing<br>in basic prolactin values. Also, E2, progesterone and LH values were higher significantly(P&gt;0.001), among<br>success implantation. The hCG values were highly significant in failure implantation (P&gt;0.001). MII oocytes<br>and G2 embryos were highly significant in success implantation. Our result support that no. of embryo<br>cells have positive impact on IVF outcome. The S. TC and TG were significant increasing among failure<br>implantation.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Study the Synergistic Effect of AgNPs with Antibiotics on Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolates Which Diagnosed by Molecular Methods 2021-08-20T02:36:16-05:00 Sura Saadoun Khalaf Hanaa Abdellatif Yassin <p>The current study was conducted to study the synergistic effect of AgNPs with anti-biotics on Klebsiella<br>pneumonia isolates, where 50 samples were collected from different pathological conditions (wounds - burns<br>- urine - ear - and excretion) on the Maconkey Agar . To the Klebsiella , it was diagnosed microscopically<br>and biochemically and was also diagnosed by the Vitek2 device, whose results were identical with the<br>biochemical diagnosis, and the isolates were also subjected to molecular diagnosis for confirmation by<br>using the PCR technique based on the diagnostic gene 16SrRNA, which is characterized by being good,<br>stable and low heterogeneity for a long time in the bacterial type Ten types of antibiotics were selected<br>and immersed in silver nanoparticles At a concentration of 20Mm, a test was conducted for the synergy<br>between the silver nanoparticles AgNPs and the antagonists towards 12 isolates of Klebsiella bacteria, as<br>they were applied to Muller-Hunton medium and after they dried up, the anti-saturated tablets were fixed<br>with a silver particle solution, and after the expiration of the incubation period, the diameter of the inhibition<br>area around the tablets was measured in mm According to the standard results, the results of the statistical<br>analysis showed that the interaction of silver nanoparticles with the antibiotics had a significant effect on<br>increasing the sensitivity of the isolates towards the synergistic antagonists, as the general rate of inhibition<br>diameters of the antagonists (Impenem, Gentamicin, Amikacin Ciprofloxacillin) was (32.59, 21.6, 18.98,<br>36.18), respectively. , This activity is due to the ability of the nanoparticles to bind to the surface of the<br>bacterial cell The binding causes structural damage and changes such as permeability, which facilitates the<br>entry of the antagonist into the cell and thus its death. As for the synergies with the antagonists Tetracycline,<br>Vancomycin, Erythromycin did not show efficacy in the direction of Klebsiella isolates did not give good<br>results of synergy as it has a weak effect towards negative bacteria and it is as a non-synergistic antagonist<br>because it does not It has effective binding sites for silver nanoparticles.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Celiac Disease among Adults and Children in AL-Anbar Province West of Iraq: a Comparative Cross-Sectional Study 2021-08-20T02:49:03-05:00 Yasin. Hamad Majeed <p>Background: gluten-sensitive Enteropathy is a public non-communicable, immune-associated disease which<br>is activated by wheat (gluten) ingesting that occur in hereditarily susceptible individuals in initial childhood<br>&amp; elderly individuals with varied presentations whereas several studies have shown CD are predominant<br>in adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical presentation, serological, endoscopic, and<br>histopathological features in adults and children with celiac disease at Al-Anbar province, west of Iraq. A<br>total of 170 consecutive newly confirmed CD patients in AL-Ramadi teaching hospital, Gastroenterology<br>Clinic during a period between August 2017 &amp; Jun 2020 had been involved in comparative cross-sectional<br>design research. Patients were divided into two groups: adults and children and each of them was also<br>divided into two groups- classical and non-classical celiac disease based upon the clinical presentation.<br>Clinical presentation, endoscopic findings were all cases gastrointestinal endoscopy &amp; duodenal<br>biopsy with Anti -TTG lgA had been determined &amp; tested for the CD diagnosis. Histopathology results had<br>been divided using modified Marsh taxonomy. Results had been examined through a suitable statistical<br>test. Of 170 CD patients that include 97 (57.1%) adults CD and 73(42.9) children. Classical symptoms<br>were predominant among 85.56% of adults while non-classical symptoms were more common among<br>45.2% of children. Bloating with abdominal pain and anemia were predominant among adults and children<br>respectively. No significant differences in the Levels of anti –tTG among each of adults and a pediatric<br>group of CD patients (P-Value 0.072). The most common endoscopic finding was scalloping 60.3%, 40.2%)<br>among children and adults respectively. Marsh grade G3A were predominant among adults [83 (89.2%)]<br>versus [67 (95.7%)] among children of CD patients with anti-tTG lgA U/ml 10+1 and more levels.<br>No statistical difference regarding marsh grade G3 frequency among adults and children CD patients (p<br>0.191).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Antibacterial Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Silver Nanoparticles on Antibiotics Resistance Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates from Burn Infection 2021-08-20T03:00:57-05:00 Maryam Hayder Baydaa A. Hassan 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Accuracy of Different Apex Locaters. (A Comparative in Vitro Study) 2021-08-20T03:05:58-05:00 Mohammad Munthir Abdulrazzaq Emad Farhan Alkhalidi <p>Aims: The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of the Root-ZX II, Root ZX Mini,<br>i Pex II, Kerr apex ID , Root PI and YD2 electronic apex locators (EALs) in locating the apical foramen.<br>Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human teeth with mature apices were used. Access cavities were<br>prepared. In order to make sure that we have an accurate working length of 21 mm the crown was sectioned<br>with diamond disc (control). The teeth were then embedded in an alginate model to simulate the periodontium<br>after that the Canals were irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The actual length and electronic length<br>measurements were made on each specimen separately by apex locator devices with an aid of a K-type file.<br>Results: Statistical results showed no significant difference between the 6 devices although concerning<br>locating the apical foramen, Root-ZXII , Root ZX Mini, were accurate 96% of the time to ±0.5mm, where as<br>I pex II and Kerr apex ID were accurate 94% of the time to 0.5 mm from the apical foramen, 44% ±0.5mm<br>for the Root PI and 44% ±0.5mm for the yD2. Conclusions: All the apex locators were able to determined<br>the position of the apical foramen but consequently the Root-ZX II, Root ZX Mini, i Pex II, Kerr apex ID<br>were more accurate than Root PI and YD2 apex locators.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessment of Enzymatic Bioremediation for Catechol in Water by the Role of Immobilized Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase on Biosilica of Diatoms Frustule and other Polymers 2021-08-20T03:11:41-05:00 Khalid Dheyaa Abdulwahid Najm Abdulla Al-Zubaidy <p>The highest specific activity for (C12O) enzyme purification was within the second stage of the purification<br>steps represented by precipitation with ammonium sulfate AS 2% (weight / volume), reaching about 14.56<br>U. mg-1 after achieving the purification by 6.6 folds with a recovery rate of 78.3%. The optimum catalytic<br>activity of the enzyme (C12O) was within the pH of 6.5-8.5 and the temperature of 25 ° C. Immobilization of<br>(C12O) enzyme by biosilica of diatom frustules DFS/G GA gave a double shifting of 20 ° C from the optimum<br>temperature for enzyme activity, within all the purification stages, as the percentage of catechol degradation<br>through it at the temperature of 45 ° C reached about 93% and 87.2% and 85% were in the precipitation<br>stage with ammonium sulfate AS and the precipitation with streptomycin sulfate SS and the enzymatic crude<br>extract CEE respectively. While the shifting was only 10 ° C in the case of immobilization on polymeric<br>supports types: PAN / G and PAA / G. In contrast, the soluble (C12O) enzyme which did not show any<br>shifting by its optimum temperature , and its highest activity values were within the optimum temperature<br>of 25 ° C. While the method of immobilization for (C12O) enzyme by biosilica of diatom frustules DFS/G<br>gave a 1.5-degree shifting for the optimum pH of the enzyme activity, within all the purification stages, the<br>highest rates of catechol degradation were reached through it at the base pH 9-10 about 91.8% and 86.5. %<br>And 85.0% in the AS, CEE and SS stages, respectively. Whereas, the enzyme immobilization methods of<br>(C12O) by PAN / G and PAA / G did not show such displacement during the enzymatic purification stage<br>with streptomycin sulfate SS but were limited to the primarily stages of enzymatic purification. , As it was<br>able to shift the optimal pH of the (C12O) enzyme by 1.5 degrees also within the purification stages of AS<br>and CEE. The rates of catechol biodegradation through it at the base pH 9-10 were about 79.0% and 71.8%,<br>respectively, in the case of immobilization by PAN /G and PAA / G with percentages of 71.8% and 62.0%,<br>respectively. In contrast, soluble (C12O) enzyme did not show any shifting by its optimum pH, and its<br>highest activity values were within the optimum pH of 6.5-8.5. The reason for these results may be attributed<br>to the role of the large surface area ready for covalent immobilization of (C12O) enzyme by biosilica of<br>diatom frustules compared with the surface area of pores of the two types of polymeric membranes used in<br>current study.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Determination the CTLA-4 and PTPN22 Gene Polymorphism in Graves’ Disease Patients 2021-08-20T03:21:54-05:00 Miriam Jasim Shehab Seenaa Sadiq Amin Mohammed Mahdi Al-Zubaidi Rasha Sadeq Ameen Sura Nabeel Al-Ani <p>Graves’ disease (GD) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease with contribution from both genetic and<br>epigenetic factors in its causation. Gene “protein tyrosine phosphatase non receptor 22” (PTPN22) is an<br>important immune regulatory gene preventing hyper responsiveness of T cells by negatively regulating<br>their signal transduction. Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphisms belong to the<br>main genetic factors determining the susceptibility to development Graves’ disease. This study aimed to<br>analyze whether 1858 C/T SNP in PTPN22 and 1822 C/T SNP in CLTA-4 genes have any association with<br>GD in Iraqi population. PCR-RFLP was performed for genotyping 1858 C/T SNP and 1822 C/T SNP within<br>PTPN22 and CLTA-4 respectively, in patients with GD and healthy controls. Among the patients with GD,<br>the frequencies CLTA-4 CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 43.3%, 45%, and 11.6%, respectively, whereas in<br>healthy controls the frequencies of CC, CT genotypes were 60%, 30%, and 10%, respectively. While there<br>is no mutation recorded in PTPN22 1858 C/T SNP in both PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analysis. These<br>results indicated that there is no significant association was found between PTPN22 1858 C/T SNP and<br>CLTA-4 in patients with GD. It has been concluded that GD is not associated with PTPN22 1858 C/T SNP<br>and 1822 C/T SNP of CLTA-4 in Iraqi population.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparison Between 3 Different Types of Mouthwash on the Healing Process of Periodontal Diseases 2021-08-20T03:35:40-05:00 Ammar Alwan Ali Zainab Kasim Mohammad Abeer Isam Abdulhameed <p>Dental plaque is the principal etiological agent for the development and progression of gingival and<br>periodontal diseases. Three different mouthwash types were compared in this study for the periodontal<br>healing process based on the results. For all bacterial strains, the culture type collection is used. The serial<br>dilution process is used for preparing every mouthwash and adding it to the tubes with a specific dilution. In<br>certain microorganisms of the respective mouthwash, the last tube dilution that does not show any turbidity<br>will be considered MIC. The three types of mouthwashes were compared in terms of the ability to inhibit<br>microbial growth. Twenty-four hours after the agar was solidified and the colony forms (CFU) units counted,<br>the plates were incubated. This study showed that bacterial growth inhibition might occur in the three types<br>of mouthwash. Boht, Behsa and Kin-gingival mouthwashes had a significant difference in their antimicrobial<br>effect. This study showed that they were unable to perform s after 24 hours of in vitro incubation while the<br>bacterial count was lowered after two weeks of in vivo use in the boht washings. Continuous exposure to<br>bacteria may be necessary to wash the mouth, especially for Behsa and Boht. It is difficult to remove all<br>bacteria from the mechanical plaque controls; antibacterial mouthwash can cause additive. In the current<br>study, three types of mouthwash have compared antimicrobial effects. The results showed only that bacterial<br>counts are affected by mouthwash. Based on this study’s results, Boht mouthwash is more effective than<br>Kin Gingival and Behsa mouthwash for oral microorganisms, but further clinical studies are necessary to<br>confirm our findings.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Induced Hyperlipidemia in Adult Male Rats and Treated by using Rosmarinus officinalis Aqueous Extract 2021-08-20T03:40:10-05:00 Marwa Karim Taha Mohammed Salman Dalas Ahmed Hamad Saleh <p>The current work was goaled to revealed anti-hyperlipidemia activity of R. officinalis extract. This work<br>utilized 20 male rats that divided to negative group; positive group was given drinking water containing<br>0.5% H2O2 and (1%) cholesterol for 60 days. Third group: hyperlipidemia rats were treated with (50mg/<br>kg/daily) extract. Fourth group: hyperlipidemia rats were treated with (100mg/kg/daily) extract. The<br>outcomes revealed significant (P &lt; 0.05) rise in cholesterol and triglyceride and reduce the HDL in positive<br>group compare with negative group. Malonedialdehyied (MDA) was increased with reduce in glutathione<br>(GSH) compare with negative group. Otherwise, diameters of aorta artery show significant (P &lt; 0.05) rise<br>compare with negative group. R. officinalis aqueous extract when used in treatment, the outcomes exhibited<br>improvement in lipid profile, MDA, GSH and diameters of aorta artery compare with negative group. It was<br>concluded that R. officinalis extract possess anti-hyperlipidemia activity.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Combined Effect of Physical and Psychological Stress Exposure during Pregnancy on the Expression of Caspase-3 Cerebrum and Cerebellum of Newborn Mus musculus 2021-08-20T04:02:46-05:00 Binta Dwi Novitasari Hermanto Tri Joewono Widjiati <p>Background: Prenatal stress affects fetal development including brain development. When a stressor is<br>felt, the brain as the main target for stress will release a hormone that stimulates the release of pro-apoptotic<br>proteins and activate caspase-3 which acts as an executioner caspase in the cell death process. The aim of the<br>study was to analyze the effect of combined stress during pregnancy on the expression of caspase-3 cerebrum<br>and cerebellum of newborn Mus musculus. Methods: An experimental study using 24 pregnant mice (Mus<br>musculus). Subjects were randomized into four groups, consisting of physical stress exposure group (forced<br>swimming) (G1), psychological stress exposure group (noise) (G2), combination stress exposure group<br>(forced swimming + noise) (G3), and control group (G4). Stress exposure was given on 6th-15th days of<br>pregnancy. From each mother, three Newborn of Mus musculus were taken to make preparations from brain<br>tissue. Immunohistochemical examination was performed to assess caspase-3 expression. Results: The<br>study shows that the mean and standard deviation of the expression of caspase-3 cerebrum and cerebellum<br>in the physical stress exposure group is 5.70 ± 0.99 and 5.80 ± 1.35, the psychological stress exposure group<br>is 7.23 ± 1.39 and 7.40 ± 1.24, the combined stress exposure group is 8.67 ± 1.09 and 9.30 ± 1.12, and the<br>control group 4.17 ± 1.18 and 3.90 ± 1.06. ANOVAs statistical test results show significant differences<br>among groups with a value of p = 0.000 in the cerebrum and p = 0.000 in the cerebellum. Conclusion:<br>Exposure to physical and psychological stress during pregnancy increases the expression of caspase-3 in the<br>cerebrum and cerebellum of newborn mice.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Correlation between Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter Pylori Infections in Gastrointestinal Patients at Wasit Province 2021-08-20T04:08:45-05:00 Abdulsada A. Rahi Safa A. Fadhil <p>The present study aimed to identify the relationship between Cryptosporidium parvum parasite and<br>Helicobacter pylori in patients at Wasit province and its environs. One hundred stool samples were collected<br>(male and female) from suspected diarrheal patients of parasitic and bacterial infection during the period<br>October 2020 to April 2021 who attended to Al-Karamah Teaching Hospital at Wasit province and General<br>Hospital of Martyr Fairuz at Hay district.<br>The investigation of the oocysts of the Cryptosporidium parvum parasite was carried out by staining with<br>Modified Ziehl Neelson method and also detecting of Helicobacter pylori by using dipstick. The results of<br>our study revealed that 55( 55%) was positive for C. parvum and 48 (48%) was positive for Helicobacter<br>pylori and the co- infections between the parasite and bacteria reached to 32( 32%). The age group(1-20<br>years) showed the highest11 (11%) prevalence rate while the lowest prevalence was in patient with age<br>group (21-40 years) reached to 6(6%) interplay infections between the parasite and bacteria .</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Relationship between Cryptosporidium parvum in Water And Diarrheal Infections at Wasit Province 2021-08-20T04:13:47-05:00 Abdulsada A. Rahi Safa K. Alwan <p>The present study aimed to identify the relationship between Cryptosporidium parvum in water and diarrheal<br>infections at Wasit province. One hundred stool samples were collected (male and female) from suspected<br>diarrheal patients of parasitic infection who attended to Al-kut hospital and Al-karamah teaching hospital<br>at Wasit province and fifty water samples were collected from different points at Dijlah river; Household<br>water supply and Kut Liquid water during the period from October 2020 to April 2021.The investigation of<br>oocysts of the Cryptosporidium parvum parasite carried out by staining with modified Ziel Neelson method.<br>The results of our study revealed that 60(60%) was positive for C.paravum. The age group (1-5) months<br>showed the highest 12(12%) prevalence rate while the lowest prevalence was in patient with age group<br>(&gt;20) months reached to 1(1%).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis by PCR in Wasit Province, Iraq 2021-08-20T04:17:36-05:00 Abdulsada A. Rahi Israa N. Abed Al-Saadi Yoosra N. Abed Al-Saadi <p>The present study aimed to detect the Cyclospora cayetanensis among patients that attended in Al-karama<br>Teaching Hospital and General Hospital of Martyr Fairuz in Wasit City. The sample were collected from<br>October 2015 to April 2016. Thirty stool samples were collected from patients that suffering from diarrhea,<br>their aged between 1 year to 50 years old from both genders who attended the hospitals at Wasit province.<br>Data was collected using a questionnaire form including information about gender, age, location. Stool<br>samples were examined by PCR technique to detect the presence of Cyclospora cayetanensis. The result<br>showed that 8 of 30 (26.7%) samples were positive while 22 of 30 (73.3%) were negative. Our study is<br>considered as a first study that detect the Cyclospora cayetanensis in Wasit province, Iraq. This study was<br>aimed to determine the prevalence of C. cayetanensis in Wasit Province, Iraq.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Wasit Province 2021-08-20T04:22:10-05:00 Abdulsada A. Rahi Zainab K. Hashim Ali Mohsin Al-Jamea <p>The present study was conducted to detect the cutaneous Leishmaniasis from a total of suspected cases<br>that were collected from dermatology center of AL-Karamah Teaching Hospital in Al-Kut city from 1st<br>October 2019 to the end of February 2020. Totally 60 patients were included 36 males and 24 females. The<br>collected skin specimens were smeared and stained with Giemsa stain, then examined by microscope under<br>oil immersion lenses. The results of current study appeared that 56(93.3%) were positive amastigotes, The<br>prevalence of CL were 36 (60%) in males and 24(40%) in females, while the highest infection 36(60%)<br>in rural area and lowest 24(40%) in urban area. The percent of infection with Cutaneous leishmaniasis<br>according to type of lesions recorded were equal in dry and wet ulcers type (50 % ) for each one.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Co-infection between Entamoeba histolytica and Helicobacter Pylori in Patients at Wasit Province 2021-08-20T04:29:29-05:00 Abdulsada A. Rahi Sima’a H. Mohammed Magda A. Ali <p>The current study was conducted at Wasit province, Iraq during the period from 28 October 2020 to<br>28 December 2020. The study included one hundred stool samples taken from questionable patients of<br>Entamoeba histolytica and Helicobacter pylori. Samples were collected from patient attended to General<br>Hospital of Martyr Fairuz at Hay district , Saeed Health center and Hospital of Al-Kut. All samples have<br>been checked using direct smear lugol’s iodine stain for Entamoeba histolytica and dipstick for Helicobacter<br>pylori. The result showed that 40 samples (40%) out of 100 patients were gave positive by rapid test cassette;<br>females 23 (23%) positive samples and males 17(17%). While 14 samples (14%)out of 100 samples were<br>positive for Entamoeba histolytica. The highest infection in females 8(8%) and the lowest in males 6(6%).<br>The result showed 10 samples (10%) out of 100 patients positive for both E. histolytica and H. pylori. The<br>highest infection was recorded in females 6(6%) and the lowest in males 4(4%).<br>The highest infection of H.pylori in age group (39 and more) years ; females recorded 6(6%) and males<br>recorded 6(6%), while the lowest infection in group (&gt;1) years old ; females recorded 1(1%) and males<br>recorded 1(1%). The infection rate of Entamoeba histolytica was highest in age group (1-13) years old ;<br>females was recorded 1(1%) and males was recorded 4(4%) , while the lowest in age group (26-39) years old<br>; females recorded 1(1%) while males without infection. Infection with both E.histolytica and H.pylori was<br>recorded the highest in group (39 and more) years old ; females was recorded 3(3%) and males was recorded<br>2(2%) while the group (&gt;1) years old do not recorded infections.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Identification of Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Specimen Using Different Diagnostic Methods in Wasit Province/Iraq 2021-08-20T05:17:44-05:00 Abdulsada A. Rahi Salam M. Khlaif <p>The present study aimed to investigate the presence and prevalence of Cryptosporidium among<br>immunocompromised patients in Wasit Hospitals and health centers to determine the best method for its<br>diagnosis. The study started from the 1st of August to the end of November 2020. One hundred forty stool<br>samples were collected from immunocompromised patients from both genders who attended the hospital<br>and health centers at Wasit province. Stool samples were inspected by modified acid-fast stain as a standard<br>method, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Molecular Nested PCR method. Modified Ziehl-<br>Neelsen technique revealed 46 (33%) positive cases for Cryptosporidium oocysts, of 85 males and 55 females,<br>highly significant relationship was found between the genders and between different age groups of infection<br>with a highly significant difference between rural and urban area. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was<br>57.14% using nested PCR and 38.46% for ELISA in comparison with MZN method. It is concluded that<br>cryptosporidiosis found to be endemic in Wasit Province for the first time and the nested PCR was the most<br>reliable technique for its diagnosis.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparison between Microscopic Identification and Nested PCR for Detection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis at Wasit Province 2021-08-20T05:20:28-05:00 Abdulsada A. Rahi Zainab K. Hashim Ali Mohsin Al-Jamea <p>Cutaneous leishmaniosis in Iraq has 2 forms, zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), which is mainly<br>caused by Leishmania major, and anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), which is mainly caused<br>by Leishmania tropica . Twenty skin samples were taken from suspected patients with CL and checked for<br>Leishmania amastigote, during the period from October 2019 to February 2020 in Al-Karamah teaching<br>hospital of Kut city, Iraq. The highest infection 100% using Giemsa- smeared and 75% using Nested PCR<br>methods. Totally 20 patients aged from (1- &lt;40) years old were included in current study.The prevalence<br>of CL were in males 9(45) and 11(55) in females and high prevalence in age groups (&gt;20) years old. The<br>current study 12(60%) were brought on Leishmania major and 4(20%) Leishmania tropica using Nested<br>PCR method . In present study the direct smear could be considered a good test for testing the cutaneous<br>Leishmaniasis but Nested PCR assay was more touchy than parasitological technique in diagnosis of<br>Leishmania species in skin lesions. L.major is the main species responsible of cutaneous leishmaniasis in<br>areas of Wasit Province.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Comparison of use of Microscopic Examination and PCR for Detection of Entamoeba Histolytica at Wasit Province 2021-08-20T05:24:41-05:00 Magda A. Ali <p>A microscopic examination of multiple feces samples of 100 suspected patients with Entamoeba histolytica<br>infection who suffered from diarrhea was attended to Al-Karamah Teaching hospital at Wasit Province from<br>January 2020 to March 2020. The feces samples were collected into two<br>Parts; first of direct wet film preparation were done for each sample using normal saline 0.9 % for detecting<br>the motility of trophozoites and Lugol’s iodine 5% for demonstrating structures and cyst. The 2nd part was<br>kept in freeze (-20C) until used in PCR method .<br>The current study recorded that the overall prevalence rate of Entamoeba histolytica 80(80%) by microscopic<br>examination and 88(88%) by PCR methods. The prevalence of E. histolytica was higher among families who<br>live in rural areas 44(55%) than those in urban areas 36(45%) and in males 49(61.3%) more than females<br>31(38.7%). The highest infection rate 37(46.3) was recorded in age group (21-40) years old. The present<br>study was aimed to compare between the microscopic examination and PCR methods in the diagnosis of E.<br>histolytica in human clinical samples.<br>We concluded our results that using PCR technique was more accurate and sensitive (88%) than microscopic<br>examination method (80%).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Correlation between Interleukin(IL-6) and Procalcitonin (PCT) Level among Diarrheal Children 2021-08-20T05:28:42-05:00 Nihad Khalawe Tektook Ahmed Salim Hadi Al-Khafaji <p>This study was conducted his study was conducted in Baghdad for the period from December 1, 2019<br>to June 3, 2020 for determination of the level of elevation of interleukin-6 and procalcitonin in children<br>with acute diarrhea, I was included 50 children suffering from diarrhea and 50 children without any other<br>disease, where the ages of children in both groups ranged from one month to five years. The study included<br>collecting information from children in both groups, including gender, age, living situation, number of<br>family members, standard of living and social as well as the number of family members, number of rooms<br>in the house. Amount of 5 ml of blood samples were collected from all the children included in this study,<br>where the blood samples were separated by the centrifuge device and the serum samples were separated<br>from them and kept in the refrigerator until the tests for detecting the level of Interleukin 6 and procalcitonin<br>using ELISA technique. In this study, 76 % of diarrheal children were suffered from abdominal pain, 68%<br>with dehydration, 58% of fever, 46% had vomiting.The presented study found that, 78% of families with<br>diarrheal children were lived in crowed houses, 73% didn’t wash vegetables before eat, 69% haven’t wah<br>hands, 66 used tap water for drinking.In this study, IL-16 was observed in elevated mean in diarrheal children<br>(19.66±2.19 ng/ml), when it compared with the control healthy children (4.27±1.46 ng/ml) (P&lt;0.001).In this<br>study, procalcitonin was also observed in elevated mean in diarrheal children (42.17±9.28 ng/ml), when<br>it compared with the control healthy children (28.19±8.27 ng/ml) (P&lt;0.001).The study showed that the<br>maximum means of PCT and IL-6 in diarrheal children were observed in those with fever, followed by<br>abdominal pain. The study revealed a significant positive correlation between IL-6 and PCT level among<br>diarrheal children.Conclusions:The study showed a significant relation of PCT and IL-6 with diarrhea..</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Children with Inguinal Hermia Repairs 2021-08-20T05:31:48-05:00 Arkan Kareem Abd Ali Ghazi Abbood1 Saud Hussein Mousa Al-jumaily <p>This case control study was carried out in Baghdad city from 1st of April 2018 to 1 March 2019 included<br>40 studied cases (children with inguinal hernia) and 40 healthy children to evaluate the prevalence of UTIs<br>in children with inguinal hernia repairs. it was known that the children are infected or not with urinary<br>tract infection through clinical examination of the signs that indicate urinary tract infection, as well as a<br>laboratory examination of the urine to detect the presence of bacteria that cause urinary tract infection<br>in the laboratory. All children under 15 years of age were included in the study who attended pediatric<br>surgery clinics. Ages over the age of 15 years old, children with complex inguinal hernia such as blocked,<br>irreducible, strangulated hernia and children with recurrent hernia were excluded. All children included in<br>our study included in the study were examined through routine and microscopic examination of urine, urine<br>culture and sensitivity. children with urinary tract infections were treated according to sensitivity culture<br>reports. This case control study included children with inguinal hernia (90% males and 10% females), their<br>age range was &lt;1 year to 15 year (mean: 9.52±1.3 year), the study also included 40 healthy children (as<br>control group) with the same characteristics of patient. Thestudyrevealedthaturinary tract infection was<br>observed in 25% of (10 of 40) of children with inguinal hernia compared with 5% of (2 of 40) of the<br>control group (P&lt;0.001).This study showed that most of children with inguinal hernia were suffered from<br>abdominal pain, urge to urinate, polyurea , cloudy urine, fever and pyelonephritis. The study found that,<br>50% of children with inguinal hernia who suffered from UTI were due E. coli, S. aureus with rate 40% and<br>Klebsiella spp with rate 10%. The study showed that 80% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to ampicillin,<br>60% to amikacin and 40% to Amoxiclave, while 100% of S. aureus were sensitive to Ceftriaxone and cand<br>75% to Cefotaxime.It was concluded that, there significant positive correlation between UTIs and inguinal<br>hernia repairs in children.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Risk factors of Prostate Enlargement among Patients with History of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms 2021-08-20T05:36:11-05:00 Mazin AnwerYadgar Al-Obaidi Abid Ahmad Salman Al-Mahmood Suha Karam Jameel Azzawi M Hadi <p>Background: Prostate enlargement is defined as increase in size of prostate gland. The diseasemay be<br>presented clinically as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The disease is increasing with age. There are<br>many risk factors as age, genetic, geographical, obesity, physical activity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension.<br>Subjects and Method: A descriptive study was conducted on patients with lower urinary tract symptoms<br>who were attending Tikrit teaching hospital outpatient’s clinic during the period from 1st July -1st<br>October2018. The demographic characterestics of patients were obtained according to a questionnaire and<br>the patients were examined clinically to determine if there was enlargement of prostate or not. The diagnoses<br>was confirmed by PR and ultrasound examination.Results: The frequency of among sample study was<br>(83%). The cases were more prevalent among the followings:age group 60 years and more(94.3%), positive<br>family history(89.7%),low physical activity (93.4%%) ,hypertensives (87.4%) and with those with erectile<br>dysfunction (94.9%).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prevalence of Neonatal Septicemia in Karbala Pediatric Teaching Hospital and Al-alwiyah Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Iraq 2021-08-20T05:40:38-05:00 Ahmed Salim Hadi Al-Khafaji Mohammed Ahmed Jassim Alogaidi Anfal Akram Hasan Yasir Ayad Khallawi <p>Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and especially in<br>developing countries. The incidence of neonatal septicemia varies widely between the developed world and<br>developing countries. Methods: The data was collected from the records of the Department during period<br>(February 2019- December 2020). incubated blood culture at 37°C for 7 days. Subcultures were done onto<br>blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. Results: Clinical feature of neonatal septicemia as Fever 31(67%);<br>Feeding difficulty 22 (48 %); both Jaundice and Lethargy as 9(19.5%); also, Diarrhea 7(15%); Skin rash<br>6(13%) and Meningitis 3(6.5%).so current results showed male with positive bacterial culture (69.5%) when<br>compare with Female (30.5%), Among a total of 46 bacterial isolates recovered, 34 (74%) were Gramnegative<br>isolates more than Gram-positive isolates 12 (26%) , so among a total of 46 bacterial isolates<br>recovered, E.coli were recovered from the cases as (24%) followed by both Klebsiella pneumoniae and<br>Pseudomonas as (13.5%), So Citrobacter species and Proteus mirabilis as (8.5%) , and Strep pneumonia<br>and Staphylococcus aureus were recovered from a single case , Staphylococcus epidermedis (7 cases - 15%).<br>Conclusions: Most clinical feature of neonatal septicemia as Fever; Feeding difficulty; and Jaundice and<br>Lethargy, so the male with positive bacterial culture more than Female as well as gram negative bacteria is<br>more common septicemia children with predominant of E.coli .</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Seroprevalence of BKV-Antibodies among Cancer Patients and Healthy Individuals 2021-08-20T05:45:40-05:00 Vian Ibraheem Husain Salah Mahdi Hassen Amal Aziz Kareem <p>BKPyV, a small DNA virus classified into the polyomaviridaefamily, is holoendemic with global distribution<br>among human population.The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of anti-BK polyomavirus<br>IgG antibodies among cancer patients and healthy controls. In the present study, A total of 85 serum samples<br>were collected (65 cancer patients and 20 healthy controls) with age range between 15- 75 years, the femaleto-<br>male ratio was 3:1. All obtained sera samples were tested using ELISA method for the detection of<br>anti-BK polyomavirus IgG antibodies. BKV-IgG seroprevalence show high rate of exposure to the virus<br>48.23% (41 of 85 samples) revealed positive result (50.77% in cancer patient and 40% in healthy control).<br>Seroprevalence was not different between female and male. The frequency of IgG antibodies decreased from<br>66.67% in the age group &lt;40 years to 46.94% among age group 40-60 years, and drop again to 38.1% in<br>&gt;60 years old.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation the Role of Malondialdehyde in Myocardial Infarction Patients 2021-08-20T05:51:38-05:00 Dina A. Ibrahim Sami A. Zbbar Muhib A. Salih <p>Case control study was carried out in Kirkuk city in the intensive care unit in Kirkuk general hospital from<br>Feb 2020 to May 2020. The study included 90 individuals including sixty myocardial infraction patients<br>and thirty healthy individuals to evaluate the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) in myocardial infraction<br>patients and healthy controls. All patients were aged between (40-80) years, with a negative family history<br>of heart attack. Blood samples were collected from each patients and controls to evaluate the levels of<br>malondialdehyde by using immunofluorescence technique. The study showed no significant differences<br>between myocardial infraction patients and control groups regarding their age, although 33.33% of MI<br>patients belonged to the age group 60-69 year flowed by 28.33% in the age group 50-59 year. The study<br>displayed that the highest mean of MDA was recorded in MI (104.7±13.0 ng/ml) as compared with the<br>control group (66.7± 22.7 ng/ml), The result was significant (P: &lt; 0.05). The study concluded that, The<br>study displayed that the MDA levels were elevated significantly in patients group as compared with the<br>control group and MDA is may be an important cardiovascular parameter, which may be followed before<br>and during the disease.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A comparative Study of Efficacy of Esmolol and Fentanyl For Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Attenuation During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation 2021-08-23T00:12:47-05:00 Bashar Naser Hussein Mohammad Kheiri Mahmod Ammar Hamid Hanoosh <p>Background: Blood pressure and heart rate elevation during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation may<br>cause serious medical problems ex.: patients with cardiovascular disease as well as patients with increased<br>intracranial pressure. Aim of study: Comparism between Fentanyl and Esmolol in attenuating blood pressure<br>and heart rate during laryngoscope and tracheal intubation. Patients and Method:60 adult patients of both<br>sex, ages between (20-33) , labeled as ASA I and ASA II will undergo elective surgery, divided into two<br>groups, each group contain 30 patients: Esmolol Group (E) takes 0.5 mg/kg esmolol IV. And Fentanyl Group<br>(F) takes 1 mic/kg fentanyl IV.Blood pressure and heart rate was recorded before drugs administration as<br>baseline reading and another reading was taken after drug administration as well as after tracheal intubation.<br>Result: blood pressure and heart rate readings of both groups, when compared to baseline reading shows<br>that Regarding heart rate, there are significance differences between the two groups, in that, esmolol<br>reduce heart rate in all stages when compared to fentanyl. Regarding systolic blood pressure, both drugs<br>reduce systolic blood pressure and there are significances in all stages, favored esmolol except in T3 due to<br>rise in sbp when using fentanyl. Regarding diastolic blood pressure, both drugs also reduce diastolic blood<br>pressure but there are no significances in these reading except in T3 due to esmolol reduce dpb much more<br>than fentanyl does. Conclusions: esmolol in a dose of 0.5mg/kg is more effective than fentanyl in a dose of<br>1mic/kg in attenuation of hemodynamic response after endotracheal intubation.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Study of Possible Predisposing Factors that May Result in Congenital Abnormalities among Newborn Infants a Hospitalbased Study 2021-08-23T00:22:19-05:00 Munaf Authman Hreeth Ahmed Nadher Kareem Sabah Noori Rashid <p>The term congenital abnormalities signifies that there has been disruption in the normal process of<br>organogenesis occurring before birth. The earlier the insult, the more gross the abnormality.<br>This study aimed to study some predisposing factors that may result in congenital abnormalities among<br>newborn infants in neonatal care unit (NCU) of Al-Kadhymia teaching hospital-Baghdad/Iraq. This<br>prospective study was carried out during the period from 1st February to 1st August 2011. A total of 2700<br>neonates were admitted to NCU, and (100) newborn infants were proven to have congenital abnormalities<br>by physical examination alone in the nursery care unit.<br>The results showed that of the total (100) affected neonates, 63 (63%) were full term as compared to only<br>37 (37%) preterm baby (&lt;37 weeks gestation) with a significant difference (P &lt;0.05). Of the total 2700<br>neonates, 1440 (53%) were females and the remining 1260 (47%) were males.<br>Out of the (100) neonates who were proven to have congenital anomalies, 55 (55%) were males and 45<br>(45%) females. The percentage of newborns with congenital abnormalities was 3.7% with respect to total<br>number of newborns (2700); 2.1% were males and 1.6% were females.<br>Our results showed that (55%) had neurological abnormalities followed by (12%) cleft lip and palate then<br>(11%) chromosomal abnormalities (most of them Down syndrome and only 3 cases had Edward syndrome<br>and 1 case had Patau syndrome). In this study, it was shown that the highest incidence of congenital<br>abnormalities (55) occurred between (20-30) years.<br>It can be concluded that most the affected newborns were full terms, with a slight male predominance.<br>Incidence of neurological abnormalities was higher than other types of congenital abnormalities, the highest<br>incidence of congenital abnormalities occurred between 20-30 years, and in multigravida mothers, and most<br>of parents were reported to be consanguineous or relatives.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Risk Factors of Rebound Hyperbilirubinemia in Post Phototherapy Hyperbilirubinemia Infants 2021-08-23T00:27:10-05:00 Alexander Leonard Caesar Josediputra Martono Tri Utomo Risa Etika <p>Background: Post phototherapy rebound hyperbilirubinemia is a cause for readmission in some infants.<br>However, this phenomenon data of rebound hyperbilirubinemia is lacking from Indonesia. Our study aims<br>to describe the risk factor of post phototherapy rebound hyperbilirubinemia in the infant.<br>Method: Cross-sectional study of all infants with indirect hyperbilirubinemia who were treated phototherapy<br>according to standard guidelines in neonate intermediate unit Dr. Soetomo hospital for 6 months from June<br>2017 until December 2017. Bilirubin was measured 24 hours after phototherapy. Bilirubin rebound is<br>considered as increasing total serum bilirubin that needs reinstitution of phototherapy.<br>Result: A total of 53 (44.9%) infants developed rebound hyperbilirubinemia. We revealed the following risk<br>factor for rebound hyperbilirubinemia was the onset of jaundice on &lt; 3 days, (10 babies, p &lt;0.05). Other<br>results are 30 (56.6%) female infants, 39 (73%) birth weight &lt; 2500 g, 36 (67%) infants with a history of<br>cesarean section, and 38 (71%) preterm infants but there are not statistically significant.<br>Conclusion: Post phototherapy rebound hyperbilirubinemia should be considered in the onset of jaundice<br>&lt; 3 days.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Abuse of Topical Glucocorticoids among Patients Visiting Community Pharmacy in Basrah-Iraq 2021-08-23T00:35:34-05:00 Alhassan Shaker Abed Jubran K. Hassan <p>Introduction: Topical glucocorticoids have been the mainstay for the treatment of many skin conditions since<br>their introduction due to their anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative vasoconstrictive and immunosuppressive<br>properties.Availability of topical glucocorticoids in different potencies as over the counter medication in<br>Iraq encourages their use for non-labeled indications , thus increasing the side effect of such drugs.<br>Objectives: The aim of this study was toevaluate the use, knowledge of the patients and patient education<br>oftopical glucocorticoids.<br>Methodology: A cross sectional community pharmacy based survey was conducted throughout Basrah<br>city.Inclusion criteria were costumers visiting the community pharmacies asking for topical corticosteroids<br>without prescription, aging 15 years and older and willing to participate in the study.600 questionnaire<br>formafor topical corticosteroids were distributed in the center and the districts of Basrah city. 254 forma out<br>of 600 were returned out of which 212 were completed. Incomplete forma were excluded.<br>Result: 106 (50%) participants out of 212misused topical glucocorticoids. As a single product, Betamethasone<br>valerate and Clobetasol propionate was majorly used by the participants which are potent and ultra-high<br>potent topical steroid respectively. The major source of topical steroid prescription was relatives.49.8%<br>participants didn’t recognize any side effect of topical glucocorticoids while hypopigmentation was the<br>most side effect identified by the participants (21.8%).Only 35% of the participants,whom topical steroid<br>prescription source by physicians and pharmacists, was educated about the use of topical glucocorticoids.<br>Conclusion: Topical glucocorticoids are commonly abused in Basrah city and probably other cities of Iraq.<br>Looking fair and improving face appearance is a common cultural believe in Iraq that push people to seek<br>topical glucocorticoids from community pharmacies for skin lightening in addition to other unapproved<br>indications without prescription.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Factors Affecting Professional Integrity in Nurses: A Qualitative Content Analysis 2021-08-23T00:42:53-05:00 Ali Asghar Jesmi Khadijeh Yazdi Zahra Sabzi Hadi Ahmadi Chenari Abdolmotalleb Hasani <p>Background: Integrity is one of the professional values mentioned in the ethical codes of the Professional<br>Nursing Association. It is defined as a commitment to the five fundamental values of integrity, trust, equality,<br>respect, and accountability. This study aims to explore factors affecting professional integrity in nurses.<br>Methods: A descriptive content analysis was carried out by 17 interviews with Iranian nurses who were<br>chosen through purposive sampling. The data collection instruments were semi-structured interviews<br>and observation. The interviews were recorded and transcribed word by word; then, they were coded and<br>analyzed by Graneheim and Lundman qualitative content analysis method. For the trustworthiness of the<br>study, Guba and Lincoln’s criteria were used.<br>Result: After analysis, the latent meanings formulated into one theme,” keeping up confident beliefs,” which<br>consists of “religious beliefs,” “inner call,” “philanthropic sense,” “empathetic care” and “divine rewards”<br>categories.<br>Conclusion: Many factors are heading to internalizing professional integrity in nurses in Iran. Authorities,<br>managers, and faculty members should pay special attention to the internalization of professional integrity<br>and ethical values, such as altruism, conscience, empathy, and the presence of God in life to decrease the<br>mistakes and promote quality of care.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Post-mortem Gross Detection of Early Myocardial Infarction using Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride Test 2021-08-23T01:05:11-05:00 Ali Ayad Abdulridha Saad Kadhim Kareem <p>Background: Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the world. More than 17 million<br>people die each year as a result of myocardial infarctions. Post-mortem histochemical detection of early<br>myocardial infarction using 2,3,5-Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride (TTC) technique is based on the fact<br>that ischemic myocardial cells lose their membrane integrity and release dehydrogenase enzyme into the<br>blood stream, resulting in decrease or total depletion of these enzymes within the necrotic areas of the<br>myocardium, and so, after immersion in TTC solution, enzyme depleted necrotic myocardium will not<br>retain TTC dye and therefore appears as pale/yellow areas. Materials and Methods: This prospective<br>postmortem study was conducted at Medicolegal Directorate in Baghdad city during the period from<br>March 2020 to December 2020. Myocardial specimens were isolated from 75 cases of sudden natural death<br>and were subjected to 1% TTC solution staining for gross assessment, and subsequently, tissue samples were<br>taken from suspected areas, processed and stained with H&amp;E for histopathological evaluation and detection<br>of a possible acute myocardial infarction. Results: The mean age of studied cases was 50.3 ±12.57 years,<br>ranging from 18 to 78 years, median age was 53 years. Males constituted the majority of cases (80%). Cases<br>were predominantly within 40-59 years age group (58%). The postmortem interval was ranging from 2 to<br>17 hours (mean= 8.6 ±3.6 hours). After immersion in 1% TTC solution, 45 myocardial specimens showed<br>macroscopic pale/yellow areas which were indicative of acute myocardial infarcts within the ventricular<br>wall, while histopathological examination of specimens revealed features of acute myocardial infarction<br>(AMI) in 62 specimens. TTC stain was found to have a diagnostic sensitivity of 69.4% and specificity of<br>76.9% in postmortem detection of AMI. Conclusion: The TTC technique allows identification of early<br>myocardial necrosis. It’s practical, reliable and valid method that promises to be of considerable value. It<br>can be used together with histopathology for postmortem detection of visually unapparent acute myocardial<br>infarcts.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fetal and Maternal Plasma Thyroid Hormone’s Levelsin the Guinea Pigs 2021-08-23T01:39:09-05:00 ALwan Ali Fadil AL-Souz Mohammed Abdul Hadi Khalil TareqHafdhiAbdtawfeeq Al-Khayat <p>Background: All available data indicate that the thyroid of the guinea pig fetus is capable of functioning<br>independently of that of the mother . Therefor fetal thyroid function is necessary for normal growth in utero.<br>Intrauterine adaptation to the outside environment is important mechanism via which fetus increases the<br>chance to thrive after birth. Aim and Objective of this work to assess the plasma level of thyroxin (T4) and<br>Triiodothyronine (T3) through most period of pregnancy in fetal and maternal guinea pigs. Materials and<br>Methods: Blood samples collected from 51pregnant guinea pigsand their fetuses(93), by the Cobase 411<br>device produced by, Roche com. and it works with technology Electro, Plasma T4 and T3 were measured by<br>ChemiLuminescence immune-assay. Results: Fetal plasma Thyroxin (T4) concentration was greater than<br>that of the mother between Results 50 and 62 days of gestation while fetal plasma T3 concentration was less<br>than that of the mother throughout gestation. In fetalguinea pig the reciprocal relationship between pituitary<br>and thyroid is established at approximately day 34-35 of gestation. Conclusion: Theresults indicated that<br>the fetal pituitary–thyroid system (PTS) is functioning at a relatively high level than that of the maternal,<br>starting few days beforethe second half of pregnancy .Thyroid hormones are important for fetal growth and<br>maturation event.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Different Drugs on Diuretic Resistance Indices in Patients with Renal Impairment Using Intravenous Furosemide 2021-08-23T01:58:15-05:00 Alyaa Abdalrazaq Abass Ali Mohammed Hadi Jubran K. Hassan <p>Chronic kidney disease is a medical condition defined as a reduction in kidney function, made known by<br>glomerular filtration rate of a less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m², or signs of kidney impairment (albuminuria),<br>or both for at least three months period, nevertheless of the original cause.<br>Diuretic resistance in the edematous patient is defined as a clinical state in which diuretic response is<br>diminished or lost before the therapeutic goal of relief from edema has been reached.<br>This study aims to find the effect of different drugs on kidney functionindices and the relationship of using<br>these drugs with the development or improvement of diuretic resistance.<br>The study is a cross-sectional observational study. It was carried out at Al-Hussein-Teaching Hospital in<br>Thi-Qar. Nasiriya. Data from 104 patients were collected and analyzed using different statistical methods.<br>The results showed that there was a different odd of effects of the drugs commonly used to patients with<br>CKD due to other comorbidities on diuretic resistance indices. There was a significant increase in the body<br>weight and decline in serum urea in patients already with edema when they used calcium ampoule. Serum<br>urea was not affected by any of the other studied drugs. There were two drugs affected positively on serum<br>creatinine, which are clopidogrel and heparin. Albuminuria was highly improved in patients receiving<br>aspirin and atorvastatin. Clopidogrel significantly increased GFR in these patients.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessment of Relationship between Ectopic Pregnancy and Assisted Reproductive Technology in Baghdad City 2021-08-23T04:12:00-05:00 Alyaa Khazaal Neamah Wisam Mashaan Muttaleb <p>Objectives: To find out the relationship between assisted reproductive technology,<br>Some demographics characteristic and ectopic pregnancy among women with ectopic pregnancy<br>Methodology: A descriptive study was applied to assess the relationship between ectopic pregnancy and<br>Assisted Reproductive Technology among purposive sample of (60) women aged between (20-43) years<br>old attended the hospitals in Baghdad city. Results: The study show that the most woman in the age group<br>(32-37) years old, was primary school graduate, most of them have no gravidity, were treated with assisted<br>reproductive technology previously for (5-12) month, Clomiphene citrate (clomid) is used in the rate (50%),<br>suffering from lower abdominal pain and Darker or brown vaginal spotting. Conclusions: The study<br>concluded that there is significant relationship between the use of Clomiphene citrate (clomid) and ectopic<br>pregnancy and the most benefit treatment for ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. Recommendations: The<br>study recommended a furthers study on ovulation induction, training program about the effect of ovulation<br>induction especially (clomid) on women health</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluating the Safety of Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs use in Asthmatic Patients: A Systematic, Critical Review of Literature 2021-08-23T04:21:50-05:00 Amanj Baker Kurdi <p>Background: Evidence suggest avoidance of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in aspirinintolerant<br>asthmatics due to the risk of triggering exacerbation attack; however, evidence around avoiding<br>NSAIDs in all other asthmatic patients are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the evidence surrounding<br>the safety of using NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, among asthmatic patients.<br>Methods: A systematic review used Medline (OVID), Scopus and Embasefrom January-2008 to<br>January-2019. Inclusion criteria includedEnglish, and human studies that evaluated the use of NSAID in<br>asthmatics. Data was screened/extracted using a pre-designed data extraction form using Covidence®,<br>thenwere critically appraised.<br>Conclusion: Of the 49 identified studies,eight were eligible. Prevalence of NSAID-induced asthma<br>exacerbation was 9%(95%CI:6.0–12.0%)-9.9% (95%CI:9.4-10.5%). Asthmatics who were aspirin/NSAID<br>intolerant had 37% higher risk of hospitalisation compared to tolerant patients (RR:1.37; 95%CI:1.12–<br>1.67).Use of COX-2 inhibitors showed non-significant associations with worsening respiratory symptoms/<br>exacerbation. Only low-quality evidence was found for the safety of topical NSAID. NSAIDs-induced<br>respiratory reactions/symptoms is relatively uncommon with the majority of asthmatic patients could<br>tolerate NSAIDs therapy. Asthmatic patients who suffer from aspirin-induced asthma or NSAIDsexacerbated<br>respiratory disease (NSAIDs intolerant) should be avoided NSAIDs prescribing but could be<br>safely prescribed selective COX-2 inhibitors as an alternative.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pt Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) Strategy in Facing Corona Virus Disease-19 Pandemic 2021-08-23T04:24:35-05:00 Ambar Mutiara Djoko Suhardjanto Yeni Priatna Sari <p>The purpose of this research is to study and find out the strategies implemented by KAI in dealing with the<br>impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on KAI’s performance. The method of analysis in this study is a qualitative<br>descriptive method by analyzing all the data related to the topic being studied, which is then presented<br>with fairly comprehensive and comprehensive arguments. The results showed that the very fast growth in<br>the last ten years is KAI’s performance that should be appreciated. However, the Covid-19 pandemic is a<br>reminder that economic development (profit) must be accompanied by the principles of sustainability and<br>environmental and social concerns. The current situation in the impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic is very<br>unfavorable for achieving revenue targets for passenger and freight transport. KAI has carried out various<br>strategies in dealing with the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. Several things that have been done by KAI<br>in dealing with the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic include: 1. Protecting passengers and employees of<br>KAI by prioritizing health through the Covid-19 prevention protocol; 2. Maintain company liquidity by<br>preparing several scenarios, if the pandemic ends in June, August or December; 3. Perform cost efficiency<br>(operational expenditure) and reduced investment (capital expenditure) to balance the potential decline in<br>income.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Novelty Predictor ZnO Nano practical for Cancer Treatment 2021-08-23T04:29:38-05:00 Anmar Hameed Bloh Hassan Khuder Naji Antesar Rheem Obead <p>Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used to increasing the number of industrial products such as rubber,<br>paint, coating, and cosmetic and one of the most popular metal oxide nanoparticles in biological applications.<br>The ZnO NPs have become exceptional biochemistry , trade and industry, and less poisonousness. In<br>biomedicine the ZnO NPs have been appeared a encouraging possible, specially in the playing field of<br>anticancer and antiseptic grounds, which are included by their effective capability to initiate additional of<br>reactive oxygen species (ROS) creation, produce the zinc ions, and the cell apoptosis have been induce.<br>Furthermore, to keep the structural integrity of insulin is well known zinc. Consequently, the ZnO NPs<br>have been efficiently technologically advanced designed for antidiabetic drug . The ZnO NPs appearance<br>exceptional luminescent material goods in addition have straight them into one of the chief applicants for bio<br>imaging. Now, in the biomedical fields the synthesis of ZnO NPs for facilitating of future research progress<br>and focusing in biomedical fields will be helpful.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparative Study Thymol Oil and Some Gel Face Washing on Resistance Propionibacterium Acnes 2021-08-23T04:33:27-05:00 Mais E.Ahmed Jenan A.Ghafil Walaa Najim <p>Acne is elevated of skin secretion with hyperkeratosis causing Propionibacterium acnes. The goal of study<br>was to assess the anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial potential of Thymol oil compare Gel face ,and is the<br>main bacterium involved in the acne. The unpredictable use of antibiotics for the treatment of acne may end<br>up within the advancement of bacterial resistance.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Primary Prevention Program of Obesity among Primary School Children 2021-08-23T04:37:13-05:00 Amina Mohamed Ismail Hanaa Abdel Hakeem Ahmed Frial Fouad Malika <p>Background: Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects children and adolescents. It’s<br>particularly troubling because the extra pounds often start children on the path to health problems that<br>were once considered adult problems: diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Aim of the<br>Study: assess the effect of primary prevention program of obesity among primary school children through:<br>assessing knowledge &amp; practices of primary school children related to obesity, Designing, implementing<br>primary prevention program of obesity among primary school children, evaluating the effectiveness of<br>primary prevention program on knowledge &amp; practices related to obesity among primary school children.<br>Subjects and Methods: Setting: The study was conducted in four primary governmental school of El-Salam<br>city , Cairo governorate including: (El Hussien, Osman Ben Afan, Atef El Sadat and Gamal Abdel Naser).<br>Size: the sample composed of 144 primary school children chosen randomly through multistage sampling .<br>Tools: Different tools were used for data collection of study and it was written in simple language to suit the<br>understanding level of the studied primary school children First tool: Structured interviewing questionnaire,<br>second tool: Anthropometric Measurements , physical assessment sheet Results: clarified that only few<br>percentage of primary school children had good Knowledge preprogram while this improved to more than<br>one third post program implementation related to their total knowledge about childhood obesity , there was<br>highly statistically significant difference in post-program compared to pre-program according to their total<br>practice related to childhood obesity. Conclusions: primary school children improved their knowledge and<br>practice regarding childhood obesity after program implementation. Recommendation: primary prevention<br>program must be provided for all primary school children to prevent childhood obesity risks.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Neuroprotective Effect of Moringa Oleifera Extract on Acetamiprid Induced Neurotoxicity and Apoptosis in Albino Rats 2021-08-23T04:41:15-05:00 Amr A. Abdallah Marwa A. Ibrahim Eman A. Ibrahim Hossam El Din H. Abdelhafez Naglaa F. Mahmoud <p>Acetamiprid (ACMP) can cause neurotoxicity and induces neuronal apoptosis. The ameliorative effects of<br>Moringa Oleifera (MO) seed extract against the neurotoxicity induced by ACMP in adult male albino rats<br>were investigated. Forty male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups. The first group served as a control,<br>the second group administered ACMP 26.8mg/kg b.w. (representing 1/10 LD50) by gavage. The third group<br>was given combination of ACMP 26.8 mg/kg b.w. and MO seed extract 150 mg/kg b.w. the fourth group was<br>given MO extract only 150 mg/kg b.w. for 28 consecutive days. Results proved the efficacy of MO extract<br>as a neuroprotective agent through the reduction of the oxidant parameter malondialdhyde (MDA) content<br>by 26.9%, significant increase of reduced glutathione content (GSH) by 21.4%, and elevation of catalase<br>(CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities by (62.2% and 40.8%) respectively, compared to ACMP<br>intoxicated group. Consequently, gene expression analysis for Bax and NBN genes was downregulated<br>by 54.5% and 36.3% respectively in MO treated rats (group III) compared with ACMP intoxicated group.<br>Moreover, restoration of the pathological tissue injuries was noticed. In conclusion, MO proved to be an<br>effective neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic agent against ACMP-induced toxicity.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Desmoplastic Fibroma of the Mandible in an Infant: A Case Report 2021-08-23T04:47:41-05:00 Amr M. Ibrahim Hassan Sadek Raafat Tammam Mohamed R. Omar 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Morphometry and Sexual Dimorphism of Olfactory Fossa in Relation To Crista Galli in North Karnataka Region – A Multidetector Computed Tomographic Study 2021-08-23T04:58:42-05:00 Anandagouda V Naikanur Balappa M Bannur Sanjeev I Kolagi Naseema Begum 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Health Beliefs Related to Breast Cancer and Breast Self- Examination among Indian Women: Effect of Educational Program 2021-08-23T05:03:57-05:00 Apoorva Dev.M Githa Kishore Faezeh khodadadi <p>Background: Breast cancer is believed to be the most widespread carcinoma all over the world and the<br>most frequent type of carcinoma among females in India. Approximately 40% of breast lesions which lead<br>to breast cancer is detectable by breast self-examination (BSE). The identification of the barriers of early<br>detection and the baseline knowledge on breast cancer symptoms, risk factors, BSE method and also the<br>effectiveness of a health education intervention among females in Bangalore, India are the main purposes<br>of this research.<br>Methodology: The study was composed of totally 500 female participants from five different institutions in<br>urban and rural of Bangalore in 2020. Assessing baseline knowledge on breast cancer and BSE using selfadministered<br>questionnaires as well as administering interventional health education in the form of a lecture,<br>pamphlets and illustration of proper method of conducting breast self-examination using video tutorials.<br>Conclusion: The baseline knowledge about breast cancer and BSE practice among participants for early<br>detection was found to be insufficient. However, we witnessed a great progress after immediate and follow<br>up intervention. Periodic interventions are essential to prevent relapsing of certain types of barriers.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mental Illness of Pregnant Womenin Al-zahraaTeaching Hospital, Wasit Al-Kut 2019 2021-08-23T05:10:11-05:00 Areej Sabah Abdulridha Baidaa Abdulkareem Alwan Mahdi Abdulkarim Hamood <p>Maternal mental health considered as an important subject among leading public health experts. It has<br>been shown that women are two to three times more likely to be diagnosed with mental illness compared<br>to men. Chronic stress, experiencing war, and history of abuse are the most effective factors that associated<br>with mental illness. Iraq has experienced years of challenging circumstances due to the political and social<br>environment as well as due to physical barriers to health care services. This paper presents findings of<br>previous literatures in relative to mental illness among Iraqi women.In the current study, we are aiming to<br>determine the mental illness symptoms and effects in pregnancy during a period of all trimesters.Moreover,<br>we try to assess risk factors’ effects on mental illness symptoms in order to have better understanding<br>of the occurrence and associated factors in pregnancy.Type of study comparative cross -sectional study<br>with analytic component.A cross section study was conducted from 2018/9/5 to 2019/8/25. Observations<br>of present study show that there is a relationship between some factors like domestic violence,un planned<br>for pregnancy, previous miscarriage, psychological trauma before or during pregnancy.Our study mainly<br>focusing on women with maternal mental illness and inform strategies that would help to reduce and manage<br>maternal mental problems in order to promote their general health status.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Challenges in Maternal and Child Health Routine Data Administration in Indonesia: A Qualitative Study 2021-08-23T05:19:04-05:00 Arief Priyo Nugroho Diyan Effendi Zulfa Auliyati Agustina Asep Kusnali Siti Maimunah Irfan Ardani Ratna Widyasari <p>Background: Maternal and child health (MCH) routine data is essential in making a good health-related<br>policy. However, the quality of MCH routine data in Indonesia is doubted, and thus the Indonesian government<br>relies heavily on the survey data for policymaking. This condition raises questions about where the problems<br>exist in routine data recording stages. This study aims to explore the barriers and strategies of MCH routine<br>data recording by the administrators in the primary healthcare center.Method: This study was qualitative<br>research conducted in Buru Regency, Ambon City, Purworejo Regency, and Surakarta City from May to<br>November 2020. The data collections were intended to understand administrators’ efforts to deal with the data<br>recording problems. Data triangulation was performed through in-depth interviews with primary healthcare<br>center staff and observations on daily routine data administration practices.Results: The study demonstrated<br>challenges in the MCH routine data administration context. The first problem is behavioral contexts lead to<br>incorrect input and delay data submission. Second, technical determinant shows the lack of integration that<br>leads to repetitive data recording and data fragmentation. The third was the organizational problem such<br>as lack of inter and intra-departmental coordination in data sharing, infrastructure, and human resource<br>shortage.Conclusion: The findings elucidate the problem of administrative structures in the implementation<br>of routine data policy. A comprehensive response to cope with routine data policy implementation context<br>is needed. Existing maternal and child healthcare routine data requires structural administration refinement<br>that provides a context for implementing reliable routine data recording of maternal and child health.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome in a Woman: A Case Report 2021-08-23T05:27:30-05:00 Arif Surgana Haris Mayagung Ekorini <p>Background: Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome is a disease that occurs very<br>rare. Clinical presentation consists of Tullio’s phenomenon and Hennebert’s sign. This case presentation<br>is atypical and clinician should be aware. Purpose: to present the rare case of Superior semicircular canal<br>dehisence (SSCD) Case presentation: A 65-year-old woman with complaints of dizziness from 2 years ago<br>and her recurrence. The audiogram showed bilateral sensorineural deafness with a mean hearing threshold<br>of 58 decibels (dB) of the right ear and 48 dB of the left ear. There is also an air-bone gap in the right ear<br>at low frequencies (250 Hz). The tympanogram revealed a type A result in both ears. Positive results were<br>obtained on the examination of Romberg sharpened, positive Fukuda step to the right, and the Gans test. CT<br>scan showed dehiscence of the right superior semicircular canal. Therapy in patients was given conservative<br>therapy because the participants refused to undergo surgery. Conclusion: SSCD has a specific symptom of<br>Tullio’s phenomenon and CT scan shows dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Validation of Sedative Druganalysis Results 2021-08-24T02:17:14-05:00 Aripova Nigora Baxadirxodjaevna Komilov Xojiasror Ma’sudovich Ikramova Mashhura Shuxratovna Mukhidinova Maxfuza Komolovna <p>Annotation. The article reveals validation studies of the method of quantitative analysis of high-performance<br>liquid chromatography of a complex and multicomponent original sedative drug produced in the Republic of<br>Uzbekistan. Criteria for repeatability, accuracy, precision, intermediate accuracy and correlation coefficients<br>for drug validation were determined. The analytical method for determining the number of tablets covered<br>with a film “Sedarem” from the proportion of valeric acids in the main active ingredients of the drug was<br>determined on the basis of the 5th series of the “Accuracy” indicator. The accuracy of valeric acid is judged<br>from at least 5 data obtained for each of the 3 levels lying within the analytical domain of the quantification<br>method. Comparing the results of determining the amount of valeric acid, it turns out that there is no<br>statistically significant difference between them, that the three time points for each series are mutually<br>compatible.<br>The analysis procedure for determining the amount of phenolic compounds in the preparation, when<br>comparing “Precision” with the results of determining the amount of phenolic compounds at different<br>intervals and on different days, which characterizes repetition and “intermediate precision,” it was found<br>that there is no statistical reliable difference between them, and three time points for each series are mutually<br>compatible. Study of drug linearity from flavanoid fraction was carried out in the range from 80 to 120% of<br>nominal value of analytical parameters.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Study to Assess the Prevalence of Mobile Phone Addiction Among Adolescents with Selected Demographic Variables 2021-08-24T02:27:32-05:00 Arti Rahul Gusian Anamika Gautam <p>Introduction: Adolescence is a time of moving from immaturity of childhood to maturity of adulthood.<br>Technologies especially the mobile phone has considerably the new epidemic in century. It has become an<br>essential part of the modern community and necessities in the people’s lifestyle over the past decade and<br>gained unparallel fame because it facilitates communication between individual and shortening distance, a<br>good investment of time.<br>Method: It was a Descriptivestudy conducted amongst 100 consented students of age 13-18yr of Gurugram<br>schools. Data was collected through a self – structured questionnaire to assess the prevalence of mobile<br>phone addiction among adolescents.<br>Result: Prevalence of smartphone addictions shows majority 65% adolescent are at high to develop<br>smartphone addiction, 26% are at mild level of addiction and remaining 9% are at severe level of addiction.<br>The chi square association of prevalence of mobile phone addiction among adolescent with selected<br>demographic variables (0.003) was found to be statistically significant with standard only, whereas showed<br>know no statistically significant association with other demographic variables<br>Conclusion: Study concludes that Prevalence of smartphone addictions shows majority 65% adolescent are<br>at high risk to develop smartphone addiction, 26% are at mild level of addiction and remaining 9% are at<br>severe level of addiction.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparison of Gender Prediction Accuracy between Regression Models Derived from Hand, Foot Measurements and Long Bone Measurements in a Sample of Kolhapur Population 2021-08-24T02:31:28-05:00 Arun S. Karmalkar Vasudha R. Nikam <p>Introduction: Here, we aim to compare the accuracy of the regression formula derived to predict gender<br>using data on measurements of foot and hand with the formula derived to predict gender using the length<br>measurements data of the long bones (tibia and ulna).<br>Methods: Patients attending the outpatient services at the Orthopedic Department, and between the age<br>range 18 to 50 years were recruited (n=1000; 500 males and 500 females). Subjects suffering from any kind<br>of bone deformity were excluded. Vallois method was used to estimate the measurements of hand, foot,<br>tibia, and ulna. Regression formulas were obtained from the hand, foot-long bones measurements; to predict<br>gender, using multiple logistic regression.<br>Results: Differences between male’s and female’s measurements of hand (P&lt;0.001), long bones (P&lt;0.001),<br>and foot (P&lt;0.001) were significant. The accuracy of the model used to predict gender, which was calculated<br>from the dimensions of hand and foot was 81.5%. The accuracy of the model used to predict gender calculated<br>from the long bone measurement was 78.3%.<br>Conclusions: Dimensions of hand and foot are a better predictor (81.5%) of gender vs the length of long<br>bones (tibia and ulna) (78.3%) in the Kolhapur population.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Biochemical and Histopathological effects of Acetaminophen and Protective Effects of Naringin on Liver Rats 2021-08-24T02:46:15-05:00 Aryaf Mahmood Sabea Ahlam J. H. AlKhamas Bashar Sabah Sahib Jawad Kadhim Faris <p>This study was conducted to find out liver protective activity of naringin (NRG) 40-80 mg/kg body weight<br>(b.w.) against acetaminophen (ACN) 2g/kg induced liver damage in rats. Thirty two male rats were divided<br>into four groups : group1: negative control, (1 ml/kg Saline orally) group II: positive control ACN (2g/<br>kg), orally as single dose at first day, group III: ACN (2g/kg), orally as single dose at first day , plus NRG<br>(40 mg//kg) orally for (8) consecutive days, group IV: ACN (2g/kg), orally as single dose at first day , plus<br>NRG (80 mg//kg) orally for (8) consecutive days. All the rats were anesthetized to collect blood then killed<br>on the (9) day of the experiment to take the liver samples. ACN induced liver damage was proved by a<br>significant (P&lt;0.01) reduction in the body weight , total protein (TP) , albumin (AB) , superoxide dismutase<br>(SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes and a significant (P&lt;0.01) increased in liver weight, serum aspartate<br>transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), direct<br>bilirubin (DB) , malondialdehyde enzyme (MAD) and histopathological changes. Protective liver toxicity<br>effect and oxidative damage caused by ACN significantly (P&lt;0.01) increasing in body weight, TP, AB ,SOD<br>and CAT and significantly (P&lt;0.01) decreasing in liver weight , AST, ALT, ALP, TB, DB and MAD and<br>improving tissue morphology by a meliorative in NRG 40 , 80 mg/kg b.w. These results confirm that NRG<br>antioxidant effects can protect ACN induced hepatic toxicity in rats.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Deleted 2021-08-24T02:51:52-05:00 <p>A</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Investigation the Role of IL-17 rs2275913 Gene Polymorphism with the Risk of Osteoporosis in a Sample of Iraqi Pre and Postmenopausal Women 2021-08-24T03:05:42-05:00 Asmaa Mahmoud Salman Da'ad A. Hussain <p>Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the genetic polymorphism and alleles<br>frequencies of IL-17 rs2275913 G/A with the risk of low bone mineral density (osteoporosis and osteopenia).<br>Furthermore studying the relation between some immunological and biochemical parameters with this<br>disease in a sample of Iraqi pre and postmenopausal women. Methodology: In this study, we investigated<br>about the IL-17 rs2275913 G/A polymorphisms and the risk of low bone mineral density (BMD) among<br>30 patients with osteopenia, 30 patients with osteoporosis and 30 healthy controls. Serum IL-17 level and<br>its correlation with the IL-17 rs2275913 G/A genotypes were analyzed. The study was carried out from<br>November 2020- January 2021 in Baghdad Teaching Hospital/ Bone density examination unit/ in Baghdad-<br>Iraq. Conclusion: It is concluded that the IL-17 rs2275913 G/A genotype was not associated with increased<br>risk for development of low (BMD) in Iraqi pre and postmenopausal women. Recommendation: Based on<br>study conclusion, during menopause, it is important for women to have a DEXA scan to detect low BMD<br>and receive appropriate care to prevent degradation of the micro-architecture of bone tissue, which increases<br>the risk of bone fractures.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Treatment of Lupus Nephritic with Severe Preeclampsia: A Case Report 2021-08-24T03:10:16-05:00 Asri Insanur Rahma Lita Diah Rahmawati <p>A 25 years-old pregnant woman with history of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) complained shortness<br>of breathing and swelling legs. Physical examination showed hypertension, tachycardia, tachypnea,<br>anemic conjunctiva, and pitting edema in both legs. Workup examination found anemia, hypoglycemia,<br>hypoalbuminemia, proteinuria, metabolic acidosis, strong positive dsDNA, trivial MR, mild TR, PR, dilated<br>LV, decrease of LV systolic function, hypokinetic global LV, eccentric LVH, and severe oligohydramnios.<br>The patient was diagnosed with severe preeclampsia, severe oligohydramnios, SLE, Lupus Nephritic (LN),<br>stage II JNC VII hypertension, and peripartum cardiomyopathy.<br>An emergency caesarean section was planned as the main management to prevent infant and maternal<br>morbidity and mortality. MgSO4 was given to prevent eclampsia. Methylprednisolone and azathioprine<br>were given to control SLE and LN activity. Furosemide, spironolactone, ramipril, methyldopa and nifedipine<br>were given to control blood pressure, help normalizing heart function, and prevent organ failure. The patient<br>was suggested to postpone next pregnancy until 1 year after LV function turns to normal.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Knee Osteoarthritis Severity in Relation to Neutrophil- Lymphocyte Ratio 2021-08-24T03:13:38-05:00 Auday Hussain Hassan Al-Janaby <p>Background: Osteoarthritis is a disease with a significant inflammatory component. Neutrophil-lymphocyte<br>ratio (NLR) level is a marker to determine inflammation. The study aimed to evaluate the association between<br>severity of knee osteoarthritis and NLR.<br>Methods: A case-control study conducted inAl-Zahrawiduring June 2017 to June 2018. A total of 100 knee<br>osteoarthritis were recruited and 50 healthy subjects as a control group.<br>Results: NLR was significantly higher in knee osteoarthritis than controls, the mean vale was (2.19±0.72)<br>and (1.97±0.88), respectively. Older age, chronic pain, prolong onset of diagnosis and high NLRwere<br>significantly associated with severe osteoarthritis.<br>Conclusions: Knee osteoarthritis had higher NLR compared to healthy people. Higher NLR is associated<br>with severity of knee osteoarthritis and it is a poor indicator.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bronchodilator Effect of Crataegus azarolus var aronia Unripped Fruit Extracts on Rat’s Tracheal Smooth Muscle 2021-08-24T03:16:20-05:00 Aveen A. Mohammed Omar A. M. Al-Habib <p>Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the bronchodilator effect of different Crataegus azarolus<br>var aronia unripped fruit extracts on tracheal smooth muscle of rats and to study the roles of K channels and<br>EDHFs in produced responses.<br>Background: Crataegus is widely used in Kurdistan Region for the prevention of several diseases such<br>as respiratory, cardiovascular, hypertension …. etc. due to its content of several bioactive compounds like<br>aromatic amines, phenolic acid, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins.<br>Method: The bronchodilator effects of various Crataegus fruit’s extracts on rat’s tracheal rings and the roles<br>of K+, Ca2+ channels and EDHFs in bronchodilation using specific blockers.<br>Results: Most of Crataegus fruit’s extracts used showed a potent bronchodilator effect on trachea, in which<br>the HME produced a highly significant dilation, followed by methanol and ethyl acetate extracts which<br>showed a considerable relaxant effect. The results confirmed that the induced dilation was NO and PGI2<br>dependent, along with activations of KATP and Kir and Kca while Kv plays a minor and limited role.<br>Conclusion: The novel results indicate that HM, M, EA extracts prepared from Crataegus unripped fruit<br>produce a potent bronchodilator effect, which was NO and PGl2 dependent along with the activation of KATP,<br>Kir and Kca2+ channels.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Deleted 2021-08-24T03:19:24-05:00 <p>C</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Murotal Sound Stimulation during Pregnancy on the Number of Neuron Cells of Cerebrum and Cerebellum of the Newborn Rattus norvegicus 2021-08-24T03:27:44-05:00 Ayu Putri Yani Hermanto Tri Joewono Widjiati <p>Background: The human development index (HDI) illustrates how superior human resources are. The<br>stimulation of Murotal during growth and development has been shown to increase cell growth in plants.<br>The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of the differences againts the number of neuron cell’s in the<br>cerebrum and cerebellum Rattus norvegicus offspring between those who received Al-quran Murottal surah<br>Ar-Rahman stimulation, Qori and Qoriah sounds voice in pregnancy day of 6th. Methods: An Experimental<br>study using 30 pregnant (Rattus norvegicus). Subjects were randomized into three groups, control group<br>(Q1), voice of Qori group (Q2), and voice of Qoriah group (Q3). sound stimulation was given on 6th-17th<br>days of pregnancy. From each mother, two Newborn of Rattus norvegicus were taken to make preparations<br>from brain tissue. Eosin Hematocycline was performed to assess number of neuron cells. Results : The<br>study shows that the mean and standard deviation of the number neuron cells cerebrum and cerebellum in<br>the control group is 9.88 ± 1.71 and 21.10 ± 2.11, the voice qori group is 10.16 ± 1.01 and 22.46 ± 1.71,<br>and the voice qoriah group 11.12 ± 1.52 and 22.50 ± 1.76. ANOVAs statistical test results show there is<br>no significant differences among groups with a value of p = 0.152 in the cerebrum and p=0.183 in the<br>cerebellum. Conclusion : Murotal sound stimulation during pregnancy increased the number of neuron cells<br>in the cerebrum and cerebellum of newborn rats.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Acute Aerobic Exercise Decreased Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha 2021-08-24T03:31:30-05:00 Bana Yusrian Hawari Sugiharto Desiana Merawati Adi Pranoto <p>jj</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hand Hygiene Compliance Behavior and Glove Use in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit During COVID-19 Pandemic 2021-08-24T03:36:14-05:00 Bangkit Putrawan Dominicus Husada Parwati Setiono Basuki Risa Etika Ismoedijanto Dwiyanti Puspitasari Leny Kartina <p>Background: The condition of Covid-19 pandemic potentially influences hand hygiene compliance as a<br>result of workload changes, increased awareness of healthcare workers (HCWs) and personal protective<br>equipment procedures, especially in terms of hand glove use,<br>Objective to know the adherence of healthcare workers at the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) to comply<br>with hand hygiene and glove use during the pandemic.<br>Methods An observational prospective study was carried out including all HCWs stationed at the PICU Dr<br>Soetomo General Hospital during January 2021. All participants were to sign an informed consent before<br>the study took place. A target of 500 opportunities was estimated during the observation, and recorded using<br>infra-red cameras placed at ten points. Hand hygiene compliances were evaluated according to the video<br>surveillance records by an independent auditor. Compliance was measured by dividing total number of<br>observed appropriate hand hygiene by the sum of opportunities. Data were analysed using Chi Square test<br>at a significance of p&lt;0.05.<br>Results: A total of 28 HCWs were eligible for the study; 9 were excluded. The majority were female<br>(21; 75%), the mean age was 37.9 (SD 5.2) years. During 72 hours’ observation among 526 glove-use<br>opportunities 104 (19.7%) actual glove-use episodes were evident. The hand hygiene compliance was lower<br>(41.3%) when wearing gloves as compared to those with no glove use (68.2%) (p&lt;0.001).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessment of Self-care Among Elderly Residents at Nursing Homes in Middle Euphrates Cities in Iraq 2021-08-24T04:09:47-05:00 Bashaer Mohsen Ali Ali Kareem Al-Juboori <p>Self-care is known to be a health resource in later life because it enables the elderly to improve their<br>health and live at home as long as possible(1). It is therefore essential to resolve the question of self-care in<br>the elderly(2). The aim of the current study was to assess the level of self-care among elderly residents at<br>nursing homes and to find out the difference between level of self-care with regard to socio-demographic<br>and clinical characteristics. Descriptive study design carried out among 60 elderly persons at nursing homes<br>in middle Euphrates, they are selected by using non probability sampling. The study instrument composed of<br>2 parts. 1st Elderly’s Demographic Characteristics, 2nd self-care scale. The results of study reveal the overall<br>assessment of self-care domains was moderate. In addition, there is a high significant in difference in selfcare<br>level of the elderly with regard to their age and their marital status.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Relationship between Psychological Wellbeing and Self- Care among Elderly Residents in Iraq 2021-08-24T04:13:07-05:00 Bashaer Mohsen Ali Ali Kareem Al-Juboori <p>Aging is described as progressive change in psychological, biological and social structure of persons. The<br>advanced age contributed negatively to self-care. The relocation to care homes considered as stressful event<br>for the elderly people. The purpose of this study to find the relationship between psychological well-being<br>and self-care among the elderly residents at nursing homes in middle Euphrates in Iraq. A descriptivecorrelational<br>design was used to gather the information from the sample of 60 participants in nursing homes.<br>The study has been carried out from November, 1st, 2019 to August, 2020. Purposive sample used to collect<br>the data according to some criteria. The data collected by means of Ryff scales of psychological well-being<br>(shorten version) and self-care questionnaire as well as the socio-demographical of study sample. The data<br>collected by using structured interview technique with the elderly residents in nursing homes. The data<br>collected by means of Ryff scales of psychological well-being (shorten version) and self-care questionnaire as<br>well as the socio-demographical of study sample. The data collected by using structured interview technique<br>with the elderly residents in nursing homes. The results of study indicate that a relationship exists between<br>psychological well-being and self-care among the elderly residents in nursing homes. As the relationship<br>between the two variables is a high significant positive relationship (r = 0.721). The recommendations focus<br>on managing the problems existing among the elderly and monitoring their psychological state. Establishing<br>educational programs on how to focus on the psychological and physical aspects. In addition, increasing<br>leisure trips to various places.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Molecular Evaluation of Efficacy of Freshwater and Marine Acellular Fish Skin Matrixes in Reconstruction of Ventro- Lateral Hernia in Bucks 2021-08-24T04:16:20-05:00 Bassam H. Gumaa Ahmed H. F. AL-Bayati <p>The objective of present study is to compare between the effectiveness of freshwater and marine acellular<br>fish skin (AFS) matrices on the reconstruction of large abdominal wall hernias in Iraqi bucks using of<br>molecular evaluation depending on Real Time-quantification Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR)<br>technique to investigate the levels of basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and vascular endothelial growth<br>factor (VEGF) genes during the healing process of the abdominal wall hernias. Ventral-lateral abdominal<br>wall hernias (7X7cm) were induced experimentally in 18 bucks. Thirty days post-inducing of hernias, the<br>animals were divided randomly into two main groups (9 Bucks/ group). The hernias in animals of group (A)<br>were treated with onlay implantation of freshwater AFS sheet. While, the hernias in animals of group (B)<br>were treated with onlay implantation of marine AFS sheet. Molecular evaluation was depended at 2, 8, and<br>12 weeks post-treatment of hernias. The results revealed that the significant elevation of the level of b-FGF<br>between treatment groups was at week 8th in group B and at week 12th in group A. While, the significant<br>elevation of level of VEGF between treatment groups was recorded in group A, 12 week post-treatment.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Review of Fungal Infection in Human Beings and Role of COVID-19 Pandemic 2021-08-24T04:19:23-05:00 Batool Mutar Mahdi <p>Background: Fungal infections are common throughout the world. In humans, fungal infections occur<br>when an invading fungus takes over an area of the body and the immune system is unable to handle it and<br>eradicate it. Fungi can live in the air, soil, water, and plants and there are also some fungi that live naturally<br>in the human body.<br>Aim of the Study: To search and review the current literature surrounding fungal infection in different parts<br>of body and role of fungal infection during COVID-19 pandemic.<br>Methods: Henari, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched using search<br>criteria relating to fungal infection and relation with COVID-19 infection. Articles presenting clinical data<br>for patients with fungal infection and coronavirus infection reported in English only were included. Data<br>describing prognosis and outcomes were extracted.<br>Results: 1100 abstracts were identified. Five full texts reporting fungal infection were included. Analysis<br>showed wide use of empirical broad-spectrum antibacterials drugs in spite of evidence for bacterial<br>coinfection.<br>Conclusions: Despite frequent prescription of broad-spectrum empirical antibiotics in patients with<br>coronavirus-associated respiratory tract infections, there is a small number of data to support the association<br>with respiratory fungal coinfection. Generation of prospective confirmation to support development of<br>antimicrobial antibiotics strategy and suitable stewardship specific for the COVID-19 pandemic is urgently<br>required.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Patient Satisfaction with Hospital services, Physicians and Nurses Care of Government Hospital in Sulaimani City 2021-08-24T04:23:06-05:00 Bekhal Abdalwahid Amin Niaz Mustafa Kamal Bestun Ibrahim Hama Rahim <p>Background: Patients’ satisfaction is a person’s feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from a<br>service’s perceived performance or outcome to his or her expectations. As this definition makes it clear,<br>satisfaction is a function of perceived performance and expectations. This study was undertaken to evaluated<br>patients’ satisfaction level with the hospital services and health care providers among four government<br>hospitals in sulaimani city. The data from 311 inpatients admitted to and stay in the hospital for any medical<br>condition were collected by a face-to-face interview from November 2019 to February 2020. Standardized<br>4-point Likert scales ranging from satisfying to dissatisfying (1 to 4points) were used for all the 24 items in<br>the questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using a statistical package of Stata (14.version). A frequency<br>analysis was used for demographic data analysis. A person Chi-square test was employed to determine the<br>association between the categorical independent variables. The participant’s mean age was 37.9 SD 13.5<br>years with ages ranged from 14-85 years. The majority (86.5%) of the study participants were satisfied with<br>the hospital services and environment while a small number 42 (13.5%) of them were dissatisfied with the<br>issue. Almost 275 (88.4%) of the patients were revealed excellent nurse care and a very small number 36<br>(11.6%) was showed dissatisfaction. Also, 245 (79.1%) of the patients were satisfied with doctor care. Only<br>65 (20.9%) of them have a negative aspect of doctor care. A significant difference was found between the<br>level of education and patients’ satisfaction with doctor care (coefficient 0.88, p&lt;0.05). Besides, a significant<br>association was found between residence and hospital services (coefficient 0.63, p =0.05). In general, we<br>have discovered a satisfaction level among our sample is considered high and indicates good care provided<br>by health facilities in all hospitals. Further study required seeking the least satisfactory factor regarding<br>doctor care.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Combined Effect of Physical and Psychological Stress Exposure during Pregnancy on the Expression of Caspase-3 Cerebrum and Cerebellum of Newborn Mus Musculus 2021-08-24T04:35:00-05:00 Binta Dwi Novitasari Hermanto Tri Joewono Widjiati <p>Background: Prenatal stress affects fetal development including brain development. When a stressor is<br>felt, the brain as the main target for stress will release a hormone that stimulates the release of pro-apoptotic<br>proteins and activate caspase-3 which acts as an executioner caspase in the cell death process. The aim of the<br>study was to analyze the effect of combined stress during pregnancy on the expression of caspase-3 cerebrum<br>and cerebellum of newborn Mus musculus. Methods: An experimental study using 24 pregnant mice (Mus<br>musculus). Subjects were randomized into four groups, consisting of physical stress exposure group (forced<br>swimming) (G1), psychological stress exposure group (noise) (G2), combination stress exposure group<br>(forced swimming + noise) (G3), and control group (G4). Stress exposure was given on 6th-15th days of<br>pregnancy. From each mother, three Newborn of Mus musculus were taken to make preparations from brain<br>tissue. Immunohistochemical examination was performed to assess caspase-3 expression. Results: The<br>study shows that the mean and standard deviation of the expression of caspase-3 cerebrum and cerebellum<br>in the physical stress exposure group is 5.70 ± 0.99 and 5.80 ± 1.35, the psychological stress exposure group<br>is 7.23 ± 1.39 and 7.40 ± 1.24, the combined stress exposure group is 8.67 ± 1.09 and 9.30 ± 1.12, and the<br>control group 4.17 ± 1.18 and 3.90 ± 1.06. ANOVAs statistical test results show significant differences<br>among groups with a value of p = 0.000 in the cerebrum and p = 0.000 in the cerebellum. Conclusion:<br>Exposure to physical and psychological stress during pregnancy increases the expression of caspase-3 in the<br>cerebrum and cerebellum of newborn mice.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Case Study in Fatal Motorcycle Injury Patterns 2021-08-24T04:39:32-05:00 Budiatri Retno Noormaningrum Idha Arfianti Wiraagni Dhiwangkoro Aji Kadarmo <p>Crash injury is one of the leading causes of premature death globally. In Indonesia, a motorcycle crash is the<br>main cause of road traffic injuries. As a city with a high number of motorcycles, Yogyakarta needs the right<br>mitigation approach based on the local characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of<br>injury in a fatal motorcycle crash in Yogyakarta. Data were described from five dead motorcyclists that were<br>brought to the mortuary of Bhayangkara Hospital.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in University Students and its Relationship with Depression 2021-08-24T04:53:54-05:00 Bandana Bisht Navdeep Kaur Sandeep Kumar Goyal <p>Introduction: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is the emerging disorder in adolescents. The most common<br>motivators behind IGD is coping with stressors, escapism, control over one’s life, excitement and challenges.<br>Aims: The current study was done with the aims: 1) To find the prevalence of IGD in university students<br>2) To find the prevalence of depression among university students 3) To find the association of IGD with<br>depression among university students.<br>Settings and Design: A descriptive research design was used to collect data from a private university.<br>Setting of the study was food court of the selected university.<br>Methods and Material: A total of 91 college students were recruited from a selected university. Purposive<br>sampling method was used to collect the data. Internet Gaming Disorder addiction was checked with the<br>help of DSM-5 criteria. Depression was checked with the help of PHQ-9 questionnaire.<br>Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square was used to check the association between IGD and depression.<br>Results: Twenty-one (23%) respondents were found to have IGD. Out of 21 respondents who had IGD,<br>9 were having mild depression, 4 were having moderate and 3 were having severe depression. Out of 70<br>respondents who did not suffer from IGD, 28 showed no signs of depression, 36 had mild depression and<br>only 6 reported moderate depression. None of them had severe depression. The results demonstrated that<br>internet gaming disorder was significantly associated with depression (p&lt;0.005).<br>Conclusions: Majority of the respondents having IGD had also reported co-morbid depression on PHQ-9<br>questionnaire. Thus depression needs to be identified and treated in clients suffering with Internet gaming<br>disorder.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pattern of Drowning Cases at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Khammam 2021-08-24T04:58:58-05:00 Pondurthi Srinivas Rao Bharath Kumar Guntheti <p>The diagnosis of death by drowning is one of the hardest challenges in forensic pathology. Circumstantial<br>factors and physical evidence such as autopsy findings are both important in drowning.There were 68 cases<br>of drowning deaths during one-year study period from Jan 2019 to Dec 2019, at dept of Forensic Medicine<br>MMC&amp;MGH, Khammam, consisting of 60 male and 8 female victims.The largest number of victims,<br>26[38.23%] were found in the age group 31 to 40 years. Males [n=60, 88.23%] were predominantly affected.<br>37[54.41%] cases were married, in which 32 were males (47.05%) and femaleswere 5(7.35%) and 31 cases<br>are unmarried out of which 28[41.17%] are male and 3 females. Most of the victims were follows Hindu<br>belief, habitat of rural. Approximately 30[44.11%]of victims come from the student unemployed group.<br>Incidence of fresh water drowning is more than sea water drowning. The wet drowning accounted more<br>than dry drowning. Highest number [n=32, 47.05%] occurred inafternoonthan other timings. The incidence<br>of drowning was more in summer. Major fatalities occurred within one to three days of hospitalization.<br>Accidental falls 56 [ 82.35%] were the commonly occurring incidents that leads to drowning death and most<br>of drowning deaths 58[ 70.58%] occurred in the lakes. Majority of victims died at the place of drowning.<br>Most of the victims witnessed respiratory complications [55.2%]. 10.00% of the deceased were the tested<br>positive for alcohol, while 4[6.66%] were confirmed as drug abusers. Non swimmers were victims more<br>than swimmers. Decomposition changes on the body were found in 10 % cases. Externally, frothy or bloodstained<br>discharge at mouth and nostrils and “washer-women” appearance on the hands and feet were the<br>common postmortem findings; while internally, congestion, edema of the lungs and presence of foreign<br>bodies in an airway, were the common findings. Out of 68 cases 62[91.17%] cases were showing positive<br>results for same diatoms in bone marrow and sample water, in 45.88% cases, only sample water showed<br>positive results, 22.94% cases were showing no diatoms in bone marrow and sample water. The aim of the<br>study is to analyzed different main objective of the study is epidemiological factors andpattern of drowning,<br>contributing factors, and arriving diagnosis of ante mortem drowning by diatom test.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Pattern of Physical Injuries among Victims of Fatal Accidents in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 2021-08-24T05:06:38-05:00 Brinda Patel SK Asawa <p>Background: The pattern of injuries is unique to the mode of the accident as well as to the causative agent.<br>The objective of the present study was to describe the pattern of injury among victims of a fatal accident and<br>draw a medicolegal conclusion from the pattern of injury. Methods: A total of 145 dead bodies brought for<br>autopsy at the two selected post-mortemcentres were included in the present study. The socio-demographic<br>data like age, sex, religion, occupation as well as the circumstances leading to the death of the individual<br>were gathered from documents and detailed interview of the friends/relatives/eyewitnesses etc.Among study<br>participants, burns were the single largest category of accidents closely followed by road traffic accidents. The<br>brain was the most common internal organ injured and the skull was the most common major bone fractured<br>among the victims. One-fourth of all study participants were dead before being brought to hospital and onethird<br>of all study participants survived for more than 48 hours after the incident. Conclusion: Septicaemic<br>shock and craniocerebral injury were the most common cause of death among study participants.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Demographic Characteristics as Predictors of Medicine and Health Services Access Difficulties and Economic Problems during Covid 19 in Java, Indonesia 2021-08-24T05:10:33-05:00 Cati Martiyana Leny Latifah Yusi Dwi Nurcahyani Diah Yunitawati Marizka Khairunnisa1 <p>Background. The very rapid spread of COVID-19 infection, causing large-scale social restriction in many<br>parts of the world. A lot of businesses and working places closed. Health services and medicine were in high<br>demand. Objective. This study aims to determine the demographic characteristics that predict medicine<br>and health services access difficulties and economic problems. Method. This was cross-sectional research<br>conducted in Java, Indonesia. The research sample was 1,385 individuals aged 15 years and over who lived<br>in Java and had filled out a survey via a google form. Data analysis using multivariate logistic regression.<br>Results. The risk of difficulty accessing medicine and health services and economic difficulties was higher<br>for males, had income &lt; 3 million per month, and do not have health insurance. Conclusion. Male, had<br>low income, and do not have health insurance are at higher risk for having difficulty accessing medicines/<br>health services and experiencing economic difficulties. Meanwhile, respondents under 25 years of age have<br>a higher risk of experiencing difficulties in accessing medicines and health services. The government needs<br>to implement a strategy to reduce health and economic problems due to COVID-19 and pay attention to<br>individuals under 25 years of age to access health services/medicines.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Increased Corticosterone Levels due to Chronic Stress Reduces IGF-II Expression in Rattus norvigecus 2021-08-24T05:26:35-05:00 Ade Septiari Rahman Reny I’tishom Ashon Sa’adi <p>The optimal folliculogenesis process describes a good condition of the female reproductive system.<br />One of the main growth factors in the folliculogenesis is IGF-II which is important for proliferation and<br />differentiation of granulosa cells and also steroidogenesis. Chronic stress can cause ovulation failure and<br />folliculogenesis disorders. Increased corticosterone levels due to chronic stress will cause disruption in the </p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Association of Adiponectin Serum Level and Body Mass Index among Javanese Obese Adolescents 2021-08-25T01:09:44-05:00 Christine Florens Nur Aisiyah Widjaja Roedi Irawan Meta Herdiana Hanindita 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Gloves as Effective Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) of Indonesian Batik Workers 2021-08-25T01:19:41-05:00 Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa Damayanti Sylvia Anggraeni Menul Ayu Umborowati Sri Awalia Febriana <p>Background: Batik substances may increase the risk of biological function disruption to batik workers.<br>Objective: To Determine the effectiveness of using test gloves in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin<br>hydration level, and skin acidity (pH).<br>Methods: This study was one group pretest-posttest design of 16 batik workers. Subjects use test gloves<br>made from neoprene on right hands and personal gloves made from thermoplastic polymer of vinyl chloride<br>on left hands in first and second week. Washed out for 2 weeks, last 2 weeks use test gloves on left hand<br>and personal gloves on right hand. TEWL, skin hydration level, and pH was examined by Cutometer dual<br>MP-580<br>Result: First and second week using test gloves on the right hand, significantly differences of TEWL level<br>on extensor and dorsum manus; skin hydration level on flexor, extensor, palmar, and dorsum manus; pH<br>on extensor, palmar and dorsum manus (p&lt;0.05; CI 95%). Fifth and sixth week using test gloves in the<br>left hand, significantly difference of TEWL level on dorsum manus, all area of skin hydration level and pH<br>results (p&lt;0.05; CI 95%). No significant differences of comparison right and left hand in the first, second,<br>fifth, and sixth week, that showed any types of gloves can protect batik workers from skin barrier disruption.<br>Conclusion: Personal gloves and test gloves usage for protection doesn’t have much significant difference.<br>Wearing gloves may also give risk to trigger contact dermatitis if not used properly or using incompatible<br>material.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Qualitative Phytochemical ScreeningandIn VitroAntibacterialActivitiesof Crude Akaziraruguma Leaf Extracts 2021-08-25T01:37:08-05:00 Cyuzuzo Callixte Heny Arwati Dusabimana Jean Damascene <p>The resistance of pathogenic bacteria is a global health dynamic and the time is nowtofind alternative<br>solutions from plant secondary metabolites.Ageratum conyzoidesL. is a plant known as akaziraruguma<br>in Rwandaand used to treat wounds and ulcers. This study aimedto evaluate the phytochemical profile<br>and germicidal efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Ageratum conyzoides L. grown in<br>Rwasave wetland.Theleaves were collected and dried under the shed for 10 days, blended into powder<br>by electric blender and macerated with water and 96% ethanol. Phytochemical screening wasperformed<br>by followingthe standard procedures and antibacterial activity of the extracts wasexamined by agar well<br>diffusion method and the inhibition zones were recorded.Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of<br>different secondary metabolites including alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins<br>. In this assessment,aqueous and ethanolic extracts exhibited significant inhibitory activity against tested<br>pathogens with inhibition zones that ranging from6±0.9 mm to 20±0.5 mm of diameter. The minimum<br>inhibition concentrations range between 0.47 mg/mL and 15.00 mg/mL.The resultsconfirm that the leaves<br>of akazirarugumacould be the credible source ofantibacterial agents that should be used for therapeutic<br>purposes and in production of pharmaceuticals.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Review of the Use of Strategic Management Tools in the HealthSector 2021-08-25T01:42:23-05:00 Dani Sahirul Alim Nur Wening <p>This paper is a review and study of various research related to tools of strategic, and factors that influence<br>both of internal and external strategic in medical facilities research. The purpose of the review is to explore<br>and connecting theories from various research. This paper identified 51 articles with related topics published<br>the last decade. The results of this study that research related to implementation tools of strategic in health<br>facilities still rarely. The use of SWOT (strengths weaknesses opportunities threats) analysis is the most<br>popular tool used (42.86%), followed by Break-even analysis (28.56%), Balanced scorecard (BSC) and PEST<br>(political, economic, socio-cultural, technology) each (14.29%). Based on the analysis of environmental<br>factors related to internal factors in the health facility amount of 33.33%. External environmental factors in<br>health facilities that have been studied amounted to 66.66%. Based on the summary of research related to<br>internal and external, it is known that industry environment factors and rivalry environment factors are still<br>rarely studied. The general environmental factors of demography and epidemiology are still rare studies and<br>have the opportunity to be researched and developed.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Peutz Jeghers Syndrome in 47 Years Old Woman (Histopathological Review) : Case Report 2021-08-25T02:02:19-05:00 Danu Yuliarto Prasetyadi Mawardi Ambar Mudigdo <p>Background: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, characterized<br>by intestinal hamartoma polyps in association with distinct patterns of skin and mucosal macular melanin<br>deposition. Patients with PJS have a 15-fold increased risk of developing bowel cancer compared to the<br>general population.<br>Case: A 47-year-old woman complained of black patches appearing on the lower and upper lips. Several<br>months ago, the patient said that black patches appeared on the gums and inner cheeks. Gastrointestinal<br>complaints such as nausea or vomiting were previously denied. Dermatological examination in the oris<br>et ginggiva et buccalis region showed multiple well-defined hyperpigmented macules. Histopathological<br>examination found an increase of melanocytes in the stratum basale with rows of melanocytes. Patient<br>had an endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract and histopathological examination of the colonic mucosa, no<br>abnormalities were found and no signs of malignancy were found on histopathological examination.<br>Conclusion: Result of histopathological examination showed an increase in the number of melanocytes<br>in the stratum basale with lined melanocytes. Based on histopathological examination in this patient more<br>leads to the diagnosis of PJS</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Readiness to Change, Medication Adherence and Quality of Life among Alcoholic Patients at Selected Hospitals, Bangalore 2021-08-25T02:09:14-05:00 Dayananda Bittenahalli Omkarappa Rajratan Gupta Reema Jacqueline Andrade <p>Background of the Study: Alcohol affects virtually every organ system, and alcoholics are at increased<br>risk medical problems. Many factors contribute for poor response to treatment and outcome. The factors<br>like poor adherence and motivational level by patients with alcohol use disorders (has often been raised in<br>the literature. However, there has been a limited effort to measure the problem. Hence the investigator felt<br>that there is need to assess the level of readiness to change, Medication adherence and Quality of life among<br>alcoholics.<br>Methods: A descriptive Survey research design was adopted for the present study. 100alcohol dependent<br>individual were recruited by simple random sampling method. The Stage of Change Readiness and<br>Treatment Eagerness Scale, Morisky Medication Adherence ScaleandWHO quality of life-BREFwere used<br>to assess readiness to change, medication adherence and quality of life. The study was conducted at selected<br>Hospitals, Bangalore.<br>Results: The result shows that majority (73%) of respondents are having low level of readiness to change,<br>medication adherence (67%) and quality of life (56%). A moderate positive correlation was found between<br>readiness to change and medication adherence(r=0.67), a negligible positive correlation found between<br>readiness to change with quality of life (r=0.032) and a high positive correlation was found between quality<br>of lifewith medication adherence(r=0.71).<br>Conclusion: The study concludes that alcohol dependent individual had low level of readiness to change,<br>medication adherence and quality of life.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Analysis of Nurse Personal Factors of Triage Decision-Making in Emergency Installation at University of Muhammadiyah Malang Hospital 2021-08-25T02:12:57-05:00 Ali Rahmanto Loeki Enggar Fitri Ika Setyo Rini <p>The high frequency of patient visits to the ER will disrupt the service process at the Emergency Department<br>(IGD). One solution is the application of a triage system, which is the process of sorting patients according<br>to their level of gravity. The accuracy of triage decisions has a significant impact on patient outcomes so<br>that in this case nurses in the ER must have knowledge, understanding, and skills about triage. Analyze<br>personal factors that influence emergency nurse decision-making. This study aimed to identify personal<br>factors influencing triage decision-making among emergency nurses. Respondents were 30 male and female<br>nurses who worked and were active up to now in the IGD Hospital of the University of Muhammadiyah<br>Malang. Data on work experience, education, and training were taken from data on the characteristics of<br>respondents. The knowledge questionnaire came from the Emergency nurses association/ENA while the<br>skills questionnaire used the Triage Skill Questionnaire/TSQ. The Spearman correlation test shows that there<br>is a significant relationship between skills and education with triage decision making (p=0.000; r=0.626 and<br>p=0.039; r=0.378). Meanwhile, the variables of knowledge, work experience, and training do not correlate<br>with triage decision making (p&gt; 0.05) except that GELS training shows a significant relationship between<br>GELS training and triage decision making (p=0.016; r=0.437). The results of linear regression analysis,<br>skills, and education are factors that influence decision-making in conducting triage in the ER (45,4%).<br>Skills and education are the factors that most influence triage decision-making.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Articaine: Opening up a New Vista for Pediatric Dentists 2021-08-25T02:16:48-05:00 Ananthu H Ashwin P Rao Suprabha B S <p>Lidocaine has remained the gold standard local anaesthetic agent to perform dental procedures both in the<br>adult as well as in the pediatric patients. However, the invent of articaine has offered the clinicians with a<br>newer and more potent local anaesthetic agent, which causes minimal side effects. Articaine is 1.5 times<br>more potent and 0.6 times less toxic than lidocaine. Also, adequate anaesthesia achieved through infiltration<br>route of administration of the drug, almost eliminates the need for the painful and difficult inferior alveolar<br>nerve block in children, thereby minimising the side effects. Thus, achieving adequate anaethesia through<br>the administration of a small volume of the drug has opened up a new vista for pediatric dentists in managing<br>pain in children, although manufacturers do not recommend the usage of articaine in children less than 4<br>years of age due to paucity of evidence. So, this review article tries to throw light on the use of articaine in<br>pediatric patients, citing evidence from literature and also tries to portray the recent advances in the research<br>on articaine use in pediatric patients less than 4 years of age.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Amniotic Band Syndromewith Unique Clinical Presentations: A Case Report 2021-08-25T02:21:10-05:00 Donel Suhaimi Maya Savira ShintaPuja Tilusari <p>Amniotic band syndromeis a rare congenital disorder which associated with physical abnormalities such<br>as disruption, deformation, and malformations of organs. The most common abnormalities usually involve<br>the limbs that could range from simple constriction rings to complete amputation.In this case report, we<br>report anamniotic band syndrome with unique clinical presentations. The case was a new born male baby<br>who was normally delivered and presented with a ring-like constriction at over middle right lower limb<br>and fusion (syndactyly) of left lower limb and right arm. In this report we also discuss different diagnostic<br>modalities which could be used in diagnosingamniotic band syndrome, the risk factors, type of amniotic<br>band syndrome, post-natal diagnose, as well as the therapy.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Effect of Exposure Qari and Qariah Recitation During Pregnancy to the Number of Astrocyte Glia Cells in the Cerebrum Newborn Rattus Norvegicus 2021-08-25T02:28:52-05:00 Dwi Nurdi Puspita Sari Widjiati Hermanto Tri Joewono <p>The quality of human resources should be prepared since in early stage. Pregnancy is one of a significant<br>period which can take advantage to by providing proper nutrition and adequate stimulation. For instance,<br>sound and music, the most harmonious combination and easily accepted by the fetus(1). Experimental<br>analytic type with post-test only control group design was employed on 30 pregnant Rattus norvegicus which<br>were divided randomly into 3 groups, namely the control group, qari group, and qariah group. Each of the<br>groups had stimulation starting 6th to 17th days of pregnancy for 60 minutes. At 18 days of pregnancy, the<br>mother of Rattus Norvegicus was sacrificed and bring forth with Sectio Caesarea (SC). As a result, the<br>number of astrocyte glia cells in the cerebrum was higher in the qaria recitation stimulation group (22.62 ±<br>3.75), compared with the group that was listened to qari recitation stimulation group (19.84 ± 2.48), while<br>the control group (16.54 ± 2.78). A significant difference found in the number of astrocyte glia cells in<br>the Cerebrum Rattus norvegiccus newborn that were listened to the qari and qariah recitation stimulation<br>group and the control group. The highest number of Glia cells is obtained from the stimulation of qariah<br>recitation.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Clinical Profile of Scabies in Children in the Outpatient Installation of Dr. Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta, the Period of January 2015- December 2019 2021-08-25T02:32:47-05:00 Eka Devinta Novi Diana Alfina Rahma Frieda Indah Julianto Moerbono Mochtar Suci Widhiati <p>Background: Scabies is caused by parasite, called Sarcoptes scabiei, infestation into the skin. Scabies is<br>generally found in children who live in crowded environments and poor hygiene.<br>Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study with secondary data collection from medical record data<br>in the Outpatient Installation of RSDM for the period January 2015-December 2019. The subjects were<br>infants to children aged 14 years with a diagnosis of scabies. Data variables used included age, gender,<br>family history of scabies, diagnosis, comorbidities, supporting examinations and, therapy in scabies patients.<br>Results: There were 88 pediatric patients with scabies. The most age group that experienced child scabies<br>was 11-14 years (33%) with the most sex being male (55%). The largest source of scabies transmission was<br>from the family (39%). The most common lesion morphology was papules and excoriations (49%). The<br>lesion location was found mostly between the fingers (24%). Examination of skin scrapings using NaCl<br>0.9% was positive only in 5 patients (6%) with the most diagnosis was scabies (77%)<br>Conclusion: This study shows that most of pediatric patients with scabies in the 11-14 years range are<br>dominated by males. The most common sources of infection were families with papule morphology and<br>excoriation, whereas the most lesions were found between the fingers. Skin scrapings are only positive 6%<br>of cases. The most commonly used topical therapies are 5% permethrin and 2% ointment mupirocin while<br>the systemic therapies are cetirizine and cefadroxil.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 In Vitro Activity of AspirinAlone and in Combination with Cefixime Against Clinical Isolates of Streptococcal Pyogenes, A Pilot Study 2021-08-25T02:45:14-05:00 Ekhlas Sabah Hassan Murooj Luai Majeed Altimimi Shaymaa Abdul Lteef Alfadhul Hussein Abdulkadhim A 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Role of Mathematics Instructors in Enhancing Student’s Self- Confidence in Distance Learning During Coronavirus Disease 2021-08-25T02:56:21-05:00 Eman Almuhur Manal Al-labadi Amani Shatarah Tala Sasa Raeesa Bashir Nazneen Khan <p>Background: This article aims to discuss and investigate forms of pedagogical knowledge of mathematics<br>instructors and influence of their educational beliefs on their students during Coronavirus disease where<br>progress in learning is typically influenced by self-confidence and anxiety.<br>Materials and Methods:A study survey was carried out to find out the extent of anxiety and self-efficiency<br>students have before and during mathematics exams in distance learning.<br>Results: Out of 252 students, 88% are females and 12% are males, majority of students of the second<br>level from different faculties filled the survey. The study reveals student’s responses to the levels of the<br>variables where confident is of ‘always’ attitude with mean 2.3714 (SD=.37764). On the other side, anxiety<br>is of ‘sometimes’ attitude with mean 1.8595(SD=0.4196). Those results are good and indicates that no big<br>problems in mathematics either inside or outside university faced by sample we dealt with, this result refers<br>to the simplicity and good characteristics of instructors of the university. Moreover, lots of programs that<br>help in understanding basics and advanced mathematics.<br>Conclusion: Successful pedagogies instructors of mathematic used give the best explanation of results we<br>have got in this study especially in distance learning. Detailed study plan that clarifies the course objectives,<br>topics, evaluation method, books and resources must be given to students.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extract of Hydrastiscanadensis Plant on Bacteria Isolated from Otitis Media 2021-08-25T03:05:50-05:00 Eman Fadal Abbas Al-Lahibi Hadeel MizherYounis Al-Hadeethy <p>The results of the current study showed that the effect of the alcoholic extract of theHydrastiscanadensis<br>plant was more effective than the aqueous extract on the bacteria isolated from otitis media at the same<br>concentrations.As the alcoholic extract had the highest effect on proteusmirabilis,Staphylococcusaerues,<br>Staphylococcus epidermidis,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klepsiella pneumoniawith an<br>inhibition diameter ranging (20, 18, 17, 16 ,16, 15) mm respectively at a concentration of 200 mg/ml,<br>The study also showed that the higher the concentration of the extract, the greater the inhibitory activity<br>against the bacterial species,with significant differences in the probability level 0.05 of the two extracts<br>on the bacterial species, exceptPseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcusaerues there was no significant<br>difference in the effect.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Construction of Legal Protection For Aesthetic Patients 2021-08-25T03:09:01-05:00 Endang Sri Sarastri <p>Plastic surgery, primarily aesthetic plastic surgery, is increasingly becoming one of the beauty procedures<br>that is increasingly considered commonplace to be carried out by people in various countries in the world.<br>When viewed from the sociological aspect of this aesthetic operation, it is solely aimed at improving the<br>quality of life and utilizing science and technology, both of which, when linked from a legal perspective in<br>Indonesia, is in line with the formulation contained in Article 28 C paragraph (1) of The 1945 Constitution<br>of the Republic of Indonesia as the state constitution of Indonesia. However, this aesthetic plastic surgery<br>encountered various obstacles; this can be proven from the problems that occurred with Mrs. P and Dr. W,<br>where this case is related to the actions of Doctor W, who performed reconstructive and aesthetic surgery<br>on Mrs. P’s nose. For this case, Dr. W was threatened with unlawful acts for the medical actions he took.<br>Therefore, this article will analyze the legal construction in Indonesia that regulates legal protection for<br>plastic surgery patients. This article aims to find out and analyze how legal construction in Indonesia regulates<br>aesthetic plastic surgery. This is indicated to provide an understanding and test whether the medical action<br>of aesthetic plastic surgery can be said to be part of the scope of regulation regarding consumer protection<br>which is accommodated in Law No. 8 of 1999 or not. This research uses normative legal research methods.<br>That is research conducted by examining library materials. The data used is secondary data, which includes<br>primary legal materials in statutory regulations, then also uses secondary legal materials that explain primary<br>legal custody. Construction of Legal Protection for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery consists of laws and regulations<br>relating to the health/medical field that apply in Indonesia and the laws that apply in Indonesia, namely Law<br>no. 29 of 2004 concerning Medical Practice, Law No. 36 of 2009 concerning Health, Law Number 44 of<br>2009 concerning Hospitals, Law Number 36 of 2014 concerning Health Workers, and the Civil Code: Article<br>1313; 1319; 1320; 1330; 1333; 1337; 1338 and 1454, so that the provisions governing consumer protection<br>are not included in the scope for medical treatment.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prevalence and Determinants of Hypertension in Indonesia 2021-08-25T03:12:03-05:00 Eny Dwimawati Fitri Dian Nila Sari Evamona Sinuraya Purwaningsih <p>It is estimated that there are 15 million people with Hypertension in Indonesia, but only 4% are controlled.<br>The prevalence of hypertension sufferers is relatively high, 7% to 22%. Prevention of Hypertension can be<br>done by eliminating or minimizing risk factors, one of which causes it, such as reducing salt consumption,<br>if not done, then there is a risk of Hypertension. This study aims to determine the risk factors with the<br>behaviour of Hypertension in Puskesmas. This research is a quantitative study with a cross-sectional method.<br>A sample of 225 respondents who visited/sought treatment at the health centre using Accidental Sampling<br>technique. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square test. The results showed that the factors<br>causing Hypertension were age, exercise habits, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, nutritional status,<br>sodium intake and stress. To reduce people suffering from Hypertension, the Puskesmas should be able to<br>provide information to the public about Hypertension and how to prevent it by doing health promotion or<br>counselling either individually or in groups.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Correlation between Gestational Weight Gain in the Second and Third Trimester and Preeclampsia Risk: A Study From Indonesia 2021-08-25T03:26:31-05:00 Ernawati Ernawati Lilis Kurniawati Sri Umijati <p>Introduction: Many studies have proposed that pre-pregnancy body mass index and higher gestational<br>weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy are risk factors for preeclampsia incidence. However, most of those<br>studies give attention to total GWG during pregnancy to the risk of preeclampsia, not in a specific trimester.<br>Aim: To examine whether abnormal gestational weight gain in the second and third trimester correlated with<br>the incidence of preeclampsia<br>Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a public health centre, in Surabaya, Indonesia,<br>between October 2018 and October 2019. The samples were 63 pregnant women in the second and third<br>trimester. The variable observed was gestational weight gain (GWG) each week during the second and third<br>trimester compared to their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) using the Institute of Medicine (IOM)<br>standards and preeclampsia incidence. Statistical analysis used was Fisher’s Exact Test and Chi-Square Test<br>with a significance level of 5%.<br>Results: There were 11 and 52 samples in the second and third trimester, respectively. Abnormal weight<br>gain was recorded in 54% of samples in the second trimester and 57% of the preeclampsia third-trimester<br>samples. Moreover, preeclampsia was diagnosed in 83.3% and 60% samples with abnormal weight gain in<br>the second trimester and third trimester. Statistical analysis showed abnormal weight gain in the second and<br>third trimester related to preeclampsia with P-values 0.015 and 0.0001.<br>Conclusion: Abnormal gestational weight gain in the second and third trimester was correlated to<br>preeclampsia.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Impact of Extra-Weighted Exercises in Improving Physical Abilities Towards Accurate Ace Shots in Volleyball Game 2021-08-25T03:35:17-05:00 Ethar Hamdi Abdulrahman Adnan Fad’us Omar <p>This study aimed to prepare special exercises to develop some of the physical and skill aspects of volleyball<br>players, and to pay attention to the use of additional weights and thus stand on one of the main and important<br>aspects and its money in the role of preparing players in accordance with the requirements of the game<br>and to identify the effect of these exercises using different resistances in some physical abilities and my<br>skills Serving and crushing volleyball players, and the research sample consisted of (12) players in the<br>specialized training center for volleyball aged (15-17) years and in a deliberate manner for the academic year<br>(2019-2020), and the researchers concluded that the training curriculum has a positive effect on developing<br>physical abilities And skill, which indicates the impact of the training curriculum prepared by the researchers<br>in developing these abilities. As the research objectives are achieved, the researchers recommended making<br>use of the prepared training curriculum in building similar approaches to develop some physical and skillful<br>abilities of volleyball players.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching (VAT) on Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation (JPMR) Exercises to Reduce the Stress Level among B.Sc. Nursing Students 2021-08-25T04:13:13-05:00 Deepak Kumar Shandily Tapti Bhattacharjee Ramandeep Kaur Dhillon <p>Stress is the mileage that life causes on the body. Every individual is facing one or another stressful events in<br>life, in which students are also not an exception. Present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of Jacobson<br>Progressive Muscle Relaxation (JPMR) Exercises to Reduce the Stress Level among B.Sc. Nursing Students<br>at selected nursing institutes of Punjab and Haryana State. This was a pre-experimental one group pre-test<br>and post-test study, in which 500 B.Sc. Nursing students were recruited by using non-probability convenient<br>sampling technique. The study tools socio-demographic variables and Modified Perceived Stress Scale<br>(MPSS) was used to gather the information’s. After pre-test the JPMR were introduced to each participant<br>through video-assisted teaching and after 7th day of JPMR the post-test conducted. Analysis of study noted<br>that majority of participants 51.2% have shown that they don’t have previous knowledge about JPMR, while<br>highest number of participants 50% reported that they have once seen JPMR but not performed ever. The<br>paired t test value of total academic score was 213.518 at calculated p value of &lt;0.001 which concluded that<br>the administered JPMR is effective to reduce the stress level among B.Sc. Nursing students.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mandibular Foramen –The Peephole 2021-08-25T04:17:54-05:00 Deepali P Mohite Prakash M Mohite Devendra Palve Alka H Hande <p>Background: Forensic Odontology is a rapidly evolving branch of dentistry which deals with the<br>identification of an individual. In instances of deceased individual, establishing identity may still pose<br>difficulties depending upon the time that has elapsed since death. The oral structures can reliably be used<br>for establishing identity of the deceased as they are preserved for long after death. The mandibular foramen<br>is amongst the core structures &amp; has been used for age estimation with reliable degree of accuracy using<br>radiographs which is a non-invasive and easily reproducible technique. Hence we decided to assess its<br>importance in establishing gender. Methods: Digital Orthopantomograph (OPG) were used for the study as<br>they are taken for all dental procedures and can be preserved as records and may facilitate comparison of<br>ante-mortem and post-mortem records. Various dimensions from the mandibular foramen were recorded.<br>Conclusion: We found statistically significant correlation of Anteroposterior and Posteroanterior dimensions<br>in position of mandibular foramen to gender.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study to Assess the Effect of Food Consumption Pattern on Health Status among Nursing Students at Dinsha Patel College of Nursing, Nadiad 2021-08-25T04:22:41-05:00 Dhara Vyas Fiza Sherasiya Ami Patel <p>College students are at risk for making poor dietary choices that can cause significant health problems. A<br>descriptive study was conducted to assess the effect of food consumption pattern on health status among<br>nursing students at Dinsha Patel College of Nursing, Nadiad. A sample of 101students was selected by<br>systematic random sampling technique. Five point Likert Scale was used to assess the food consumption<br>pattern. The data was analyzed by using the descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of present study<br>reveals 50(49%) students have more than 11 g/dl hemoglobin level, 56(55%) students are underweight,<br>73(72 %) students believes that they are taking balance diet. There is a statistically significant association<br>with the perception regarding balanced diet and food consumption pattern and no significant association<br>with other socio demographic variables such as age, sex, education, BMI, Hemoglobin level, religion,<br>eating habits, residential status. The result shows 37(36.6%) students had unhealthy, 44(43.5%) students<br>had average healthy, 19(18.8%) students had healthy diet pattern The study concluded that there is a need for<br>health education programs that promote healthy food consumption pattern for nursing students.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Undernutrition Prevalence of Under-Two-Years Infant in Indonesia: Do breastfeeding Practices Ecologically Matter? 2021-08-25T04:27:06-05:00 Fandaruzzahra Putri Perdani Agung Dwi Laksono Djazuly Chalidyanto Fandaruzzahra Putri Perdani <p>Undernutrition due to inappropriate feeding practices for children increases morbidity. Breastfeeding is<br>considered the most important in a baby's growth and development. Breastfeeding started within one hour of<br>birth and was maintained exclusively for the first six months until one year of age or more to obtain optimal<br>benefits. The study aims to determine the ecological relationship between undernutrition in 2-year-old infant<br>and breastfeeding practice in Indonesia. This study is based on environmental analysis using a report of the<br>2018 Indonesia Basic Health Survey. The dependent variable was the prevalence of undernutrition in 2-yearold<br>infant. Besides, the independent variables were four optimum breastfeeding practices. The analysis<br>used bivariate analysis with scatter plot in statistic application. The study results show . The higher the<br>proportion of early initiation of breastfeeding in a province, the lower the levels of undernutrition in children<br>aged two years in that province. The higher the ratio of starting to breastfeed less than one hour in an area,<br>the lower the undernutrition levels in children aged two years in that area. On the other side, the higher the<br>proportion of the mother giving all colostrum in a province, the lower the undernutrition levels in children<br>aged two years in Indonesia in that province. The higher the proportion of still being breastfed 0-23 months<br>in a region, the lower the undernutrition levels in children aged two years in that region. The study concluded<br>that optimal breastfeeding practices negatively affect the levels of undernutrition in children aged two years.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Development of Surface Coating based Hybrid Acrylic Copolymers for Coating Application, Preparation, Characterization and Processing 2021-08-25T04:40:47-05:00 Farah Safi Khliwi Mohamed Ali Mutar Ramaah Abdulhassan Sabit Entidhar Kadhim Sahib <p>In this study, series of hybrid emulsion copolymers with different composition ratios of acrylic acid, methylacrylic<br>acid with butyle-acrylate, methyl-metha-acrylate, polyvinyl alcohol were generated. The preparation<br>was performed in a batch reactor on an industrial scale to obtain the resulting resin. While applying various<br>processes of emulsion polymerization, batch polymerization was chosen to find optimum conditions by<br>investigating the parameters of the monomer percentages, initiators, temperature and time. Dodecyl Benzene<br>Sulphonic acid SDBA as emulsifier, as well as sodium dodecyl sulfonic acid SDBAS as co-emulsifier as<br>redox couple initiator have been chosen as the best and most effective initiators to hybrid acrylic resin<br>processing Water-dispersed acrylic resin was developed as a hydrophilic monomer, utilizing acrylic acid.<br>To avoid gelatin and agglomeration, the reaction temperature of the acrylic resin preparation was taken<br>for 4 hours at 70oC. To understand the effect of silane coupling agent on the properties of hybrid emulsion<br>copolymers, in the presence of trimetyl-chloro saline. FTIR spectroscopy, 1HNMR spectra, thermal analysis<br>as well as mechanical tests were widely studied confirmation of the hybrid acrylic resins. The various physicchemical<br>properties of hybrid emulsion acrylic copolymers including density, viscosity, chemical resistance<br>and volatile matter were studied. The results show that hybrid emulsion acrylic copolymers are readily<br>soluble in aprotic polar solvents such as (Toluene, Acetone, Benzene, xylene, DMF, DMSO, Methanol, and<br>ethanol) without being in need for heating. The emulsion copolymers obtained had a great solid content as<br>well as have been used as binder in emulsion paints. These polymers have very useful properties such as<br>high anticorrosive and chemical resistance, the experimental results reveal.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of Primigravida Women’s Childbirth Self-efficacy at Al-Elwea Maternity Hospital in Baghdad City 2021-08-25T04:47:32-05:00 Fatima Fadel Benyian Rabea Mohsen Ali <p>Abstract: Pregnant women who believe themselves have capabilities to cope with childbirth, they feel able<br>to control labor stress. On the other hand, if they believe themselves uncappable to cope with labor, they<br>cannot control labor stress and may choose cesarean delivery.<br>Objectives: To evaluate women’s self-efficacy of childbirth and find out the association between women’s<br>self-efficacy and study variables.<br>Methods: Descriptive study of non-probability (purposive sample) was used to collect the data from (100)<br>women. A pilot-test was conducted to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. Data were analyzed<br>through the use of SPSS.<br>Results: The higher percentage of women’s age was (20-29) years graduated from secondary school. About<br>one-third of them in gestational age 32 weeks. More than two-thirds of them are preferred cesarean birth.<br>They have a low childbirth self-efficacy. There are significant differences between women’s age, education,<br>occupation, delivery preference, and childbirth self-efficacy.<br>Conclusion: This study finds that primigravida women have low childbirth self-efficacy, and there are<br>significant differences between women’s self-efficacy with the demographic and reproductive variables.<br>Recommendations: Primigravida women need prenatal education and encouragement regarding labor to<br>increase their believe of own capability to control and cope with labor stress.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Neoplasia of the Nictitating Membrane in A Domestic Short- Haired Cat based on Cytology of Fine Needle Aspiration 2021-08-25T04:50:48-05:00 Fatimah Alaydrus Lita Rakhma Yustinasari Juliano Mwenda Ntoruru <p>A 3-year-oldmaledomestic short-hairedcat was presented with the complain ofa dark red mass of the<br>nictitating membrane of the right eyecovered most of the cornea, mucopurulent eye secret, lost appetite,<br>medium dehydration, and cough. Physical examination was performed and showedhigh temperature (38,6°C).<br>Ultrasonographic examination was not performed due to tool limitations. Cytologyof fine-needle aspiration<br>masses suggested an ophthalmic neoplasm with the characteristic of neutrophils infiltration, multinecluated<br>giant cells, and cells having glanular cytoplasm.Enucleation bulbi was performed subsequentlyto exenteration<br>the eye and the contents of the orbit.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nursing Intervention Program for Enhancing Coping Patterns among Nursing Students 2021-08-25T04:55:04-05:00 Fatma Adel Ahmed Ahmed Sorayia Ramadan Abd El-fattah Galila Shawky El-Ganzory Hanaa Ezz El-din Prince 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Molecular Docking Human Plasma Kallikrein to Prevent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome(ARDS) in COVID-19 Patient 2021-08-25T05:01:01-05:00 Feriawan Tan Cindy ApriliaEkaPrasanty Anna Surgean Veterini YuaniSetiawati Rizki Awaluddin Fadilah Fadilah Siti Khaerunnisa <p>SARS CoV-2 infection causes various clinical manifestations ranging from mild to severe. Acute Respiratory<br>Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a severe complication of COVID-19 caused by activation of the kallikreinkinin<br>system which produces bradykinin which is a potent proinflammatory mediator. This research is an<br>in silico study which aims to determine the potential of active medicinal plant compounds in inhibiting the<br>kallikrein-kinin system.Molecular docking in this study using Autodock 4.2 with Lamarckian GA criteria.<br>Human plasma kallikrein (PDB ID: 5TJX) was docked with 70 compounds and one native ligandand analyzed<br>using Autodock 4.2.The smallest binding energy obtained from docking 5TJX with several compounds<br>in sequence, namely, xanthohumol, nafamostat, demethoxycurcumin, epicatechingallate, beta mangostin,<br>alpha mangostin (-9.52, -9.35, -9.33, -9.28, -9.19, -9.06 kcal/mol). Therefore, the compound shows the best<br>potential as a plasma kallikrein inhibitor. However, further research is still needed to determine the potential<br>of drugs and medicinal plant active compounds for medical treatment.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effectiveness of Training Program Regarding Gullian Baree Syndrome Maneuver on Pediatric Nurses’ Knowledge and Practices 2021-08-25T05:12:56-05:00 Amina Mohamed Thabet Mahmud, Huda Shawky Eman Hassan Zahra Ahmed Sayed Nora Abd- Elhamid Zaki Naglaa Gamal Eldien Abdelhafez Hariedy <p>Background: Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acquired inflammatory polyneuropathy characterized by<br>rapidly progressive symmetrical flaccid limb weakness and a reflexia.<br>Design. A quasi-experimental design was used to guide this study. The study included a sample of 30 nurses<br>who work at pediatric intensive care and neurology unit in Assuit University Children Hospital.<br>Data were collected using a questionnaire and an observation checklist, used in pre-post testing to measure<br>the effectiveness of the training program among nurses.<br>Results: The study revealed deficiency in pre-intervention nurses’ knowledge and practices. Statistically<br>significant improvements on knowledge and practices were demonstrated at the post-intervention time for<br>the studied nurses. Statistically significant relations were shown between knowledge and practices among<br>studied nurses.<br>Conclusion: Implementation of the training program significantly improved nurses’ knowledge and practice.<br>More experienced and aged nurses had better knowledge.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Molecular Detection of Helicobacter Pylori in Sheep at ALMuthana Province of Iraq 2021-08-25T05:21:47-05:00 Ftima Atiya Kareem Nabeel M.H. Al- Maaly <p>Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) was discovered in 1982. Over 50% of the world population is infected by<br>this bacterium. H. Pylori is the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer in human. Foods<br>with animal origins play a substantial role in the transmission of H. Pylori. The present investigation was<br>carried out to study the molecular detection of H.pylori in stomach gastric tissue of the sheep.Collecting<br>of the samples occur randomly from various area of Al-Muthana province slaughter house(AL-Muthana,<br>AL-Khudur, AL-Rumethah)from October 2019 to February 2020 . One hundred and fifty (n 75 male, n 75<br>female) abomasums samples were collected and dissection in aseptic manner then stored in deep freeze<br>(Liquid nitrogen -196) until processing and analyzed for the presence of 16s RNA and VACA genotypes.<br>This study showed that the Prevalence of H. Pylori in the gastric samples of sheep at slaughterhouses<br>(Al-Muthana, Al-Khdur, Al-Rumethah) were (9 positives) 18 % and (7) 14%, (15) 30% respectively. The<br>most commonly detected genotypes in the gastric samples of slaughterhouses were 16s RNA (20.67%)<br>in ewes(25.33%) . AL-Rumetha was the most commonly detected H. Pylori (30%). Results showed that<br>gastric tissue of sheep can act as a reservoir to H. Pylori and disseminate the pathogen in feces and milk then<br>transmitted to human during uses of unpasteurized milk ,or meat .samples could be the potential sources of<br>virulent strains of H. Pylori. Application of sanitary measures in the storage, transportation and sale of meat<br>is essential for reducing the levels of H. Pylori cross contamination.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Level of Knowledge and Perception Public of Forensic Odontology 2021-08-25T05:37:48-05:00 Fuad Husain Akbar Muliaty Yunus Nadya Shefira Salsabillah 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Serum Uric Acid Level in Oral Cancer Patients -Original Study 2021-08-25T05:43:26-05:00 G. Florence Sangeetha K.M.K. Mastan N. Aravindha Babu S. Leena Sankari Jayasri Krupa T. Gopala Krishnan <p>Background Uric acid is a result of the metabolic breakdown of purine digestion. Serum uric<br>acid ensures against carcinogenesis by means of its cell reinforcement properties and forestalls the<br>development of oxygen extremists. High blood groupings of uric acid can prompt gout and are related<br>with diabetes and development of kidney stones. Serum uric acid fixation mirror the harmony between<br>uric acid combination and discharge. Studies have indicated that high uric acid is a danger factor<br>for hypertension, diabetes and Cardio Vascular illness.Squamous cell carcinoma is characterized as<br>threatening epithelial neoplasm showing squamous separation as described by the development of keratin<br>or the bury cell spans. It also includestheinitialpresenceofaprecancerous lesion.Moreover,specificmedical<br>conditionscancontributetotheoral potentially malignant disordersprevalenceOral squamous cell<br>carcinoma is the most well-known neoplasm speaking to over 80% of all oral malignancy cases. Serum uric<br>acid has been proposed to be related with the danger of malignant growth and it was seen that raised degrees<br>of serum uric acid was related with an expanded disease frequency contrasted with typical qualities.<br>Aim and Objectives : The aim of this study is to evaluate the serum uric acid level in oral cancer patients,<br>to find out the association between low serum uric acid level and risk of squamous cell carcinoma and to<br>compare the serum uric acid levels in oral cancer patients with normal individuals.<br>Materials and Methods : This is a hospital based study to find out the uric acid level in oral cancer patients.<br>The participants were selected from the out patients, Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology. The<br>study included a total numbe of 28 persons. Out of the 28 persons 15 oral cancer patients were selected for<br>the experimental group. The remaining 13 subjects were in the normal group.<br>Results : In this study, mean uric acid level in this stroke population with CAD is 6.37 mgs/dl and in those<br>without CAD is 5.00 mgs/dl and thus establishes a statistically significant relationship (‘p’0.0004). When<br>males and females are considered, males have a significant association with a ‘p’ value of 0.0003. The buccal<br>mucosa of the oral cavity was the most common involved site followed by the vestibule.<br>Conclusion : The studies showed that serum uric acid level was significantly lower in oral cancer patients<br>compared to the control group. Uric acid may prevent the formation of oxygen radicals and there by protect<br>against carcinogenesis. In human’s uric acid is the most abundant antioxidant and is an important intra<br>cellular free radical scavenger. Early detection of oral cancer and Habit should be controlled to reduce<br>mortality rates and help to provide successful cancer treatment.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 To Study the Effectiveness of Rotational Vestibular Stimulation on Improving Balance and Gravitational Insecurity in Children with Down Syndrome-A Research Protocol 2021-08-25T05:52:04-05:00 Gauravi Desale Ketaki Naik Dipti Shinde Rinkle Malani <p>Background: Children with Down Syndrome have delayed motor development and coordination due to<br>which they have poor balance. Balance is the condition in which all the forces acting on body are balanced<br>such that the center of mass (COM) is within the stability limits, the boundaries of base of support (BOS).<br>Several scales are available for assessing balance. However, standardized and reliable scales have been<br>chosen to prevent the error while testing. Many studies have been conducted showing that sensory integration<br>therapy improves balance. However, there is paucity of study on Rotational Vestibular Stimulation in<br>improving balance.<br>Objectives: To study whether the rotational vestibular stimulation will improve balance and gravitational<br>insecurity in children with down syndrome.To study the differences in pre-treatment and post-treatment<br>parameters after rotational vestibular stimulation using outcome measures.<br>Methods: Balance will be assessed prior to treatment and after the treatment. The measures used for assessing<br>will be Pediatric Balance Scale, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test, Movement Assessment Battery for Children.<br>Results: Once the study is completed, the parameters of outcome measures will be statisticallyanalyzed.<br>Conclusion: Based on previous researches,it may be predicted that there will be significant improvement in<br>balance in children with Down syndrome.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of an Educational Program for Patients Post Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery on the Compliance with Symptoms Management Strategies 2021-08-26T01:34:57-05:00 Gehan Karawan Sayed Sallam Kamelia Fouad Abdalla Sara Fathi Mahmoud <p>Background: Patients undergoing CABG often experience a varied series of discomfort symptoms post<br>hospital dischargeinclude ;shortness of breath, chest pain or angina pain, incisional pain, atrial fibrillation<br>fatigue, leg swelling, sleep quality, loss of appetite, anxiety and depression.Specific educational program<br>regarding symptoms management strategies (SMS) are used to improve patient outcome, therefore patients’<br>compliance with this programis very essential to relief, manage it. Aim: to evaluate the effect of an<br>educational program for patients post CABS on the compliance with (SMS). Design: a quasi-experimental<br>design. Setting: conducted at outpatient clinics in Cardio Thoracic Academy at Ain Shams Hospital. Subject:<br>a purposive sample of (150) patients post CABG were recruited. Tools: demographic,medical data, Cardiac<br>Symptoms Survey (CSS) and compliance scale are used. Results: The subjects were complaint towards<br>(SMS) pre-program (12.7%) changed to (83.3%) post program. As evidence, 53.3% of the subjects who had<br>sever level of perception of symptoms pre, changed to 5.3% post. Moreover, (62.7%, 59.4% respectively) of<br>the subjects who had sever level of frequency, severity of symptoms pre changed to (4 %, 2.7% respectively)<br>post. In addition, (57.3% respectively) of the subjects who had sever level of interference with physical<br>activity,enjoyment of life pre, changed to (4%,4% respectively) post.Conclusion: Educational program<br>showed positive effect on the subjects experienced discomfort symptoms post CABG and their compliance<br>towards the management strategies.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Administrative Factors and Key Success Factors Affecting the Surveillance, Prevention and Control of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the Health Personnel at Sub-District Health Promoting Hospital 2021-08-26T01:39:48-05:00 Gerattikun Kaenphrom Prachak Bouphan Krissana Aunthakot Surachai Phimha <p>This is a cross-sectional study aimed to identifyadministrative factors and key success factors affecting<br>the surveillance, prevention, and control of COVID-9 among the health personnel at sub-district health<br>promoting hospitals in KhonKaenProvince. The sample size was 138 health workers working in Sub-district<br>health promoting hospital KhonKaenProvince, Thailand. Respondents were selected by applying systematic<br>sampling method. A total of 905 people were selected from the study population for the quantitative study<br>and 12 key informants were selected for the qualitative study. The qualitative study was carried out by<br>using in-depth interview guidelines. The questionnaire was evaluated by 3 experts yielding an IOC value of<br>more than 0.50 in all questions. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.92. Data was<br>collected between 21st December 2020 to 9th January 2021. Data analysis was performed by descriptive<br>statistics and inferential statistics as a significant level at 0.05.<br>The results of the study showed that key success in all levels of agencies involved were with a work plan<br>to support the performance, the performance link between the hospital and link to a major hospital, and the<br>administrative factors of time, money, and management affecting and could jointly predict the surveillance,<br>prevention and control of COVID-19(72.7%e (R2 = 0.727, p-value &lt; 0.001).In conclusion, five factors are<br>identified to affect surveillance, control and prevention of COVID-19 amongthe public health officials.<br>Therefore, there should be a plan to support the performance in assigning responsibilities, promoting<br>participation in policy making, planning of time, budgetmanagement and regular and proper co-ordination<br>for internal and external organizations.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Total Quality Management (TQM) and Sports (Development, Concepts and Definitions) 2021-08-26T01:45:04-05:00 Ghazwan Aziz Mohsen Bashar Banwan Hasan Haidar Mahmood Allawi <p>Sports entrepreneurship among countries is to achieve a good sporting performance in sportive competitions.<br>At the present time, sports are considered as one of the essential parts in our life, which are sought out by<br>the governments, due to the main role that sports take at the national and international levels in the political,<br>economic, cultural and social levels.<br>The sports level has been improving over the past several decades, this improving coinciding with the<br>changes of the sport concept that is generally recognised as system of activities which are based in physical<br>athleticism or physical dexterity. The concept of the athlete has changed into a wide concept that is become<br>a unit of feeling, excited, affected and tired.<br>Sports has got the attention of persons who interested in scientific, medical, social, political and economic<br>matters, which made sports have different specializations such as administration and management.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of Radiographic Findings in Children with Different Severity of Pneumonia Aged from 1 Month to 18 Years Old 2021-08-26T01:48:39-05:00 Gholamreza Soleimani Elham Shafighi Shahri Saeedeh Yaghoubi Fatemeh Akbarirad Seyyed Masoud Sajjadi Hamid Dahmardeh <p>Objectives: to evaluate the relationship between different chest X-ray (CXR) radiologic findings in pediatric<br>patients admitted with different severity of pneumonia. Material and methods: The present descriptiveanalytical<br>cross-sectional study took place in Ali Ibn Abitaleb Hospital (Zahedan, Iran). Every pediatric<br>patient with the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia enrolled and the study population was divided into nonsevere,<br>severe, and very severe groups based on the world health organization criteria of pneumonia severity.<br>The CXR findings of every pediatric patient were reported and the correlation between the radiologic<br>findings and disease severity was evaluated. Results: A total of 352 patients with a mean age of 22.63<br>months enrolled and the majority of patients were male (212, 60.2%). The intensity of disease was nonsevere<br>in the majority of patients (279, 79.3%) and severe in 17.6%. There was a significant difference<br>between disease severity groups in terms of age (p&lt;0.001) and radiographic findings (p&lt;0.001). There was a<br>significant relationship between severe disease and age (p=0.002, OR=0.964, 95% CI for OR: 0.942, 0.986).<br>Moreover, there was a significant relationship between very severe disease and reticular pattern (p=0.042,<br>OR=9.543, 95% CI for OR: 1.086, 83.886). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that CXR findings<br>in children with pneumonia are correlated with disease severity and consolidation and reticular patterns are<br>the important findings indicating disease severity in children.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Association between Metacognition and Obesity in Male Individuals of South Indian Population 2021-08-26T02:08:12-05:00 Gokul.K A.Sangeetha Kumaresan M Samuel Sundar Doss Hemachandrika C 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Profile of Rodenticide Poisoning at Vijayanagar Institute of Medical Sciences (VIMS), Ballari District, Karnataka, India: Retrospective Analysis of Cases from 2016 to 2020 2021-08-26T02:17:35-05:00 Gururaj Biradar Charan Kishor Shetty Pavanchand Shetty H V Yogiraj <p>Background: Poisoning is the major health problem in developing countries like India. Rodenticides are the<br>substances used to kill rats. Rodenticides are one of the commonest substances used for poisoning in India<br>one of the reasons is that it is easily available and cheaper than other pesticides They differ from chemical<br>composition and toxicity profile. Prognosis mainly depends on chemical content of poison.<br>Methods: A retrospective descriptive 6 -year review of data from 597 rodenticide poisoning autopsies<br>performed by the Department of Forensic Medicine at Vijayanagar Institute of Medical Sciences (VIMS),<br>Ballari, Karnataka, India between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2020, was carried out. Data were<br>obtained from judicial requisitions, autopsy reports, toxicology, and histology results. Different variables like<br>the gender, age-wise distribution of cases, marital status,profession,antemortem laboratory investigations<br>and manner of death were analysed. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences<br>(SPSS) version 27.0.<br>Results: Out of 597autopsy cases, majority of the cases 492 (82%) were male, 105 (18%) were female.<br>Most common age group was 51 to 60 years 152 (45.23%) cases, followed by 41 to 50 years 140 (26.19%)<br>cases. Most victims were married 469 (79%) and by profession were farmers 292 (48.91%) cases. Majority<br>of the cases were mostly reported in the night 454 (76.04%).Antemortem laboratory investigations data like<br>prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST),<br>alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin waselevated in majority of the cases. Manner of death was<br>suicidalin 497(83%) cases.<br>Conclusions: Rodenticide poisoning is quite common and treatable, most of the time it is suicidal in nature.<br>Public should be educated regarding consequences of poisoning. Family support and proper counselling for<br>high-risk groups may decrease these incidences</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Socialization Program for Prevention and Early Detection of Congenital Hearing Loss in the Families of Deaf School children 2021-08-26T02:30:37-05:00 Gwenny Ichsan Prabowo Citrawati Dyah Kencono Wungu Retno Handajani Nyilo Purnami Fis Citra Ariyanto <p>Objective: socializing hearing loss examination and early detection to patients and their families in deaf<br>type B schools. Methods: A community service program in the form of socialization was performed to the<br>family of patients with hearing loss in deaf school type B, Surabaya, Indonesia. Pretest and posttest were<br>conducted to determine the initial understanding and post socialization knowledge of these people. We also<br>asked the participants to fill on a questionnaire regarding the possible causes of the hearing loss (family<br>history, drug use, history of disease, and history of head trauma). Results: Based on the summary of pretest<br>and posttest from the participants, an increase in participants’ knowledge of hearing lost was found. This<br>activity was attended by 90 family members of 37 patients with hearing loss. Pre and post test results. The<br>results of the questionnaire showed that 94.59% of the patients came from Javanese ethnicity. As many as<br>21.62% of patients had a family history of hearing loss, and even 2 patients had a father, mother, and sibling<br>with hearing loss. A total of 18.92% had a history of using ototoxic drugs, 16.22% had a history of maternal<br>Rubella infection during pregnancy, and 2.7% had a history of head trauma. Conclusion: Socialization<br>program was effective to increase knowledge of congenital hearing loss for family of deaf schoolchildren.<br>The result of the questionnaire showed that deaf schoolchildren had several risk factors for the occurrence<br>of hearing loss. Similar program can be performed in communities in other areas to increase prevention and<br>early detection of hearing loss in Indonesia.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lipid Profile in Individuals under 50 Years of Age with Corneal Arcus 2021-08-26T02:38:40-05:00 Habib Ojaghi Ali Lasemi Imani Firouz Amani <p>Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum lipid levels in patients under 50 years of age<br>with corneal arcus. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on patients under<br>50 years of age referred to the ophthalmology clinic of Imam Reza Hospital in Ardabil who underwent<br>corneal arcus examination. Patients were enrolled in the study by census method.Information needed for<br>patients including age, sex, blood pressure, body mass index, history of smoking and alcohol consumption,<br>history of serum lipid lowering drugs using, Xanthelasma, history of cardiovascular disease and history of<br>cerebrovascular events through history and examinationwere collectedby checklist.The collected data were<br>entered into SPSS version 22 software and then analyzed. Results: A total of 59 cases were included in the<br>study. 36 (61%) of cases were male and 74.6% were overweight or obese. 50.8% of subjects had triglycerides<br>equal to or above 150 mg/dl. Additionally, 15.3% of cases with normal hyperlipidemia were using serum<br>lipid-lowering drugs. There was no significant relationship between age and blood lipid levels (p&gt; 0.05). The<br>prevalence of corneal arcus was higher at older ages and in people with a higher Body Mass Index (BMI), but<br>this association was not statistically significant. The intensity of corneal arcus was not significantly related to<br>age, sex, serum lipid level and BMI (P&gt; 0.05).Conclusion: The prevalence of corneal arcus increased with<br>age. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and abnormal lipid profiles (specially triglyceride cholesterol<br>levels) were remarkably but non-significantly high in our patients under 50 years of age with corneal arcus.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Measurement of Some non-routine Markers in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease 2021-08-26T02:42:45-05:00 Haider Ali Laibi Abdulkareem M. Jawad <p>Chronic kidney disease has an indirect effect on global disorder and death by raising the risks of morbidity<br>and mortality . This study included (60) patient diagnosed chronic renal failure; it also included (25)<br>healthy subjects as control . In study population age ranged from (14-65 years) old who visited Al-Basrah<br>Teaching Hospital in Basrah throughout the period from October 2020 to February 2021. Enzyme-Linked<br>Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to measure human serum soluble alpha klotho proteins , irisin and<br>cystatin C . The results showed that there is a high significant difference (P value &lt; 0.01) in the levels between<br>CKD patients and control for the following : Soluble-a-klotho protein; Irisin (ng/ml) ; Cystatin-C (ng/ml).<br>There was also a high significant decrease in the levels of irisin (ng/ml)among different stages of chronic<br>kidney . The same table revealed a high significant increase (P value &lt;0.01) in the levels of Cystatin-C (ng/<br>ml) and Soluble-a-klotho protein (ng/ml) among different stages of chronic kidney and respectively) . The<br>study concluded that there is a remarkable decrease in the level of serum soluble alpha klotho proteins and<br>irisin and increase in serum cystatin C in patients with chronic kidney disease ; and these differences are<br>positively correlated with the glomerular filtration rate .</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Swimming Improves Memory Function and Decreases N-Methyl-D-Aspartate in Ageing Rats 2021-08-26T03:55:00-05:00 Hanik Badriyah Hidayati Purwo Sri Rejeki Lilik Herawati Susi Wahyuning Asih Suhartati Suhartati Siti Khaerunnisa <p>A single Memory impairment substantially reduces the quality of life in the elderly. It is associated with the<br>alteration of neurotrophic (NT) factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glutamate<br>receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Exercise is often used to reduce cognitive impairment. Previous<br>studies show that the benefits of aerobic exercises on such impairments are correlated with increasing BDNF<br>and preventing the production of NMDA. However, some results remain controversial. Thus, the association<br>between exercise and Memory was addressed by examining increases in BDNF and the reduction of NMDA<br>in ageing rats. The study used a randomized, post-test-only controlled group of 30 male one-year-old ageing<br>Rattus norvegicus divided into three groups, namely, K0 (control) and K1 and K2 (aerobic swimming<br>exercise). K1 and K2 animals differed in the frequency of exercise, which is three and four sessions per<br>week, respectively. Memory was assessed using Y-maze performance. BDNF and NMDA were analyzed<br>using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A significant improvement in memory function and reduction<br>in the NMDA level were observed in K1 and K2 group rats (p = 0.001; p = 0.041). No significant impact on<br>the BDNF levels was observed (p = 0.387). Swimming may boost Memory by reducing the NMDA level<br>but not by increasing BDNF. Swimming is a promising method for preventing or delaying memory loss in<br>degenerative brain diseases. Further investigation is needed to fully understand underlying mechanisms.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hanik Badriyah Hidayati, Purwo Sri Rejeki, Lilik Herawati, Susi Wahyuning Asih, Suhartati Suhartati, Siti Khaerunnisa Human Carbon Footprint as the Basis for Determining Healthy Indoor Volume Dimensions 2021-08-26T04:02:16-05:00 Harida Samudro Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo <p>This paper was presented to determine the volume unit of indoor based on the human carbon footprint. The<br>purpose of this approach was to formulate the ideal dimensions of an indoor, which was able to maintain<br>human health. The basis for determining the dimensions was adapted to tropical conditions. For users in<br>non-tropical areas, slight adjustments to temperature and ventilation may be required.Some examples of<br>indoor dimension evaluation and planning were presented in this paper. In general, it was obtained that the<br>indoor dimension could be found using the volume unit of a healthy room of3.0 m3/person/hour. The volume<br>unit was linear with the number of users and time of existence in the room. This contributed significantly to<br>people, who can easily and quickly find out the dimensions of space according to their needs.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Diarrhea Prevalence in East Java, Indonesia: Does Access to Sanitation and Health Behavior Ecologically Related? 2021-08-26T04:05:22-05:00 Hario Megatsari Agung Dwi Laksono Anita Dewi Moelyaningrum <p>Diarrhea is still a problem in East Java in Indonesia. The study aims to analyze the ecological relationship<br>between sanitation access and health behavior with diarrhea prevalence in East Java, Indonesia.The research<br>conducted the ecological analysis using secondary data from the Ministry of Health of the Republic of<br>Indonesia report in 2018. The study takes all regencies/cities in East Java Provinces as samples. Apart from<br>the diarrhea prevalence in children underfive, four other variables analyzed as independent variables were<br>access and clean water sources, the percentage of coverage of access to healthy latrines, the proportion<br>of proper handwashing behavior, and the proportion of defecating behavior in healthy latrines.The study<br>analyzed data using a scatter plot.The study results found that the higher the percentage of coverage of<br>access and clean water source in regency/city, the lower the prevalence of diarrhea in children under five in<br>that regency/city. The higher the percentage of access to healthy latrines in a region, the lower the majority<br>of diarrhea in children under five.Meanwhile, the higher the proper handwashing behavior proportion in<br>an area, the lower the prevalence of diarrhea in children under five in that area. Moreover, the higher the<br>proportion of defecating behavior in healthy latrines in a region, the lower the prevalence of diarrhea in<br>children under five. The study concluded that sanitation access and health behavior were related to the<br>diarrhea prevalence in children underfive.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Prospective Study to Determine the Timing of Complete Fusion of Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Using Computed Tomography 2021-08-26T04:10:05-05:00 Hariprasad T. Nambiar Aysha Mehanaz Nitika C. Panakkal Suresh S Visakh T <p>Background: The Spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) has a significant role in role in the field of forensic,<br>medical and anthropological sciences for age analysis. Therefore, SOS can help estimating age depending<br>on different stages of closure. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the timing of complete fusion<br>of Spheno-occipital synchondrosis using computed tomography.<br>Methods: A prospective study including 110 subjects was conducted in which 55 males and 55 females<br>between the ages of 15-25. All CT examinations were performed on a 128 slice incisive CT, Philips and<br>16- slice big bore CT, Philips. The sagittal image was used for analysis the stage of spheno-occipital fusion.<br>Based on the stage of fusion of SOS, patients were categorized into stage 0 indicating partial/no fusion and<br>stage 1indicating complete closure of the SOS. An experienced radiologist scored all images.<br>Conclusion: The mean age of male cases with complete SOS closure was 20.3 ± 3 years for males and<br>20 ± 3.1 years for females. The study results show that by age of 20, no individual will belong to stage 0<br>irrespective of gender and all individuals would have completely fused SOS.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Autism Spectrum Disorder A Review 2021-08-26T04:15:30-05:00 Harshith N Kanakavalli K. Kundury <p>Autism Spectrum Disorder issue (ASD) infers a degree of conditions depicted by some level of debilitated<br>social lead, correspondence and language, and an obliged degree of interests and exercises that are both<br>unprecedented to the individual and did slowly. ASDs start in youth and will when everything is said in<br>done proceed into energy and adulthood. An incredible piece of the time the conditions are clear during<br>the hidden 5 years of life. It is assessed that overall one of every 160 youngsters has an ASD. This gauge<br>speaks to a normal figure, and revealed commonness fluctuates significantly across contemplates. Some very<br>much controlled investigations have, notwithstanding, revealed figures that are significantly higher. The<br>predominance of ASD in some low-and centre salary nations is so far obscurePeople with ASD a great part<br>of the time present other co-happening conditions, including epilepsy, incapacitation, weight and thought<br>misfortune hyperactivity issue (ADHD). Intervention during early childhood is imperative to advance the<br>ideal turn of events and prosperity of individuals with an ASD. Observing of kid advancement as a feature<br>of routine maternal and youngster medicinal services is suggested.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Adherence to Health Triangle Alleviated Coronary Artery Disease in a 57-Year-Old Man via Modification of Cellular Energy: A Case Report 2021-08-26T04:21:25-05:00 Hassan Akbari Reyhaneh Zamiri Malihe Tabarrai <p>Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the main causes of death with a considerable prevalence worldwide.<br>Prevention and treatment of CAD with low-cost and safe procedures such as lifestyle modifications are of<br>great interest. In the present study, we reported a 57-years-old man who was initially referred to a cardiologist<br>with heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and pain in the left side of the chest and diagnosed as CAD. The<br>patient was not cured by the prescribed medications. On the basis of traditional Iranian medicine, we advised<br>the patient to obey three main rules of the health triangle and the patient experienced complete recovery after<br>two months, probably due to modulation of energy level within immune cells. Further clinical studies are<br>warranted to confirm the role of diet modification in attenuation of CAD symptoms and signs.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Knowledge of Healthcare Providers toward New Corona Virus at Directorate of Military Medical Affairs Units 2021-08-26T04:27:18-05:00 Muhammed Hussein Ali Wasnaa Jomaa Mohammed <p>Background: Coronavirus is a rapidly spreading disease also known as COVID-19. The epidemic is caused<br>by a new human coronavirus, previously known as (SARS-COV-2), new coronavirus disease it first appeared<br>in December 2019 among patients who had symptoms of viral pneumonia in Wuhan, China. This study aims<br>to determine healthcare providers’ knowledge related to coronavirus.<br>Methods: A descriptive design is carried throughout the present study Directorate of Military Medical Affairs<br>Units (Al- Muthanna Military Hospital, Al-Hussein military Hospital, Al-Shaheed Mubder Military Clinic,<br>Al-Naser Military Clinic, Military Medical School) for the period from January 28th, 2021 to February<br>25th, 2021. The study included a non-probability “purposive” sample of (223) health care providers. The<br>questionnaire encompasses two main parts (Health Care Providers Socio-Demographic Characteristics, and<br>Health Care Providers’ knowledge’s Tool).<br>Data were analyzed using the statistical package for social science. The descriptive statistical measures of<br>frequency, percent, mean, Relative Sufficiency, Percentile Grand Mean of Score, Percentile Global Mean of<br>Score, Pooled Standard Deviation, and Grand/or Global Relative range, standard deviation, and inferential<br>statistical measures of T-test, Chi-Square test, Binomial test, Mann-Whitney test, Contingency Coefficients<br>test, and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test.<br>Results: The study results showed that half of the study participants depend on their information about the<br>studied diseases on the “Center for Disease Control of the World Health Organization”, then 158 (70.9%)<br>depend on government websites and official media, then 109 (48.9%) depend on news media about 148<br>(66.4%) rely on Social media. About 26(11.7%) rely on Journals” only.<br>Conclusion: The researchers concluded that the overall evaluation of healthcare providers’ knowledge is<br>moderate.</p> <p>Recommendation: The researchers recommend that there is a need to conduct further studies on larger<br>sample at the national level with the need for an educational program to increase the knowledge of health<br>care providers about Corona virus in military medicine.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Deleted 2021-08-26T04:52:00-05:00 <p>s</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gene Expression and Antioxidant Effects of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Breyne) in Alloxan -Induced Diabetic Rats 2021-08-26T04:56:39-05:00 Hayder Ghazi Abdulshaheed Haidar K.A.Alsaedi <p>Background and Aim: In this study rats, a systematic analysis was conducted to examine the antioxidant<br>properties of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Breyne) in controlling high blood sugar levels, and a<br>pharmacological comparison made to investigate whether or not it had a positive effect on the antioxidant<br>system.<br>Materials and Methods: Alloxan 60 mg injected into the marginal ear veins of eighteen diabetic rats After<br>this diabetic animal study, the rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. There were six animals in each of<br>the 4 groups: Group 1(C): Positive control, Received orally 5 ml normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily. Group<br>2(D): Negative control, Diabetes rats only, received single-dose alloxan 60 mg/kg body weight. Group<br>3(K): Diabetes rats, received cinnamon orally 35 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 2 ml normal. Group 4(I):<br>Diabetes rats, was given 2 I.U/ animal of insulin subcutaneously daily.<br>Results: All animal groups were treated for four weeks.Blood samples were taken from these groups weekly<br>for biochemical analysis to estimate: Blood glucose malondialdehyde(MDA), Glutathione (GSH). The<br>results showed high glucose and MDA concentration associated with an increased oxidant stress alloxan<br>induces on diabetic animals. The statistical analysis showed that a cinnamon significant (P&lt;0.05) reduction<br>in glucose, MDA,GSH comparison with positive control. The level of MDA, GSH was also significantly<br>reduced (P&lt;0.05) in all period comparison with the period before treated with Cinnamon extract .there was<br>4.3-fold more Ins I upregulated in the Cinnamon -treated diabetic rats 35 percent of the control group were<br>heterozygous and three percent of the experimental group were mutant for that trait.<br>Conclusion: Furthermore, Cinnamon-treated diabetic rats (group K) showed a significant increase in<br>the activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants with concomitant overexpression of<br>insulin I genes when compared to diabetic control rats (group D). Cinnamon contains antioxidants and<br>antihyperglycemic effects at the end of the experiment.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Role Sonographic Imaging Features in the Prediction of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Outcomes in Neonatal Patients 2021-08-26T04:59:56-05:00 Hayder Neamah Hassan <p>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating inflammatory disease of the intestinal tract that represents<br>asignificant source of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. The objective of the current study is to<br>find out the correlation between sonographic imaging features and the outcomes of necrotizing enterocolitis<br>in children , and their role as a predictive tool for the consequences resulted from necrotizing enterocolitis.<br>Thirty two children (patients) have been included in this study, patients were divided into three groups<br>according to the follow up outcomes: those that been recovered (Group I), those that needed surgery (Group<br>II) , and those that died (Group III). The study was achieved at Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf<br>City, in Iraq , during the period between December 2020 to March 2021 .The results showed that there is a<br>significant difference (P value &lt;0.05) among the three groups in terms of the following items : fluid-filled<br>dilated bowel loop, decreased peristaltic movement, focal fluid collection , portal gas .The study concluded<br>that the presence of Fluid-filled dilated bowel loop, peristaltic movement, local fluid collection , portal gas<br>can be considered as predictive tool for the poor outcomes of necrotizing enterocolitis .</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Handwriting Change in Breast Cancer Patients 2021-08-26T05:02:42-05:00 Heba H Rohym Ghada Mustafa Al-Galad Noha Abdel Rahim Mohamad Mohamed Ragab Teleb <p>Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer . In the course of cancer progression, there are specific<br>neuromuscular disturbances that directly affect coordination. Handwriting is regarded as a vital constituent<br>when it comes to the tracing of neuromuscular coordination. The Study aimed to study handwriting analysis<br>in female cancer breast patients trying to find simple useful, non-invasive way help in early detection and<br>diagnosis and follow up of those patients<br>Methods: The study included 160 participants. The study participants were asked to write the same text (two<br>Arabic sentences and her name in Arabic language) and draw lines in another paper, and then all handwriting<br>samples were scanned and examined.<br>Results: Breast cancer patients age ranged from 30 – 76 years old with a mean ± SD of 50.3 ± 10.5.Patients<br>according to Educational level parameter were 5 groups; Illiteracy eradication program, primary ,middle,<br>secondary, graduation and post gradates were 14 (8.75 %) , 10 (8.75 %) ,16(10 %),(80) 50 %,40 (25 %)<br>respectively .<br>By analysis of handwriting samples: Tremor, wide spaces between words, heavy writing pressure, slop or<br>slant of writing upward slant or down slant and heaviness of Initial and terminal strokes were observed.<br>After re-observation of pervious Handwriting changes and make a relation between these changes and<br>cancer stages and lines of treatment which received, it was noticed that these changes were in samples of<br>patient received multiple lines of treatment , in patients with metastasis or has another associated tumor as<br>ovarian, bladder cancers or lymphoma .<br>Conclusion: There is no evidence of significant handwriting Changes in breast cancer samples unless patient<br>received multiple lines of treatment , in patients with metastasis or has another associated tumor as ovarian,<br>bladder cancers or lymphoma<br><br></p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Extraction and High Purification of Nicotine from Iraqi Tobacco Leaf Formanufacturing, Pharmaceutical, and Medicinal Uses 2021-08-26T05:08:22-05:00 Husam Alaa Hameed Al-Khinuliu Essam Fadel Al-wan Al-Jumaili <p>Bachground: Nicotine is highly addictive plant derived alkaloid and the most important species in human<br>use today is Nicotianatabacum. There are direct health effects of chronic nicotine exposure. Even in low<br>doses, nicotine causes vasoconstriction and other cardiovascular effects related to catecholamine release and<br>promote angiogenesis, neuroteratogenicity, and possibly some cancers. Methods: A preliminary investigation<br>to analyze the nicotine contained in Iraqi tobacco leaves was carried out using gas chromatography-mass<br>spectrometry (GC-MS). Nicotine is an alkaloid, and alkali methanol and Lipophilic solventsystem methods<br>(LSS) have been extracted and determined by GC-MS from tobacco leaves. Results: The detection limit for<br>nicotine was for non-selective monitoring at the ppm level and for selective detection at the nanogram level.<br>This is a simple method of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS)<br>for the tobacco leave analysis of nicotine. The final purity of nicotine is 99%. Conclusion :the methods<br>which used in this study gave very high purity of nicotineafter converting the crude nicotine to its esters.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Association of the TP53 Codon 72 Polymorphisms with PCOS Female Infertility in Karbala City 2021-08-26T05:12:36-05:00 Inam Joudah Radhi Abdulmutalb Badr Manhy Alkhaleeli Hameedah Hadi AbdulWahid <p>To training the association of polycystic ovaries with p53 and 72 polymorphisms in the population of<br>female infertility in central Karbala and to search for possible interaction with the polymorphism. The<br>Iraqi environment was suffered from acts of profanation by due to wars in Iraq, since 1990 and after 2003,<br>An enormous number of damages and deaths were affected by destructive chemicals and radioactive<br>resources. These events resulted in either cancer or infertility. Infertility is one of the medical, social and<br>psychological burdens in Iraqi society. After 12 months or more of failure to a clinical pregnancy lead to a<br>regular unprotected sexual intercourse.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Immunological and Biological Manifestation of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient in Iraq 2021-08-26T05:16:32-05:00 RusulH.Ahmad AyaidK.Zgair <p>Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the highly incidence autoimmune disease. In present study the immunological<br>and clinical biochemical test was checked in patients with RA in Iraq. Here 70 serum specimens were<br>obtained from patients suffer from RA and 30 serum specimens from healthy control cohorts. Antinuclear<br>antibodies (ANA) level, C-reactive protein level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), activity of alanine<br>aminotransferase (ALT), activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), concentration of blood urea and<br>serum creatininand diseases activity score (DAS)-28 were evaluated in sera of patients and healthy control<br>cohorts. The results showed that significant elevation in level of ANA, ESR, CRP and DAS-28 in patients<br>group as compared to healthy control group (P&lt;0.05). No significant difference between patients group and<br>healthy control group in terms of activity of ALT, AST, concentration of blood urea and serum creatinine.<br>The person test (r) was done to evaluate the correlation between ESR, ANA, CRP, ALT, AST, blood urea and<br>serum creatinine. The results showed significant relation between levels of ESR, CRP and ANA and activity<br>of disease in terms of DAS-28. The results showed no significant relation between level of CRP, ALT, AST,<br>blood urea and serum creatinine in patient’s sera and DAS-28. It can be concluded from present study that<br>the some laboratory parameters related with activity of RA such as ESR, ANA, CRP and other parameters<br>do not related with activity of RA such asALT, AST, blood urea and serum creatinine.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Isolation and Identification of Bacterial Burn Wound Infection in Iraqi Patient 2021-08-26T05:20:13-05:00 Jenan A. Ghafil May. T. flieh <p>Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury<br>require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality.In current study, 120<br>samples were collected from 120 patients suffering from contaminated burns. The study was conducted after<br>obtaining ethical approvals from the ethics committee in the Department of Biology, College of Science,<br>University of Baghdad as well after obtaining the patients ’consent. Samples are collected from patients<br>after they have stopped using antibiotics for 48 hours.After the swabs had been cultured on different media,<br>conventional biochemical tests to identify bacterial isolates and antimicrobial sensitivity to the most common<br>antibiotics were performed by vitek 2 compact .The results showed that the highest percentage of bacterial<br>species was Proteus mirabilis (31.1 %). The percentage of isolation of P. aeruginosa was 17.78%. The lowest<br>percentage of bacterial isolates that isolated from infected wound was found in case of Staphylococcus<br>aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacterhaemolyticus, Burkholderiacepacia, Salmonella ser.<br>gallinarum, Sphingomonaspaucimobilis, Comamonas testosterone with 2.2 % for each isolate.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation the Genotoxicity of PHB Nanoparticle by Micronucleus Assay 2021-08-26T05:23:29-05:00 Jenan A.Ghafil May. T. Flieh <p>Determining the toxicity of substances in vivo is one of the most important tests that judge whether or<br>not they are used in the pharmaceutical field. In the present study, the genetic toxicity of treatment doses<br>of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), PHB nanoparticles, Cefotaxime and complex of PHB nanoparticlesand<br>cefotaxime was evaluated. The effect of these substances on the number and percentage of white blood<br>cells (WBCs) in mice was also tested (in vivo). Micronucleus assay was used to assess genotoxicity of<br>above materials in vivo, as well as the technique of WBCs chamber was used to estimate the total number<br>of WBCs in mice administrated with above substances. The differential count of WBCs was measured<br>by staining the smears with leishman stain. The present study demonstrated that there were no significant<br>differences (P&gt;0.05) in the number of micronucleus cells in the mice injected with treatment doses of PHB<br>nanoparticles, Cefotaxime and complex of PHB nanoparticlesand cefotaximewhen compared with mice<br>injected with normal saline. Similar finding was obtained in terms of counting of total WBCs and differential<br>count in mice injected with treatment doses of PHB, PHB nanoparticles, Cefotaxime and complex of PHB<br>nanoparticlesand cefotaxime when compared with WBCs total count and differential count in mice injected<br>with normal saline (P&gt;0.05). It can be concluded that there is no toxic effect of treatment doses of PHB, PHB<br>nanoparticles, Cefotaxime and complex of PHB nanoparticlesand cefotaxime on mice.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Molecular Screening of KI and WU Polyomaviruses among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Urinary Tract Infections 2021-08-26T05:25:51-05:00 Manar Hussein AL-Aboudy Musa Nima AL- Jiafry Mahdi Hussein Al-Ammar <p>KIPyV and WUPyV were recognized based on commercial standard and PCR techniques. To occurrence<br>of KIPyV and WUPyV DNA among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and UTI patients using VP2 gene for<br>detection of KIPyV and VP1 gene for WUPyV. Molecular assay results of this study revealed the presence<br>of KIPyV in 6 (5.3%) of CKD patients and 3 (2.7%) of UTI patients while the presence of WUPyV was<br>1 (0.88%) in CKD patients and negative result in UTI patients. WUPyV DNA and KIPyV DNA was not<br>detected in plasma of healthy persons. The distribution of KIPyV and WUPyV according to gender among<br>CKD showed a no significance difference among both sexes in which (P value = 0.27) and (P value =<br>0.36) respectively while the distribution of KIPyV and WUPyV among urinary tract infections showed a no<br>significance difference among both sexes in which (P value = 0.13) and (P value = 0.79) respectively .The<br>current study survey about both viruses show that female was higher than male in KIPyV in which 2 (3.22%)<br>of KIPyV DNA were detected in male and 4 (7.84%) in female out of 113 (100%) among chronic kidney<br>disease patients while in urinary tract infection, patients revealed a higher percentage rate of KIPyV in<br>female than male in which 0 (0%) of KIPyV DNA were in male and 3 (4.54%) in female out of 111 (100%)<br>while doesn’t detect any isolate of WUPyV in both sexes.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Noise on General Health Status of Electrical Generator Workers in Iraq 2021-08-26T05:29:50-05:00 Mohammed Fakhri Azeez Fatima Wanas Khudair2 Ali A. Al-Fahham <p>Electrical generators in Iraq have been a series problem regarding occupational and environmental pollution.<br>The current study aimed to determine the level of general health status among generator workers in Al<br>Diwaniyah City Iraq, and its correlation with noise and demographic data . A descriptive cross-sectional<br>design was conducted in the current study . It was carried out at the private electrical generators in<br>A-Diwaniyah City from the period between the 15th of October 2020 until the 15th of March 2021 . A<br>purposive study of 150 generator workers has been selected .General health was determined by General<br>Health questionnaire (GHQ-28) which is comprised of 28 items, and include four aspects : somatic, social<br>, depression and anxiety . Noise intensity level was measured by sound level meter (SLM) . The results of<br>the present study revealed that average level of noise intensity inside the workers’ room was (78.12 db) ;<br>while it was (104.14 db) near the generator . The results also showed that the assessment of most domain<br>(social, depression, and anxiety) was moderate, except for somatic domain which it was good . There was a<br>significant negative correlation between noise and depression and anxiety . It has been concluded that : Most<br>of the generator workers showed a moderate level of general health status ; Most of the generators workers<br>had moderate level for anxiety, depression and social aspects ; Noise intensities inside the generator rooms<br>exceeds the upper limits accepted for human health .</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect Phenytoin Therapy to Fibroblasts and Angiogenesis of Enterocutaneous Fistula in Wistar Rat 2021-08-26T05:33:19-05:00 Muhammad Budiman Irpan Bachtiar Hermawan Hardian Ignatius Riwanto <p>Background: Comprehensive wound care in enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) is the therapeutic of choice<br>currently, which may increase of closure rate without surgery from 19 to 92%. Phenytoin has been reported<br>have anticolagenase effect on wound healing is hoped to improve the ECF closure.<br>Aim: The study was aimed to demonstrate the effect of phenytoin on closure of enterocutaneous fistula seen<br>from the number of fibroblasts and angiogenesis<br>Methods: This study was “Randomized Controlled trial with post test only group design” on 18 male<br>wistar rats with ECF, that were divided randomly into three groups: group(K) control, P1(topical phenytoin),<br>P2(oral phenytoin). After 7 days of treatment, they were terminated and histopathological examinations were<br>performed to do fibroblast cell counting and the amount of angiogenesis by Hematoxilin Eosin staining.<br>Results: Mean of the number of fibroblastin groups K, P1 and P2 were 69.50 ± 10.07, 155.50 ± 13.50 and<br>182.16 ± 11.85 respectively (One way Anova P=0.001) and mean of the number of angiogenesis in groups<br>K, P1, and P2 were 95.66 ± 9.72, 178.66 ± 11.75, and 205,16 ± 9.74 respectively (One way Anova P=0.001).<br>Post Hoc Test LSD showed thatthe number of fibroblast of group P1 vs K(P=0.001), P2 vs K(P=0.001),<br>P1 vs P2(P=0.004) and the number of angiogenesis of group P1 vs K(P=0.001), P2 vs K(P=0.001), P2 vs<br>P1(P=0.002).<br>Conclusion: The therapy of topical and oral phenytoin increased the number of fibroblasts and angiogenesis<br>in Wistar rat with ECF. Out come of oral phenytoin therapy better than topical.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Legal Policy in the Prevention of Narcotics in Indonesia 2021-08-26T05:38:28-05:00 Muhammad Yunus Idy Marif Handar Subhandi Bakhtiar <p>The purpose of law enforcement against criminal acts of narcotics and psychotropic abuse is to improve<br>the health status and human resources of Indonesia. The new law concerning narcotics has two approaches<br>to parties using narcotics illegally or in other words, abusing narcotics. The first approach is to see the<br>drug users as victims so that they must be rehabilitated, and the second approach is to look at drug users as<br>perpetrators of criminal acts. Criminal acts related to narcotics crimes can generally be divided into 3 (three)<br>types, namely supplying which is usually done by producers or importers, The act of distributing narcotics<br>and other illegal drugs carried out by dealers or sellers and then the users or people who abuse the narcotics.<br>Therefore, the efforts to eradicate narcotics abuse must include all those three types of activities or actions.<br>The efforts to eradicate it must start from the upstream part of the supplier.The policy in combating narcotics<br>abuse is a positive legal policy which is not only merely the implementation of normative juridical laws, but<br>also requires a factual juridical approach that is comprehensive and integral.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Recent Perspectives and Upcoming Directions in Molecular Diagnosis of Malaria: A Systematic Review 2021-08-26T05:42:51-05:00 Ola S. H. Almusaddar Cyuzuzo Callixte <p>Background: Malaria remains a global leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The absence of effective<br>vaccines is still the vital hindrance to the management and elimination of malaria. From that standpoint,<br>accurate laboratory diagnosis could be the right hand for disease management. Objective: This review<br>intended to assess the recent perspectives and upcoming directions in molecular diagnosis of malaria.<br>Methods: This review was conducted by using internet searching tools where 35 published papers were<br>retrieved from the credible online publishers and among them, 27 papers that satisfy the inclusion criteria<br>were profoundly reviewed.<br>Results: Among the 27 articles, 22(81.48 %) papers focus on contribution of PCR based-method in malaria<br>diagnosis, 4(14.8%) report on comparison between polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and other molecular<br>techniques, 7(30%) emphasize on advantages and disadvantages of PCR, 4(14.8%) represent relationship<br>among PCR and LAMP, 3(11%) discuss the most promising molecular diagnostic tools, 5(18%) focus on<br>comparative designs of different PCR methods, whereas 1(3.7%) emphasizes on parasite density and 2(7%)<br>on pigment containing monocyte.<br>Conclusion: This review conclude that microscopy remains the gold standard method for malaria diagnosis<br>and speciation in limited resource settings but also molecular based-methods provide significant alternatives<br>with superior sensitivity and specificity.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Synthesis and Characterization of New Oxo-Aztedine ,Imidazoldine and Thiazolidine Rings on Creatinine and Evaluation of their Biological Activity 2021-08-26T05:45:58-05:00 RaadM.Muhiebes Entesar O. AL-Tamimi <p>This work included preparation of new imine from the reaction of creatinine with aldehydes (4-nitro<br>benzaldehyde, 4- amino benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde) and ketone ( acetophenone ) in ethanol and the<br>presence of few drops glacial CH3COOH to obtain Schiff bases (1a,1b,1c,1d) Schiff bases were treated<br>with monochloroacetyl chloride to produced (2a,2b,2c,2d), with glycine to synthesis (3a,3b,3c,3d) and<br>with 2-mercaptoacetic acid to prepare (4a,4b,4c,4d). The Prepared compounds had beenmeasured by (FTIR,<br>and1HNMR ) spectroscopic techniques. Some of the derivatives were studied activity against antibacterial,<br>antifungal and antioxidant.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasonography and Low Dose Computed Tomography in Acute Appendicitis 2021-08-26T05:49:12-05:00 Saradiq Mudhafar Jebur MahmoodRadhi Jobayr Haider Abdulameer Ghayad <p>In acute appendicitis, abdominal Ultrasonography (USG) to reach a stable diagnosis and use of Low Dose<br>Computed Tomography (LDCT) in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis is crucial. This study aimed at<br>assessing of the accuracy of imaging modalities (USG and LDCT) in the diagnosis of children and adults<br>with acute appendicitis to minimize the rate of negative appendectomyA total of 42 patients, children and<br>adults were examined, were included in this research (16 females and 26 males) ages was ranged from 5 to<br>45 years. All patients were examined byUSG and LDCT to diagnosis acute appendicitis . The sensitivity<br>of low dose a LDCT scan was used to diagnose acute appendicitis (96.0%) that means LDCT was able to<br>diagnosed (96.0%) Correctly diagnose acute appendicitis patients. The specificity of LDCT in the diagnosis<br>of acute appendicitis was (50.0%) that mean LDCT was able to diagnosed half of those with diagnosis other<br>than acute appendicitis correctly, But the sensitivity of USG in diagnosis of acute appendicitis was (54.1%)<br>that mean ultrasound was able to diagnosed (54.1%) of patients diagnosed by CT scan as acute appendicitis<br>correctly.The use of low-dose computerized tomography (LDCT) provides significantly higher diagnostic<br>accuracy compared to ultrasound for the detection of acute appendicitis.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Inhibitory Effect of local T.bovei Volatile Oil Against ESBL- E.coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated From Patients with Urinary Tract Infections 2021-08-26T05:54:42-05:00 Sawsan Qahtan Taha Al-Quhli Safaa Abed Latef Al Maeni 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of Oral Manifestations of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease–An Observational Study 2021-08-27T01:52:01-05:00 T. Gopalakrishnan K.M.K. Mastan P.E. Chandra Mouli Naga Leela Guntuku Priyadharshini A G. Florence Sangeetha <p>Background: Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder which affects<br>around four million people globally.Many of the signs of Parkinson’s disease are found in the head and<br>neck. The typical “masklike” facial appearance with infrequent blinking and lack of expression is caused<br>by bradykinesis.. Abnormalities in oral behaviour, such as purposeless chewing, grinding, and sucking<br>movements, are also well recognized in patients with Parkinson’s disease.<br>Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the overall oral health status of the patients with<br>Parkinson’s disease and to analyze the impact of Parkinson’s disease on the oral cavity of the individuals<br>surviving with the disease.<br>Materials and Methods: The study sample included 50 Parkinson’s disease patients. The patients of all age<br>groups and both genders were included.<br>Results: Out of fifty patients. majority of the patient s were above 60 yrs. 6% of the patients reported with<br>Positive family history of Parkinson’s diseases.14% of the patients had gross facial asymmetry, 68% of the<br>patients showed dryness of mouth.8% of the patients suffered loss of taste.14% of the patients showed hyper<br>salivation. 54% of the patients showed gingivitis. And 76% of the patients were found having periodontitis.<br>Conclusion: Treatment for oral and dental problems of Parkinson’s disease affected patients is mandatory.<br>Treatment can be done by supplementing artificial saliva for dryness of mouth, dental fillings for dental<br>caries, periodic scaling for periodontal problems, oral rehabilitation measures and regular dental check up</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Correlation between Superoxide Dismutase 1 and 2 Polymorphisms in Asthma Patients 2021-08-27T01:59:21-05:00 Walaa Najah Majid Layla Mohsen Mehdi <p>This study was designed to investigate the effectof polymorphisms of Superoxide desmutase1 and 2genes<br>and how they contribute to the risk of developing asthma.A total 120 were involved in the present study and<br>divided into four groups and each group included 30 samples. First group was consisted 30 asthma male<br>patients with waterpipe smoking and second group was also 30 asthma male patients with no smoking,<br>third group was control (no disease) with waterpipe smoking and the fourth group was control group<br>(no disease and without waterpipe smoking).Blood samples were collected from Muthanna hospital and<br>private laboratories from the periodmid-August to the mid-November 2020. To study the polymorphism<br>phenomenon of SOD1 and SOD2 genes were assessed using RFLP- polymerase chain reaction (RFLPPCR)<br>technique. This study confirmed that the phenomenon of polymorphism of the SOD1 genewas not<br>associated with the group of patients infected with asthma comparedto control group. This study conducted<br>that the phenomenon of polymorphism of the SOD2 geneis not associated with the group of patients infected<br>with asthmacomparedto control group in presence and absence of waterpipe smoking.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Biological Activity of Alcoholic Extracts of Cordia myxa Plant Against Klebsiella. Isolated from Infected Patients 2021-08-27T02:02:27-05:00 Bassam M. Shamkhy Yass K. Abbas <p>Plants have been used as drugs by humans since thousands of years ago . The study aimed to investigate the<br>effectiveness of alcoholic extracts of the fruits , leaves and seeds of Cordia myxa plant against pathogenic<br>microorganisms (i.e. Klebsiella) . This was done in the laboratories of the Department of Life Sciences /<br>College of Education in Nasiriya southern of Iraq . The results showed that the alcohol extract of the leaf was<br>significantly superior to that of the fruit and seed extract. The results also showed that the growth inhibition<br>and the effectiveness against Klebsiella bacteria was at the average concentration of 300mg / mL 32.66 ±<br>2.08 , representing the highest inhibitory concentration. It was concluded that leaves of the Cordia myxa is<br>one of the best parts of the plant that have inhibitory effects on Klebsiella bacteria compared to the fruit and<br>seed .</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Clustering of Provinces in Indonesia based on Maternal Health Indicators 2021-08-27T02:12:30-05:00 Herti Maryani Lusi Kristiana Astridya Paramita Pramita Andarwati Nailul Izza <p>Indonesian health issues that deserved top priority was maternal and child health because it determines the<br>quality of the human resources of future generations. The objective of this research is to analyze the clustering<br>of provinces in Indonesia based on maternal health indicators. This cross-sectional study was conducted in<br>34 provinces using secondary data from the Basic Health Research and Statistics Indonesia. Analysis of<br>provincial clustering used FUZZY C-MEANS. Analysis produces six clusters. Cluster 2 has a high mean<br>value of maternal health indicators that exceeded the Indonesian target, consisting of the provinces of DKI<br>Jakarta, DI Yogyakarta, and East Nusa Tenggara. Cluster 2 was formed by the value equation variable Age of<br>first mating, Ownership of maternal and child health monitoring book, Vitamin A Provision, K4, postpartum<br>visits, Iron supplementation tablets consumption and Childbirth delivery in health facilities. Indicators of<br>ownership of the maternal and child health monitoring book for pregnant women had met Indonesia target<br>in all clusters. Meanwhile, the active participation of family planning program indicator was still below the<br>Indonesia target in all clusters.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Steroidogenesis Mechanism, Disruption Factor, Gene Function, and Role in Male Fertility : A Mini Review 2021-08-27T02:18:37-05:00 I Gede Widhiantara Anak Agung Ayu Putri Permatasari I Wayan Rosiana Putu Angga Wiradana BagusKomang Satriyasa <p>Male fertility can be defined as the ability of the male reproductive system to impregnate a woman, while<br>infertility is the condition of a married couple who have been married for one year or more and have had sexual<br>intercourse regularly or without using contraception but do not have a pregnancy or offspring. About 10% of<br>married couples experience infertility. The main organ of male reproduction is the testes because in the testes<br>the process of forming spermatozoa and the hormone testosterone occurs. The hormone testosterone plays a<br>direct role in the continuity of spermatogenesis. Testosterone is produced through a series of steroidogenesis<br>mechanisms in testicular Leydig cells. Several factors influence the course of steroidogenesis such as Leydig<br>cells, steroidogenesis proteins, related genes to the influence of free radicals. These factors are closely<br>related to diet and lifestyle. This study is important to understand in efforts to prevent infertility in men.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nurses’ Knowledge about MCH Services at Primary Health Care Centers in Rural Areas of Babylon Governorate - Iraq 2021-08-27T02:51:05-05:00 Ibraheem Abdul-Hifid Hussein Aysen Kamal Mohammed Noori <p>Background: If you truly believe that every mother and every child deserve the best possible care, whether<br>or not the newborn comes into this world or during that time or after, that means that you are with us on the<br>same train. The study aims to assess nurses’ knowledge about MCH; and determine the relationship between<br>nurses’ knowledge and their demographic characteristics.<br>Methods: A descriptive study was used to guide this study. The study included a convenience sample of<br>(98) nurses.<br>Data were collection using a self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for<br>social science. The descriptive and inferential statistical measures were used.<br>The study results revealed that nurses have a moderate knowledge. Nurses’ education, years of experience,<br>and training courses significantly correlate with their knowledge.<br>Conclusion : Nurses’ knowledge about maternal and childcare were moderate and their knowledge were<br>influenced by educational level, years of experience, and training. Longer years of experiences in maternal<br>and childcare and more training on MCH program help to increase their knowledge.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Case Report: A Rare Case of Glioblastoma in Patient with HIV-AIDS 2021-08-27T02:54:39-05:00 Ilham Munandar M. Vitanata Arfijanto <p>Patients with HIV_AIDS have an increased risk to develop neurological disorders include a complication<br>of intracerebral mass. Primary CNS tumors in this condition are rare and difficult to diagnose because it has<br>uncommon presentation, unusual tumor growth and manifests at a young age in a patient with HIV-AIDS.<br>Advanced imaging techniques with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance scans should be used to guide<br>diagnosis in this condition. in a patient with HIV-AIDS, biopsy should be carried out if standard imaging<br>showed atypical features or in a patient who has a poor response to empirical treatment for neurotoxoplasmosis.<br>In this case, we reported a case of A 26 years old male with HIV-AIDS with neurological deficits who later<br>diagnosed with glioblastoma.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sensitivity and Specificity of a COVID-19 Lateral Flow Immunoassay Compared to RT-PCR in Pregnant Womenat Arifin Achmad General Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia 2021-08-27T02:57:29-05:00 Imelda EB Hutagaol Muhamad Yusuf NickoPisceski Kusika Suyanto Shinta Puja Tilusari <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is significant global treat including to pregnant woman in Indonesia.<br>A point-of-care diagnostic tool that is able to early diagnose and hasa good sensitivity and specificity is<br>critical during the pandemic. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, laboratory and outcomes<br>of pregnant women with presumptive COVID-19 and to compare the sensitivity and specificity between<br>COVID-19 rapid test (lateral flow immunoassay) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain<br>reaction (RT-PCR). Pregnant women with presumptive COVID-19 symptoms were recruited at Arifin<br>Achmad General Hospital between April 2020 and December 2020. Demographic and clinical data were<br>collected and patients were tested with COVID-19 rapid test as well as RT-PCR. Analyze was conducted to<br>determine the sensitivity and specificity. We included 120 patients with presumptive COVID-19 of which<br>48 (40%) and 72 (60%) of patients were reactive for IgM and IgG antibody anti severe acute respiratory<br>syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), respectively and 51 (42.5%) were reactive for both IgM and IgG.<br>The sensitivity and the specificity of rapid test was 64.0% and 33.3%, respectively. The positive and negative<br>predictive value was 61.5% and 35.7%, respectively. In conclusion, lateral flow immunoassay-based rapid<br>test has relatively low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing COVID-19 in pregnant women.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Varicella Pneumonia in an Elderly Patient 2021-08-27T03:04:48-05:00 Isidro Lumanpauw Usman Hadi <p>Varicella pneumonia is a common complication in adults, while it is a mild and self-limiting disease in<br>children. Elderly patients may have severe manifestations compared to adults due to the weakening of<br>their immune system in clearing the virus. Treatment with intravenous acyclovir and varicella-zoster<br>immunoglobulin (VZIG) offers a good prognosis, while the use of steroids is still debated. Despite standard<br>management, our case presents a fatality in an older woman with varicella pneumonia.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Review on the Detection of Skull by Forensic Analysis 2021-08-27T03:09:30-05:00 J.Tracy Tina Angelina Bathula Murali Krishna A.R.Revathi S.R.Preethi <p>Skull identification is extremely important in today’s society, especially in medico-legal circumstances. As a<br>result, all technological advancements in this field can contribute to the growing need for precise and robust<br>tools that allow for the establishment and verification of human identity. Identification of skulls when all other<br>proof and evidence are destroyed or limited requires the usage of facial reconstruction for the forensic team.<br>The facial graphics serve as an emphasis for public attention to specifics of the case to generate additional<br>investigative guidance. The physical appearance of the face is at its best a significant cause for the purposeful<br>identification and communication to the investigating authorities of knowledge. Human identification is one<br>of the most remarkable approaches in the field of forensic medicine. The identification mission is performed<br>in the field of forensic anthropology by the examination of the skeletal remains. Anthropologists have been<br>paying attention to improve the techniques that allow accurate and clearer identification. Therefore, forensic<br>identification has become an active field of study and skull detection has emerged as a vital source for<br>identification. Skull identification is attracted and applied in many forensic areas. This review articleis a<br>summation of the various facial reconstruction approaches and their role in forensic science to identify the<br>individual.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Too Blue To Be True”: Indoxacarb Induced Methemoglobinemia- A Rare Case 2021-08-27T03:27:17-05:00 Jerry Jacob Karthik Reddy C H Jobin James Nijila Janardhanan <p>Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine insecticide, which is a sodium channel blocker in the nervous system of insects<br>and causes mild tremors, cessation of feeding, and death in few hours.<br>Here we describe a case of novaluron and indoxacarb poisoning in a suicide attempt. The patient presented<br>with cyanosis with saturation – paO2 gapindicating methemoglobinemia and was treated with methylene<br>blue and other supportive measures.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Knowledge and Awareness towards Dental Management of Post-Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Patients among Dental Students 2021-08-27T03:34:15-05:00 Johara Maria Cruz Keerthi Narayan. V Vasumathi.D <p>Background of the Study: Oral health care professionals must be able to identify various cardiac diseases<br>and its associated post-operative dental emergencies to adopt the appropriate measures to treat them<br>efficiently and effectively. A comprehensive dental treatment plan should be constructed keeping in view all<br>the possible complications related to the post-operative cardio-thoracic surgical factors.<br>Aim: This study was aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and awareness towards dental treatment<br>and their management following Cardio-thoracic surgeries among the dental students at undergraduate and<br>postgraduate level.<br>Methodology: A cross sectional survey was conducted using self-administered questionnaires, through<br>Google forms among 100 dental students from Tamil Nadu India. Statistics has been done and results are<br>tabulated.<br>Results: The overall knowledge towards various cardio-thoracic surgical procedures carried out and their<br>dental management among dental students was only 65% and 45% for postgraduates and interns group<br>respectively.<br>Conclusion: The present study showed lack of awareness with limited knowledge and attitude towards<br>various cardiac-thoracic surgical procedures carried out and their corresponding dental management among<br>the dental students especially at the undergraduate level. Hence enlightening and educating the students on<br>several post-surgical management phases at the undergraduate level is essential for effective and efficient<br>treatment outcome and increase the quality of life.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Forensic Medical Assessment of Thanatogenesis in the Experience of Gunshot Injuries 2021-08-27T03:38:40-05:00 Julia V. Zbrueva <p>Gunshot injury remains relevant at the present time and requires serious study. During the examination of<br>a gunshot injury, it is necessary to answer the investigator’s questions about the cause of death, the type<br>and rate of thanatogenesis, the distance of the shot, the sequence and mechanism of damage formation, and<br>the severity of the injury. The aim of the study was to determine the type of thanatogenesis in death from<br>various types of gunshot injuries. Standard methods of sectional research, forensic histological methods,<br>morphological and statistical analysis, supplemented with semi-quantitative technologies of thanatogenetic<br>analysis were used in the study. The material for this study was 85 cases of death from gunshot injuries,<br>which was distributed by gender, age, location of the injury, type and rate of thanatogenesis, type of gunshot<br>injury (bullet and shotgun wounds), the distance of the shot and the duration of hospital stay.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study to Assess the Prevalence of Anemia and Knowledge Regarding Anemia among Adolescent Girls of Selected Schools of Gurugram, Haryana 2021-08-27T03:41:50-05:00 Jyoti Varinder Kaur Arindam Chatterjee 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effects of Medical Hand Washing on Hand Flora among Staff Nurses 2021-08-27T04:03:54-05:00 Kabita Dhami Padmapriya S Sasi Kumar S <p>Background: One of the leading causes of hospital associated infection is providing patient care with<br>contaminated hands as a result of transmission of microorganism from health care provider to patients<br>and others. Hand washing is the most important and simple act of reducing the spread of transmission of<br>infectious agent and reducing hand flora. Materials and Methods: The study was done to evaluate the<br>effects of medical hand washing on hand flora among staff nurses working in a selected hospital, Bengaluru.<br>One group time series design was used. Swabs were taken from a randomly selected sample of 25 nurses<br>working in medical ward for hand flora analysis. Results: Study results revealed that before hand washing<br>there were many colonies of hand flora were found. After medical hand washing there was a significant<br>reduction in the number of colonies of the hand floras between the pre-test mean (O1= 10.02) and post-tests<br>mean (O2= 4.23, O3 = 4.02 and O4 = 2.36) and was found to be statistically significant at H= 83.288 and<br>P value = 0.001. Conclusion: Medical hand washing is an effective technique to reducing the hand flora<br>among the staff nurses working in the different medical wards of hospital.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Visfatin and Correlated Clinical parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as Diagnostic Factor in Osteoarthritis Patients in Sulaimani, Iraq 2021-08-27T04:08:13-05:00 Kadamkheer Tawfiq Aziz Rezan Abbas Rostam Attallah Omar Qasem <p>It was proved that neuropathy caused by impaired glucose tolerance / diabetes mellitus inhibits the expression<br>of pain due to osteoarthritis in the lower extremities among a portion of patients displaying radiographic<br>osteoarthritis. Both osteoarthritis and DM can be viewed as chronic disease processes characterized by<br>earl, undetected levels of biological change. This study was carried out to investigate serum visfatin and<br>correlated to parameters in osteoarthritis patients. Sixty-eight patients suffering from Diabetes Mellitus and<br>osteoarthritis are involved in the study for investigating the role of visfatin and related clinical markers in the<br>cases studied. Twenty healthy controlled volunteers were used for comparing obtained results. Specific kits<br>were used for the determination of visfatin and related parameters. The results of the study were revealed<br>increases in the levels of visfatin, glucose, HbA1c, and insulin resistant. The only decreases were found in<br>the insulin levels. It seems that visfatin has been proved to have a physiological influence in osteoarthritis is<br>Patients suffers from type II diabetes mellitus.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Helichrysum Oil on Toothache 2021-08-27T04:13:45-05:00 Kamalli.M Gayatri Devi R Jothi Priya.A Saravana Kumar.S <p>Introduction: Toothache is the pain or inflammation in the tooth. A symptom of toothache includes<br>sensitivity, gum bleeding, cavities etc. Toothache can occur due to improper an dental care and oral hygiene<br>practice which is one of the commonest reasons. The genus Helichrysum consists of about 600 species<br>which are flowering in the family of sunflower. The other names are Italian strawflower and Immortelle.<br>It grows on dry, rocky and sandy regions in the Mediterranean. It has anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic<br>and analgesic properties. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of helichrysum oil on toothache.<br>Materials and Methods: The sample size of the study was 15 individuals with toothache who visited the<br>dental clinics. Participants having periodontal problems, cardiovascular problems were excluded from the<br>study. To every 2 drops of helichrysum oil, 1 ml of coconut oil was added. The intensity of the pain was<br>measured by using the pain scale. The participants were given to apply it on the gingival area of the painful<br>tooth. The patients were followed to know the intensity of pain after a few hours. The results were tabulated<br>and then statistically analysed. Results and Discussion: 27% of the participants have moderate pain after a<br>few hours of application of oil. 26% of them have less pain. 13% of participants have very little pain. 27%<br>of them do not feel any change in the intensity of pain. 7% have high pain. Conclusion: From this study<br>it was evident that helichrysum oil had an effect in reducing the tooth ache as helichrysum possess antiinflammatory<br>properties.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Disorders of Kidney Function in Chronic Heart Failure 2021-08-27T04:18:28-05:00 Kamilova Umida Abdullaeva Charos Atakhodjaeva Gulchehra Beknazarova Saida Masharipova Dilyafruz Ikramova Feruza <p>The formation of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is a natural<br>manifestation of a functionally interrelated process at the organ level. Moreover, impaired renal function is a<br>common and independent factor in the progression of the disease, a high incidence of cardiovascular events<br>and death in a population of patients with asymptomatic and / or clinically manifested CHF, which is due<br>to the pathogenetic features of the formation of cattle in patients with CHF of ischemic genesis. The article<br>provides an overview of studies on the pathogenesis of kidney damage in CHF, the role of various markers<br>in the early diagnosis of cattle. A decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in urinary<br>albumin excretion are currently considered as “renal” markers of a poor prognosis within the cardiorenal<br>continuum. In this regard, for stratification of patients by stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and,<br>consequently, for assessing the risks of increased overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with CHF,<br>the accuracy of calculating GFR, as the main indicator reflecting the severity of formed kidney damage, is of<br>great importance. Microalbuminuria is one of the early signs of CKD, the main cause of which is glomerular<br>capillary endothelial dysfunction that occurs in most patients with CHF. The presence and persistence of<br>subclinical renal dysfunction during treatment, even with the achievement of risk factors (RF) control and<br>regression of organ lesions, can adversely affect the patient’s prognosis. Assessment of the functional state<br>of the kidneys is important for early diagnosis, selection of effective preventive measures and treatment. The<br>therapeutic strategy in patients with CHF in combination with CKD should be based on the nephroprotective<br>effects of drugs.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Review of Environmental Screening on Strategic Formulation in Health Care Sector 2021-08-27T04:28:17-05:00 KasihPuji Utami Nur Wening <p>This paper is a literature review that discusses the screening of the business environment in strategy<br>formulation. The purpose of the review is to explore and connecting theories from various research. This<br>paper identified 22 articles with related topics published the last decade. The results of this study show that<br>screening of the external environment that is important to do is the general environment (politics, economy,<br>socio-culture, technology, demography, and epidemiology) which plays a role of 66.66%. While internal<br>environmental analysis that is important to do is resources (finance, physical, technology, human resources,<br>innovation and reputation) and value chain management (infrastructure, HRM, technology development,<br>purchasing, inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, sales and marketing, and services) played<br>a role of 33.33%.Based on a summary related to research on internal and external factors that have been<br>carried out in health facilities, it is known that industrial environmental factors and environmental factors of<br>competitors are still minimally studied so that they can become opportunities for future research.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Basal Cell Adenoma – A Report of a Rarity in a Relatively Rare Site 2021-08-27T04:32:19-05:00 Kavitha.M Niveditha.B Mutum Sangeeta Devi Manju.J Vishnu Priya.CK <p>Basal cell adenoma is a rare benign neoplasm of the salivary gland. It preferentially occurs in the parotid gland<br>and upper lip during the sixth and seventh decades of life. The clinical presentation most frequently seen<br>is a slow-growing, asymptomatic, movable, round or oval, normally coloured submucosal mass measuring<br>less than 3.0 cm in diameter, encapsulated and well circumscribed. Histologically, the tumor consists of a<br>proliferation of the terminal duct epithelial cells forming islands and sheets with sparse of fibrous stroma,<br>and numbers of small myoepithelial cells are present . Here is a report of a rare case of basal cell adenoma<br>in a relatively rare site of palate presented to our department.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Molecular Characteristics of Iraqi Lactobacillus plantarum Isolates and Evaluate its Natural Bacteriocin(plantaricins) Antimicrbial Activity against Pathogenic Bacteria 2021-08-27T04:40:52-05:00 Khadeeja S. Madhi Mohammed H. Khudr Rasha M. Othman <p>In this study, local strains of Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria were isolated from traditional Iraqi raw<br>milk and milk products. The present study was aimed to study the molecular aspects of Iraqi Lactobacillus<br>plantarum isolates and to evaluate its natural plantaricins antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria<br>. For complete detection for Lactobacillus spp. the partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene result was analyzed<br>and compared with those in GenBank to find out the different in the sequence using the BLAST program<br>(http:// www. ncbi. nlm.nih). The result was 17 samples diagnosed as Lactobacillus plantarum. Moreover<br>14 isolates of local Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria were show 100% similarity with those previously<br>recorded in GenBank, while 3 isolates were found to display more than 99% similarity with L. plantarum<br>strains were previously listed in GenBank. Moreover the study also reveals that all L.plantarum strains was<br>showed antibacterial activity against three studied indicators bacteria and the plnEF gene (530bp) was<br>detected in all 17 isolates of L.plantarum.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Outcomes of Fissurec to my and Advancement Flap in Management of Chronic Anal Fissure 2021-08-27T04:46:15-05:00 Khairallah Muzhir Gabash Saleh Salman Omairi SarabMuhammed Zeki RAdhi <p>Lect., Department of Anatomy and Biology / College of Medicine / Wasit University</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of Leachate Quality at Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site: Case Study in Sliwung, Situbondo Regency, East Java, Indonesia 2021-08-27T04:53:17-05:00 Khoiron Ari Probandari Wiwik Setyaningsih Heru Subaris Kasjono <p>Objective: This study aims to evaluate the quality of landfill leachate that has been treated in a wastewater<br>treatment plant.<br>Mathods: Leachate samples were taken for 12 months (January-December) in 2018. The leachate quality<br>parameters studied were: BOD5, COD, TSS, total N, and heavy metals (Hg and Cd).<br>Results: The results showed that the BOD5 quality met environmental quality standards in May, June, July,<br>September, October and December, COD exceeded environmental quality standards, TSS met environmental<br>quality standards in February, March, August, and December, N total met quality standards environment for<br>11 months, only December did not meet environmental quality standards, heavy metals (Cd and Hg) were<br>below environmental quality standards.<br>Conclusion: The Sliwunglandfill to conduct an approach study that can reduce the BOD5, COD, and TSS<br>values so that they do not exceed the specified quality standards.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Program on Knowledge Regarding Electro Convulsive Therapy among Patient’s Relatives Undergoing ECT in Selected Hospitals in Vadodara 2021-08-27T05:01:29-05:00 Kiran Patel Seema Boresa Mural Christian <p>Background of Study: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and efficacious treatment; there is a<br>widespread negative view of electroconvulsive therapy in public and professional circles. Clinical experience<br>and research have resulted in continued improvements to the efficacy and safety of electro convulsive<br>therapy. It is necessary to conduct research on this basis to modify the misconceptions and prejudices about<br>the electroconvulsive therapy1.<br>Objectives: 1. To assesses the existing level of knowledge regarding electro convulsive therapy among<br>patient’s relatives undergoing ECT.2. To determine the effectiveness of planned teaching on knowledge<br>regarding electro convulsive therapy among patient’s relatives undergoing ECT.3. To find out association<br>between pre test knowledge scores of patients relatives with their selected demographic variables.<br>Methodology: Quantitative Research Approach was use with 2 Group pre test &amp; Post test Design. The<br>investigator used pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test research design. Purposive sampling<br>technique used for Selecting 30 Samples. The Structural questioners Used Check knowledge of ECT before<br>&amp; after administration of planned teaching program.<br>Results: Analysis of paired t test is done to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching on knowledge<br>regarding electroconvulsive therapy. Researcher has found t value= 24.853 thus the obtained t value in<br>this study is more than the table value of t test at 0.05 level of significance. Hence the obtained t value<br>is significant. So it reveals that planned teaching on knowledge regarding electroconvulsive therapy is<br>improved in knowledge among patient’s relatives.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sensitivity and Specificity of Postmortem CT for Detection of Thoracic Injury 2021-08-27T05:06:53-05:00 Komet Kosawiwat RathachaiKaewlai Pinporn Jenjitranant Wisarn Worasuwannarak <p>Objective: Postmortem CT (PMCT) can help conventional autopsy in determining the cause of death and<br>finding injury to various organs. Since injuries among several vital organs in the thorax can cause death, this<br>research aims to assess the performance of PMCT in detecting injuries of the thoracic cavity organs.<br>Materials and Method: A total of 56 dead bodies by unnatural traumatic death who underwent PMCT<br>before autopsy were collected. Thoracic traumatic findingsfrom PMCT were compared with data obtained<br>from conventional autopsy wherethe autopsy was the reference standard and calculated for sensitivity,<br>specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy.<br>Results:Findings in which PMCT showed high sensitivity included air (100%) and fluid (86.67%). Interms<br>of bone fracture, sensitivity and accuracy were79.18% and 88.69%, respectively, especially for T-spine<br>fractures (sensitivity 92.31%, accuracy 87.50%) and clavicle fractures (sensitivity 90%, accuracy 89.29%).<br>For rib fractures, PMCTexhibited moderate to high sensitivity (68.18-91.67%) and high accuracy (78.57-<br>98.21%). For soft tissueinjuries, PMCT had high specificity (99.21%), but low sensitivity (34.94%).<br>Conclusion: PMCT is useful in detecting thoracic injuries in conjunction with the conventional autopsy by<br>helping to diagnose bone fractures, abnormal air, and fluid with high sensitivity and specificity.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Medical Coercive Measures Under the Albanian Legislation and their Application to Criminally Irresponsible Individuals 2021-08-27T05:13:31-05:00 Kreshnik Myftari Gëzim Myftari Sevada Guço <p>Individuals, who are characterized by mental disorders and manifest them in a criminal behavior, cannot be<br>subjects to the same punitive regime provided for other subjects of criminal offenses. Neither penitentiary<br>institutions nor civilian psychiatric hospitals are suitable for these individuals; the former, because they<br>are conceived only for that category of subjects who culpably violate criminal norms; second, because,<br>since psychiatric hospitals have therapeutic purposes, they are not suitable for controlling the social risk of<br>irresponsible subjects.<br>Any decision of irresponsibility due to mental state brings a certain consequence, namely the dismissal<br>of the case and the imposition of coercive measure. The defendant, due to his social danger, may undergo<br>outpatient treatment or compulsory treatment in a medical institution.<br>The following manuscript analyzes the importance of medical coercive measures provided by the criminal<br>legislation and at the same time, their importance in the treatment of irresponsible persons, perpetrators<br>of criminal offenses. It tries to give an overview of the different orientations that characterize the issue in<br>question, to underline the conclusions reached by jurisprudence and at the same time to reason not only on<br>the basis of applicable norms, but also on the basis of perspective and opportunity for reform, seeking to<br>develop points of reflection and avoid unreasonable discussions.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Role of IFN gamma and IL-10 in Breast Cancer 2021-08-27T05:18:51-05:00 LaleMaulin Prihatina Willy Sandhika Grace Ariani 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Thyroid Storm in Post-Partum in Bangkalan Hospital: A Case Report 2021-08-27T05:26:50-05:00 Lambu Henderika Dacosta Ferdy Royland. Marpaung <p>Thyroid crisis is a rare complication of hyperthyroidism, with a greater risk about 10 times during pregnancy,<br>also clinical manifestations and significant increasing of level of thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3).<br>Thyroid crisis could cause mortality in &gt;10%. A 58-year-old female was referred from Bangkalan Hospital,<br>presented with palpitation, shortness of breath, diarrhea 2-3×/day, vaginal bleeding, fever for 1 day before<br>admittance. Hyperthyroid for 3 years ago and routinely consumed thyrozol (1×2tab) in 2 years but did<br>not take the medicine for 1 year ago. Physical examination: BP 147/100 mmHg, pulse rate 124×/minute,<br>temperature 38.4 ºC, RR 30/minute, conjunctiva anemia, thyroid palpable, exopthalmus. ECG results:<br>presence of sinus tachycardia, Chest X-Ray: cardiomegaly. Burch Wartofsky Score obtained a total score<br>of 45, (temperature 38.5 C=15, diarrhea=10, tachycardia=15, CHF=5). Laboratory results: TSH &lt;0.004 IU/<br>mL, FT4 5.31 ng/dl. Thyroid crisis is a rare case of hyperthyroidism, a greater risk during pregnancy which<br>could lead to death. Many symptoms arise in hyperthyroidism which could lead to thyroid crisis. The criteria<br>which used to assess thyroid analysis is the Burch Wartofsky Score, FT4 levels increased 5.31 ng/dl. This<br>patient was diagnosed as thyroid storm in post-partum, based on Burch Wartofsky Score, low TSH level and<br>an elevated FT4 level and not taking medicine for 1 year ago.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Role of Serum Levels of Thymidine Kinase 1 in Diagnosis and Differentiating of Prostatic Tumor 2021-08-27T05:31:17-05:00 Lara Balasim Al-Dahy Basil O. Mohammed Saad Dakhil F. Daraji Mazin M. Farhan <p>Background: Both benign prostatic (BPH) and prostate (Pca) hyperplasia include prostate enlargement. The<br>distinction between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer is a major challenge, since the prostatic<br>specific antigen (PSA) cannot be considered a reliable predictor of prostate cancer. Aims: Efficiency of<br>serum thymidine kinase 1 and PSA-related biomarkers in prostate tumor, BPH and PCa diagnosis and<br>differentiation, especially when serum PSA is in the gray (4-10 ng/ml) region and in the pronostic of these<br>patients after surgical therapy. Subjects and Methods: A case control and cross-sectional review. There<br>were 110 elderly patients (45-81 years) and 45 controle. Serum experiments involved the use of ELISA<br>technologies to measure tPSA, fPSA, and TK1. Result: In comparison to both of the BPH and controls, the<br>mean (±S D) of serum tPSA and fPSA in Pca were significantly improved (all p =0,001) while the mean<br>value of f PCa in comparison with BPH and control was dramatically decreased (p = 0,001) for fPSA/tPSA.<br>There was no difference between BPH and controls in these parameters. In both of the Pca and Controls<br>(P&lt;0.001) the mean TC1 was slightly higher (P&lt;0.001). This serum TK1 has the most receptive and specific<br>diagnostic and differentiating potency in the gray zone of tPSA (4-10 ng/ml), which has tPSA in the gray<br>zone with AUC=1 in the 924 pg/ml cut-off zone.<br>Conclusion: Serum level of TK1 was superior of tPSA in diagnosis of prostate tumor and differentiating<br>between BPH and PCa.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Stigma and Mental Health during COVID-19 New Normal Transition in Indonesia 2021-08-27T05:36:09-05:00 Leny Latifah Yusi Dwi Nurcahyani Diah Yunitawati Marizka Khairunnisa Cati Martiyana <p>Background: Social isolation and economic catastrophic became the main characters of the current pandemic.<br>Historically, the strongest stigmas related to diseases were characterized as highly transmittable, potentially<br>lethal, and without remedy. All represented COVID-19 during the early transition into the new normal. We<br>aimed to analyzed stigma and economic stressors concerning mental health. Method: We conducted a crosssectional<br>online survey of 1375 participants in Java, Indonesia. Mental health status evaluated with DASS-<br>21. The presence of social and self-stigma related to Covid-19 assessed with a questionnaire developed based<br>on seven domains of public stigma. Demographics and other psychosocial stressors were assessed with<br>an online questionnaire. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression had carried out. Result: A very high<br>percentage of perceived and anticipated self-stigma and social stigma revealed. Controlling demographics<br>factors, clear self-stigma increased the risk for depression (2.323 (1.241-4.346), p&lt;0.05), anxiety (2.134<br>(1.205-3.777), p&lt;0.05) and stress 3.931 (1.779-8.685), P&lt;0.001). Clear social stigma increased the risk for<br>anxiety (2.000 (1.066-3.756), p&lt;0.05) but not on depression and stress.Conclusion: Ensuring basic needs<br>fulfilment and eliminating stigma is critical for supporting mental health in the Covid-19 pandemic. Further<br>research into the stigma-related risks is necessary because it represents an important need for intervention<br>in public health.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Influence of Sociodemographic Factors on Community Knowledge, Perceptions, Attitudes, and Practices towards COVID-19 Prevention Protocols : A Scoping Review 2021-08-27T06:23:36-05:00 Lintang Puspita Prabarini Kumboyono Kumboyono Laily Yuliatun <p>Background: WHO declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic due to its rapid spread and has been<br>confirmed worldwide. Preventive efforts are made to minimize the virus spread among the community.<br>Sociodemographicfactors play an integral role in determining the communityknowledge, perception,<br>attitudes, and practice towards COVID-19 prevention protocols.<br>Methods: This review was conducted on various journal articles to see the sociodemographic factors that<br>influence the levels of knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, and practices of the community towardsCOVID-19<br>prevention protocols. Journal articles were selected under the PRISMA guidelines, from which 28 articles<br>were found to meet the predetermined criteria.<br>Result: Several sociodemographic factors found to affect the levels of knowledge, attitudes, practices,<br>and perceptions of respondents towards the COVID-19 prevention protocols were age, gender, education,<br>marital status, occupation, socio economic status, area of residence, and nationality.<br>Conclusion: Education and socio economic status/monthly income were found to be the main factors that<br>influenced the respondents’ level of knowledge. Individuals with higher education tended to take health<br>problems more seriously, as shown by their better scores of compliance with the COVID-19 prevention<br>protocols, compared to the scores shown by other groups.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparative Analysis of Acute Physiological Responses between Short and Middle Distance Swimming Athletes with Physical Loading Test 2021-08-28T00:48:53-05:00 M. Ali Machfud Muchammad Rif’at Fawaid As’ad HariSetijono Lilik Herawati <p>Indonesia’s swimming achievements are still far from that of other countries. Among other things, at the 2018<br>Asian Games, Indonesia did not succeed in getting a single medal. If not improved, Indonesia’s swimming<br>performance will get worse. One of the innovations is to identify the physical abilities and physiological<br>responses of an athlete through a physical loading test. This study aims to analyze the differences in acute<br>physiological responses between short and middle distance swimming athletes through continuous and<br>interval high intensity physical test. The sample of males aged 14-18 years consisted of the short distance<br>(n=12) and middle distance (n=12) swimmers. Participants did a high intensity physical test with an<br>ergocycle for 21 minutes with a 7-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool down, intervally, and without resting<br>for continuous test. The variables studied included resting pulse rate, blood lactate, leg and shoulder muscle<br>strength, arm andleg power. Data collected inbefore (pre) and after(post) physical test. The results showed<br>that the short distance swimmers had greater increase inlactate level and pulse rate in both physical tests.<br>The leg power decreased significantly in the short distance swimmer when performed continue physical test,<br>whereas the middle distance swimmer when performed interval physical test. The conclusion of this study<br>was to differ the leg power as acute physiology response for swimmers is more appropriate using continuous<br>or interval high intensity physical test. Based on these results, training program for swimmer type can be<br>developed. However, further research is still needed to enhance the swimmers performance.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Utility of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy for Nutritional Supportin Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia 2021-08-28T00:57:11-05:00 Madhavan Iyengar Niket Attarde Arpan Shah Pooja Shah Poornima. V. <p>Background &amp; Objectives: Maintenance of nutrition status of a patient is of paramount importance to<br>clinicians treating medical or surgical diseases. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parental nutrition in<br>patients who are unable to swallow. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the preferred route<br>of nutritional support in patients with a functional gastrointestinal system who require long-term enteral<br>nutrition and are unable to maintain oral intake. PEG offers superior access to the gastrointestinal system<br>over surgical methods.<br>We aim to see utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for nutritional support in patients<br>with oropharyngeal dysphagia secondary to neurological deficits and its effect on the quality of life of these<br>patients.<br>Methodology: we studied retrospectively 25 patients with neurological oropharyngeal dysphagia in last 2<br>years needing PEG insertion. We reviewed data of the patients for 3 months post insertion of PEG. Study<br>was based on body weight, haemoglobin and serum albumin level prior to and after PEG. All complications<br>including sepsis, perforation, hemorrhage and death were recorded.<br>Results: Our study showed significant improvement in levels of hemoglobin, albumin and weight gain after<br>Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. There were no major complication.<br>Conclusion: Percutaneous EndoscopicGastrostomy is an easy procedure that can be done bedside without<br>complications in patients with neurological deficit. It improves nutritional status of the patient and also<br>prevents aspiration pneumonia in patients with good gastric motility.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Health Literacy Intervention on Medication Adherence among Older Adults with Chronic Diseases 2021-08-28T01:11:40-05:00 Magda M. Mohsen Bahiga Galal Abd El-Aal Sally S. Hassan Amal A. El-Abbassy <p>Background: Medication adherence is essential for controlling chronic conditions, treating temporary<br>conditions, and overall health and well-being. Aim: Examine the effect of health literacy intervention on<br>medication adherence among older adults with chronic diseases. Design: A quasi-experimental (study and<br>control design). Settings: Family health unit in Dragel village, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. Sample:<br>a purposive sample of 140 older adults. Tools:1) Interviewing questionnaire that includes; the sociodemographic<br>data, medical history, medication knowledge, factor affecting medication adherence and<br>physiological measurement 2) The Medication Adherence Scale. 3) Self-Efficacy for appropriate medication<br>use scale. Results: There was remarkable improved medication adherence and self-efficacy in medication use<br>in the study group compared to pre-intervention and the control group. Also, there was improved knowledge<br>and practice regarding medication use. Also, there was significant control in random blood glucose level<br>and blood pressure in the study group compared to pre-intervention and the control group. Conclusion: The<br>health literacy intervention was effective in enhancing medication adherence, successful in improving selfefficacy<br>in medication use, and significantly controlling random blood glucose and blood pressure among<br>older adults. Recommendation: Health care providers especially nurses should provide regular follow up<br>for older adults with chronic diseases regarding medication adherence.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Self-management of Elderly Patients with Osteoarthritic Knee on Recovery Outcomes 2021-08-28T01:17:57-05:00 Magda M. Mohsen Nabila E.Sabola Nagwa I. El-khayat Entsar A. Abd El-Salam <p>Background: Knee osteoarthritis accounts for almost four fifths of the burden of worldwide. It is the leading<br>cause of mobility impairment, disability and loss of function in older adults. This study aimed to examine the<br>effectiveness of self-management of elderly patients with osteoarthritic knee on recovery outcomes.<br>Material and methods: A quasi- experimental design was utilized to conduct this study. The study was<br>carried out at outpatient clinic of Shebin- Elkom University and Educational Hospital, and then they were<br>following up at their homes. 100 elderly patients were selected who met inclusion and exclusion criteria.A<br>constructed interviewing questionnaire, arthritis self-efficacy scale, and Western Ontario and McMaster<br>Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index were used to collect the data.<br>Results: there was increase in the mean total pain self-efficacy score, and other symptoms self-efficacy<br>score in study group than control group.There was decrease in the mean total physical function WOMAC<br>score in study group than control group after intervention.<br>Conclusion: Implementation of self-management for elderly patients was effective in management<br>symptoms of knee osteoarthritis among study group compared to control group.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Impact of Exclusive Breast Feeding on Infant Morbidity in The First Six Months of Infants Life 2021-08-28T01:25:37-05:00 Maha A. Muhsen Jabbar T. Ahmed <p>The breast feeding was basic and ideal type of feed for infants especially during first six months of their life,<br>breast feeding has a main role in infant’s life as maintaining on mental and physical health, protecting from<br>many disease and play important role in health of mothers and national and international strategies. The<br>goals of this study is to estimate the prevalence exclusive breast feeding (EBF) in Basra (Southern of Iraq)<br>during period of study, to determine the impact of exclusive breast feeding on morbidity of infant during<br>first six months of life and to assess relationship between some character’s for mothers and babies (Age of<br>mothers at marriage, Age of mothers at baby birth, educational level, occupation, birth interval, methods<br>of delivery, parity, gestational age, age, gender and birth weight of infant). The study found prevalence of<br>exclusive breast feeding in infants for first six months of life is 54.75%, while (23.75%) and (21.5%) for<br>partial and exclusive formula feeding respectively and showed significant relationship between diarrhea<br>disease, respiratory tract infection and gastroenteritis and type of feeding in first six months of life at level<br>p&lt;=0.05. also showed EBF associated with age of mothers at baby birth, education level, occupation of<br>mothers, and mode of delivery, gestational age and parity and found no relation between age of mothers at<br>marriage, birth interval and sex of infant with EBF.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Food Hygiene Knowledge and Practice among South Indian Women 2021-08-28T01:39:49-05:00 Mahadeva Manasa P Melby Elizabath Nancy Ruby Priya Joy Hezil Reema Barboza <p>Background: Food is essential for the existence of all living organisms. The main purpose of food hygiene is<br>to prepare and provide safe hygienic food and consequently contribute to a healthy family. Lack of adequate<br>food hygiene can lead to a number of food-borne diseases and death.<br>Methods: A descriptive study design was adopted in order to assess the level of knowledge and practice<br>among women regarding food hygiene. The tool used for this study was structured knowledge questionnaire<br>and self-reported practice checklist. The content validity of the tool was established in consultation with 7<br>experts. The reliability of the knowledge questionnaire was tested by split-half method and self-reported<br>practice checklist by Cronbach’s Alpha. The reliability of the knowledge questionnaire was 0.8 and the<br>practice checklist was 0.9. Both the tool was found statistically significant. Data collected from the 132<br>women were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS.<br>Conclusion: The results revealed that majority of the women (80.4%) belong to age group of 20-30 years.<br>There was a positive correlation found between food hygiene knowledge and practice. Majority of the<br>women had good knowledge (77.3%) and had good practice (70.3%) towards food hygiene.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 How Can the Maternal Age and the Basal Level of Serum FSH Predict the ICSI Outcome? 2021-08-28T01:48:53-05:00 Maher Abbood Mukheef Rihab Abbas Ali Hind Hadi Majeed 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Cross Sectional Study of Deaths Due to Snakebite: Autopsied at a Tertiary Care Centre, Hubballi 2021-08-28T01:54:21-05:00 Mahesh M Devadas Vijay N Tasgaonkar Suresh Kumar Karthikean Anand Patil <p>Worldwide, Snakebite is an important and preventable health hazard in many of the tropical and subtropical<br>countries. Death following snake bite is a cumulative effect of all the toxic reactions that are produced<br>by the snake venom in the body of the victim.1Globally it is estimated that the true incidence of snake<br>envenomation could exceed 3 million per year and about 1,00,000 of these develop severe sequelae. With<br>this background, a study has been conducted to determine the pattern of snakebite death cases, autopsied at<br>KIMS, Hubballi, Karnataka. The study revealed that maximum number of snakebite cases were recorded in<br>the rainy season (34.9%) followed by the winter season (31.7%).In a greater number of cases the incidence<br>of snake bite occurred predominantly in lower limb (54%) as compared to upper limb (46%).Peak incidence<br>of snake bite was recorded in the time between 08:00 am to 04:00 pm (41.3%) followed by 04:00 pm<br>to midnight (30.2%). Majority of the cases were declared dead (47.61%) within 24 hours of initiation of<br>anti-snake venom. The cause of death in majority of the study population was respiratory failure (92.06%)<br>followed by shock (7.93%).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparative Study Thymol Oiland Some Gel Face Washing on Resistance Propionibacterium A 2021-08-28T01:59:42-05:00 Mais E.Ahmed Jenan A.Ghafil Walaa Najim <p>Acne is elevated of skin secretion with hyperkeratosis causing Propionibacterium acnes. The goal of study<br>was to assess the anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial potential of Thymol oil compare Gel face ,and isthe<br>main bacteriuminvolved in the acne. The unpredictable use of antibiotics for the treatment of acne may end<br>up within theadvancement of bacterial resistance.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Drug Abuse Prevalence and Effects in Coffee Shop Workers : A Cross Sectional Study 2021-08-28T02:06:09-05:00 Makloph MG Mohamed Masoud <p>Background: Drug abuse among population have become more common than before, coffee shops workers<br>are of increasing chance to drug abuse, the facing of such big problem necessitates collection of information<br>regarding the prevalence of drug abuse types and effects on health , and this will result in prevention of its<br>hazardous on population at all.<br>Patients and Methods: cross- sectional study during the the first day of April 2019 till the last day of<br>September 2019 , one hundred and twenty coffee shop workers were included. The workers were chosen<br>from 12 randomly selected coffee shops located in rural and in urban areas. The data were gathered through a<br>questionnaire and urine samples from participants. The collected samples were taken to the lab and screened<br>for drug abuse using dip stick, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography (GC-MS). The<br>collected data were organized, tabulated, and statistically analyzed using statistical package for social<br>science (SPSS Inc, version 22).<br>Results: the study showed that The prevalence of tramadol and cannabis and other synthetic drugs among<br>coffee shop workers in urban and rural area nowdays more than before and their detection easily done by<br>using GC-MS. hazardous on health among abusers more than non abusers.<br>Conclusion: The prevalence of drug abuse among coffee shop workers of increasing popular especially<br>tramadol , cannabis and other synthetic drugs, between all age groups in urban and rural area ,these drugs<br>of abuse can be detected using dip stick , TLC and the most specific method of detection using GC-MS to<br>confirm the results. Countries should plan for facing this cancer due to its bad hazardous and consequences<br>on health , family and society .</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Psychosomatic Effects of Sexual Harassment and Violence on Undergraduate University Female Students; A Cross Sectional Prevalence Study 2021-08-28T02:09:17-05:00 Makloph MG <p>Background: Sexual harassment is the plague of that century due to its tremendous prevalence in various<br>societies ,it is unwanted and unaccepted sexual conduct with a female either verbal, non verbal or physical<br>,and it affects the physical and psychological wellbeing of the victim..<br>Patients and Methods : Cross- sectional study was done during the period of october 2019 till January<br>2020. five hundred and four participant aged between 19 and 25 years old randomly selected , distributed<br>on nine faculties , a questionnaire constructed of three parts given to each participant to collect data about<br>type of abuse and psychosomatic effect through the use of standardized questionnaire The collected data<br>were organized, tabulated, and statistically analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS Inc,<br>version 18).<br>Results: The study showed significant relationship between physical harassment and psychosomatic effects<br>also method of harassment and frequency of harassment is a risk factor for occurrence of psychosomatic<br>effects, and family response regarding perpetrator affect profoundly psychosomatic effects. the main harasser<br>were university students.<br>Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual harassment now days resemble a cancer due to its wide spread and<br>diffusion within the societies and its profound effect on the well being of the victim causing profound<br>psychosomatic effects . these effects are affected by the method of harassment and the frequency of exposure.<br>Families should have strong reflex against the perpetrator as this help the victim recovery and affects its<br>profound effects on her well being.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism on Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Gene in Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip/ Palate Patient 2021-08-28T02:12:46-05:00 Mala Kurniati RM Coen Pramono D Agung Sosiawan David Sontani Perdanakusuma Hari Basuki Notobroto Andra Rizqiawan <p>Cleft lip/palate (CL/P) is one of the most common birth defects in humans. Haploinsufficiency in genes<br>Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 is thought to play an important role in the incidence of CL/P. This<br>study aimed to identify changes in the nucleotide (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism/SNP) BMP 2 rs235768<br>A&gt;T gene in CL/P patient in Indonesia. Seventy samples of DNA that were successfully amplified and<br>restricted consisted of patient and control samples with the three of which were used for sequencing. Based<br>on the analysis using restriction enzymes and Finch TV and Bioedit software programs, this study identified<br>a change from nucleotide A to nucleotide T which is a mutation missense (Serine-Arginine/TCA-TCT).<br>Based on the results of the Fisher’s exact test, there was difference in genotype frequency between the CL/P<br>group and the control. Meanwhile, there was no difference in allele frequencies between the two groups. The<br>allele frequency T has a higher value than the frequency of the allele A.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Inhibitors in Hemophilia A with Posterior Dextra Femoral Region Hematoma 2021-08-28T02:33:36-05:00 Malfira Iswary Hartono Kahar 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Topical Application of Povidone Iodine to Minimize Post Appendectomy Wound Infection 2021-08-28T02:46:11-05:00 Mamoon Othman Khalid Alabdulla Asaad Mohammed Kadhim Hussein Abduljabbar Shihab Al-Katrani <p>Background: Despite the use of prophylactic antibiotic and sterilization techniques and nemours methods<br>of wound care, post appendectomy wound infection is still high.<br>Methods: Arandomized controlstudy (RCS) has been implied to prove, whether uses of povidone iodine<br>just prior to wound suturing could decrease surgical wound infection rates after surgery for appendectomy.A<br>total number of 120 patients operated for cute appendicitis with open appendectomy at AL-MawaniTeaching<br>Hospital during the period from march 2016 to October 2020.<br>Results: After appendectomy patients was randomize into three groups, group A which include 40 patients<br>the subcutaneous tissue was irrigated with 1% diluted povidone-iodine solution before skin closure.<br>Group B which contained other 40 patients the wound has been washed with normal saline, and in group<br>C(controlgroup) no irrigation was done.All patients were followed for surgical site infection according to<br>Southampton wound grade system for ten days after surgery.In this study we notice that areductionhappened<br>in the number of wound infection in group Acompare with group B and C.<br>Conclusion: The uses of povidone iodine 1% before skin closure is an effective method in reducing the rate<br>of infection of the wound after surgery for acute appendicitis.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Factors Associated with the First Sexual Intercourse among Students : Population-Based Study 2021-08-28T03:00:06-05:00 Manasanun Limpavithayakul Chuthamat Nopparat 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Mannitol Hydration as Renoprotective on Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity (CIN) in Head and Neck Cancer Patients 2021-08-28T03:03:10-05:00 Mareta Rindang, Andarsari Yunita Dyah, Kusumaningrum Rosy Nurlita, Hapsari Dwi Hari, Susilo Dewi Wara, Shinta <p>Background: Cisplatin is a cytostatic agent used as treatments in head and neck cancer patients.<br>Nephrotoxicity is one of cisplatin major side effects. This study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective<br>effect of mannitol-hydration administration in head and neck cancer patients who receive cisplatin<br>chemotherapy. Methods: This was a cohort observational study to analyze the renal function of head and<br>neck cancer patients who receives cisplatin before and after mannitol-hydration administration in IRNA<br>Surgery and Soekardja Room of Chemotherapy at RSUD Dr. Soetomo Surabaya during June – September<br>2018. The data obtained were BUN, SCr, and eClCr Cockroft-Gault of each cycle. Result: A total of 52<br>patients were evaluated. The average value of creatinine serum, creatinine clearance, and BUN at each cycle<br>were fluctuate. However, the average value of creatinine serum and BUN were within the normal limit.<br>The result of statistical analysis using paired t-test in those parameters at each cycle were not statistically<br>significant (p &gt; 0,05) after mannitol administration except during first cycle to second cycle the SCr increased<br>significantly and eClCr was decreased significantly (p-value 0,024; 0,006, CI 95% respectively ). At fourth<br>cycle the eClCr also decreased significantly (p value 0,008, CI 95%). Conclusion: The renoprotective effect<br>of mannitol in head and neck cancer patients who receive cisplatin chemotherapy is sufficiently adequate<br>which can maintain the value of BUN and creatinine serum of patients at each cycle within the normal limit.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Function of the State in Providing Health Services: Indonesia Perspective 2021-08-28T03:10:39-05:00 Marif Nurhaedah Handar Subhandi Bakhtiar <p>The function of the state in providing health services is divided into the regulatory function, the controlling<br>function, the entrepreneurial function and the supervisory function. In the regulatory function, the state<br>develops policies in the field of health services that ensure that all people can enjoy health services. The<br>state control function is responsible for the availability of equipment and medicines as well as maintaining<br>the stability of the flow of health service distribution. In the entrepreneurial function, the state in addition to<br>providing health services can receive income from health services which can later be used to equalize the<br>costs of health care dependents, especially for the poor and underprivileged. In the oversight function, the<br>state is responsible for carrying out full supervision of health facilities in order to optimally provide health<br>services to the people.Keywords: State functions, health services, the right to health.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nonsurgical Management of a Patient with Hypopituitarism Secondary to Nonfunctioning Pituitary Macroadenoma: A Case Report 2021-08-28T03:19:58-05:00 Martino Handoyo Hermina Novida <p>Pituitary adenoma is a benign neoplasm of pituitary gland. Pituitary adenoma, particularly a macroadenoma,<br>may produce mass effect symptoms by compressing surrounding tissues. Due to pituitary function as a<br>neuroendocrine organ, pituitary adenoma may also cause multiple endocrine disturbances. The authors report<br>the case of a 39-year-old male patient presenting with chronic headache and history of seizure. MRI imaging<br>revealed pituitary macroadenoma with optic chiasm compression. Further diagnostic workup indicated<br>secondary hypogonadism and adrenal insufficiency. The patient was given hormone replacement therapy<br>and was then advised for surgery, but the patient refused any surgical procedure. Subsequent follow-ups<br>were somewhat difficult due to poor patient adherence. Nevertheless, appropriate management of pituitary<br>adenoma is needed to achieve optimal result.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessment of Pesticide Biohazards in Neurodegenerative Diseases; Data Analysis Statistical Study 2021-08-31T02:04:56-05:00 Marwan M. Merkhan Zeina A. Althanoon Ahmed A Mohammed Ibrahim M. Faisal <p>Background: The initiation of late onset neurodegenerative diseases remains unknown. New researches<br>suggested that prolonged exposure to pesticides might lead to the initiation of neurodegenerative diseases,<br>but the results were subject to controversy. Aims: The present study aimed to demonstrate an update datamining<br>to compare published data for studies comparing role of pesticide in induction of neurodegenerative<br>diseases (Parkinson’s diseases, Alzheimer’s diseases, and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) Results: A clear<br>association has been noticed across different studies regarding correlation between pesticide exposure and<br>Parkinson’s disease or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Odd Ratio &gt;1), nevertheless, the association was<br>weaker between exposure to pesticide and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (Odd Ratio close to 1)<br>Conclusions: There is good quality evidence that the impact of pesticide in initiation of neurodegenerative<br>disease is statistically approved. However, there is inconclusive evidence from randomised controlled<br>trials to show significant induction of neurodegeneration. More research is needed particularly long-term<br>controlled studies on laboratory animals.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Leptin Concentration Level in Progression of Hand Osteoarthritis Disease 2021-08-31T02:20:28-05:00 Maryam Qais Ahmed Ghaith Sael Mohammed <p>Subject :Hand Osteoarthritis (HOA) is know as degenerative cartilage cell disease in joint association with<br>generation various inflammatory responses . This disease is more common in geriatric and effected by<br>many factors such as obesity . Leptin is hormones secreted of fatty tissue involve as mediators in many<br>pathophysiology process , and support inflammation at cartilage of hand joint .<br>Objective of the Study: Role of leptin concentration level in progression of hand Osteoarthritis .<br>Materials and Methods: This study was done on 60 patients with HOA disease and 60 healthy persons<br>(control ), the all subjects age within this study were more than 60 years of both genders .After obtained<br>serum , immediately used quantity method (immunoassay) for measured level of leptin concentration .<br>Results: This study shows elevation of serum leptin concentration level in HOA group compare with healthy<br>control group .<br>Conclusion: This study confirms that serum leptin concentration level can act as support HOA disease<br>progression .</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Formulation Herbal Mouthwash Combination Extract of Ginger and Lemongrass as Antibacterial Causes of Halitosis in Diabetes Mellitus Patients 2021-08-31T02:25:33-05:00 Masriadi Sukmawati Hasta Handayani Idrus <p>Background. Ginger and lemongrass are plants known as the king of rhizomes with a healthy stance because<br>empirically many have used them as halitosis treatment in people with diabetes mellitus. The research<br>objective was to formulate herbal mouthwash from extracts of natural ingredients, namely a combination<br>of ginger and lemongrass which has the potential as antibacterial causes of bad breath (halitosis) in people<br>with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Material and Methods. The extraction of the sample will be carried out by a<br>modified extraction method using ethanol and water solvents, then biological activity testing will be carried<br>out in-vitro with the diffusion method so that the antibacterial activity test against several bacteria that cause<br>halitosis will be tested. Antibacterial sample is an active compound resulting from the extraction process.<br>Bacteria that had been inoculated into the growth medium (NB) were put into sterile soft NA media (0.7%)<br>with a concentration of 10,000.8,000,7,500 and 6,000 ppm, respectively. Results. There is an inhibitory<br>effect, on p. gingivalis but the pattern of values is uncertain. A solution of formulation A with a concentration<br>of 75% occurs inhibition with an inhibition diameter of 15.7%. This inhibitory effect is not an activity of<br>formulation A, because acetic acid also has the ability to inhibit bacteria. In the sample solution with a<br>concentration of 100% chitosan (w / v), the highest inhibition occurred with an inhibition diameter of 18.7<br>mm / mg of the sample extract. Formulation A with a concentration of 25% (w / v), the lowest inhibition<br>occurred. The test solution of formulation A with a concentration of 25% has shown an inhibitory effect on<br>the growth of Streptococcus mutans. This effect is stronger at concentrations of 100%, 75%, and 50%. The<br>antimicrobial effect actually increased with an increase in the concentration of the test solution in succession<br>of 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. Formulation C with a concentration of 10000ppm, 8000ppm, 7500ppm, 6000ppm<br>showed that the antimicrobial effect actually increased with an increase in the concentration of the test<br>solution in succession. This shows that there is a strong positive relationship between concentration and<br>inhibition zone. Conclusion. All tests for both formulation A and formulation C using several concentrations<br>showed quite good results with the antibacterial activity being directly proportional to the concentration, the<br>greater the concentration the greater the activity.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Concordance of Dysmorphic Erythrocyte and Cast Erythrocyte Examination using Flowcitometry, Low Condenser Light Microscope, and Phase Contrast Microscope in Children with Glomerular Hematuria 2021-08-31T02:33:22-05:00 Maya E. Roring Jusak Nugraha Risky V. Prasetyo Ferdy R. Marpaung 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Knowledge and Practice Regarding Prevention of Renal Calculi among Non Teaching Staffs of a Selected College of Health Sciences at Mangaluru 2021-08-31T02:38:47-05:00 Maya Shaju Amala Elsy Mathai Dina Joseph Albert Thampi Jyothi <p>Background and Aim: Mankind has been afflicted by urinary stones and is the most common disease of the<br>urinary tract. It affects all ages, sexes, and races but occurs more frequently in men than in women within<br>the age of 20–49 years. Generally, to prevent the first episodes of kidney stone formation or its secondary<br>episodes, proper management of diet is required. The study aim to assess the correlation between knowledge<br>and practice regarding prevention of renal calculi among Non teaching staffs.<br>Methods: A descriptive correlation approach was adopted for the study and by purposive sampling technique<br>95 non-teaching staffs were selected. The data was collected using demographic proforma, structured<br>knowledge questionnaire and Rating scale. Collected data were analyzed by Descriptive and Inferential<br>statistics using SPSS version16.0.<br>Results: Results showed that majority (75.8%) of the subject had average knowledge and 72.6% of the<br>subjects had good practice towards the prevention of renal calculi. There was a significant correlation<br>(p&lt;0.05) between knowledge and practice among non-teaching staffs regarding the prevention of Renal<br>calculi.<br>Conclusion: The study concluded Non teaching staffs had average knowledge and good practice towards<br>prevention of renal calculi.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Financial Obstacles and Disadvantages of E-Learning From The Viewpoint of Dammam Teachers 2021-08-31T02:58:07-05:00 Mayada Abu Alhomos Nawal.H.Bahtiti Tasneem Alayed Omniya Miri <p>The efforts of containing the novel virus (COVID-19) have begun to show signs of psychological impact on<br>teachers and students across the globe. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many school districts have<br>closed for the remainder of the academic year. These closures are unfortunate because, for many students,<br>schools are their only source of trauma-informed care and supports. When schools reopen, they must<br>develop a comprehensive plan to meet their students’ the potential mental health needs as social distancing<br>and awareness campaigns can be a double-edged sword, if handled inadequately. This paper evaluated the<br>challenges of teachers in Dammam in e-learning during the period of the new coronavirus (COVID-19)<br>global pandemic.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Stature Prediction and Formulation of Regression Equation from Hand and Foot Anthropometry 2021-08-31T03:22:13-05:00 Megha Rapotra Jaswinder Kaur <p>Background: Estimation of stature is a key feature of personal identification. Evaluation of stature from<br>incomplete skeletal and decomposing human remains is particularly important in personal identification for<br>forensic experts and anthropologists.<br>Methods: The data was collected from 1000 asymptomatic, healthy adults (500 males and 500 females)<br>belonging to border areas of Punjab region of age group ranged between 18-50 years.<br>Results: The comparison of each parameter of the study shows that all parameters have higher values<br>in males than in females. It is also observed that in males highest correlation is exhibited by Right foot<br>length(r= .418) and in females it is exhibited by Left Foot Length (r= .354). The calculated linear regression<br>formulae show good reliability and applicability for stature estimation.<br>Conclusion: In all parameters the foot length and hand length are better predictors of stature in both sex.<br>Using regression formulae the height of subject can be easily determined and this will be used as research<br>tool in anthropological and medicolegal issues.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessment of Knowledge Regarding First Aid among the Undergraduate Students: A Cross-Sectional Study 2021-08-31T03:52:01-05:00 Melvin Jacob Hezil Reema Barboza <p>Background: First aid knowledge is very valuable for every individual in the community. It enables the<br>individual to assist the injured person in an emergency situation until medical help arrives at the site.1<br>Students are highly exposed to different kinds of physical injuries. Lack of knowledge regarding managing<br>these medical injuries was noted among the students.2 Careful management recommended for reducing the<br>complication. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge of first aid and its associated factors<br>among undergraduate students.3-5<br>Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 undergraduate<br>students. Subjects were selected using purposive sampling techniques. The information was collected using<br>a demographic proforma and a self-administered questionnaire. The overall knowledge on first aid was<br>graded as adequate, good and inadequate.<br>Results: The overall knowledge score was 13.81 ± 4.41. The mean percentage of the overall level of<br>knowledge was 57.54% which indicate the majority had good knowledge on aspects of first aid. In this<br>study there was no significant association between knowledge score and selected demographic variables.<br>Conclusion: The study showed the majority had good knowledge of first aid. But also identified some key<br>areas in which first aid knowledge was deficient in the management of shock, burns and fracture. Thus there<br>is a need for first aid training to be introduced in the undergraduate curriculum of different disciplines. The<br>study recommends the use of modern techniques such as simulation with computerized mannequins as a<br>teaching-learning method in all the educational institutions.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of Dental Implant Stability Regarding All-on-4 Concept Utilizing Two Different Angles 2021-08-31T03:58:35-05:00 Mohammad A. Hameed Thair A. Hasan <p>Background: The “All-on-4” technique using 4 implants that has gained popularity in full arch edentulism<br>cases in recent years was presented as a modern technique in implant-denture rehabilitation by Malo in<br>Lisbon, Portugal, for the first time in 2003 and the all-on-four concept that began to be used in atrophic full<br>arch mandibular and in the maxilla in 2005 has emerged.<br>Aim: evaluation of dental implant stability in relation to All-on-4 concept.<br>Materials and Methods: This was a clinical prospective comparative study organized from February 2019<br>to March 2020 in the College of Dentistry Teaching Hospital, Department of Oral &amp; Maxillofacial Surgery/<br>Dental Implant Unit/University of Baghdad. A total of 15 Iraqi patients aged 41-73 years, 9 males &amp; 6<br>females were enrolled in this study receiving 80 Dental implants (All-on-4 concept). Patients classified into<br>two groups, group A (All-on-4 with 2 anterior axial and 2 posterior with angulation of 17°) and group B<br>(All-on-4 with 2 anterior axial and 2 posterior with angulation of 30°). For both, the surgical site of dental<br>implant was examined for the hard and soft tissues clinically and radiographically utilizing OPG and CBCT.<br>Results: The mean of ISQ values obtained in this study at each time point in the total dental implant,<br>axially placed and angled implant stability demonstrated significant increase (P = 0.000, 0.031 and 0.004)<br>respectively at different times. There was a significant increase in the mean stability of axial and angled<br>implants concerning males (P = 0.001 and P =0.002) respectively than females. Significant correlation<br>between implant stability and the regions at the three times periods. There was a significant difference in<br>angled implants stability between different intervals (P = 0.001) in patients &gt;50y. Success of dental implants<br>95.24%.<br>Conclusion: All-on-4–style full-arch dental implant procedures have one of the highest success rates of<br>dental treatment; the dental implant stability had significant effect in mandible in comparison to maxilla.<br>There was irrelevant clinical analysis result in comparison to the statical analysis in relation to stability with<br>different variables.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The effect of oxidative stress on vitiligo patients 2021-08-31T04:02:49-05:00 Mohammed Hasnawi Ali Muthanna M. Awad <p>The purpose of the study to shed light on one of the hypotheses keys in causing disease vitiligo is the<br>stress hypothesis of oxidative, stable of vitiligo have been identified active stages or on the basis of the<br>development or the emergence of new spots in the past three months and the absence of new or patches<br>development in the past six months, the in a row, this study included three groups, all of them were male.<br>The first group included the active group, patients with vitiligo of the active type30 the second person, the<br>dormant group, includes static type vitiligo patients 25One person, the third, the control group (apparently<br>healthy) included20People. We have examined the serum levels of Superoxide Dismutase enzyme, catalase<br>enzyme, and Malondi- aldehyde, our results revealed that the level of higher than Malondi- aldehyde at the<br>level of probability (P &lt;0.05) In the serum of the disease group compared to the control group, a significant<br>increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase was observed in the serum of the disease group at the level of<br>probability(P &lt;0.05)Compared to the control group, the catalase activity decreased at the probability level(<br>P &lt;0.05) In the pathological group compared with the control group, our study shows that stress Oxidative<br>has a role in the physiology pathogenesis of vitiligo active and static. An imbalance of antioxidants was<br>observed in the blood of active Vitiligo patients.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Exotoxin a isolated from Pseudomonas Aeruginosaagainsthuman Cancer Cell Lines 2021-08-31T04:06:31-05:00 Muthanna Hamid Hassan <p>In this study, the presence of Pseudomonasaeruginosawas investigated from many clinical samples, and<br>then about 54 isolates were obtained, diagnosed with all different diagnostic methods, and then the bacterial<br>isolates produced for ExotoxinA were detected by the ELISA method and then the most productive isolate<br>was chosen for purification by means ofPrecipitation with ammonium sulphate and ion-exchange column<br>and detection of molecular weight was (M.W 65.03KD).The competent isolation tested its toxicity against<br>two cancer cell linesHeLa and PC3 which were an inhibition ratio 69.1% and 61.6% respectively in high<br>concentration.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Comparison between Retro-Clavicular and Proximal Infraclavicular Approaches for Brachial Plexus Block for Anesthesia of the Upper Limb 2021-08-31T04:12:56-05:00 Mohammed Sami Hassan Mohammad Asi Jabbar Mortada Abd Al-Hussian Jubara <p>Background: This comparative study hypothesize there are differences betweenultrasound guided retroclavicular<br>and proximal infraclavicular approaches for brachial plexus block for surgeriesinvolving lower<br>part of arm, elbow, forearm and hand with the use of tourniquet.<br>Method: About 36 patients randomly allocated into 2 groups, first group block done through retro-clavicular<br>approach (RCB) and the other group done by using proximalinfraclavicular block (PIB).In RCB group<br>needle inserted posterior to the clavicle and directed posterior to the first part of axillary artery. In PIB<br>needle inserted from lateral to medial after abduction of the arm more than 90° where the cords are clustered<br>together.<br>Results: Block performance time was (6.11±2.58) and (6.05±2.61) for RCB and PIB, respectively without<br>significant difference (p= 0.94). The onset of sensory was (12.8±1.4) and (11±2.3) for RCB and PIB,<br>respectively. For motor onset (17.4 ±2.3) and (15.3±3.3) and there is significant difference between both<br>groups (p=0.009 and 0.04), respectively. There was no significant difference in block-related pain between<br>the two groups (p=0.809) VRS for RCB was (1.41±0.712) and for PIB was (1.32±0.67). Tourniquetpain<br>reported by the patientfor RCB was 1.24±0.56 and for PIB was 1.11±0.315, there is no significant difference<br>between both groups (p=0.392)<br>Conclusion: Ultrasound guided BPB by retro-clavicular and proximal approaches are with a comparable<br>quality of surgical anesthesia for operations of the lower arm, elbow, forearm and hand with the use of<br>tourniquet, the onset of surgical anesthesia is earlier for PIB, the RCB is preferred for patients who cannot<br>abduct the arm.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Pathologist’s Perspective on Histopathology Examination of Autopsies and Various Incidental Findings 2021-08-31T04:18:57-05:00 Mohanvir Kaur Lachhima Bhandari Vijay Kumar Bodal Sarbhjit Kaur <p>Background-The current study aims to highlight the importance of autopsies in not just finding the cause<br>of death; but also, incidental discovery of various rare lesions, that may or may not be the cause of death.<br>The study also aims to highlight the common cause of death, spectrum of common incidental findings and<br>reporting of various rare, interesting cases. Method- This is a retrospective study conducted between year<br>2013 to 2020 on 800 autopsies and their histopathological examination in Pathology Department, GMC,<br>Patiala. Conclusion- Finding of this study concludes the importance of histopathological autopsy in not just<br>highlighting the cause of death but also finding many rare diseases, thus enriching the field of medicine and<br>pathology by observing the histological findings and also sometimes the course of rare diseases.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Incidental Neoplastic Tumours on Histo Pathology of Medico Legal Post Mortem Cases: A Ten Year Study 2021-08-31T04:29:17-05:00 Mohanvir Kaur Kanwardeep Kaur Tiwana Lachhima Bhandara Shaina Goyal Shiv Kumar Monika Kalyan <p>Background: Autopsy has been an important tool for detection of many rare lesions as well as studying<br>the course of such lesions, highlighting the cause of death and also helps in indirect collection of data for<br>mortality and forming health policies. Aim of present study was to detect the rate and type various neoplasms<br>which were either clinically undiagnosed or not the direct cause of death and their system wise analysis.<br>Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted on viscera Received between year 2011-20<br>on 810 medico legal autopsy cases coming to Department of Pathology for histopathological examination.<br>Result: Out of 810 cases, 09 tumours were diagnosed (1.1%). In 6 cases, it was completely incidental<br>finding while in 03 cases history of malignancy was present. Tumours were mostly seen in older age group<br>(&gt;50 years).<br>Conclusion: The study concludes the importance of histopathologic study in autopsies in detection of<br>clinically undiagnosed neoplasms and evaluating the cause of death. Thus, autopsies also indirectly aid to<br>the true cancer incidence statistics.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Stature Estimation and Formulation of Regression Equation from Ear Anthropometry in Haryanvi Population 2021-08-31T04:46:30-05:00 Monika Rathee Jaswinder Kaur Suresh Kanta Rathee <p>Background: Human beings are unique in number of physical characteristics like shape and form of<br>an individual. These characteristics are influenced by a wide range of racial, ecological, psychological,<br>geographical, gender and biological variations. Human external ear is often overlooked during anthropometric<br>measurements. The structure of human ear is so much variable that even two ears are different in same<br>individual and it also varies according to age, sex, race and ethnic group.Authentic anthropometric data of<br>ear for a particular population is necessary for designing of ear products for occupational environments, to<br>find out the age, sex and stature of an individual in that population. This data on ear measurements can also<br>be helpful in forensic and medico-legal cases for personal identification of an individual. The main objective<br>of the study is to find any relationship between ear parameters and stature and also to formulate regression<br>equation for estimation of stature in Haryanvi adult Jaats.<br>Methods: The present study was conducted on 300 healthy Haryanvi Jaats (150 females and 150 males)<br>aged 20 to 60 years. Measurements of ear length, ear breadth and stature were taken on each subject.<br>Conclusion: Ear length and ear breadth are not significantly correlated with stature (p&gt;0.05) in both the<br>sexes except ear breadth which is significantly correlated with stature in males (p&lt;0.05).<br>The present study concluded that stature cannot be estimated from ear length and ear breadth in Haryanvi<br>population.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Facial Anthropometry: A Reliable Tool for Stature Estimation in Haryanvi Population 2021-08-31T04:51:15-05:00 Monika Rathee Jaswinder Kaur Suresh Kanta Rathee <p>Background: Facial anthropometry is a part of cephalometry that involves the measurements of face. It<br>is very helpful in reconstructive surgery, forensic medicine, orthodontics and to find ethnic differences<br>by defining various shapes of face. Facial features of every individual are different even in siblings.<br>These features vary according to gender, racial and biological group, ecological and geographical region.<br>Anthropometry can also be used for estimation of stature, where it cannot be measured directly such as<br>spinal or lower limb deformity or any other neuromuscular disorder.So, the present study attempted to find<br>that is the facial parameters are reliable in estimation of stature in Haryanvi jaat population and also aims<br>formulate regression equation for estimation of stature in the same.<br>Methods: A sample of total 300 adult Haryanvi jaatsof age group 20 to 60 years was taken for the present<br>study. Out of them 150 were females and 150 weremales. Anthropometric measurements of face and stature<br>were taken on each subject.<br>Conclusion: All the studied facial parameters showed positive significant correlation with stature (p&lt;0.01)<br>both in males and females So, it can be concluded that facial anthropometry is a reliable tool for stature<br>estimation in Haryanvi population.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Stature Estimation and Formulation of Regression Equation from Ear Anthropometry in Haryanvi Population 2021-08-31T05:01:55-05:00 Monika Rathee Jaswinder Kaur Suresh Kanta Rathee <p>Background: Human beings are unique in number of physical characteristics like shape and form of<br>an individual. These characteristics are influenced by a wide range of racial, ecological, psychological,<br>geographical, gender and biological variations. Human external ear is often overlooked during anthropometric<br>measurements. The structure of human ear is so much variable that even two ears are different in same<br>individual and it also varies according to age, sex, race and ethnic group.Authentic anthropometric data of<br>ear for a particular population is necessary for designing of ear products for occupational environments, to<br>find out the age, sex and stature of an individual in that population. This data on ear measurements can also<br>be helpful in forensic and medico-legal cases for personal identification of an individual. The main objective<br>of the study is to find any relationship between ear parameters and stature and also to formulate regression<br>equation for estimation of stature in Haryanvi adult Jaats.<br>Methods: The present study was conducted on 300 healthy Haryanvi Jaats (150 females and 150 males)<br>aged 20 to 60 years. Measurements of ear length, ear breadth and stature were taken on each subject.<br>Conclusion: Ear length and ear breadth are not significantly correlated with stature (p&gt;0.05) in both the<br>sexes except ear breadth which is significantly correlated with stature in males (p&lt;0.05).<br>The present study concluded that stature cannot be estimated from ear length and ear breadth in Haryanvi<br>population.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Therapy of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Hormone in Dairy Cattles that Have Repeat Breeder on Pregnancy Rate in Tulungagung, East Java, Indonesia 2021-08-31T05:10:54-05:00 Muhammad Aulia Rahman Sri Pantja Madyawati Oky Setyo Widodo Pudji Srianto Trilas Sardjito Rimayanti <p>This study aimed to prove that giving hCG injection at the time of artificial insemination and five days after<br>artificial insemination in dairy cows with repeat breeder can cause pregnancy. This study employed 30 dairy<br>cows with repeat breeder. All samples of dairy cows were divided into two treatments, P1 using hCG at a<br>dose of 100 IU given intramuscularly at the time of artificial insemination and P2 using hCG at a dose of<br>100 IU intramuscularly given five days after artificial insemination. The results were analyzed using the Chi-<br>Square test. Analysis using Chi-Square showed that all treatments caused pregnancy (100%). In summary,<br>hCG injection at the time of artificial insemination and five days after artificial insemination in dairy cows<br>experiencing repeat breeding can cause pregnancy.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Stopping and Completing the Period of Appeal Against Judicial Rulings in Accordance with Jordanian law 2021-08-31T05:33:06-05:00 Muhanned Farhan Al Taani <p>This study attempts to shed light on the applicability of the Jordanian Civil Trials Law No. 24 of 1988<br>and its amendments in light of the COVID-19 pandemic and the prevention of litigants’ access to the<br>courts because it is an official holiday on the grounds constituting it to be a force majeure or an emergency<br>circumstance which is considered an unexpected event. The law did not explicitly stipulate a cessation of<br>appeal against judgments. When this impediment is present, the appellant can complete the appeal period<br>when this impediment ceases to exist. The completion of the prescribed periods becomes in effect, while<br>Defense Order No. 5 bridged the gap in the provisions of the Civil Trials Law in light of the country’s<br>passage through the COVID-19 pandemic, which came suddenly being an unexpected event. The legislator<br>was unable to address the issue of stopping and completing the appeal period against the ruling issued for<br>its appeal within the legal period stipulated in the law. Besides, this study includes the opinions of jurists in<br>the Civil Trials Law.<br>This study indicated that the event of force majeure or an emergency situation (COVID-19 pandemic) with<br>the activation of Defense Law No. 13 of 1992 as it is pointing that completing the period of appeal with<br>judicial rulings and the necessity of its application during the existence of the COVID-19 pandemic with the<br>need to amend the Jordanian legislature for the legal loophole in this regard.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Unanticipated Ligature Strangulation: A Case Report 2021-08-31T05:35:50-05:00 Mukul Sharma Kimi Soumya Padhi Manas Ranjan Sahu Utkal Keshari Suna Govinda Balmuchu <p>Strangulation is a form of mechanical asphyxia by compression of the neck with an outside force either by<br>a ligature or hands, in which a constricting force other than the weight of the body is directly applied.Such<br>deaths are generally considered homicidal. Here we present a case of 60year old female, who got trapped in<br>the rice huller machine with the saree she was wearing and accidentally got strangled.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Self-Administration of Vecuronium by a Medical Student: An Autopsy Case Report 2021-08-31T05:49:38-05:00 Mukul Sharma Biplab Rath Naveen A Manas Ranjan Sahu <p>During COVID-19 pandemic the frontline healthcare workers have been at risk the most. Long working<br>hours, emotional stress from not seeing families for days together takes a toll on the psychological wellbeing<br>of a person. This leads to increase incidence of self-harm amongst the individuals. Vecuronium<br>bromide is a muscle relaxant, easy availability of such drugs amongst the medical professionals is a matter<br>of great concern. Monitoring and cautious dispensing of them should be done. Here we report a case of<br>self-administration of vecuronium by a medical student .The purpose of documenting this case is to create<br>awareness among healthcare workers to keep a watch on mental health of fellow colleagues. Psychological<br>support groups in medical college hospitals are the need of hour.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Copper Beaten Skull: An Incidental Finding in Autopsy 2021-08-31T05:57:13-05:00 Mukul Sharma Sasank Shekhar Maharik Sarthak Aeron Biplab Rath Manoj Kumar Mohanty <p>The Sutures in the human skull are zones of separation between skull bones, which also allows the skull<br>bones to grow in a fashion along with increase in size of brain, early closure of sutures (craniosynostosis)<br>may lead to increase in intracranial tension and it pushes the soft skull outward which leads to undulating<br>patterns formation in inner plate of skull called as silver beaten or copper beaten skull. Here we document<br>an incidental finding of copper beaten skull pattern in a case of road traffic accident brought to Mortuary of<br>AIIMS Bhubaneswar.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Insulin Resistance in Hyper Insulinemic and Euglycemic Persons 2021-08-31T06:08:08-05:00 Muntadher H. Dawood Taha H. Al-Yasiri <p>This experiment was conducted in the city of Amara in southern Iraq at Al-Sadr Hospital. The study aimed<br>to evaluate the effect of administering Ascorbic Acid on 50 diabeticpatients who had insulin resistance after<br>they were diagnosed clinicallyof 25 patients were treated with Ascorbic acid at dose 500 mg twice a day for<br>12 days and the others 25 were considered as control.<br>The study group demonstrated a significant decrease in the fasting patient’s blood sugar (F.B.S), insulin and<br>fasting blood, and Insulin resistance at the end of 12 weeks (P0.05) as compared to baseline measurements.<br>The reduction in F.B.S, Fasting Insulin, and Insulin resistance was significantly reduced in the ascorbic acid<br>group at week 12 of the study relative to the control group (P &lt;0.05).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Relation between Level of Some Immunological Markers and Liver Functions with Respiratory Bacterial Infection in Sheep 2021-08-31T06:12:06-05:00 Mustafa Ghazi Saeed Bashar SadeqNoomi Entedhar Rifaat Sarhat <p>Sheep pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of the study<br>report to determine Interleukine-6,IL-10,and liver function test , and kidney function test of sheep suffering<br>from respiratory disease. Blood samples were collected from the diseased and healthy sheep during field<br>study, for biochemical analysis. The results of 50 diseased animals were compared with results of 50 healthy<br>animals.Data of selected biochemical parameters implicated a significant increase in Interleukin-6, alanine<br>aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and Gamma glutamyltransferase in the diseased group<br>compared to the healthy sheep’s. On the other hand, a significant decrease was seen in the levels of IL-<br>10, lactate dehydrogenase and total protein in the diseased group compared to the control. The results of<br>this study could conclude that respiratory infections in sheep were associated with significant biochemical<br>and immunological alterations which upon understanding can provide us with rapid diagnostic tools for<br>pneumonia process in sheep and thus lead to better management and proper treatment.Future research is<br>warranted to determine the response of individual animals to this disease and to describe the metabolic<br>changes which occur during the course of respiratory diseases.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Protocol of Low Dose Chest CT to Verify Suspected COVID -19 infection 2021-08-31T06:17:48-05:00 Muthana Hussien Mohan Mahmood Radhi Jobayr Salam Mohmad Joori <p>Chest CT scanning is significant in verifying COVID-19 infection in patients with clinical symptoms,<br>although CT scanning uses ionizing radiation. So we aim to investigate the demonstration of relevance and<br>accuracy of chest tomography using a low-dose protocol compared to the standard auto-modulation protocol<br>of 50 – 210 mAs. Moreover, to assess whether any distinguishing signs in patients might help determine<br>the severity of the respiratory infection from COVID-19. A standard auto-modulation protocol of 50 – 210<br>mAs was performed for all patients (120 patients), Rotation time 0.5 second. Of the 120 patients whose<br>CT scan showed signs of COVID-19 infection, 47 patients aged over 50 years were selected. Low dose<br>CT scanning (30 mAs) was performed on these patients immediately. Of the 120 patients over the age of<br>50 with COVID-19 according to a PCR underwent a CT chest, only 47 showed signs of COVID-19.When<br>compared to standard-dose, low-dose demonstrated excellent sensitivity in detecting typical findings of<br>COVID-19 (coefficient of significance (C.S) = 0.98–0.99, P-values &lt; 0.05 one reader and P-values &lt; 0.01<br>two readers). The mean effective dose values were 6.32±2.82 and 1.45±0.29mSvin the stander and lowdose,<br>respectively.A low dose protocol can be used with high reliability and accuracy to reduce the ionizing<br>radiation risks in the state of reproducible assessment. On the other hand, we emphasize there are indicators<br>with high reliability of a relationship between infection with COVID-19 and its severity and the work nature,<br>environment, age, body mass index (BMI) and Patient Health Status.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Enhancement of Coping Patterns among Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 2021-09-01T01:59:47-05:00 Nabila Atallah Attia Moawad Ghada Mohamed Mourad Fatma Ata <p>Background: Families of children with ADHD encounter greater difficulties such as family conflict,<br>negative parent- child relationship, higher rates of parent stress and ineffective coping. The aimof study:<br>was to enhancement of coping patterns among parents of children with ADHD. Study design: a quasiexperimental<br>design was utilized to conduct this study. Setting: This study was conducted at Pediatric<br>Out-Patient Clinic atEl-Abbassia hospital for psychiatric and mental health.Method: convenient sample of<br>50 parents were chosen for conducting this study. Data collection tools:(1) Socio demographic and clinical<br>characteristics data for children and their parents.(2)Parental stress scale. (3)Ways of coping Questionnaire.<br>Results: the present study revealed that there were highly statistically significant differences between preand<br>post- program of parental stress regarding level of stress, there were highly statistically significant<br>improvement between post-program compared to pre –program regarding coping patterns of the parents<br>have children with ADHD. Conclusion: parents of children with ADHD had high level of stress, which<br>decreased after implementation of the educational program with a highly statistical significant difference.In<br>addition to the current study revealed that after the intervention there were improvements in coping patterns<br>of parents. Recommendations: Continuous education programs and counseling are important to improve<br>parents’ adjustment toward care of their ADHD children.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Knowledge, Attitude, Action, Ability to Pay (ATP), and Willingness to Pay (WTP) Young Adults in Fulfilling the Need for Oral Hygiene Maintenance 2021-09-01T02:21:24-05:00 NadyaSavira Giyansyah Nadia Chairony Indira Arella Harianto Ulfie Rahmah Aliyah AryoDwipoKusumo <p>Background: One of the preventive efforts that can be performed to avoid dental and oral health problems<br>is by maintaining oral hygiene. Currently, there are various tools for maintaining dental and oral hygiene<br>that are sold in the market. Purpose: To reveal the knowledge, attitude, action, Ability to Pay (ATP), and<br>Willingness to Pay (WTP) of young adults in fulfilling the need for maintenance of oral hygiene. Methods:<br>This research was a descriptive research type. The sample size was determined as 100 people, targeting the<br>group of young adults aged 20-29 years who have worked or earn. A cross tabulation test was conducted<br>between the ATP and WTP variables with demographic characteristics, namely age and work experience.<br>Results: Based on the age frequency of ATP sufferers, those aged 20-29 years are able to meet the needs of<br>oral hygiene at most at a cost of Rp. 51,000- Rp. 100,000, and the age frequency with the most WTP at a cost<br>of Rp. 141,000 - Rp. 160,000.Based on the length of time working with the ATP, most of the oral hygiene<br>needs are Rp. 51,000-Rp. 100,000. Meanwhile, the frequency of working with WTP is the maximum cost of<br>Rp. 141,000 - Rp. 160,000. Conclusion: According to the research results, it can be concluded that the level<br>of knowledge, attitude, and action of young adults in fulfilling the needs for maintenance of oral hygiene is<br>good.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dental Health Care for Older Persons with Diabetes by Caregivers in Ubon Ratchathani 2021-09-01T02:28:32-05:00 Namphet Tungyingyong Ruengsin Thuennadee Niruwan Turnbul <p>Background: Ubon Ratchathani province has seen the phenomenon of the population aging since 2010<br>and the number of the elderly continues rise each year. According to the assessment of oral health, most<br>of the elderly suffer from Gingivitis and Periodontitis, and have lost their teeth as a result of tooth decay<br>and periodontal diseases. Methods: This study design was a research and development study aimed to<br>explore the process of dental health caregiving for older persons with diabetes by caregivers in Ubon<br>Ratchathani province. Proportional to the estimation of the population, the sample size was 403 elderly<br>patients for contextual study from June 2016 to July 2018. Data was collected using questionnaires with<br>a reliability of 0.8, and analysis was conducted using statistical tools, number, percent, mean, standard<br>deviation, independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Results: The finding demonstrated that the<br>participants, similarly, needed care from caregivers, the role of caregivers, health promotion and prevention,<br>while treatment was less of a need. Comparisons of evaluation results from both groups considered impacts<br>on their oral health, on the Daily Performance of their Lives, as well as their Knowledge of and Attitude<br>towards oral care, demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p-value = &lt;0.001). Elderly patients<br>without caregivers suffered largely from loose teeth, showing little knowledge and misunderstanding of<br>tooth brushing techniques, believing that the harder they brush the better it is for their dental health. As for<br>behavior, both groups showed no statistically significant difference (p-value = 0.09) and were rated to be at<br>the same medium level. Conclusion: The finding can be applied for consistency of information from current<br>such as the service was easy to access, the development of the potential and skills of the elderly patients with<br>diabetes and their involved, as well as follow-up for strength and teamwork.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Endodontic Retreatment in Underfilled Root Canal of Maxillary First Molar with Chronic Periapical Abscess: A Case Report 2021-09-01T02:43:04-05:00 Nanik Zubaidah Kun Ismiyatin Cinitra Anindya Nindhira Puspita Sari Singgih Harseno Ahmad Afif Dzulfikar Dian Dwi Pratiwi <p>Background:The failure of endodontic treatment commonly caused by imperfect obturation, periodontalperiradicular<br>lesions, untreated root canals, and some other factors. The failure may trigger the occurrence<br>of secondary infections due to persistent. bacteria.One of the abnormalities that appear after endodontic<br>treatment is a periapical abscess.Endodontic failure can be overcome by endodontic retreatment, apical<br>surgery, or extraction. During an endodontic retreatment, endodontic instruments are used to remove the<br>root canal filling material and to repeat the steps of endodontic treatment to achieve the apical patency.<br>Purpose: This case report presents management to overcome the failure of previous endodontic treatment<br>with nonsurgical endodontic retreatment. Case: A 66 years old male patient came with a dull pain of<br>tooth no 16 and uncomfortable when used for chewing since 2 months after endodontic treatment. The<br>episodic swelling appeared since 3 months ago which then deflated.The objective examination showed a<br>positive response to bite test and percussion test. Intraoral periapical radiograph confirmed an underfilled<br>root canal, and a periapical radiolucency with a diffuse border on palatal root. Case Management: Based<br>on the patient’s history taking, radiographic, and clinical examination,endodontic retreatment was done<br>and followed by porcelain fused to metal crown restoration. Conclusion: Endodontic retreatment is the<br>appropriate treatmentoption to overcome the failure of the previous endodontic treatment that accompanied<br>with a periapical lesion and to preserve its function in stomatognatic system.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Harlequin Ichthyosis the Most Severe Form of the Congenital Ichthyosis; A Case Report Study 2021-09-01T02:50:41-05:00 Nasim Talebi-Azar Mayam Rasouli Babak Choobi Anzali Rasoul Goli Jaizeh Karimi Johani Navid Faraji Amireh Hassanpour Aynaz Bagherzadi <p>Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a rare and the most severe form of the congenital ichthyosis with an autosomal<br>recessive inheritance. At birth, the HI phenotype is striking with thick hyperkeratotic plate-like scales<br>with deep dermal fissures, severe ectropion, among other findings. Although HI infants have historically<br>succumbed in the perinatal period related to their profound epidermal compromise, the prognosis of HI<br>infants has vastly improved over the past 20 years. The disease might be lethal at birth and the affected babies<br>are often premature. The present study reports a new case with HI and adds to the collective knowledge of<br>this rare skin disorder.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assess the Effectiveness of Breast Crawl Technique on Selected Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes among Mothers Admitted in Labour Ward at Selected Hospitals of Kheda-Anand District, Gujarat 2021-09-01T02:59:56-05:00 Neha Parmar Patel Sonali PrajapatiNilam Patel Urja Christian Richa Patel Radhika Parmar Mittal <p>Background: The Investigator conducted a study to Assess the Effectiveness of Breast Crawl Technique on<br>selected, Maternal and neonatal Outcomes Among Mothers Admitted in Labour Ward at selected hospitals<br>of Kheda-anand District Gujarat.was carried out by researcher. The objectives of the study were: (1) To<br>assess the effectiveness of breast crawl technique on maternal and neonatal outcome among experimental<br>group and control group. (2) To find out the association between maternal and neonatal outcomes and<br>selected demographic variables in experimental group. Research Design: A quasi experimental research<br>approach was used with non- equivalent control group post test only design. The researcher used nonprobability<br>purposive sampling technique for selecting the 40 samples. Tools :Latch scale was used to<br>assess the initiation of breast feeding, Visual analogue pain scale was used to assess the intensity of pain,<br>and APGAR score was used for newborn assessment. Validity was assessed by 7 experts. Reliability of latch<br>scale, Visual analogue pain scale and APGAR Score was ascertained by using Karl Pearson’s co-relation<br>coefficient formula. Data Analysis &amp; Results: The data will be analyzed by descriptive statistics such as<br>Mean, Standard deviation, Frequency, Percentage. The mean score of effectiveness of breast crawl technique<br>on initiation of breast feeding, intensity of pain, newborn assessment was higher in experimental group than<br>the control group. So it was revealed that there was significant difference between experimental group and<br>control group. For comparison of effectiveness of breast crawl technique on initiation of breast feeding,<br>intensity of pain, newborn assessment in that mean score was higher and calculated “t” test value is 4.83<br>which is greater than tabulated value 2.09. So, that the research hypothesis is accepted and proved that there<br>will be significant association between initiation of breast feeding, intensity of pain, newborn assessment<br>between the experimental group and control group. The finding of the study also revealed that there was<br>significant association between the initiation of breast feeding, intensity of pain, newborn assessment with<br>selected demographic variables.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Effect of Capitation Value of Healthcare and Social Security Agency on Service Quality at Primary Clinics 2021-09-01T03:07:28-05:00 Neny Nurlaily Titik Ernawati FaraValeyria Irma Zain Chomariyah <p>Indonesia started to apply the National Health Insurance System on January 1, 2014, and the legal entity<br>formed to administer this program is the Healthcare and Social Security Agency. Funding for the Healthcare<br>and Social Security Agency at primary clinic uses the capitation system where the funds are mostly used for<br>services and operations. The use of capitation funds at the primary clinic is fully managed by itself based on<br>the agreement. This actually creates the potential for fraud because of the lack of regulations on using the<br>capitation funds. Fraud at the primary clinic does not really appear on the surface like a fraud in hospitals. It<br>can be in the form of insufficient resources, facilities and service discrimination. Many studies have shown<br>a link between capitation funds and health services. A primary clinic needs to have an audit team to evaluate<br>whether the use of capitation funds is following the expected targets and needs.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Patient Satisfaction with Hospital services, Physicians and NursesCareof Government Hospital in Sulaimani City 2021-09-01T03:11:53-05:00 Bekhal Abdalwahid Amin Niaz Mustafa Kamal Bestun Ibrahim Hama Rahim <p>Background: Patients’ satisfaction is a person’s feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from a<br>service’s perceived performance or outcome to his or her expectations. As this definition makes it clear,<br>satisfaction is a function of perceived performance and expectations. This study was undertaken to evaluated<br>patients’ satisfaction level with the hospital services and health care providers among four government<br>hospitals in sulaimani city. The data from 311 inpatients admitted to and stay in the hospital for any medical<br>condition were collected by a face-to-face interview from November 2019 to February 2020. Standardized<br>4-point Likert scales ranging from satisfying to dissatisfying (1 to 4points) were used for all the 24 items in<br>the questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using a statistical package of Stata (14.version). A frequency<br>analysis was used for demographic data analysis. A person Chi-square test was employed to determine the<br>association between the categorical independent variables. The participant’s mean age was 37.9 SD 13.5<br>years with ages ranged from 14-85 years. The majority (86.5%) of the study participants were satisfied with<br>the hospital services and environment while a small number 42 (13.5%) of them were dissatisfied with the<br>issue. Almost 275 (88.4%) of the patients were revealed excellent nurse care and a very small number 36<br>(11.6%) was showed dissatisfaction. Also, 245 (79.1%) of the patients were satisfied with doctor care. Only<br>65 (20.9%) of them have a negative aspect of doctor care. A significant difference was found between the<br>level of education and patients’ satisfaction with doctor care (coefficient 0.88, p&lt;0.05). Besides, a significant<br>association was found between residence and hospital services (coefficient 0.63, p =0.05). In general, we<br>have discovereda satisfaction level among our sample is considered high and indicates good care provided<br>by health facilities in all hospitals. Further study required seeking the least satisfactory factor regarding<br>doctor care.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Multimodal Strategy to Improve Hand Hygiene Compliance to Practices among Staff Nurses 2021-09-01T03:19:51-05:00 Nilima Vasava Praful Damor Jayshree Vasava <p>Introduction and Background: Healthcare-acquired infections [HCAI] account for 10-30% of all hospital<br>admissions, according to the World Health Organization [WHO]. An estimated 1.4 million people are infected with<br>HCAI at any given time.1 As the burden of health-care-associated infections grows, so does the seriousness of disease<br>and treatment difficulty, which is exacerbated by multi-drug-resistant pathogen infections.2 Health care providers<br>are reverting to the fundamentals of infection control by employing common steps such as hand hygiene.3 The<br>WHO’s global initiative on patient safety programmers has made “Clean Care is Safer Care” a top is time<br>for developing countries to formulate the much-needed policies for implementation of basic infection prevention<br>practices in health care set-up.4<br>Nurses, the “nucleus of the health-care system,” spend more time with patients than any other health-care worker, and<br>their adherence to hand-washing protocols appears to be more important in preventing disease transmission among<br>patients. Hand hygiene is thought to be the most important factor in preventing healthcare-associated infections<br>(HAI). Hand hygiene programmes with a variety of components have been shown to increase compliance among<br>healthcare workers and, as a result, minimise infections. One such initiative is the World Health Organization’s<br>implementation of an evidence-based definition called “My five moments for hand hygiene.”5<br>The investigator seeks to study the compliance to hand hygiene practices among staff nurses, working in the obstetrical<br>and gynaecological wards. The research is an endeavour to increase the awareness and educate nurses about the need<br>for compliance to hand hygiene practices.<br>Aim: A.The aim of this study was to see how well health care workers in the intensive care unit kept their hands<br>clean (ICU)<br>B. To determine the causes of noncompliance, and<br>C. To investigate the effectiveness of a multimodal intervention approach in enhancing compliance.<br>Methodology: This Quasi experimental one group pre-intervention and post intervention study compares the<br>compliance to hand hygiene practices before and after a multimodal interventional strategy<br>Setting: The study was conducted in ICU ward in hospital<br>Result: The study needed a sample size of 64 nurses to achieve an 80 percent power and a 5% error rate. A t test<br>was used to compare the mean pre- and post-test scores. ANOVA was used to examine the relationships between<br>the baseline variables. Hand hygiene enforcement among staff nurses increased dramatically from 45.31 percent<br>to 65.78 percent following multimodal intervention strategies. (P0.0001) Hand hygiene techniques have improved<br>significantly (hand wash technique mean score increased from 5.97 + 1.284 to 8.16 + 1.158 (p 0.05) and hand rub<br>technique score increased from 4.52 + 0.992 to 6.69 + 1.489 (p 0.05)).The private wards had considerably better hand<br>hygiene than the general wards.<br>XI. Conclusion: The results of this study show that when multimodal interventional interventions were used, hand<br>hygiene compliance improved.<br><br></p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Oral Health 2021-09-01T03:53:14-05:00 Nireeksha Mithra N Hegde Suchetha Kumari N <p>Background: Anti-microbial peptides and vitamin D levels in saliva, GCF play an important role in oral<br>health and its maintenance. The peptide levels are regulated by the Vitamin D cathecidilin pathway and their<br>association and influence on oral health is of outmost importance. The aim of the present review article is to<br>establish The aim is to establish a relationship and possibly the role of Cathelicidins and Vitamin D receptor<br>gene polymorphism in relation to oral health<br>Methodology: The preferred reporting items for systematic review ad meta analysis (PRISMA) were used<br>for reporting this systematic review. The study protocol has been approved by all co-authors .The study has<br>been registered at the National institute for health research (NHR) under the Prospero ID: CRD42020200946.<br>Results: A total of 102 articles were retrieved through electronic database search .After evaluating the title,<br>abstract and full text of these articles only 7 were selected for the present systematic review. However 3<br>articles were excluded because they were classified as high risk of bias according to PRISMA guidelines.<br>Out of 7 studies selected,4 were classified as low risk bias and 3 were classified as moderate riskbias.<br>Conclusion: The current evidence suggests anti-microbial peptide LL-37 and vitamin D receptor gene<br>polymorphism plays an important role in caries prevalence and periodontal health<br>Highlight: Understanding the role of antimicrobial peptides in saliva helps in enhancing focus on the effect<br>of these components on oral health and its maintenance.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Primary Closure after Open Common Bile Duct Exploration in Comparison to T-tube Drainage. Our Experience in a New Medical College of Assam 2021-09-01T03:58:54-05:00 Nirmal Kumar Agarwal Jon Bordalai SantanuSarma <p>Background: Traditionally T-tube drainage of CBD is most commonly done. However T-tube has its own<br>problems mainly longer hospitalisation, longer absence from work and many complications. This study done<br>to assess outcome of primary closure of CBD after open CBD exploration.<br>Methods: This retrospective study was done in Tezpur Medical College which is a new medical college in<br>Assam. All the patients who underwent CBD exploration in our unit were analysed to compare the results.<br>All together 38 patients underwent CBD exploration of which in 18 primary closure of CBD was done.<br>Results and Conclusion: Our results indicate lesser complications for primary closure, much shorter<br>hospital stay in comparison to T-tube drainage.<br>Primary closure of CBD after choledocholithotomy is safe, much simple and effective and has lesser<br>complications in comparison to T-tube drainage.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Detection of Mn – Dependent Chitinase for Wheat Root Rot Disease Control by Real time PCR 2021-09-01T04:07:18-05:00 Noor Maath Ahmed Akeel Hussian Ali Al-Assie Abdullah Abdulkareem Hassan <p>The use of some mineral salts with concentrations of 10, 30 and 50 mm Muller led to the inhibition of<br>the activity of the enzyme chitinase, but to varying degrees. Manganese chloride MnCl2 showed more<br>effect in stimulating the activity of the enzyme, as the effectiveness reached 74.87% in addition to calcium<br>chloride CaCl2, which had a stimulating effect for the enzyme as well. The salts EDTA and NH4Cl had an<br>inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity. The field experiment was conducted for the purpose of inducing<br>systemic resistance of wheat plants with the fungus T. longibrachiatum under conditions of infection with<br>the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and evaluating the efficacy of the chitinase enzyme in improving plant<br>growth for three varieties of wheat, which are Iba 99, Sham 6 and July 2 for 45 days, after which the<br>vegetative characteristics were taken. For cultivated plants and the efficacy of the chitinase enzyme for the<br>shoot and root system, the induction treatment (pathogenic fungus + T. longibrachiatum + MnCl2) proved its<br>role in the highest reduction of the severity of infection with the pathogen fungus of wheat, reaching 18.05%<br>and the high vegetative and root growth indicators under conditions of pathogen infection and for all the<br>studied varieties. The results of induction were due to the increased expression of the chitinase enzyme gene.<br>RT - PCR technique was used. It showed that all the studied cultivars with 99, Sham 6 and July 2 had higher<br>expression than the control treatment.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 On Health Care Sectore, What External Environment that Important? : A Review Literature 2021-09-01T04:14:42-05:00 Noor SyamSidiq Himawan Nur Wening <p>This Paper is a literature review related to various studies that discuss macro environmental analysis<br>(political, economic, socio-cultural and technological) in the field of health care. The purpose of this study<br>is to explore and connect theories from various studies related to macro business environment factors that<br>are important in the field of health care, how much research is related and what are the opportunities for<br>future research. This paper identifies 21 articles that discuss the analysis of the business environment in<br>the health care sector. In this study, the criteria for selecting literature were applied, namely the selected<br>literature must be in the form of articles not handbooks, in English, discussing business environmental<br>analysis, especially in the field of health services and published for a maximum of the last 10 years. The<br>research related to political factors was 31.25%, economic factors 18.75%, socio-cultural factors 18.75%<br>and technological factors 31.25%. Research related to environmental analysis (political, economic, sociocultural<br>and technological factors) in the health sector is still very minimal, especially in the economic and<br>socio-cultural sectors so that this can actually become an opportunity in developing research on the business<br>environment in the health sector.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Deleted 2021-09-01T04:21:55-05:00 <p>T</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Qari (Male Voice) Increases Higher Expression of Synapsin 1 than Qariah (Female Voice) in the Cerebrum Newborn Rattus Norvegicus 2021-09-01T04:33:02-05:00 Nur Laila Faizah Hermanto Tri Joewono Widjiati <p>Introduction: Pregnancy is the golden period to prepare children for the future. Stimulation is needed<br>during pregnancy, one of which is brain stimulation. This can be done with Al Qur’an Murrotal Surah<br>Ar-Rahman stimulation. This study aims to analyze expression of synapsin 1 in the cerebrum of newborn<br>Rattus norvegicus when given murrotal Surah Ar-Rahman stimulation by qari, qariah, and not given any<br>stimulation during pregnancy.<br>Methods: Experimental with post-test only control group design. Sampling in this study was considered<br>homogeneous because it met the inclusion criteria. The samples obtained were distributed randomly to each<br>experimental group and randomized into 3 groups, including control group, group stimulated by qari, and<br>group stimulated by qariah. The treatment was given on the 6th day of pregnancy for 1 hour in a soundproof<br>room with an intensity of 65 dB.<br>Results: The highest mean expression of synapsin 1 in the cerebrum is qari group (6.96 ± 2.59), then qariah<br>group (5.84 ± 2.90), and the lowest is control group (5.74 ± 2.32). There is no significant difference in<br>expression of synapsin 1 in the cerebrum between control and qari groups (p = 0.306), control and qariah<br>groups (p = 0.932), qari and qariah groups (p = 0.347).<br>Conclusion: The highest expression of Synapsin 1 in the cerebrum of newborn Rattus norvegicus is the<br>group stimulated by qari.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of Root Canal Morphology of Maxillary 2ndPremolars Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Chennai Population 2021-09-01T04:42:02-05:00 Nur Qistina Binti Ahmad Fauzi Mahesh R <p>Background: Using the CBCT, this technique has the ability to identify the root canal morphology as<br>detailed as using the root canal staining and other clearing techniques that in the past have been of higher<br>value to the other conventional techniques that can be implemented to give a three-dimensional perspective<br>of the complete morphological details. With this, analysing the variation in root canal morphology of human<br>maxillary second premolar between different gender in Chennai population can be done.<br>Methods:One hundred Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images from different patients are<br>selected randomly from Department of Oral Radiology of Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, India.<br>All the CBCT images of patients are examined for the inclusion criteria in maxillary second premolars<br>between different genders based on Vertucci classification. All root canal configurations of maxillary second<br>premolars between different genders are investigated and compared withVertucci Classification.<br>Conclusion: Of all the 100 maxillary second premolars, the most common type of canal configuration for<br>both the genders is Type I (41%), Type III (22%), and Type V (22%). In females, the most common type of<br>canal configuration discovered is Type I (35%), Type III (63.6%) and Type V (83.3%). In males, the most<br>common type of canal configuration determined is Type I (65%) and Type III (36.4%).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Application of Berry’s Index in the Analysis of Bite Mark 2021-09-01T04:45:46-05:00 Nur Qistina Binti Ahmad Fauzi Gheena S <p>Background: This study was done to evaluate the importance of applying Berry’s index in bite mark<br>analysis.With that, it is able to highlight the usefulness of Berry’s index in aiding the analysis of bite mark<br>of an individual.<br>Methods: The study was conducted among 60 students between the ages of 18-30 from Saveetha Dental<br>College, Chennai. The data that was obtained was then tabulated and statistically analyzed.<br>Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that the widths of both maxillary central incisors and the<br>bizygomatic width were higher in males when compared to females. A positive correlation can be found in<br>males compared to females in regard to both of the widths obtained. Berry’s index is a useful tool of high<br>forensic value and can be used to help in the identification of an individual’s facial proportions based on the<br>calculated width of the central incisors. Thus, it can be of correlation to that of forensic facial reconstruction.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mesiodistal Width of Mandibular Central Incisors between Different Genders in Chennai Population Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography 2021-09-01T04:50:38-05:00 Nur Qistina Binti Ahmad Fauzi Mahesh R <p>Background: Using the CBCT, this technique has the ability to identify the proper dimensions of the<br>mesiodistal width of the tooth and other clearing techniques that in the past have been of higher value to<br>the other conventional techniques that can be implemented to give a three-dimensional perspective of the<br>complete morphological details. With this, analysing the mesiodistal width of mandibular central incisors<br>between male and female based on CBCT can be accomplished.<br>Methods: One hundred Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images from different patients are<br>selected randomly from Department of Oral Radiology of Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, India.<br>All the CBCT images of patients are examined for the inclusion criterias in the mesiodistal width of the<br>mandibular incisors between different genders. All mesiodistal width of mandibular central incisors between<br>different genders are investigated and compared.<br>Conclusion:When both the genders were compared in terms of the number of canals, there was a significant<br>difference seen (p-value: 0.000002208). With the p-value calculated, it was found that there was a significant<br>difference between the genders in terms of the distance between the occlusal pit to the pulp chamber (p-value:<br>&lt;0.0000001). Overall, there is no significant difference between the two genders at the level of the cervical<br>third (p-value: 0.6554).</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Predispositions Factors Affecting Quality of Life in Children with T1DM During the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 Pandemic 2021-09-01T04:56:13-05:00 Nur Rochmah Muhammad Faizi Yuni Hisbiyah Ike Wahyu Triastuti Garindra Wicaksono Anang Endaryanto Soetjipto 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Effect of Collagen-Chitosan-Sodium Hyaluronates Intrastromal Implantation on Corneal Clarity and Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-ß) (Experimental Study On New Zealand Rabbit) 2021-09-01T05:40:48-05:00 Nurul Fitri Shabrina Reni Prasetyani Prihatini Widiyanti 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Review on Mobile Apps for Toxicovigilance 2021-09-01T05:53:01-05:00 <p>Toxicovigilance is the active process to detect, validate and follow up with poisoning occurrence within the<br>community. The collection of data on poisoning occurrences over the years has been compiled into a poison<br>information database that is accessible by users initially through a computer software and later as a web<br>application. With mobile technology evolving rapidly, mobile apps have transformed and benefitted users in<br>many areas including toxicology. This study conducted a review of existing mobile apps in the marketplace<br>to find out available mobile apps for toxicovigilance and to evaluate its features and functionality to gain<br>insight into the current trends in that area. Secondly, the objective of this study is to find out whether<br>those apps are embedded with learning functionalities for health care professionals and examine its learning<br>features. This study adopts a systematic searching method for apps selection in the marketplace through predetermined<br>keywords. A total of 22 apps were selected with a majority from the reference and information<br>gathering category. The learning features in the apps focus on self-assessment and examination. The findings<br>show that there are limited number of mobile apps for toxicovigilance and more features can be introduced<br>such as patient monitoring and management or learning features for continuous learning, in addition to the<br>assessment and evaluation features.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Stimulation of Male Voice during Pregnancy Results in Higher Expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Cerebellum of Newborn Rattus norvegicus 2021-09-01T05:58:48-05:00 Nurvy Alief Aidillah Hermanto Tri Joewono Widjiati <p>Background: Recent studies in the field of Fertomaternal Medicine show that stimulation in the uterus<br>can support brain growth and development. If in previous studies stimulation using several types of music,<br>this study uses human voice which aims to analyze the effect of stimulation of male and female voices on<br>differences in the expression of Brain Derived Neutrotrophic Factor (BDNF) in cerebellum of newborn<br>Rattus norvegicus. Methods: This type of research is true experimental with post test only control group<br>design. Rattus norvegicus was given stimulation of men voice and women voice on 6th day until 17th day<br>of pregnancy. The expression of BDNF was examined using immunohistochemistry. Results: The mean ±<br>standard deviation of the expression of BDNF in the cerebellum is 4.20 ± 1.75 (without stimulation), 6.04<br>± 1.58 (male voice stimulation), and 5.60 ± 2.43 (female voice stimulation). The results of statistical tests<br>show that there is a significant difference on BDNF expression between the control group and the group<br>stimulated with male voice with a significance value &lt;0.05 of 0.045 Conclusion: Giving stimulation using<br>the male voice during pregnancy shows a significant increase in the expression of BDNF in cerebellum of<br>newborn Rattus norvegicus.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Thunbergia Laurifolia Lindl. on Oxidative Stress and Blood Cholinesterase in farm Workers Exposed to Pesticides in the Mae Chai District of Phayao Province 2021-09-01T11:45:08-05:00 Orapin Insuan Padchanee Sangthong Pennipat Nabheerong Surachat Buddhisa Peerawan Kengsangunsit Suntorn Prompao Benchaluk Thongchuai <p>Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. or Rang Chuet is a plant traditionally used in Thailand for the treatment of<br>toxicity and as an antidote for many poisons. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Rang Chuet<br>capsules on blood chemistry in 39 agricultural workers (21 males, 18 females) during an intensive 8-week<br>spraying program. The following tests were performed: serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and serum<br>malondialdehyde (MDA) levels before and after Rang Chuet capsule supplementation. The results indicate<br>that serum BChE levels were unchanged in male and female workers. However, the levels of serum MDA<br>in male and female workers decreased significantly at p &lt; 0.001 and p &lt; 0.05, respectively. In this study, the<br>phylogenetic relationships within the large tropical and subtropical family Thunbergia were studied using<br>genomic DNA from the fresh leaves of sampled plants. The results showed 99% homology with Thunbergia<br>coccinea. This study indicates that Rang Chuet presents antioxidant activity and could be promoted as a<br>health supplement.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dental Panoramic Radiographs as Early Signs of Osteoporosis in Pre and Post Menopausal Women – An Observational Study 2021-09-01T11:52:12-05:00 P.E. Chandra Mouli Madhavan Prasad T. Gopalakrishnan <p>Osteoporosis is defined as “a skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural<br>deterioration of bone tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility, with consequent increase in fracture risk”. An<br>osteoporotic fracture is an outcome of trauma to bone of compromised strength, commonly first occurring<br>in the vertebral bodies and distal radius, both sites composed predominantly of medullary (trabecular) bone.<br>Osteoporosis is an extremely common disease affecting most women during their lifetime. Osteoporosis<br>reduces bone density, affecting the bone mass and strength without altering the basic chemical composition.<br>Declining estrogen levels during and after menopause lead to increase bone resorption and increased urinary<br>excretion of calcium. Thus, estrogen deficiency plays a primary role in osteoporosis, accounting for up to<br>one half of the bone lost during a women’s lifetime.<br>Oral signs of osteoporosis might be manifested by excessive alveolar ridge resorption, tooth loss, chronic<br>destructive periodontal disease, referred maxillary sinus pain, or fracture.<br>Radiographic evaluation of post-menopausal women and patients with advanced renal failure demonstrated<br>the loss of cortical bone at the mandible.<br>The purpose of the study is to evaluate relationship between various oral signs the probability of this<br>relationship excising in certain patients and to access cortical bone thickness measurements using panoramic<br>radiographs.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Administrative Factors and Organization Climate Affecting the Performance of Health Personnel at the Emergency Department in Community Hospital 2021-09-01T12:05:43-05:00 Padcharin Phomdonko Prachak Bouphan NuttapolYotha Surachai Phimha <p>This is a cross-sectional analytical study aimed to identify administrative factors and organizational climate<br>affecting the performance of health personnel at the emergency department in community hospital Roi-Et<br>province, Thailand. The study samples selected randomly from Emergency Department were 137 health<br>personnel. Stratified random sampling technique was applied to recruit the respondents from the total of 229<br>health personnel. Similarly, 12 key informants were selected for the qualitative study. In-Depth interview<br>guidelines was applied to conduct qualitative study. The content validity of the questionnaire was evaluated<br>by three experts yielding an IOC value more than 0.50 in all questions. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of<br>the questionnaire was 0.98. Data were collected between 23rd December 2020 to 12th January 2021. Data<br>analysis was performed by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics at a significant level at 0.05.<br>The study results showed that the administrative factors such as money, organizational climate such<br>as dimension of warmth, a dimension of responsibility and dimension of identity were affecting the<br>performance of health personnel (49.6 % (R2=0.496, p-value&lt;0.001).In conclusion, four factors are affecting<br>the performance of health personnel. Hence those factors should be addressed, and administration should<br>create the climate which can address the budget, working objective and goal for the development of the<br>organization.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Awareness and Attitude of Forensic Odontology among Undergraduate Dental Students in Kabul University of Medical Sciences, Afghanistan 2021-09-01T12:42:11-05:00 Palwasha Seraj Mohammad Hassan Hamrah Farhat Homayoun Ali Maisam ElahaSomaya Ghafary Sepideh Hosseini Maryam Khosrozadeh <p>Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of forensic<br>odontology among undergraduate dental students at Kabul university of medical science, Kabul,<br>Afghanistanafter adding this subject in their curriculum<br>Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study is conducted among 150 undergraduate dental students<br>of Kabul University of medical sciences aged 18 and 23 years during the period from December 2020<br>to February 2021.A questionnaire of Abdul et al. (2019) study was used; the questionnaire consisted of<br>19 questions that assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of the participants. The questionnaire is<br>divided into three parts: knowledge, attitude and practice. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-24<br>software, chi-square test.<br>Results: Ninety percent of the participants were aware of the branch of science called forensic dentistry.<br>All the included participants welcomed the idea of adding a module on forensic odontology to the current<br>undergraduate curriculum. Almost 88.7% of the participants were aware that dental record help for<br>identification of deceased person’s age however, The most of undergraduate dental students (90.7%), claim<br>that they have lack of the knowledge related forensic odontology. Most of participants were willing to<br>maintain dental record in their future clinics.<br>Conclusion: Our study showed that the knowledge, attitude, and practice in undergraduate dental students<br>are better since it’s added into curriculum of Kabul University of medical science. However,there are no<br>workshops, seminars, and continuing dental education programs for dental students.There is a need for<br>further exposure and formal training to bring awareness among all health-care providers.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Menstrual Blood Stem Cell Preservation 2021-09-01T12:49:47-05:00 Parul Saini Bharti Sachdeva <p>Unlike past days menstrual blood has been considered as the rich source of self-rejuvenating stem cells.<br>These cells can multiple rapidly and helps in various cosmetic and regenerative surgeries. They can easily<br>be used same as that of stem cells derived from umbilical cord and bone marrow.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Psychoeducation on Adherence to Treatment of Schizophrenia Patient During Covid-19 Pandemic Era 2021-09-01T12:53:01-05:00 Patria Yudha Putra Izzatul Fithriyah <p>Background: The outbreak of Covid-19 is really disrupting people’s thought and their ability to face the<br>problem clearly and their mental health could be disturbed.They will go under their circumstance of fear,<br>start to panic, and leads to poor decision making. This fear and anxiety could affect and lead to any negative<br>behavioural changes of patients to the belief of being infected by avoiding going to the hospital as a source<br>of contagion place.<br>Methods: Case study from an inward patient, adult woman that suffered fromschizophrenia for more than<br>10 years and got injection of antipsychotic routinely once a month. During the early time of Covid-19<br>pandemic, the patient and her family are afraid of coming to the hospital to get her injection. After one month<br>of not getting the injection, she started to relapse again and hospitalized for 10 days.<br>Results: The difficulty faced in handling this case is to provide an understanding of the patient and family<br>about adherence on her continuity treatment. Therefore, by giving a psychoeducation using a telemedicine<br>is consideredto the most suitable way to handle this patientto gain more insight about her willingness back<br>to get the monthly treatment during the pandemic situation.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Key Success Factors and Motivation Affecting the Care of Patients with Tuberculosis of Health Personnel in Primary Care Units 2021-09-02T04:13:30-05:00 Phatthraphon Chowong Prachak Bouphan Nakarin Prasit Surachai Phimha <p>This research is a cross-sectional descriptive aimed to study key success factors and motivation affecting<br>the care of patients with tuberculosis of health personnel in primary care units Nongbualamphu province,<br>Thailand. The populations were 89 health personnel and 12 key informants. The content validity of the<br>questionnaire was evaluated by three experts with an IOC greater than 0.50 and Cronbach’s Correlation<br>Coefficient was 0.97 and In-Depth interview guidelines for the qualitative. Data was collected between 4th<br>January 2021 and 25th January 2021.<br>The results of the study showed that five factors including; 1) motivation factor in responsibility 2)<br>Hygiene Factor in policy and management 3) key success factor in the startup in areas that are ready and<br>willing to participation 4) Hygiene Factor in a relationship with supervisors, subordinates, co-workers and<br>5) Hygiene Factor in salary and compensation affecting and could joint predict the care for tuberculosis<br>patients in primary care at 75.0 percentage (R2 = 0.750, p-value &lt;0.001). In conclusion, key success factors<br>and motivation affecting the care of patients with tuberculosis of health personnel in primary care units.<br>Therefore, the health personnel should be developed in terms of work priorities, working process that led<br>to the intention to work, awareness of their roles and responsibilities Including promoting participation in<br>policymaking on tuberculosis work.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Determination of Learning Styles among Nursing Students 2021-09-02T04:23:35-05:00 Pooja Gill Parul Yogesh Kumar Jyoti Sarin <p>Nursing education furnishes students with the learning qualities required for their profession and also makes<br>students lifelong learners. Aim of the study was to evaluate the learning styles among nursing students. A<br>quantitative approach with descriptive design was applied. A total of 122 students were recruited by purposive<br>sampling from two nursing colleges, selected by convenient sampling. In addition, tools used for the study<br>were structured questionnaire for sample characteristics and Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory. Learning<br>styles were assessed after collecting baseline data. Results indicated that the most preferred learning style<br>was turned out to be Accommodator (35%). Findings concluded that there is a diversity of learning styles<br>among nursing students as the students were having all the types of learning styles.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hepatitis-B Screening amonghealth Care Worker –a Cross Sectional Study 2021-09-02T04:28:57-05:00 Praful Damor Siddaram Sarate 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Air Pollution on Health of Community People–A Descriptive Approach 2021-09-02T04:33:01-05:00 Praful Damor Abhay Pattan AmbilyV.Vijayakumar <p>Background: Air pollution is a global and one of the serious environmental hazards because it causes lot of<br>damage to living and non-living things in the environment. Air pollution is a problem which emitted various<br>gases in the air because of burning of wood etc. Air pollution cause not so serious in the past as it is now<br>because of growing population, rapid industrialization, use of automobiles, modern agricultural activities<br>etc.1<br>Objectives:<br>1. To assess the knowledge regarding effects of air pollution on health among community people Gujarat.<br>2. To assess the attitude regarding effects of air pollution on health among community people in central<br>Gujarat<br>3. To find out the association between knowledge score regarding effects of air pollution on health with<br>selected socio demographic variables.<br>Methodology: A quantitative research approach at survey design was adopted to conduct the study at<br>central part of Gujarat. Sample comprised of 60 community people. Sample was selected by convenience<br>sampling technique. The data obtained was analyzed and interpreted in terms of the objectives of the study.<br>A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and likert scale was used to assess the attitude<br>on effects of air pollution on health among community people.<br>Result: The findings of the study show that 53% female and 47% male samples, highest percentage<br>91% are belongs to hindu,1% muslim,3% Cristian,4% are others, majority of people were age group of<br>26-35years(33%),15-25years(20%),36-45 years (20%),above 45 years (26.6%),43% people received up to<br>secondary level education,91% people are Hindu, 71% people are self-employed, 18.3% people are living<br>in nuclear family,45% people having less than 5000rs income,70% people living in pakka housing,56.6%<br>get knowledge regarding effects of air pollution on health from T.V. 2. The score of the study is mean (16.1)<br>and standard deviation is (3.46).<br>Conclusion: Overall knowledge and attitude about the effects of air pollution on health was average which<br>suggested that people having average knowledge regarding effects of air pollution Group.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Risk Factors of Stunting in Children Aged 6-59 Months: A Case-Control Study in Horticulture Area 2021-09-02T04:42:38-05:00 Prayudhy Yushananta Mei Ahyanti Yetti Anggraini <p>Background. Stunting is a critical public health problem in Indonesia because it affects cognitive and<br>physical development and contributes to child mortality. This study aims to identify risk factors for stunting<br>in children aged 6-59 in the horticultural area. Methods. A case-control study was conducted to compare<br>previous exposure between stunted children and non-stunted children. Measurements and interviews were<br>conducted with 160 participants (120 controls and 40 cases), including mothers or caregivers. SPSS was<br>used for X2 statistical analysis, multiple logistic regression, and odds ratios. Results. The study identified<br>four risk factors for stunting: children who were born short (AOR = 17.57; 95% CI: 5.02-61.51), LBW<br>(AOR = 4.35; 95% CI: 1.38-13, 78), and got a low protein intake (AOR = 4.96; 95% CI: 1.22-20.26).<br>Significantly, a relationship between stunting and access to sanitation was also found (AOR = 6.06; 95%<br>CI: 1.25-29.35). Conclusion. The risk factors for stunting in children aged 6-59 are related to nutrition<br>during pregnancy and the child’s quality of food. Nutrition interventions should emphasize improving the<br>nutritional status of pregnant women and children and women empowering to affect access to resources and<br>allocations for children’s nutrition.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Prospective Study of Burn Deaths with Special Reference to Manner of Death and Duration of Survival 2021-09-02T04:48:01-05:00 Priyamvada Kurveti Verma Rajendra Kumar Morya Dheeraj Singh Verma <p>Around 0.2 million people are admitted in hospital due to burns, of which about 5000 people die every year.4<br>Extent of Total Body Surface Area involved is an important parameter, that affects the prognosis in case of<br>burn injury. The majority of fire related deaths are accidental, usually due to carelessness. Suicidal burns are<br>mostly seen in domestic situations and in females. Homicidal burns are rare; mostly accomplished to take<br>revenge or to conceal crime. So, this study was carried out with the aim to estimate the total body surface<br>area affected &amp; duration of survival / hospital stay and to find out the manner of death in burn cases.<br>It was found that 79.00% cases had burn injuries covering 60– 100% of the total body surface area (TBSA).<br>Maximum percentage of burns was seen in females (30.00% cases) with TBSA of 80-90%. 95% cases were<br>hospitalized with 75.00% having the hospitalization period of 1 – 10 days and maximum number of cases<br>(33%) survived for a period of 3 to 5 days. In most of the cases (64.00%), the manner of death was accidental<br>followed by suicidal (34.00%), with only 2% cases of homicidal burns.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Knowledge of Oral and Dental Health Impacts the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) of Primary School Children 2021-09-02T04:58:59-05:00 Pudentiana Rr RE Tedi Purnama Emini Siti Nurbayani Tauchid Neni Prihatiningsih <p>Primary school children are a vulnerable group to oral and dental diseases. Less of knowledge on dental<br>health will lead to bad dental and oral hygiene status resulting in debris and calculus. The OHI-S is an ideal<br>dental and oral hygiene check tool for assessing the oral hygiene of primary school children.This study<br>aims to analyzethe relationship of knowledge of dental and oral health toOral Hygiene Index Simplified in<br>elementary school children. Method: this type of analytic observational study with cross sectional design.<br>The research was conducted on the research carried out in class III students of SDN Perigi 03 PondokAren,<br>South Tangerang City. Data collection with a questionnaire on dental health knowledge andOral Hygiene<br>Index Simplified.Data analysis using Chi-Square. Result: Knowledge of oral health toOral Hygiene Index<br>Simplified indicates that the p-value 0.023 (p &lt;0.05). Conclusion: there is a significant relationship between<br>knowledge of dental and oral health toOral Hygiene Index Simplified in primary school children</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Difference of Plasma Prothrombin Time Value in the Production of Adsorbed Plasma Using Various Concentrations of Barium Sulphate in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia 2021-09-02T05:04:27-05:00 Putu Devi Oktapiani Putri Paulus Budiono Notopuro 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effects of Etanercept on Clinical and Immunological outcomes in Iraqi Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis 2021-09-02T05:13:46-05:00 Qateralnada Rifaat Altohmoschi Mohammed AH Jabarah AL-Zobaidy Nizar Abdulateef Jasim <p>Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease affects joints and connective tissues<br>where different types of cytokines are involved in its pathogenesis and progression. Biological drugs are<br>considered to be a more targeted treatments for rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the aim of current study<br>was to explore the effects of etanercept, a biological drug that inhibits tumor necrosis-alpha, on clinical and<br>immunological variables in Iraqi patients with RA. Methods: A prospective open-label study conducted<br>from February to November/ 2020 at Rheumatology Unit, Baghdad Teaching Hospital/ Medical city, Iraq.<br>The study involved 75 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who underwent a 12-week course of treatment with<br>etanercept monotherapy or combined with methotrexate. Assessments of disease activity and immunological<br>markers (using SDAI and ELISA technique, respectively) were performed for the patients after the course of<br>treatment and compared with healthy controls. Results: Data from current study showed that disease activity<br>was not affected by type of treatment and immunological markers were higher in patients with rheumatoid<br>arthritis than in control subjects regardless of type of treatment. Conclusion: To achieve an effective<br>control of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity, treatment with etanercept (monotherapy or combined with<br>methotrexate) needs to be continued for more 12 weeks.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Correlation between Occupation, Stress Level and Breast Milk Production during Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia 2021-09-02T05:20:37-05:00 R.Khairiyatul Afiyah Chatarina Umbul Wahyuni Budi Prasetyo Muhammad Bagus Qomaruddin Imamatul Faizah RatnaYunita Sari Umdatus Soleha <p>Introduction: Burdensand types of occupation will cause psychological stress during Covid-19 pandemic,<br>especially jobs in the medical field. The rapid transmission of the disease and the increasing number of<br>people infected by Covid-19 bring anxiety and worry and decrease the level of happiness that will obstruct<br>the secretion of oxytocin hormone that brings problems to breast milk production and breastfeeding process.<br>This study was aimed at analyzing the correlation between occupation, stress level and breast milk production<br>during Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia.<br>Method: This correlational study was conducted by using cross sectional design.Thetechniqueused to collect<br>the samples totaling 110 breastfeeding mothers was simple random sampling technique. The independent<br>variables were occupation and stress level, whereas the dependent variable was breast milk production. This<br>study used Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaire to measure the stress level and another questionnaire<br>to measure the smoothness of breast milk production. Furthermore, data analysis was done by using Chisquare<br>statistic test with the significance level of p &lt; 0.05.<br>Result: The result of this study showed that of 110 respondents, most of them (67%) worked in the medical<br>field; nearly all (70.9%) experienced severe stress; and nearly all (80%) had unsmooth production of breast<br>milk. Whilst, the result of Chi-square test showed that the value of p =0.000 showing that there was a<br>correlation between occupation, stress level and breast milk production during Covid-19 pandemic in<br>Indonesia.<br>Conclusion: Occupation, stress level and breast milk production are correlated during Covid-19 pandemic<br>in Indonesia. Therefore, the medical workers, especially nurses are expected to play their active roles to<br>educate and teach the breastfeeding mothers how to manage stress correctly to maintain the production of<br>breast milk in any conditions.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Porotic Hyperostosis and Cribra Orbitalia as Indicators of Nutritional Problems in Ancient Population 2021-09-02T06:04:33-05:00 Rachmadita Yoga Pratiwi <p>Background One of the most studied pathological conditions in human bone remains is porotic hyperostosis<br>and cribra orbitalia, where the condition of porosity or bone tissue is porous and looks like a coral, sieve<br>or sponge-like formation, and is often associated with a history of anemia. nutritional deficiencies, certain<br>diseases and so on. This is often seen in the skull because the bone tries to increase the marrow space available<br>for increased red blood cell formation. Porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia (some paleopathologists put<br>into the same category as porotic hyperostosis) occur due to conditions caused by the body’s attempts to<br>produce more red blood cells in the marrow to compensate for iron deficiency. The longer this iron deficiency<br>continues, the more clearly these lesions will form. Objective This study was conducted to see the picture<br>of the lesion porotic hyperostosis and criba orbitalia associated with anemia and nutritional deficiencies.<br>Methods This study is a case study by observing an intact skull without a mandible, by inspecting the<br>regions of the skull and the roof of the orbit. Results Found coral, sieve or spongy formations on the roof<br>of the skull and the roof of the orbit. The presence of a skull lesion can be an indicator of the fragility of an<br>individual’s bones. Conclusion Anemia and deficiency conditions can result in the formation of lesions in<br>the skull.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Effect of COVID-19 on Blood Pressure Control in Hypertension Patients– A Literature Review 2021-09-02T06:06:41-05:00 Raditya Manusakti Judya Sukmana Wachjudi Kurniaj Liliawanti <p>COVID-19 is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). First identified<br>in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and declared an International Public Health Emergency in January<br>2020, the WHO declared a pandemic in March 2020. Hypertension, a disease that has long been a problem<br>for most people in Indonesia and around the world . COVID-19 can affect blood pressure control for people<br>with hypertension due to obstruction of the RAAS system. This research was conducted to find out what<br>effect COVID-19 has on blood pressure control in people with hypertension. In the condition of COVID-19<br>patients with comorbid hypertension, SARS-CoV-2 which attacks ACE2 can eliminate the role of ACE2 in<br>the RAAS system. Inhibition of ACE2 can also cause buildup of angiotensin II which has a vasoconstrictive<br>effect. This results in the absence of homeostasis in the blood pressure control system and makes blood<br>pressure conditions that continue to be at high pressure.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Facebook Ads for Health Promotion Against Covid-19: An Environmental Medicine Perspective 2021-09-02T06:12:49-05:00 Rahmad Agus Dwianto Nur Wening Elita Dwi Hapsari <p>This research aims to provide innovative ideas to disseminate information on environmental medicine<br>during the Covd-19 pandemic via Facebook. The socialization of the environmental medicine informationto<br>the public was hampered during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study provides innovative information<br>dissemination strategies and to increase public awareness and knowledge about environmental medicine.<br>The research method uses literature reviews from various recent studies on the use of social media Facebook<br>for the dissemination of information. The study found that Facebook advertising as a digital platform for the<br>dissemination of environmental medicine during a pandemic to the public is more efficient in terms of time,<br>energy, costs, and a wider target market. This study found innovations, namely the use of Facebook ads as a<br>digital marketing platform for the disseminating of environmental medicine programs to the public during<br>a pandemic. Further studies could combine Facebook Ads with other platforms such as Google Ads, SEO,<br>and TikTok.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Study of Causes of Death, Histopathological and Microbiological Changes in Cases of Burns Brought for Autopsy at Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal 2021-09-03T02:13:28-05:00 Rajendra Kumar Mourya Priyamvada Kurveti Verma Garima Pawan Rathor Dheeraj Singh Verma <p>Death may occur immediately after burns or may get delayed for days &amp; weeks, where burns may not be the<br>actual cause of death; but its sequels &amp; its complications leads to death. In such cases, determination of exact<br>cause of death may be difficult. Hence, this study was aimed to find out the causes of death in burn cases<br>during autopsy utilizing histopathology and microbiology &amp; its comparison with clinical causes of death. All<br>cases of burns autopsied at Gandhi Medical College &amp; associated Hamidia Hospital Bhopal, for a period of<br>1.6 years were included in the study.<br>Out of 100 cases included, 45 (45.00%) showed the cause of death as septicemia, followed by hypovolemic<br>shock in 30 (30.00%) cases, hypovolemic shock with acute renal failure seen in 4% cases. Bronchopneumonia<br>was seen in 29% cases, out of which 12% cases were associated with septicemia. Multiple Organ Failure<br>with septicemia was seen in 11% cases and in 2 (2.00%) cases of spot death; cause was neurogenic shock<br>with asphyxia.<br>On histopathological examination, lungs revealed congestion and alveolar edema in 48% cases; Liver<br>showed sinusoidal congestion in (39 %) cases; Kidneys showed hydropic degeneration of tubules in 62 %<br>cases; being the most common findings. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest isolate, 61% in blood<br>and 47% in pus culture.So, there is need of strict and 100% implementation of aseptic measures in burn<br>wards, along with adequate supply of appropriate drugs specially antibiotics to the all hospitals.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Determination of Capoten by Analytical Methods 2021-09-03T02:23:47-05:00 Rana.S.AL-Shemary <p>The present analysis article points out numerous analytical methods for the quantitative identification of<br>ACE inhibitor (ACE Inhibitor) by one in all the spectroscopical techniques (UV-spectrophotometry) and<br>separation techniques, like superior liquid natural action (HPLC). additionally, we tend to examine the<br>contribution of optical biosensors to the clinical and pharmaceutical study of ACE inhibitor, which has<br>applicable analytical procedures for internal control, pharmaceutical drug formulations and human.<br>In this report, a comprehensive sample of scientific papers published in different journals relating to medicinal,<br>clinical and analytical chemistry was collected. Captopril was chosen because it is a popular medication in<br>the pharmacy, a first-line antihypertensive agent, with a fast release, limited course of operation</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Immunohistochemical Characterization of Hepatic Nuclear Factor 4 Alpha Expression in the Choroid Plexus of the lateral and 4th Ventricles of Adult Male Rat Brain 2021-09-03T02:27:27-05:00 Rasha A. Salman Taghreed Abdulrsool Ali Duaa AL musawi 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 AgO Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization and Bioactivity 2021-09-03T02:37:19-05:00 Rawaa A. Faris Layla M.H. Al-ameri <p>This study is focused on Nanostructured AgO due to its novel properties. Here AgO-NWs manufactured by<br>low-cost, fast green synthesis using curcumin extract. AgO-NWs structures were characterized by FESEM<br>field emission electron microscope scanning. Uniform distribution can be seen for the AgO -NWs. The<br>AgO -NWs thin film exhibits a promising giant third-order nonlinearity and ultrafast character. It behaves<br>as a tunable refraction and absorption character the exciting energy is varied in the range of 80–120 mJ.<br>Silver is a wide-spectrum natural antimicrobial agent that applies to patented wound dressings with broad<br>applications. Today, AgO -NWs have attracted attention in Biophotonic Sensor. Here, AgO-NWs used to as<br>antimicrobial agent against common infecting pathogenic microbes E-coli. The results demonstrated that the<br>AgO-NWs against pathogenic bacterial organisms, they have possible antimicrobial activity and could be<br>regarded as an alternative antibacterial agent.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Determinant of Primary Preventive Behaviour Cervical Cancer in an Adolescent Girl 2021-09-03T02:49:26-05:00 Resty Jayanti Dwi Helynarti Syurandhari Deni Susyanti Irma Handayani Fitriani Pramita Gurning Muchti Yuda Pratama <p>Cervical cancer is caused by infection with the human papilloma virus which can infect the genitals, anus,<br>throat, mouth and cells on the surface of the skin. Cervical cancer is often late so that it can cause death,<br>so efforts are needed to reduce the risk factors for cervical cancer, namely through primary prevention<br>efforts. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between primary factors and cervical<br>cancer prevention behavior in adolescent girls. The sample in this study were 77 young women who were<br>taken by technique purposive sampling. The research design used was an observational analysis using a<br>cross sectional approach and analyzed using chi-square. The results of this study illustrate that there is a<br>relationship between knowledge, attitudes and social support with cervical cancer prevention behavior in<br>adolescent girls. So we need efforts to reduce cervical cancer risk factors, namely through primary prevention<br>efforts, by increasing outreach activities in the community to carry out a healthy lifestyle.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Significant Association of Adam 33 Polymorphism with COPD in Javanese Population of Indonesia 2021-09-03T02:55:26-05:00 Retno Ariza Soeprihatini Soemarwoto Jamsari Yanwirasti Andika Chandra Putra Syazili Mustofa Wawan Abdullah Setiawan Ifan Aulia Candra <p>Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of World health cases that is commonly<br>known, which is triggered by the combination of environmental factors especially cigarette smoking and<br>genetic factors. The association between A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) polymorphisms<br>and COPD has been investigated and reported by other researchers. Objective: The main aim of this study is<br>to identify the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAM 33 gene with COPD<br>in the Javanese population in Lampung, Indonesia. Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study was used<br>in this research. PCR-Sequencing method was involved to analyze the polymorphic for three SNPs (T1, T2,<br>and Q-1) of the ADAM33 gene. Statistical analysis data was performed in descriptive and comparative as<br>well as it was measured by parametric/non-parametric tests. Results: The results showed that the T2 GG,<br>and T1AG genotypes in COPD group were significantly more frequent rather than in control group (p &lt;<br>0.05). In case of allele, it was found that the T1G and T2G was higher in COPD group rather than in the<br>control group (p = 0.440 and 0.131, respectively). Conclusion: The results clearly conclude that there was<br>significant association between T1 and T2 polymorphisms of ADAM33 gene and COPD in the Javanese<br>population of Lampung, Indonesia.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A 56 Year Old Man with Parkinson’s Disease and Depression: A Case Report on Treatment Management 2021-09-03T03:33:21-05:00 Risza Subiantoro Agustina Konginan Erikavitri Yulianti <p>Background: Depression is the strongest predictor of quality of life for Parkinson’s disease (PD).<br>Presentation of Case: A 56 years old man came with the main complaint of difficulty sleeping due to<br>thinking about tremors in his left hand since 6 months. Complaints are accompanied by feelings of sadness,<br>lack of enthusiasm, and decreased appetite accompanied by weight loss. The patient had been diagnosed<br>with PD 8 years previously and was on medication. One month before the visit, the patient underwent a<br>thalamotomy operation. After surgery, the patient received therapy in the form of a combination tablet<br>of levodopa/carbidopa/entacapaone (100/25/200 mg) 4×1 tablet and 1×2 mg of ropirinole. On the Beck<br>Depression Inventory (BDI) examination, a score of 23 was obtained and on the Montgomery Asberg<br>Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) examination a score of 31 was obtained, both of which correspond to<br>major depression. The patient was diagnosed with a major depressive episode without psychotic symptoms<br>and was given escitalopram therapy 1×10 mg and lorazepam 1×2 mg. Patients also received biofeedback<br>therapy with family psychoeducation and supportive psychotherapy. At the time of control, the patient<br>admitted to feeling calmer and able to sleep after receiving therapy. Conclusion: Escitalopram has good<br>efficacy for the management of depression in PD patients.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Legal Protection for Nurses in Pharmaceutical Services Where there are No Pharmaceutical Staffs at the Community Health Center 2021-09-03T03:40:15-05:00 Rizka Dianita Retno Ariani Swabawa Wicaksana Mokhamad Khoirul Huda <p>Puskesmas is a first-level healthcare service facility that organizes health efforts prioritized promotive and<br>preventive actions. In executing its health efforts, puskesmas must take actions according to standards,<br>including in pharmaceutical services. It will be different when the pharmacy service is provided by nurses<br>instead of provided by pharmacy staffs. Following the prevailing law in Indonesia today, nurses’ authority in<br>carrying out their pharmacy duties in practice is only limited. To provide assurance and legal protection for<br>nurses in performing pharmaceutical services in health centres where there are no pharmacists/pharmaceutical<br>technical staff, laws and regulations related to nursing protection have an essential function. It also protects<br>nurses to avoid criminalization of nurses by law enforcement officials.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Health Risk Behavior Related to Stroke in Indonesia 2021-09-03T04:11:49-05:00 Rizmi Novishia Wijaya Djazuly Chalidyanto Agung Dwi Laksono 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Diagnostic Dilemma of a Large Infected Cyst in Anterior Maxilla- A Case Report 2021-09-03T04:26:22-05:00 Roopika Handa Arpan Manna Tanha Khan Monika Singh Aiman Mahfooz Dhruv Garg <p>Among all the odontogenic origin cyst, radicular cyst is the commonest. It is generally associated with<br>nonvital tooth which have necrotizing pulp as it is an inflammatory cyst. Radicular cyst usually occurs in<br>the periapical region of tooth. As a true cyst it consists of pathologic cavity which is lined by epithelium<br>and commonly filled with fluid. Treatment option for the radicular cyst depends on the size, location and<br>duration of the lesion which includes endodontic treatment, enucleation of the lesion, extraction of the<br>offending tooth and marsupialization. In this case report, we are describing a case of infected radicular cyst<br>in anterior maxillary region.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Detection of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Patients with Gastroenteritis in Erbil/Iraq 2021-09-03T04:36:57-05:00 Rozhhalat Khudhur Jarjees <p>Gastroenteritis is one of the words serious public health problem, and enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus<br>is one of the causes of gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was the molecular detection of enterotoxigenic<br>genes in Staphylococcus aureus, then detection the association of resistance patterns with the toxigenicity<br>of strains. Microbiological analysis of fecal samples from patients with gastroenteritis was performed for<br>detection of S. aureus. The samples were cultured and identified by routine bacteriological methods and<br>VITEK 2 system. Subsequently PCR amplification of enterotoxin genes (sea and seb) was carried out<br>on all S. aureus strains. The results indicated that in total of 417 fecal samples taken from patients with<br>acute gastroenteritis, 30 grew S. aureus (7.19%), and of 417 fecal samples 96 yielded bacterial pathogens<br>(23.02%), S. aureus was the most common bacterial pathogen found in 30/96 cases (31.25%). In 30 isolated<br>of S. aureus, penicillin sensitive S. aureus were 2 (6.67%), methicillin sensitive S. aureus were 19 (63.33%),<br>multidrug resistant S. aureus were 12 (40%), methicillin resistant S. aureus were 11 (36.67%), Extensive<br>drug resistance were 3 (10%), and none of them was pan drug resistant,and all isolates were sensitive to<br>vancomycin. The PCR results showed that 7/30 (23.33%) of the S. aureus isolates possessed the sea gene,<br>and 3/30 (10 %) had the seb gene. In total of 30 isolates Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes sea and seb were<br>more prevalent among methicillin resistant S. aureus were 6/11 (54.54%), 3/11 (27.27%) respectively, then<br>in multidrug resistant S. aureus which were 6/12 (50%), and 3/12 (25%) respectively, and in Extensively<br>drug resistance S. aureus sea was1/3 (33.33%) and there is no seb genes, while in methicillin sensitive S.<br>aureus sea was 1/19 (5.26%), and there is no seb genes, and there was no Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes<br>sea and seb in penicillin sensitive S. aureus. The result confirmed the involvement of enterotoxigenic S.<br>aureus in the occurrence of gastroenteritis, and isolates with enterotoxin genes have a higher drug resistance<br>rate.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lipoteichoic Acid as Antibiofilm against Staphylococcus aureus 2021-09-03T04:50:31-05:00 Ruaa SH Suhad M 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Survey of Puree Users without Smoking History of Households in Kosebo Village, Angata District, Konawe Selatan District 2021-09-03T05:00:12-05:00 Ruslan Majid Elma Prasetyaningsih Fikki Prasetya Jumakil Fifi Nirmala <p>“Puree” in the local language is a process of concocting or mixing tobacco and whiting, finally forming a<br>black paste and then rubbing it on the lips, the user. “Me puree” in local language terms is using “Puree”.<br>The purpose of this study was to determine the survey of Puree Users with no smoking history among<br>housewives in Kosebo Village, Angata District, South Konawe Regency in 2019. This research method used<br>a descriptive method, carried out in Kasebo Village, Angata District, South Konawe Regency. The population<br>of all housewives was 203. The sampling technique used was proportional random sampling, and obtained a<br>number of 54 respondents. The results of the research after analyzing the frequency distribution showed that<br>the respondents’ knowledge was lacking, the history of using “puree” was sufficient, the tradition of “puree”<br>users was good, the income of “Puree” users was less and the previous disease history of “puree” users was<br>less. It is recommended that a primitive program to provide public health education by conducting outreach<br>to identify risk factors that can increase the incidence of both smokeless and smoked tobacco use.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of Incisor Index as a Forensic Tool in Gendural Dimorphism – A Study in South Indian Population 2021-09-03T05:07:06-05:00 S.Prasanna L.S.Makesh Raj P.Sai Krishna V.Jai Santhosh Manikandan Srikant.N <p>Introduction: Forensic odontology plays a vital role in investigation and presenting the dental evidences<br>to the court of law. The challenges that are encountered by the forensic odontologist are identifying the<br>individual which includes certain characteristic features to define an individual. Gendural dimorphism<br>means systemic difference in form (shape or size) between individual of different genders in the same<br>species. Teeth being considered as one of the stable part which can withstand any environmental changes<br>even after death of an individual in situations where there are minimal supporting evidences. Odontometrics<br>is the field involving measurements of a tooth.<br>Aim and Objective: This study aims in determining the sex of an individual using incisor index of maxillary<br>and mandibular arches as a tool in forensic investigation with brief review on literature.<br>Material and Method: A total of 1200 permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth from 150 study models<br>with an age range of 18 – 25 yrs were measured using manual divider and scale. The Incisor index (Ii) was<br>analysed by using the formula as given by Aitchison (1964). The values were noted separately for maxillary<br>and mandibular dental arches with regards to central and lateral incisor and these data were subjected for<br>statistical analysis.<br>Result: Maximum mesio-distal dimension of the all the incisors (maxillary and mandibular) were higher in<br>males than females. Incisor index of maxilla was higher in female when compared to male which was not<br>statistically significant. The Incisor index of mandible was higher in male when compared to females which<br>was also statistically non-significant.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Emotional Intelligence Training Program and its Effect on Nursing Students Problem Solving Skills 2021-09-03T05:35:54-05:00 Sabah Mohamed Ragab Mona Mostafa Shazly Hemat Abdel-Azeem Mostafa <p>Background: Emotional intelligence is comprised of individual, emotional, and social abilities. It<br>includes the competency of an individual to manage their relationships with others, and regulate emotions<br>and efficiently solved their problem. Aim: this study aims to assess the effect of emotional intelligence<br>training program on nursing students problem solving skills. Design: A pretest- posttest one group quasiexperimental<br>study design was used. Setting: The study was conducted at the Technical Nursing Institute<br>at El-Fayoum University. Subjects: included all the available nursing students at second year was 200<br>nursing students. Tools of data collection: Data were collected by using two tools emotional intelligence<br>questionnaire and problem solving skills questionnaire. Results: 48.5% of the nursing students had high<br>emotional intelligence before the intervention. This increased to 86.5% at the post intervention phase and the<br>improvement continued through the follow up phases reachingto89.5%. Half of nursing students in the study<br>sample were high problem solving skills before the intervention. This rose to 87.5% at the post intervention<br>phase and reached 90.5% at the follow-up phase. Conclusion: There were highly statistically significant<br>correlations between emotional intelligence and problem solving skills. Recommendations: The Technical<br>Institute of Nursing should adopt the emotional intelligence, educational approach in all its different grades<br>and Enhance nursing problem solving skills through providing them with supportive and positive training<br>environment.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Noise Sensitivity (Hyperacusis) Due to Covid-19: The First Report of a New Corona Symptom 2021-09-03T05:44:23-05:00 Safoura Khodaei Arash Momeni Safarabadi Fatemeh Mehrabi Rad Pegah Shakib Maede Nilechi <p>Background: Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses and a subset of Coronaviridae. The present study<br>is the first report of voice sensitivity in patients with Covid-19.<br>Case Report: In this case report, the patient was a 35-year-old man who referred to a private clinic<br>specializing in infectious and febrile diseases on October 26, 2016. According to the clinical symptoms and<br>laboratory test, the coronary test of the patient SARS-COV-2 (RdRp gene) and (E gene) SARS-COV-2 was<br>positive. The patient suffers from severe noise sensitivity from the first day of infection until 10 days after<br>treatment.<br>Conclusions: The patient was so sensitive to sound that different sounds had painful and excruciating effects<br>on the patient’s mind and psyche. Therefore, sensitivity to sound can be one of the symptoms of Covid-19.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Presentation and Sources of Pediatric Odontogenic Infection 2021-09-03T05:50:20-05:00 Sahar Abdualkader Ismaeel Saif Saadedeen Abdulrazaq Reem Fadhil Abbas <p>Background and Objectives: The causes, clinical presentation and management of the odontogenic<br>infection in children during the mixed and premixed dentition period should be thoroughly studied as it<br>differs from that of adults. The study aimed to identify the common sources and presentation of dental<br>infection in those children.<br>Methods: The selected cases were 122 (54 females and 68 males). All cases presented with odontogenic<br>infection, examined meticulously to diagnose the source of infection.<br>Results: The mean age was 6.5 years old (The age range was 3-10 years). The most common source of<br>infection in primary teeth was the second primary molars (38 cases; 31.1%). The most common source of<br>infection in permanent teeth was the first permanent lower molars (30 cases; 24.6%). The most common<br>presentation was vestibular swelling (56 cases; 45.9%).<br>Conclusion: Dental care should be provided early especially to the permanent first molars in children to<br>avoid losing them. Teamwork between the oral surgeon and the general pediatrician is necessary for better<br>management.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Improvement of Self-Efficacy of Mothers Inpostpartum Period Through Home Visit by Health Workers in Aceh 2021-09-03T05:58:47-05:00 Said Usman Dewi Marianthi Irwan Saputra T.M. Rafsanjani <p>World Health Organization recorded that about 44% of infant deaths in 2012 happened in the first 28 days<br>after birth, and 78.5% of deaths happen in the first week after births. It was estimated that 80% of infant<br>deaths happen at home (with little or no contact with health workers). Good quality care service for infants<br>especially newborns at home is a serious challenge, thus an effort that could be performed is to optimize<br>the role of health workers in the community by doing homevisit.The goal of this researchto identify the<br>self-efficacy of postpartum mothers before home visit and after home visit, to compare the self-efficacy of<br>intervention group and control group on newborn care by means of health workers role during home visit.<br>This research use quantitative research with quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design method.<br>The sample of the research was health workers; each with responsibility of one fostered family of a mother<br>in postpartum period. The research site for the intervention group was the working area of UleeKareng<br>Health Center, and for the control group was the working area of Baiturrahman Health Center. The result of<br>the research revealed that there was a change in self-efficacy of postpartum mothers on newborn care after<br>three home visits by the health workers. The difference of the average efficacy score was 12.5, with p value<br>of 0.0001. When the efficacy of postpartum mothers from the intervention group (who received home<br>visits) was compared to that of mothers from the control group, there was a significant difference found,<br>with p value of 0.003. Home visit executed by the health workers can improve self-efficacy of the<br>postpartum mothers on newborn care. This can be seen from the difference between self-efficacy of the<br>postpartum mothers before and after home visit by the health workers.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prosthetic Status and Needs among Head and Neck Cancer Irradiated Patients Suffering from Xerostomia in Delhi, India 2021-09-03T06:10:08-05:00 Sakshi Gupta Pankaj Dhawan Piyush Tandan Meena Jain <p>Aim: To assess the prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of Head and Neck Cancer Irradiated Patients<br>suffering from Xerostomia in Delhi India.<br>Materials and Method: A multi-centric, cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 120<br>head and neck cancer irradiated patients suffering from xerostomia in Delhi. The information related to<br>socio-demographic data, the prosthetic status, and prosthetic need was obtained using a proforma based on<br>WHO oral health assessment form 1997.<br>Results: Out of 120 participants, 103 were males and 17 were females. The mean age of the study participants<br>was 47.68 + 10.26 years. Stage 1 carcinoma was diagnosed in 69 (57.5%) of the participants while stage 2<br>carcinoma was diagnosed in 51 (42.5%) . Out of 120 individuals, 7 (5.8%) needed single unit prosthesis, 33<br>(27.5%) needed multi-unit prosthesis, 48 (40%) needed a combination of a single and multi-unit prosthesis,<br>and 18 (15%) needed a full prosthesis.<br>Conclusion: The need for prosthesis was high among Head and Neck Cancer Irradiated Patients. There is a<br>need to emphasize dental service utilization among this group of people.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 In Vitro Antifungal Activity of of Pleurotuseryngii against Trichophytonrubrum 2021-09-03T06:15:08-05:00 Salah M. Dawood Ahmed K. Abdulrazzaq Kareem T. Shnawa Mohammed J. Hanawi <p>Biological control represents an important approach for controlling many dermatophyte fungi.<br>Pleurotuseryngiiisa promising and effective bioagent against many pathogenic fungi. In this paper<br>Pleurotuseryngiiwere screened for their efficacy against Trichophytonrubrum. The results had been revealed<br>that the fruiting bodies extract of the bioagentPleurotuseryngiiaffected the radial growth of the dermatophyte<br>fungus Trichophytonrubrum. The extract of test fungus at all test concentrations had inhibitory effect on the<br>radial growth of Trichophytonrubrum. The results had been revealed also that ethanolic extract was more<br>effective than the aqueous extract of Pleurotuseryngiibut lower than the affectivity of the antifungal drug<br>clotrimazole.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Genotyping of Histological Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Isolated by Dental Broach Smear in Iraqi Patients 2021-09-03T06:20:07-05:00 Salah Mahdi Hassan Bushra Qasim Dhumad <p>Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major public health problem as a disease endemic in Iraqi population. Many<br>diagnostic tools are used to establish the diagnosis like smear, histopathology and culture. To find more<br>rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to detect<br>the genotypes of leishmania tropica and leishmania major strains in Iraq. Sixty six patients (43 males and<br>23 females) with clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis were included in present work during the<br>period between December / 2019 to May / 2020 in Al-Yarmook Teaching Hospital and Al-Karama Teaching<br>Hospital. The age of patients ranged from 6 months to 55 years, with median age 24 years. The following<br>diagnostic techniques were carried out for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis including dental broach<br>smear, histopathology examination and culture on Roswell park medium institute (RPM I 1640) and on<br>NNN media. In addition to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism<br>(RFLP), genotype techniques were performed for all patients. Sixty patients with other skin lesions were<br>processed for PCR as a control group.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Correlation of High sensitivity C-reactive Protein Levels with Body Mass Index in a Group of Adults in Erbil City 2021-09-03T06:23:02-05:00 Salam Naser Zangana Namir G Al-Tawil Suhad Ali Khazaal <p>Background and Objectives: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide. Obesity<br>is related to morbidity and mortality. High sensitivity C - reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an important<br>inflammatory marker to predict cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to correlate between hs-CRP levels<br>and BMI among healthy adults.<br>Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 healthy adults from May 2019 to<br>October 2019. The study population was divided into four groups based on BMI; normal, overweight, obese<br>I, and obese II. Hs-CRP level was measured in all groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was done to<br>find out the independent factors affecting hs-CRP.<br>Results: Out of 200 participants, 56 (28%) had normal BMI, 43(21.5%) were overweight, 57(28.5%) were<br>obese group I and 44 (22%) were obese group II. The mean hs-CRP of the normal weight and overweight<br>participants was 1.03 mg/dl and 1.37 mg/dl respectively (p= 0.725), then there was a marked increase to<br>3.75 mg/dl and 7.69 mg/dl among the obese I and obese II participants respectively (p &lt; 0.001). A positive<br>significant correlation was found between the hs-CRP levels and the BMI (r = 0.436, p &lt; 0.001). The only<br>factor that was independently associated with the high hs-CRP was the BMI (B = 0.357, p &lt; 0.001).<br>Conclusion: Rising BMI was significantly correlated with hs-CRP. The higher the BMI, the higher will<br>be plasma hs-CRP levels, suggesting the presence of chronic systemic inflammation which might lead to<br>cardiovascular events in the future.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of 410 nm Diode Laser Irradiation on Human Sperm Motility in Vitro 2021-09-03T06:28:11-05:00 Sama E. Mohammed Layla M.H. Al-ameri <p>Background: Infertility can be defined asan absence of pregnancy after 12 months of regular unprotected<br>sexual intercourse,the most important of the sperm function disorders are reduced sperm motility<br>(asthenospermia). Photobiomodulation have an effect on the decrease of the sperm disorder. Materials<br>and Methods: Diode laser with wavelength of 410nm was used to induce the sperm motility in an<br>asthenozoospermia human seminal fluid in vitro,20 fresh seminal fluids samples were used in this study and<br>each sample was divided into two parts, one of them non-irradiated by laser light (control) and the other was<br>exposed to laser irradiation with exposure time of 30 secondsof 410nm diode laser with 0.67 W/cm2, power<br>density. Results: Progressive motility was significantly increase while non- progressive motility was non<br>significantly increased and the immotile spermswere significantly decreased at 5 min following irradiation<br>compared to non-irradiated samples,while at 15,30,45 minfollowing irradiation begin to decreased. We<br>found that low power laser could induce a short term bio stimulation effect on sperm motility</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Indonesian National Social Security Management Law Problematics with the Enabling of Law Number 40 of 2004 Concerning a National Social Security System 2021-09-04T01:58:10-05:00 Nurrochmah Ihayani I Nurul Istiqomah S H Sitti Nursanti Budi Pramono <p>This study discusses legal problems that occur in the management of Indonesia’s national social security<br>with the enactment of Law number 40 of 2004. This research is a normative legal research with a conceptual<br>and statutory approach. This study uses the theory of Laurence M. Friedman as a knife of analysis that the<br>problem of managing national social security includes institutional structures, substance, the Healthcare<br>and Social Security Agency and The National Social Security regulation and legal culture. It is hoped that<br>the management of national social security will accelerate the transfer of management of the Savings Fund<br>and Civil Servant Insurance Company and the Social Insurance of the Armed Forces of the Republic of<br>Indonesia Company, so that they do not have to wait up to 25 years.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Using Smart Mobile Device on Child Prosocial and Difficult Behaviors in School Age; Parents’ Perception 2021-09-04T02:04:15-05:00 Samar Salah Eldin Mohamed Diab <p>Background: The time that children spend using digital devices is increasing rapidly with the development<br>of new portable and instantly accessible technology. Mobile devices are embedded in and dominate the daily<br>lives of young children. Research Aims: assess the effect of using smart mobile device on child Prosocial<br>and difficult behaviors in school age. Methodology: A cross sectional research design was utilized at August<br>2019 - January 2020. Convenience sample include the 400 school children. An online survey by using<br>Google form, which contains three parts (characteristics of parents, children and Strengths and Difficulties<br>Questionnaire). Results: revealed that47.2% and 47.7% of studied children had abnormal emotional<br>symptoms and conduct problems. In addition (34.5%) of studied children was normal related peer problems<br>domain. Also, (51.2%) of them was abnormal related hyperactivity. While, (30%) of studied children had<br>normal Prosocial behavior. Conclusions: the current study concluded that about half of studied children had<br>abnormal Prosocial and difficult behaviors and less than one quarter of them had borderline Prosocial and<br>difficult behaviors. While, less than one third of them had normal Prosocial and difficult behaviors.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nursing Intervention to Improve the Caregivers’ Practices toward Elderly Care at Geriatric Homes 2021-09-04T02:08:03-05:00 Sanya Zakarya Mohammed Magda Abdelsattar Ahmad Nadia Hamed Farahat <p>Population ageing is a global phenomenon with the number of persons 60 years and over estimated to reach<br>two billion by the year 2050; living longer is joined to challenges of disability and being dependent on<br>caregivers who should have the chance to perform their practices by professional way as an integral part<br>of elderly care. Aim: To evaluate the nursing intervention program to improve the caregivers’ practices of<br>elderly care at geriatric homes. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: In geriatric homes at<br>Cairo governorate. Sample: A convenient sample of all elderly caregivers working in the previous mentioned<br>settings. Tool: Was used an interviewing questionnaire to assess socio-demographic characteristics of<br>elderly caregivers, their knowledge, their practices &amp; factors causing stress to them &amp; their coping with<br>stress. Conclusion: The nursing intervention program implementation had statistically significant positive<br>effect on elderly caregivers at geriatric homes regarding to their knowledge, practices &amp;coping with stress.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessment of Knowledge and Awareness about Medico Legal Issues among Interns and Post GraduateStudents in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh 2021-09-04T02:14:41-05:00 Saptarishi Bose Naresh Jyothula U.Vinod Venkata Kumar Andey Ganapathi Swamy Chintada Paromita Roy <p>In recent times there has been increased number of complaints and lawsuits against doctors. Therefore<br>having knowledge about Medico Legal issues is as important to the practice of medicine as clinical skills.<br>The present study was conducted to evaluate Awareness and Knowledge about Medico Legal issues among<br>Interns and Post Graduate Students. Total 140 interns and 110 Post Graduate students participated in the<br>study. Post graduate students had more knowledge about Medico Legal issues and consent than interns<br>but there was deficit of knowledge about Injury and Death certificates. About Consumers protection act<br>(COPRA)there is little awarenessbut regarding Human organ transplantation Act (HOTA) and Hospital<br>indemnity Insurance awareness should be increased. Our study conveys that action should be taken to cover<br>the lack of awareness and knowledge for doctors as well as patientssafety.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Human Fatalities from Wild Elephant Attacks: A Fiveyear Autopsy-Based Study 2021-09-04T02:24:57-05:00 Saptarshi Chatterjee Ranjan Biswas Tanmay Sardar Shobhan Roy <p>Background: Human-Elephant Conflict may take many forms, from crop raiding and infrastructural<br>damage, to injury or death of humans or elephants. Conflicts or co-existence between human and wildlife is<br>mostly attributed to the loss, degradation, and fragmentation of wildlife habitats through human activities<br>like logging, animal husbandry, agricultural expansion, and development projects. The present study is<br>conducted to study the prevalence of fatal wild elephant attacks, the socio-demographic profiles of the<br>victims along with their nature of injuries and the risk factors associated with these conflicts.<br>Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, which was conducted by analysing 41 cases of fatal<br>Human-Elephant Conflicts, which attended to B.S. Medical College Police Mortuary between 2015 to 2019.<br>Conclusion: Authors feel that the blockage of elephant migratory routes, coupled with cultivation of<br>elephant preferred crops and scarcity of food in the forest in some season, inevitably attracts more humanelephant<br>conflicts.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Unrevealed Truth about the Tongue in Forensic Identification 2021-09-04T02:30:29-05:00 Savla S Gotmare S Pereira T Waghmare. M Shetty S Kamath P Shah T <p>Background: Forensic odontology, a branch of dentistry includes identification of individuals in various<br>crime scenes, natural calamities, and mass disasters. The identification is possible because every individual<br>body is unique and so is our tongue due to its morphological variations. The primary objective of the study<br>was to assess the morphological features of the tongue and its use in sex determination.<br>Methods: The study included a sample size of 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females) in the age range<br>of 20-50 years old. Photographs were taken of front and side view of the tongue; visual inspection was<br>done and lastly impressions of the tongue were made with help of alginate and then poured with the help<br>of dental stone. IBM SPSS statistics 20.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) was used for the analyses<br>of the data. Microsoft word and Excel were used to generate graphs, tables etc. Females presented with<br>triangular shape, presence of shallow fissures more commonly and a sharp lingual apex of tongue. Males<br>presented with rectangular shape, presence of deep fissure/absence of fissures more commonly and septate/<br>sharp lingual apex of the tongue.<br>Conclusion: Tongue exhibits various unique characteristics and can be used in sex determination.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study to Evaluate Effectiveness of Kangaroo Mother Care on Physiological Parameters of Premature Babies in Vadodara City 2021-09-04T03:33:59-05:00 Sejal Solanki Prachi Kachhiya Kamali Patel Vrunda Patel Trushali Baria Kinnari Jatva Sanjana Bhatia <p>According to WHO, mostly babies are die in their neonatal period. India, current infant mortality rate is<br>about 32 infants per 1000 live birth. A Quasi Experimental study was conducted toevaluate the effectiveness<br>of Kangaroo Mother care on physiological parameters of premature neonate of experimental group and<br>control group in selected hospital in Vadodara city. Sample size for the present study was consist of 60<br>babies. (30 experimental and 30 control group) The instrument used for data collection are Kangaroo Mother<br>Care Assessment Flow Sheet (KMCAFS). The data analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential<br>statistics. The result of the present study was that most of the premature babies after receiving KMC Care,<br>there was a significant incensement in the weight. Here the paired t-test value of temperature and weight<br>are(t&lt;0.050)not significant and pulse and respiration are (t&gt;0.05) significant. The study concluded that KMC<br>is a simpleand acceptable method for the mother can be continued at home and there by improves the infant<br>growth and reduce morbidity.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Regularity of Antenatal Care through Knowledge of Pregnant Women and Support from Husbands 2021-09-04T03:42:04-05:00 Sendy Ayu Mitra Uktutias Ade Ayu Mitra Ramadita Daluas Sri Iswati Cholichul Hadi <p>Pregnant women’s knowledge and husband’s support are factors that influence antenatal care regularity. This<br>study aims to analyze the effect of knowledge of pregnant women and husband’s support on antenatal care<br>regularity. This study a cross-sectional design and was conducted on 38 pregnant women as respondents<br>using linear regression statistical tests. The result showed that there was an effect of knowledge of pregnant<br>women and the husband’s support on the regularity of antenatal care. The better the knowledge of pregnant<br>women about their pregnancy and the higher the support of their husbands will have an impact on the<br>regularity of antenatal care. The implication of this research is for midwives who are at the forefront of<br>empowering cadres and providing health education to pregnant women and husbands about the importance<br>of regular antenatal care. Also, midwives need to improve competence through midwifery training efforts.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Deleted 2021-09-04T03:48:38-05:00 <p>B</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Delictological Approach to the Classification of Offenses: Theoretical and Legal Analysis Using the Example of Ukrainian Legislation 2021-09-04T03:56:52-05:00 Sergey V. Petkov Veronika N. Shkabaro Oleh H. Bodnarchuk Igor E. Ivanov Oleksandr D. Kolomoiets <p>The article analyses the problem of the concepts of crime and offense definitions, considers legal issues of<br>their set of facts; based on the analysis of constitutional, administrative and criminal legislation, the criteria<br>to differentiate offenses from homogeneous crimes are proposed; scientific views of lawyers are analysed;<br>legislation improvement of the post-Soviet republics in delictology are proposed.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Child Trafficking & Human Trafficking : Legal Aspects and Role of a Doctor 2021-09-04T04:58:18-05:00 Shagun Thakur Vikas Gurbani <p>Counter-trafficking measures are to be implemented at various levels and by various organisations. The<br>medical professionals also play an important role in this area as in many cases, the victims are first identified<br>when they require some form of medical attention.<br>A child victim of trafficking is any person younger than 18 years against whom the act of trafficking has<br>been committed.The definition of child trafficking differs from that of trafficking in humans in the respect<br>that children are considered being vulnerable not only because of their level of maturity and age but also<br>other factors.<br>This article highlights the various legal aspects of child and human trafficking in India. The victim of<br>trafficking may not himself disclose what he is going through, so there are certain points on history and<br>examination which should arise the suspicion in the mind of the health professional. These signs and<br>symptoms are mentioned in this article which are collected from various resources. Emergency medicine<br>department has an important role in screening of these victims, although all the departments contribute in<br>identifying the victims.<br>The article also mentions where India stands compared to its global counterparts in anti-trafficking measures.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Homesickness, Anxiety and Depression among Pakistani International Students in Indonesia during Covid-19 Outbreak 2021-09-04T05:05:06-05:00 Shahzad Shoukat Cyuzuzo Callixte Theresia Indah Budhy Jusak Nugraha Tuyishimire Irene <p>Introduction: International students are exposed to multiple mental health crisis due to social, environmental<br>and culture shocks in foreign lands but it gets worse in presence of life- threatening disease outbreak. This<br>research was conducted to evaluate the homesickness, anxiety and depression among Pakistani international<br>students in Indonesia during Covid-19 Outbreak. Methods: This study was conducted on 86 random<br>students that are pursuing their studies in different public and private universities in Indonesia. The data<br>were collected by distributing google forms via email and social media groups and the responses from<br>the respondents were recorded and analyzed statistically. Results: The study findings revealed that there<br>is a correlation between Covid-19 pandemic and the development of various mental health crisis where<br>33 students (38.37 %) developed homesickness, 11 students (12.79%) developed anxiety and 2 students<br>(2.33 %) manifested low-grade depression. Homesickness was outstandingly observed in females (72.72<br>%) whereas anxiety was highly reported in males (90.90%).The study findings demonstrated that there is<br>a strong negative correlation between student financial statuses and the development of homesickness (r:<br>-0.977, P: 0.023) and anxiety (r: -0.944, P: 0.056).Conclusion: All in all, the fear to contract coronavirus,<br>lockdowns, financial instability, death toll of citizens and medical professionals, run out of medical facilities<br>and social media hoaxes are significant risk factors of mental health crisis among Pakistani international<br>students in Indonesia.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Determination the Relationship between (KLF14 rs972283) Genotype and Type 2 Diabetes in a Sample of Iraqi Patients 2021-09-04T05:10:59-05:00 Shaimaa Abbas Dawood Mohammed Ibrahim Nader <p>This study was aimed to detect KLF14 gene polymorphism in Iraqi type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM)<br>to found the correlation between the SNP (rs972283) polymorphism in KLF14 gene and lipid metabolism<br>and impact on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The result show high Significant difference<br>was observed in FBS level (P&lt;0.001) in patient group (172.9 ± 79.73) and in control (81.16 ± 7.18),).<br>Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol and VLDL-Cholesterol mean level value in diabetic patients was significantly<br>higher than those of control group (p&lt;0.0001), serum HDL-Cholesterol mean value was significantly<br>difference (P&lt;0.05) in serum mean level of HDL between T2DM patients and healthy controls. Real time<br>PCR (HRM) RT-PCR were used to detect SNP (rs972283) in KLR14 gene (G&gt;A) by using specific primers,<br>as a related with SNP (rs972283) G&gt;A in KLF14 gene, genotypes and alleles frequencies, odds ratios,<br>95% confidence intervals and P values for the KLF14 gene In this study, statistical analyses of genotypic<br>frequencies for the KLF14 (rs972283) revealed significant difference between T2DM patients and controls<br>in the examined population. GG genotype was significantly (P = 0.0006) more frequent in the patient group.<br>The observed G/G, A/G, and A/A genotype frequencies were 50%, 42%, and 8%, respectively<br>.The A (wildtype)<br>and G (variant) allele frequencies were 29% and 71% , respectively in patient group while the observed<br>G/G, A/G, and A/A genotype frequencies were 22%, 48%, and 30, respectively<br>and the A (wild-type) , G<br>(variant) allele frequencies were 54% and 46%, respectively in control group (P &lt;0.0003). GG genotype was<br>significantly (P = 0.0006) more frequent in the patient group, Conclusion: There was a relationship between<br>polymorphism of KLF14 gene SNP (rs972283) and the incidence of T2DM in sample of Iraqi patients.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Theoretical Study of Cyclohexane -1,2-Diamine-Oxalate- Platinum Metal Complex and Comparing with Experimental Data: DFT Calculations 2021-09-04T05:18:55-05:00 Shakir D. Al-Saeedi Hamid Ibrahim Abbood Wisam ShareefIrzooqi <p>Theoretical studies for calculating the molecular structure and electronic properties of Cyclohexane<br>-1,2-diamine-oxalate- platinum metal complex by using density functional theory (DFT) for get electronic<br>properties and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for get excited state with B3LYP-SDD<br>basis sets at the Gaussian 09 of programs. The electronic states of the system have been calculated depend<br>on Koopmans’ theorem.<br>The results showed that the excitation energies of oxaliplatinum lie in the UV region of electromagnetic<br>radiation with very high biological reactivity, where The absorption spectra of complex recorded with<br>wavelength (344.69nm), oscillator strength (0.0002). From calculations of the HOMO - LUMO energies,<br>energy gap, hardness and softness, all this results showed oxaliplatinum are more soft and can easily interact<br>with enzymes because the enzymes are big soft molecules. Thus, the optimized geometry shows a good<br>agreement with the experimental results.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Trend of Sex Related Crimes in Varanasi District 2021-09-04T05:24:36-05:00 Shashank Shekhar Jha Manoj Kumar Pathak <p>Introduction: Sexual harassment and sexual assault both rely on dehumanizing the intended victims. Sexual<br>violence is a significant cause of physical and psychological harm and suffering for women and children.<br>The Indian Penal Code (IPC) is the crucial criminal code of India.<br>Material and Method: Consent of the victim and accused was taken prior to examination. In case of minor,<br>the consent from his/her parents or legal guardian was taken. SAFE (Sexual Assault Forensic Evidence) kit<br>was used for sample collection from sexual assault victims and accused.<br>Observation and Result: This study includes cases 160 victims of sexual assault.<br>Conclusion: The present study, being a pioneer one, is relevant in the context of crime against women of<br>all age groups in the Eastern U.P., especially of Varanasi district in socio-demographic and medico-legal<br>paradigms. The government must set up a special unit that recruits officers specifically to deal with sexual<br>offences, and create easy access to doctors, forensic experts, rape survivors and psychologists.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparative Study of Cold Physical Plasma Effect on Modulation of Basic-Fibroblast Growth Factor and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing Process in Normal and Diabetic Dogs 2021-09-04T05:28:26-05:00 Shatha M. Al Qaseer Serwa I.Salih Ruqaya M. Ali Mohammed K. Khalaf 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Ammivisnagawater Extract Compared to Proximol (Halfa Bar Extract) in Treatment of induced Renal Lithiasis in a Mature Female Rabbit 2021-09-04T05:44:48-05:00 Shatha Mahdi Younis Abdulrazaq N. Khudair Asia Selman. Abdullah <p>Nowadays people worldwide uses several medicinal plants especially for curing urinary lithiasis.Ammivisnaga<br>is extensively distributed medicinal plant used for management of numerous diseases including urinary<br>lithiasis.Cymbopogonproximus or called Halfa-bar suggested for use in medicine for the ejection of ureteric<br>and renal calculi.Ammivisnagaand Halfa-barfound in Asia and several parts of the world. This study aimed<br>at investigating and comparing both Ammivisnaga and Halfa-barextracts for their antiurolithicactivity<br>using a mature female rabbit. Forty-two rabbits randomly divided into four groups.Group A negative<br>control, group Bpositive control (chemically induced urolithiasis),group Clike group B but treated with<br>Ammivisnaga extract 5 ml orally twice daily for 2 weeks and group Dlike group B but treated with Proximol<br>(Halfa Bar extract) 5 ml twice daily for 2 weeks also.GC-MS analysis of alcoholic extract of AmmiVisnaga<br>revealed the detection of main alkaloids Khellin, Visnagin, adulicin and enidimine, withothercompounds<br>inlower quantity. The results show that group of induced urinary lithiasis for 14 days and 21 days showed<br>clear body weight loss, higher consumption of drinking water and increased morning urine excretion. In<br>addition to significant increase of blood urea, uric acid, serum creatinine and calcium levels.After 14 days<br>of treatment with AmmiVisnaga extract and proximol we noticed reversed body weight loss and overcome<br>low blood urea, serum uric acid, creatinine and calcium. Furthermore,urinary lithiasisgroups showed clear<br>crystallization compared to the control urine samples, but after 14 days treatment with AmmiVisnaga and<br>proximol extracts, there was nearly clearance of the urine and disappearance of the crystals from the urine.<br>In conclusion, AmmiVisnaga and Proximol are safe and good diuretic herbs causes improvement in the body<br>weight, high clearance in urine crystals and amelioration in kidney function compared to untreated group.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Studying the Influence of Maternal Factors on Iraqi Pediatrics patients Presented with Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia 2021-09-04T05:49:30-05:00 Shaymaa Hasan Abbas Lubab Tarek Nafea Rasha Saadi Abbas 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa Oleifera Seed Oil Extract Against Some Foodborne Pathogens 2021-09-04T05:55:05-05:00 Shaymaa Rajab Farhan Ahmed H. AL-Azawi Warqaa Y. Salih Alaa A. Abdulhassan 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching on Knowledge Regarding Prevention of Nutritional Anemia among Adolescencents in Kasturba Vidya Mandir, Sevagram,Wardha 2021-09-04T06:14:16-05:00 Sheetal Sakharkar Prinumol Punnoose Shakuntala Pande Priya Navarate <p>Introduction: -Growth of all living organism depends on nutrition .In human being growth period is said to<br>be from conception to adolescence and after that nutrition is required for maintenance of body. Lot of work<br>has been done regarding role of nutrition during pregnancy, infancy and childhood but hardly any attention<br>is paid to the group called adolescence i.e. period between childhood and adulthood. The most prevalent<br>nutritional condition is anaemia worldwide. Prevalence in India of anemia among young girls were 56 % and<br>this amount to an average 64 million girls at any point in time.<br>Aim: To determine the effectiveness of planned teaching on knowledge regarding prevention of nutritional<br>anemia among adolescence.<br>Materials and Methods: A pre-experimental pre-test, post-test research design was used to conduct this<br>study. The setting was selected in the Kasturba Vidya Mandir Sewagram,<br>Wardha (Maharashtra) after getting ethical permission. Purposive sampling was the sampling method used to<br>collect data from 9th standard students on the basis of structured knowledge questionnaire. After collecting<br>pre-test data, planned teaching was given for intervention regarding prevention of nutritional anemia to<br>adolescencents. Seven days were provided to the samples for utilizing planned teaching which was organized<br>for 45-50 minutes. Post-test information was gathered after seven days from the day of intervention. The<br>data were described by frequency, percentage and t-test was used to describe the difference between pre-test<br>and post-test knowledge score. Chi-square test was also used to find out the association between knowledge<br>of 9th standard students regarding prevention of nutritional anaemia and selected demographic variables.<br>Results: There was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge scores interpreted that<br>planned teaching on knowledge regarding prevention of nutritional anaemia among adolescencents were<br>effective. Mean value of pretest was 10.10 and posttest was 19.08and standard deviation values of pretest<br>was ±2.27and posttest was ±2.21. The calculated t-value was 19.66and p-value was 0.000.<br>Conclusion: - The study was effective because the post-test knowledge score improved than the pre-test<br>knowledge score. So the planned teaching has proved to improve 9th standard students knowledge regarding<br>prevention of nutritional anaemia.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evolution of Electronic Root Canal Length Measurement Device -A Literature Review 2021-09-04T06:19:59-05:00 Shivangi Shekhar P.Laxmish Mallya <p>Summary: An electronic apex locator(EAL) is a device used to measure the working length (WL) of the<br>root canal space(RCS) and proved to be a great help to the endodontist reducing radiation exposure of<br>both patients and clinicians and providing accurate reading for the WL. Evolution of different generations<br>of EAL helped to eradicate the shortcomings of the previous generations providing precise measurement<br>of the WL. Electronic Apex locators are used to detect any perforations, furcation involvement, also used<br>to detect horizontal fractures, also to detect internal or external resorption. With so many uses, it is still<br>contraindicated in patients with pace makers and inaccurate reading in canals with common irrigants like<br>Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. It requires dry or partially dry canals to give<br>readings with accuracy. It also gives inaccurate reading in the presence of semi-conductive materials and<br>hence the canals should be free of them. Though it provides almost precise measurement of the WL it cannot<br>be replaced with radiographs but can be used as an adjunct with it. Pre- and post-operative radiographs are<br>still necessary for the success of the endodontic treatment as it provides an idea for any periapical lesion<br>and degree of curvature of roots. Acceptance of an electronic apex locator to determine the correct WL<br>has still not gained approval worldwide. Lack of exposure to the technology by the operator, inadequate<br>knowledge of the root canal anatomy and cost of the instrument are also the factors for it not gaining<br>worldwide acceptance.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Surrogacy as an Alternative for Depressive Infertile Couples 2021-09-04T06:24:31-05:00 Shyamantak Misra Prafulla Chandra Mishra <p>This piece of work aims to provide a clear picture of the available alternatives to the intending infertile<br>couples and how far surrogacy is acceptable as an alternative to the prolonged infertility treatments that<br>ultimately lead to depression symptoms like anxiety and other expressed emotional patterns. It’s a bestowed<br>power on women to cherish the experience of motherhood but unfortunately not all the women are lucky<br>enough to conceive and enjoy the joyous feeling of being a mother and experiencing motherhood. It’s<br>usually a dubious decision to make for the intending infertile couples whether to continues with the infertility<br>treatments to have a child of their own or opt for an alternative like Surrogacy or Adoption. This article states<br>the need of taking up an alternative before it’s too late and emphasizes on the reasons for taking up surrogacy<br>as an alternative above the other available ones and also mentions the reasons why couples do not opt for<br>surrogacy so that one takes care of the same while choosing the same. The procedure to be followed by such<br>couples while selecting this alternative has also been stated so that they find themselves in a better position<br>than the once suffering to get through.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Surrogate Motherhood: Challenges and Legal Implications 2021-09-04T06:28:03-05:00 Shyamantak Misra Prafulla Chandra Mishra <p>Surrogacy wasn’t a commonly used term until the 21st century, it came up with the rising level of infertility<br>in couples and the stringent procedure of compliance for adoption. Surrogacy has always been the choice of<br>couples for whom genetic link is of utmost importance. At a point of time the rate of commercial surrogacy<br>was at its peak which leads to several issues and challenges that needs to be treated on an urgent basis and<br>obviously an enactment to guide alongside which isn’t present till date in India. However, after the passing<br>of the Surrogacy Regulation Bill 2019 in the Lok Sabha, a hope for betterment has arose. This piece of study<br>showcases the challenges faced since time immemorial relating to Surrogacy and how it was being tackled<br>with, without any legislation being present in India. It also stresses on the key points of the upcoming bill<br>of 2019 and how it would prove to be a turning point for the commercial world that developed due to the<br>Surrogacy in India.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus Polyrhizus) to Reduce Cholesterol Level in People With Excessive Nutritional Status 2021-09-04T06:31:06-05:00 Siti Fadlilah Adi Sucipto Mohamad Judha Tia Amestiasih Cornelia Dede Yoshima Nekada Eko Mindarsih Cipta Pramana <p>Background: Nutritional status is closely related to high cholesterol levels. High cholesterol levels as a<br>trigger for other metabolic diseases. Fruits high in fiber and vitamin C can be used to keep blood cholesterol<br>levels regularly.<br>Aim: To determine the effect of red dragon fruit on blood cholesterol levels in people with excessive<br>nutritional status.<br>Methods: Research used an experimental approach with a pretest and post-test control group design. The<br>sample consisted of 2 groups, namely the control group and the intervention group, with 50 respondents in<br>each group. The sample was taken using purposive sampling. The intervention group got red dragon fruit<br>juice for seven days. Blood cholesterol levels are measured by laboratory tested using intravenous blood.<br>The statistical test used the Paired T-Test and Independent T-Test.<br>Results: The difference mean posttest-pretest control group and intervention groups were 13.56 mmHg and<br>-13.06 mmHg. The analysis of pretest-posttest blood cholesterol levels among the control and intervention<br>groups were p=0.514 and p=0.035. The difference between the control group and the intervention group was<br>0.022.<br>Conclusion: Red dragon fruit is effective in reducing blood cholesterol levels in people with excessive<br>nutritional status.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Physical Exercise in Clinical Stage IIhuman Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Patients’ Increasesskeletal Muscle MAss Through the Increasing of Myogenic Regulatory Factors Expression 2021-09-04T06:39:22-05:00 Sri Mardjiati Mei Wulan Hening Laswati Usman Hadi Nasronudin Nasronudin <p>Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is a chronic diseasethat threatensthe health ofmillions<br>of people inthe worldand causing disability. One of the factors that causedisabilityis HIVmusclewasting,<br>causing a decrease inthe quality of lifethat interferethe daily activitiesand evenincreased mortality. Proper<br>physical exercise is needed to prevent and treat muscle wasting.<br>Methods: This studyusinghuman subjectswithclinicalstageII HIVinfection. Subjectswere groupedinto two:<br>Intervention (n =9) that subjects whogetmoderate-intensity physicalexercise (HIVA) for 8weeks andControl (n<br>=9) as subjects wereobservedfor 8 weeks. Muscles samples were taken fromthe vastuslateralismusclebiopsies<br>that performed24 hoursafterthe lastphysical exercise,immunohistochemicalexaminationwithmonoclonal<br>antibodyanti-Pax7, anti-MyoD1 andanti-myogenin and measurement of thigh circumference.<br>Results: Therewere significant increase in regeneration of skeletal muscle in the intervention group<br>(increasing of Pax7, MyoD1 and myogenin) than the control groupand significant increase in quadriceps<br>muscles mass as measured by thigh circumference (p &lt; 0.001).<br>Conclusion: HIVA physical exerciseof moderate intensityincreasesskeletal muscleregenerationinclinical<br>stageII HIVinfectionthroughthe increasingPax7, MyoD1, myogeninexpression and followed by an increase<br>of quadriceps muscles mass.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Professional Socialization among Nursing Students 2021-09-04T06:45:49-05:00 Sruthi M Aleena Baiju Swathi Krishna T P <p>Objective : The objectives of our study is to determine the professional socialization among nursing students,<br>to find out the association between professional socialization and demographic characteristics and to find<br>the subgroup comparison of level of professional socialization among outgoing batch students and first year<br>B.Sc. nursing students<br>Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted among all four years of nursing students of a private<br>nursing college. Nursing students who meet the inclusion criteria (357) were selected using purposive<br>sampling.<br>Results: The majority of the students are ‘Experts’ in maintaining professional socialization. But in the<br>subgroup comparison of level of Professional socialization among the final year students with first year<br>showed a 1.1% less in ‘Expert’ category. The results showed a significant association of level of professional<br>socialization with ‘Gender’, ‘Mode of Admission’ and ‘Reason for selecting nursing as a profession’<br>Conclusion: The need for developing professional socialization has to be considered at the most priority.<br>The results of this study shows the need for introducing new plans to make sure that the students level of<br>socialization</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Management of Urolithiasis in Cat with Special Diets 2021-09-04T06:52:12-05:00 Steven Taufic Leo Lita Rakhma Yustinasari Juliano Mwenda Ntoruru <p>Introduction: The current study is focused on the treatment of a cat with urolithiasis. The main goal is to<br>help provide a greater understanding of how to treat the cat with special diets.<br>Case Description: Struvite urolithiasis was found in a 3-year-old female domestic short-haired cat with<br>the complaint of straining for a week during urination. Ultrasonographs indicated the existence of two<br>calculi in the bladder that were also detected by radiographic examination (7 mm in diameter each). Bladder<br>stones were getting smaller by dissolution diets therapy. In this case, the cat was treated by melox 1.5 mg/<br>ml (dosage 0.1 mg/kgBW) for 14 days, tramadol for 28 days (2mg/kg BW) and also special diets (struvite).<br>Conclusion: After a month treatment,the stones were almost cannot be seen radiographically. This report<br>describes a cat with urolithiasis case which was successfully treated with special diets for struvite without<br>any surgery.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Electro-acupuncture Combined with Medical Treatment for Successful Management of Legs Paralysis in a Dog 2021-09-04T06:58:07-05:00 Steven TauficLeo LitaRakhma Yustinasari Juliano Mwenda Ntoruru <p>A 5-year-old Siberian Husky female dog was referred with concerned maggots and legs paralysis.The dog<br>was examined clinically and radiographically. Shewas positive of E. canisand Anaplasma. Major clinical sign<br>showed thedog unable to lift the body. Neurological exam was performed, deep pain on all limbs were delayed.<br>The dog got wound treatment and electro-acupuncturethrough perpendicular insertion into acupuncture<br>points: BL-23, BL-26, BL-40, BL-60, ST-36, and LIV-3for 20 minutes/day, 70 Hz and 5A,continuously,<br>for 15 daysand then reduce to 3 times/week.Significant improvements were observed,finally the dog being<br>recovered.Thiscase showed favorable therapeutic response by alternative treatment.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparison in Synergetic Effect for Silver Nanoparticles that Produced from P.aeruginosa and P.luteola with Oil Extract of Cymbopogon Citraus on Different Types of Pathogenic Bacteria 2021-09-04T07:03:39-05:00 Suaad Ali Ahmed Hussam Mahmood Hasan 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Predisposition Factors in Exclusive Breastfeeding in Infants (Literature Review) 2021-09-04T07:07:56-05:00 Subagyo Suparji Nana Usnawati Vilia Tri Erlina <p>Background. Nutritional intake inthe first thousand days of a child’s life up to 2 yesars old is very important for<br>growth and development. The low number of exclusive breasfeeding is still to be concern of the Indonesian<br>governmnet .Based on data from Magetan District Health Office in 2019, the coverage of exclusive<br>breastfeeding in the Poncol Puskesmas was 48,4 %. The purpose of this systematic literature review is<br>to systematically review some of the results of recent research on the drivers that influence the success of<br>exclusive breastfeeding, namely the factors of knowledge, education, employment, and attitude.The type<br>of research used is systematic literature review (SLR) using the Preffered Reporting Items for Systematic<br>Review and Meta Analysis (PRISMA) approach. The database used are DOAJ and SINTA (Garuda), the last<br>5 years publication limits, analytical research, cross sectional research designs, full text articles, research<br>areas are Indonesia. From the research results found 546 journals and after screening obtained 9 relevant<br>journals. Regarding education, 3 out of 4 journals stated that there was a relationship between education<br>and exclusive breastfeeding. On the employment factor, 4 out 5 journals stated that there was a relationship<br>between wprk and exclusive breastfeeding. In the knowledge factor, all of journals stated that there was a<br>relationship between knowledge and eclusive breastfeeding. While in the attitude factor, 3 out of 4 journals<br>stated that there was a relatioship between attitude and exclusive breastfeeding.The majority, of journal state<br>that there is relationship between education, knowledge, employment, and attitude of mother’s breatfeeding.<br>It is hoped that the results of this review will be able to bring change to readers, especially health workers<br>who have a very important role in providing education and promotion regarding exclusive breastfeeding.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Screening of Healthy Women Using Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid For Detection of Cervical Cancer 2021-09-04T07:18:02-05:00 Suchitra A Rati Jayashree Pujari <p>Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and second most<br>common cancer in developing and under developing Nations. the higher incidence of cervical cancer in<br>developing countries is mainly because of lack of resources ,lack of effective screening technologies and<br>poorly organized health care delivery in the rural area<br>Objective: To determine the prevalence of cervical precancerous lesion among healthy women<br>Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 600 Healthy women who were selected by using<br>purposive sampling technique .the prevalence of precancerous cervical lesion was assessed by Visual<br>Inspection with acetic acid and the data was analyzed by using inferential and descriptive statistical methods<br>Result: It was also observed that prevalence of cervical Precancerous lesions in healthy women was 5.0%.<br>It means that 30(5.0%) out of 600 healthy women had risk of cervical precancerous lesions in this present<br>study. Among the study samples who suspected to be positive, off them 10(3.3%) had two or less quadrant<br>involved, and 5 (1.7%) had three quadrants involved, About action taken 30(5.0%) were referred for<br>confirmation, 230(38.3%) followed up after 3 years, 340(56.7%) had referred medical treatment and VIA<br>test after six monthsThe study result shows that Reveals that prevalence of cervical Precancerous lesions<br>was highly associated with visual examination findings such as cervicitis, white discharge, and abnormal<br>findings .Conclusion: The study results conclude that VIA test can be used as a alternative screening<br>technique for early diagnosis of precancerous lesion among women at low resource setting</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluate the Biological Activities of Biosynthesized ZnO- Nanoparticles Using Escherichia Coli 2021-09-04T07:21:55-05:00 Suhad H Neihaya HZ Raghad AL 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study on Patient Satisfactionin a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Mysore 2021-09-04T07:29:55-05:00 Sujay Mugaloremutt Jayadeva Harshith.N <p>As it’s effortless to enumerate the physical values of the company’s products, as well asthe services, even<br>so the perceptions of the customeraresomething that really resolves a company’s brand appraisement in a<br>marketplace.Patient satisfaction finds to be crucial for any hospital it not only brings good image to the<br>hospital,but also gives a strong satisfaction and trust for the patient towards the hospitals,this research was<br>carried out mainly to assess the perceptions of healthcare satisfaction among the patients.100 patients were<br>taken as sample size in this study and the study was carried out. The data were obtainedfrom the patients by<br>collecting their reviews based on the questionnaire.Results suggested that a majority of the patients required<br>customer services as their first preference and also there were only 6 patients who gave the scale of 10 for<br>satisfaction. so the study concludes that there should be measures taken by the hospital inorder to increase<br>the patient satisfaction towards the hospital services</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Success Rate of Intact Canal Wall Tympanoplasty in Safe Type of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media’ Patients 2021-09-04T07:33:17-05:00 Sukma Nisa Janitra Artono <p>Background: Surgical therapy for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is by tympanoplasty with or<br>without mastoidectomy. The purpose of surgery is to eradicate the source of infection. Success indicators<br>of tympanoplasty are achieving dry ears without recurrent otorrhea, myringoplasty, and an increase in the<br>hearing threshold.<br>Objectives: is to know the success rate of intact canal wall tympanoplasty in safe type CSOM patients.<br>Methods: Retrospective descriptive was used in this study. All safe-type of CSOM patients undergoing intact<br>canal wall tympanoplasty surgery from January to December 2018 at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital were used<br>as the participant data.<br>Results : There were 32 participants, divided into a higher proportion of males than females (ratio 1.1:<br>1). The characteristics of the participants included; the most age group were 21-30 years (37.50%), origin<br>outside Surabaya (59.37%), and high school education level (62.50%). Most perforations were subtotal<br>(40.63%) and hearing loss was conduction (62.50%). Apparently, 56.25% were patent Eustachian tubes,<br>90.63% were sclerotic mastoid Schuller photographs, and 62.50% were granulation tympanic cavity findings.<br>Additionally, 78.13% were performed tympanoplasty type 1. The results of postoperative eradication showed<br>dry ears (84.38%) and successful of myringoplasty (71.88%). The mean increase in the hearing threshold for<br>AC, BC, and ABG after surgery was 15.98 dB, 4.57 dB, and 11.40 dB.<br>Conclusion: The results of eradication after intact canal wall tympanoplasty were mostly dry ears, successful<br>myringoplasty, and an increase in the mean hearing threshold of AC, BC, and ABG.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Estimation of Height from Foot Measurement in Kalaburagi District 2021-09-04T07:36:13-05:00 Sunilkumar C.A Santosh Garampalli <p>Estimation of height of a person plays an important role in identification of a person which is necessary in<br>criminal cases and as well as in mass disasters where only a portion or a part of body may be seen. The present<br>study was carried out on the measurement of foot length and body height of 342 students (170males and<br>172 females) of 05 to 30 years of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken by using anthropometric<br>instruments in centimeter to the nearest millimeter. All the measurements were taken in a well lighted room.<br>Obtained data was analysed for correlation coefficient and to derive a regression formula between<br>foot length and height of an individual. A medium correlation of height was observed with foot length and<br>it was statistically significant. The present study would be useful for anthropologists and forensic experts</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Phylogenetic Analysis Related to Hepatitis B Virus based on Region Surfaces in Tuban, East Java Province, Indonesia 2021-09-04T07:43:21-05:00 Supiana Dian Nurtjahyani Retno Handajani <p>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a virus cause liver disease. This virus could be transmitted through blood product,<br>and it becomes the major problems in developing countries. Genotype distribution of HBV depends on<br>geographical characteristics. Here, we reported HBV genotyping analysis of blood donors with positive<br>Hepatitis Surface Antigen (HbsAg) at Indonesian Red Cross Foundation in Tuban, East Java. Total 150<br>sera were collected from blood donors at Indonesian Red Cross Foundation in Tuban, East Java. Enzyme-<br>Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was conducted by PRISM®HBsAg kit (ABBOTT) according to<br>the manufacture’s instruction, to determine sample that has positive HbsAg. The genotyping analysis was<br>done using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing method from 12 samples. Genetyx ver.10 software<br>was used for identification of HBV type. Analysis of HBV genotype revealed three different types of HBV.<br>HBV type B was the major HBV (50%). Interestingly, there was one unidentified HBV type suggested as a<br>novel subtype of HBV. Further genotyping analysis is needed to confirm novelty of the unidentified HBV<br>type. Analysis of HBV genotype revealed three different types of HBV. HBV type B was the major HBV<br>(50%). Interestingly, there was one unidentified HBV type suggested as a novel subtype of HBV. Further<br>genotyping analysis is needed to confirm novelty of the unidentified HBV type. This study was the first<br>evidence of blood donor’s genotyping analysis in Tuban.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Management of Patient With Caustic Ingestion Injury: A Case Report 2021-09-05T03:17:29-05:00 Supriadi Budi Widodo Brinna Anindita <p>The ingestion of caustic substances, both accidental and voluntary, determines a complex syndrome,<br>characterized by severe, often irreversible, visceral lesions, with still remarkable mortality in highly<br>compromised patients. Al36-year-old woman came to Emergency-Room with the chief complaints of<br>blackish vomiting about 4ltimes after drinking liquid to clean the bathroom floor. Patients with findings of<br>grade 2B esophageal injury, pangastritis and gastric ulcer on endoscopy have high the risk of perforation<br>and complications. Endoscopy done within 12lhours and no later than 24lhours following caustic ingestion<br>to classify mucosal injury subsequent to caustic ingestion is useful to determine the severity of injury,<br>particularly in suicidal cases, and thus helpful in predicting outcomes. Patient threat with rehydration with<br>normal saline, total parenteral nutrition, pump omeprazole, injection of methylprednisolone, antibiotic,<br>and sucralfate. Consultation with the Psychiatry department has been conducted psychoeducation and<br>psychotherapy.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Knowledge Regarding Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection In Patients with Indwelling Catheter among Staff Nurses: An Interventional Study 2021-09-05T03:23:13-05:00 Surinder Singh Ruchi Kumari Aarti Thakur Sakshi Tomar Mridul <p>The study based on a broad framework with input, throughput, output and feedback first presented by<br>Ludwing Von Bertalanffy. The investigation utilised an evaluative approach. Samples of 50 staff nurses<br>were collected using random sampling by lottery. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection.<br>The overall pre-test knowledge mean score was 14.14±1.629. After administration of the self-instructional<br>module, the post-test mean score increased to 20.56±4.362. The hypothesis H1 expressed that there will be<br>a considerable distinction between pre-test and post-test information scores of nursing officers regarding<br>urinary tract infection. The 't ' test was discovered to be more prominent than the table worth. Acquired<br>worth was (10.353), and table worth was (2.045). It showed the effectiveness of the SIM. The study was<br>no significant relationship with demographic variables because the chi- square value was less than the table<br>value. Thus, the H2 has been dismissed.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Correlation Luteinizing Hormone (LH)/Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Ratio with Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)/ High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Ratio in Polycystic Ovarium Syndrome (PCOS) Patients 2021-09-05T03:30:26-05:00 Susi Oktaviani Jusak Nugraha Ashon Sa’adi <p>The aim of this study is to analyze the correlation between the ratio of LH and FSH levels with LDL and<br>HDL cholesterol in PCOS patients. This study is an observational cross-sectional study. The population in<br>this study were women newly diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome who came to RSIA Ferina, RSIA<br>Lombok 22, Elizabeth Clinic and RSIA Putri Surabaya and Clinical Pathology Laboratory of dr. Soetomo<br>Surabaya. Examination of FSH, LH and LDL and HDL cholesterol levels on 27 specimens (stored frozen<br>serum) using the ICT (Accurate Intan Madya®, VEDALAB) and enzymatic colorimetric (Dimension EXL®,<br>Siemens) methods. Statistical analysis was performed using the Spearman and Pearson correlation test,<br>with a significance level of p &lt;0.05. The results showed that there was a moderate positive correlation<br>between FSH and LDL cholesterol (r = 0.491, p = 0.009). Phenotype D of PCOS (non-hyperandrogenic<br>type) had a moderate negative correlation between the LH / FSH ratio and the LDL/HDL cholesterol level<br>ratio (r = -0.487, p &lt;0.05). However, there was no relationship between the LH/FSH ratio and the ratio<br>of LDL/HDL cholesterol levels in all SOPK patients in this study. This study showed that phenotype D<br>PCOS patients (non-hyperandrogenic type) were less likely to have cardiovascular complications than other<br>phenotypic PCOS patients. Insulin resistance has a role in the risk of dyslipidemia in non-hyperandrogenic<br>PCOS patients.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Medical and Psychological Effect of Hate Crimes and Hate Speech on Vulnerable Social Groups 2021-09-05T03:34:56-05:00 Suvidutt M.S. Aditya Tomer <p>The present study would be analyzing and interpreting the intricacies of hate speech in two-fold. Firstly, the<br>authors would be meticulously analyzing the legal parlance of the term ‘hate speech’ in the present aeon and<br>its repercussions, i.e., outline the constitutive and consequential harm faced by the people that goes beyond<br>legal texts and judgments and beyond the legal notion of hate speech.<br>In furtherance, this research article would address the aftereffects of hate speech medically and how it takes<br>a psychological toll on minority bigotry and pervasive gender or ethnic differences by using a plethora of<br>well-known logical research approaches that are unique to analytic philosophy.<br>Hate speech cases have resulted in bans on campus, legal rulings, and national controversy. The term ‘Free<br>Speech’ and ‘Hate Speech’ has been misconstrued and used misappropriately. The prime reason is the<br>absence of precise clarification and the unbelievably wide usage of the term. The targeted communities<br>experiencing hate speech are of paramount importance but are often overlooked due to the legitimacy of<br>laws pertaining to hate speech.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The SNP rs13118928, rs1828591 and rs10519717 in the HHIP Gene are not Associated on COPD Susceptibility in Male Javanese Smokers 2021-09-05T03:39:12-05:00 Syazili Mustofa Sutyarso Muhartono Yandri Retno Ariza Soeprihatini Soemarwoto Hendri Busman Wawan Abdullah Setiawan <p>Background: Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) gene polymorphisms have an association on COPD<br>has been carried out in Europe and Asia but in Indonesia there is still very limited study on this type and<br>the largest ethnic group in Indonesia is the Javanese. Objective: To analyze the association between the<br>HHIP gene polymorphism and the incidence of COPD in male Javanese smokers in Lampung, Indonesia.<br>Method: In a case-control study in Javanese male smokers, three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs)<br>in the HHIP gene were analyzed by Sanger sequencing method. There were 110 participants in this study<br>which were divided into 2 groups, such as COPD group (55 participants) and control group (55 participants).<br>Three SNPs in the gene (rs13118928, rs1828591 and rs10519717) were selected for genotyping. Genotype<br>distributions were compared between patients and controls. The statistical analysis was carried out with the<br>SPSS program with a chi-square test. Result: The genotypic frequency of the HHIP gene sequence at the<br>SNP position rs1828591, such as AA (52.72%), GG (3.63%) and AG (43.63%) in COPD group, while in<br>the control group such as AA (38.18%), GG (9.09%) and GG (52.72%; p &gt; 0.05). The genotypic frequency<br>of the HHIP gene sequence at the SNP position rs13118928 consisted of AA (47.27%) and AG (53.72%)<br>in the control group, while the COPD group consisted of AA (52.72%), GG (1.81%) and AG (45.45%; p<br>&gt; 0.05). The genotypic frequency of the HHIP gene sequence at the SNP position rs10519717 consisted<br>of TT (34.54%), CC (14.56%) and CT (50.90%) in COPD group, while controls group consisted of TT<br>(23.63%), CC (16.37%) and CT (60.00%; p &gt; 0.05). The genotypic analysis of Three SNPs in HHIP gene<br>were observed but showed no significant difference between case and control groups. Conclusion: Singlenucleotide<br>variants in the HHIP gene are not associated with COPD susceptibility in Javanese male smokers.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Nano-Coating on Microleakage of Different Capsulated Glass Ionomer Restoration in Primary Teeth: An In Vitro Study 2021-09-05T03:50:53-05:00 Sohaib Qais Alwan Athraa Mustafa Al-Waheb 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Application Program of Smoking Free University Policy Campaign in Sisaket Rajabhat University 2021-09-05T03:53:52-05:00 Tanaprat Thuksin Chuthamat Nopparat Tanapat Sriwarom <p>Background:These policy campaign were developed inlaw enforcement protection a non-smoking for<br>smoking freeuniversityby students union president.Method:This quasi-experimental research aimed to<br>evaluate the application program of smoking free university policy campaign. To study the effect of the<br>student leadership development program in the management of the smoking free university, Sisaket Rajabhat<br>University and study the level of participation of the student leaders in the management of the smoking free<br>university towards the smoke-free zone in Sisaket Rajabhat University. by selecting the students union<br>president population of 20 people, the samples were selected according to the inclusion criteria and the<br>exclusion criteria, which the research pattern was used to conduct a comparative study within One Group<br>Pretest - Posttest Design in 12 weeks with 4 activities. The data were collected by using questionnaires and<br>using descriptive statistics presented in the form of a frequency distribution. The data distribution is normal.<br>They were presented with the statistical values of frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. And<br>translate the results into score values comparison of the mean, differences before and after the experiment.<br>Within the experimental group using statistics : Paired Samples t-Test. Results: The results of the research<br>were found that after the development of the experimental development program, the students’ leadership<br>in the management of the non-smoking university, knowledge, skills, social roles, imagination or concept<br>about oneself, motivation / mindset Participation in the development of student leadership potential in<br>the management of the non – smoking university. Significantly better than before development (p &lt;0.05).<br>Conclusion: In conclusion of the study : Results of the Student Leadership Development Program in<br>Management of Smoking Free Universities, Sisaket Rajabhat University. It can cause success factors in<br>managing the non-smoking university. In organizing smoking free zones in Sisaket Rajabhat University. To<br>bring about effective action and efficiency and developed as the non-smoking university model Including<br>campaigning activities establishing a banner that announces the non-smoking area that covers the entire<br>university. To create participation of university students and the student leaders,The students union president<br>have a clear understanding of roles and duties in their work operations and have an action plan. They realized<br>the importance of organizing the non-smoking zone in the university. There are regulations / measures to<br>prevent and control smoking in non-smoking zones jointly agreed by the leaders. Established a mechanism to<br>support the construction of the non-smoking area in Sisaket Rajabhat University. The measures are followed<br>up and monitored, and implement a participatory and sustainable non-smoking university.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Diagnostic Dilemma of the Most Common Yet the Most Complicted Malignancy Involving the Retromolar Region: A Case Report 2021-09-05T03:58:22-05:00 Tanha Khan M. K. Sunil Megha Srivastava Arpan Manna Chhavi Srivastava Lakshay Vishnoi <p>The most common type of oral malignant neoplasm is reported to be Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC),<br>accounting for more than 90% of all malignant lesions in the oral cavity. The commonest site of OSCC are<br>the tongue, oropharynx and the floor of the mouth. OSCC is more common in men as compared to women<br>as men are often more associated with habits such as smoking and tobacco chewing. It is important to have<br>proper knowledge of this disease so that early diagnosis can be done and mortality rate can be reduced.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Suicidal Deaths Amid COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Autopsy-Based Study 2021-09-05T04:26:31-05:00 Tanmay Sardar Ranjan Biswas Achintya Biswas Saptarshi Chatterjee <p>Background: Suicide is a global issue, with an estimated 75.5% of the cases occurring in developing<br>countries, and India alone accounting for 26.6% of all global suicidal deaths. With an advent of COVID-19<br>in the early months of 2020, India observed a rapid rise in suicidal deaths. Though, various media reports<br>predicted loneliness, mental illness and economical instabilities as the major triggering factors, there is<br>a lack of analytical or descriptive studies confirming this hypothesis. In this context, the present crosssectional<br>study was planned to determine the socio-demographic profiles of the victims and the triggering<br>factors of the suicidal deaths during the COVID-19 phase, in context to the victims of suicide from 2017 to<br>the Pre-COVID phase.<br>Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted by analyzing the suicidal deaths from 2017 to<br>30th June, 2020, interviewing the deceased family members during the COVID-19 phase and studying the<br>Inquest reports, with the documents from the Institutional Medical Record Section.<br>Conclusion: The authors feel that suicide is an act of moment in mind, so any decision made under excitement<br>or incitement is the real culprit. To curb the menace of suicide, state and society should ensure education,<br>employment and socioeconomic well-being, along with strict law enforcement.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Uncertainly-Based Critical Nursing Model on Family of Family Needs in Bangil General Hospital, Pasuruan, Indonesia 2021-09-05T04:33:18-05:00 Tanty Wulan Dari Moch Bahrudin <p>Holistic care in the intensive unit should be provided for patients and their families. The patient’s family<br>waiting in the intensive care room may experience uncertainty. Not only because of the unfamiliar treatment<br>rooms, but also because of the health workers who are strangers to them and speak with medical terms. The<br>objective of this research is to develop the CCFN (Critical Care Family Need) Nursing Model towards the<br>adaptation of the patient’s family in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The research was conducted with an<br>explanatory design. The population in this study was patients’ most influential family member in making<br>decisions (related to patients’ care and medication) at Bangil General Hospital in 2020. The sample size was<br>105 with consecutive sampling technique. Research variables included: factors related to the patient, family<br>psychology, health services, family needs and family adaptation. PLS testing was performed, then FGD was<br>done to strengthen the statistical model. Results showed a different finding compared to the initial concept,<br>where there the families’ thinking capacity p showed no significant effect on the families’ coping factor.<br>The families’ coping factor showed no significant effect on the critical care family need (CCFN). However,<br>family coping factor showed a significant effect on family adaptation factor. In conclusion, there are two<br>indicators that can explain the fulfilling of family needs factors, namely indicators of mental support from<br>health workers and their closeness to patients. Calmness of family during discussion with health workers, as<br>well as enthusiasm felt by the patient’s family, are things that must be noted, so that the family adaptation<br>process occurs optimally.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Comparison of Lower Organ Disorders between Wrestlers with Meniscal Injury, Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) and Healthy People in Kermanshah 2021-09-05T04:36:46-05:00 Tayebeh Mahvar Somayeh Mahdavikian Afsaneh Mohammadi Ferdos Pelarak Masoud Fallahi Hamideh Mashalchi <p>Introduction: The present paper studied three lower organ linear disorders, including tibial rotation (rotating<br>tibia bone around linear axis) (femoral anteversion), femoral normal rotation, and varus complications as<br>possible risk factors of common sports injuries of knee.<br>Methods: In this comparative descriptive study, 60 men were divided into three meniscal injury, anterior<br>cross ligament and healthy groups (n=20). All of the participants were current wrestlers at different clubs<br>of Kermanshah province and towns who had at least four years of experience in various sports events.<br>The samples of the injured groups were selected through questionnaire and referral to sports clubs and the<br>healthy group sample was randomly selected. The healthy individuals had no record of knee injury.<br>Results: The results of the present study revealed that anteversion (internal rotation of femur) affected both<br>common anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal impairments, and tibial rotation only significantly affected<br>meniscal injury not anterior cruciate ligament. Also, increase of knee varus angle did not have any effect on<br>meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament injuries.<br>Conclusion: The results of this study can be helpful to recognize the risk factors of sports injuries.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Risk Factors of Pre-Eclampsia of Women Birth From History of Eating Behavior During Pregnancy 2021-09-05T04:42:53-05:00 Teta Puji Rahayu Suparji Nana Usnawati 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 2021-09-05T04:48:50-05:00 Teuku Heriansyah Indah Nur Chomsy Anwar Santoso Muhammad Ridwan FitriaNugraha Aini Titin Andri Wihastuti 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Isolation and Selective Drug of Chose for Pseudomonas Aeruginosa as a Causative Agent in Suppurative Otitis Media 2021-09-05T04:57:01-05:00 Thamer J Ghali HusamOudah ALjwaid Ali A. Al-Hisnawi KasimSakran Abass <p>Background: Chronic Suppurative otitis media (CSOM),is a chronic inflammation of the middle ear and<br>mastoid cavity, which presents with recurrent (otorrhea) ear discharge through a perforated tympanic<br>membrane. The bacterial cause for CSOM can include both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria ,the most common<br>microorganisms found in CSOM are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis,<br>Klebseilla pneumonia , diphtheroid group, Citrobacter sp. and anaerobic bacteria and fungi like Candida sp<br>as well asAspergillus sp.<br>P. aeruginosa was the most common iso 30500000) fallowed by S.aurease 27% (27 isolates) , Proteus<br>mirabilis 11% (11 isolates),E.Coli 11%(11 isolates), Klebseilla pneumonia 9 %(9 isolates), respectively<br>while other different species was 5% (5 isolates) and 2% (2 isolates) was fungi. Antimicrobial sensitivity<br>for P. aeruginosa test by VITEK 2 System based on the main inhibitor concentration (MIC).The Piperacillin<br>showed to be highly sensitive again P. aeruginosa 77.1% (27 isolation ) followed by Meropenem , Imipenem<br>,Levofloxacin and Amikacin 65.7% (23 isolation), 60%(21 isolation), 40%(14 isolation), 34.2%(12<br>isolation) respectively while Ciprofloxacin showed to be the les effected again P. aeruginosa 20% (7<br>isolation). Ceftazidime , Tobramycin and Ciprofloxacin were highly resistance 68.5% (24isolation). 62.8%<br>(22 isolation) . 54.2%(19 isolation) respectively.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study of Epidemiology of Poisoning Cases Brought For Autopsy at Tertiary Health Care Centre in South-Western Maharashtra: A Ten-Year Retrospective Study 2021-09-05T05:02:21-05:00 Thippesh Kumar N Sandeep Bansal KV Radhakrishna Sarala M Shivakumar D Kalakabandi Gautam Dhokia Abhishek Rathee <p>Introduction: Present study is the study of epidemiology of poisoning cases brought for autopsy at tertiary<br>health care centre in South-Western Maharashtra by finding out the incidence, pattern, sociodemographic<br>factors, toxic agents, seasonal and other factors related to their deaths.<br>Material and Methods: Present study is a retrospective cross-sectional study done in mortuary of a tertiary<br>health care centre in South-Western Maharashtra. Study included total 104 cases of death due to poisoning<br>from Jan 2009 to Dec 2018 and the data collected from inquest papers, autopsy reports and regional forensic<br>science laboratory reports was analysed using a structured proforma in Microsoft excel sheet.<br>Result: Out of 2570 medico legal autopsies conducted during the study period, deaths due to poisoning<br>comprised 104 cases i.e. an incidence of 4.05%. Maximum deaths due to poisoning are found to be due to<br>Intentional self-poisoning (suicides) and rural areas are more affected than the urban areas. Most commonly<br>used toxic substance for poisoning is found to be pesticides and the maximum deaths occurred during the<br>monsoon season. Gender-wise analysis shows that death due to poisoning is more common in males and<br>majority of victims irrespective of their gender were married.<br>Conclusion: Study provides crucial information on various sociodemographic factors related to poisoning<br>deaths in South Western Maharashtra which is relevant in understanding the causative factors behind the<br>mortality due to poisoning and also helpful in devising preventive measure to reduce the loss of human life.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Woman with Tuberculosis Multidrug Resistance and QTc Prolongation Repetitive Interval: A Case Report 2021-09-05T05:10:19-05:00 Tutik Kusmiati Ni Made Mertaniasih Johanes Nugroho Eko Putranto Budi Suprapti Soedarsono Abdul Rahman Bahmid <p>Background : Prolonged QTc interval is one of the side effects of the short-regimen MDR-TB. QTc<br>prolongation is a risk factor for Torsades de pointes and is influenced by many factors. Case : 47-year-old<br>woman who was diagnosed with MDR-TB through GeneXpert examination and received short-regimen<br>MDR-TB. This patient experienced repeated QTc prolongation, with peak QTc interval 600 msec occurring<br>at 4th month with mild hypokalemia without clinical symptoms. The patient completed 9 months of shortregimen<br>therapy with improve chest x ray followed by negative sputum culture. Conclusion : Short-regimen<br>MDR-TB contains several drugs that cause QTc prolongation. Clinical evaluation is required in patients<br>with QTc prolongation before changing the regiment.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Effect of Safety Management Practices Through Safety Knowledge Towards Safety Performance on Workers of Pt. Masmindo Dwi Area 2021-09-05T05:16:52-05:00 Ummu Kamilah Syamsiar S. Russeng Masyitha Muis Yahya Thamrin Masni Fridawati Rivai Rizky Maharja <p>Accidents in a workplace are caused by many human errors in form of unsafe behavior. One of the efforts to<br>prevent work accidents is to improve safety performance in form of participation and obedience. Improvement<br>of safety performance in workplace is affected by management and individual factors. Management factor<br>is mainly associated with safety management practices while individual factor is associated with individual<br>characteristics and occupational health and safety knowledge and training. This study aims to analyze the<br>effect of individual factors and safety management practices on safety performance among workers at PT.<br>Masmindo Dwi area. This research is a quantitative research using analytic observational and cross sectional<br>design which was conducted in November-December 2020. Interviews were conducted on 72 workers out<br>of 289 workers. The methods used in assessing safety management practices, individual factors and safety<br>behavior are questionnaires, observation and interviews. The results showed that there is a direct (p=0,024)<br>and indirect effect (p=0,001) of safety management practices on safety performance with safety knowledge<br>as a mediating variable. Writer highly advise that in improving safety performance, the management have<br>to be consistent, show commitments to safety rules and procedures that have been made, improve safety<br>training programs, and increase the quantity and quality of training programs.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Decreased Antioxidant Capacity in Corn Farmers Occupationally Exposed to the Mixture of Herbicides 2021-09-05T05:25:26-05:00 Unchisa Intayoung Kanyapak Kohsuwan Klintean Wunnapuk Ratana Sapbamrer Supakit Khacha-Ananda <p>Background: The application of herbicides has been a common practice in worldwide agriculture, mainly<br>with the goal to increase efficacy of weed control. So, most farmers faced a greater risk of herbicide<br>exposure to develop adverse health effects from oxidative stress-induced herbicides. The aim of this study<br>is to determine the urinary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and 8-isoprostane levels in farmers using the<br>mixture of herbicides in Long District, Phrae Province, Thailand.<br>Methods: Ninety-three participants were recruited. The spot urine samples (pre- and post-work) were<br>collected. The urinary TAC was determined using ABTS radical scavenging assay. The urinary 8-isoprostane<br>level was investigated by commercial ELISA kit.<br>Results: Most farmers worked on a farm during 1-5 h/day. Fifty-five percents of participants used the<br>mixture of herbicide while working between glyphosate and paraquat as well as glyphosate and 2,4-D. The<br>urinary TAC levels in pre-work urine sample of farmers applied combining herbicides were significantly<br>higher than that level in their post-work urine sample. However, there was no significant difference between<br>pre- and post-work urinary 8-isoprostane in farmers applied combining herbicides.<br>Conclusion: The results suggest that occupational exposure to mixture of glyphosate herbicides plus paraquat<br>or 2,4-D could induce abnormal oxidative stress value especially antioxidant defense among agricultural<br>workers.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mandibular Canine Index to Determine the Sex of the Individual- A Population based Study 2021-09-05T05:32:24-05:00 Varsha A Shetty Vina Vaswani Suraj Shetty Mahabalesh Shetty <p>Introduction: The uniqueness of dental morphology plays an important role in Forensic Odontology,<br>especially for human identifications. Mandibular canines may be considered vital for personal identification.<br>Objective: This study aims to establish the effectiveness of the Mandibular canine index in predicting the<br>sex of an individual in a given population.<br>Materials and Methods: 400 participants (200Male, 200Female) were randomly selected from a given<br>population between the age group 13 to 30years. Using Digital Vernier calipers, the greatest mesio-distal<br>crown width of both left and right Mandibular canines and Inter canine arch distance was measured.<br>Results: It show that canine dimensions and inter-canine distance were statistically larger in males compared<br>to females and were statistically significant (p&lt;0.001).<br>Conclusion: Canine dimensions can be considered as an adjunct for sex determination in our population</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Application of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Technology in the Field of Dentistry among Top Five Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Countries - A Scientometric Analysis 2021-09-05T05:38:05-05:00 Varshini Rajendran V.V.Bharathwaj P.Suganya D.Prabu Rajmohan M.R.Prashanthy <p>Background: The Scientometric analysis of the articles helps to provide more useful information about the<br>field of research.<br>Aim: This study aims to evaluate the articles based on the application of deep learning and machine learning<br>in the field of Dentistry among top five Gross domestic product (GDP) countries.<br>Materials and Method: The articles related to Deep learning (DL) and Machine learning (ML) in the field<br>of Dentistry among top five GDP countries were retrieved from electronic databases such as Google Scholar,<br>Scopus and PubMed using keywords and MeSH terms. The parameters such as author name, number of<br>authorships, number of citations, year, place of the study, journal, type of article, field of dentistry, outcome<br>and implementation of deep learning and machine learning in dentistry were evaluated. The collected data<br>were analyzed and tabulated using descriptive analysis.<br>Results: Totally thirty seven number of articles regarding deep learning and machine learning in the field<br>of dentistry among top five GDP Countries were obtained. The maximum number of studies was published<br>in United States of America and minimum studies in Japan. The articles were published between the years<br>2001 and 2020 in different fields of Dentistry.<br>Conclusion: The Scientometric analysis of articles related to the use of deep learning and machine learning<br>in the field of Dentistry helps the researchers and dentists to have an idea about the trends and improvement<br>for better analysis and treatment in the future for greater benefit of patients.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Influence of Kappa-Casein and Beta-Lactoglobulin Genetic Variants on Milk Productivity of Red-and-White Cattle 2021-09-05T05:44:22-05:00 Velmatov, A.A Dunin I.M. A. Al-Isawi T.N. Tishkina 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Radiology - A Specific Tool in Identification A Review 2021-09-05T05:50:37-05:00 Vinoth Kumar S Monisha B. M <p>Now a days in Forensics, Radiology or Imaging plays a major role in identification of criminal and civil<br>proceedings. Why Radiology here means, it is making bit sensible that to analyze the bony structures like<br>skeletal remains and other body parts. The main aim of the manuscript is to unite the two disciplines in<br>one part majorly “Radiology and Forensics”. The forensic application of diagnostic medical radiology can<br>be applied in many fields; the prime target of evaluation is the osseous skeleton, but soft tissues which<br>may offer several key findings. Essential, methods consist of radiological methods such as conventional<br>radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, but other techniques such as 2D and<br>3D surface scanning along with printing are also employed.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Concept of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Design to Fight COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review Insight 2021-09-05T06:06:56-05:00 Viol Dhea Kharisma Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori Rasyadan Taufiq Probojati Dora Dayu Rahma Turista Yulanda Antonius <p>Cluster of pneumonia infection emerged in Wuhan, China due to severe acute respiratory syndrome<br>coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Additionally, more than 190 countries have confirmed 82 million cases<br>of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, there is a SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, and no effective prophylactic<br>methods are available. A vaccine is considered as an effective method to restrict an epidemic. Several<br>vaccine designing techniques have been established, which is enabling researchers from various institutes<br>for developing vaccine towards SARS-CoV-2 infections. In this review, we condense the development of<br>vaccine research against SARS-CoV-2.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Deleted 2021-09-05T06:15:31-05:00 <p>T</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 How Do Patient Satisfaction in Dental Polyclinic? - Patient Characteristics and Quality of Dental Health Services 2021-09-05T06:23:11-05:00 Vitri Nurilawaty Ngatemi Dwi Priharti Tedi Purnama Ruth Lasma Milan <p>Excellent service is the demand of the community. Aspects of the quality of services provided will affect<br>patient satisfaction, where patients will compare between dental treatment at dental health service facilities.<br>In improving the quality of service, the management of complaints from patients is needed.This study<br>aims to determinethe relationship between patient characteristics and the quality of dental health services<br>on patient satisfaction. Method: this type of analytic observational study with cross sectional design. The<br>research was conducted on patients with dental polyclinic at the Health Center of Bukit Duri Village, Tebet<br>District, South Jakarta. Data collection using a questionnaire.Data analysis using Chi-Square. Results:<br>showed that the variable age had a p value of 0.691, gender with a p value of 0.013, a source of funding with<br>a p value of 0.921 and the quality of dental health services with a p value of 0.001 on patient satisfaction.<br>Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between gender and the quality of dental health services on<br>patient satisfaction at the dental clinic.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study Survey of Awareness of Jordanian Chemists about Chemical Hazards 2021-09-05T06:28:00-05:00 Waed R Alahmad Tala H. Sasa Nawal H Bahtiti Ahmed Abu-Rayan <p>This study is an attempt to identify the level of awareness of safety measures practiced in the survey was<br>conducted between September and December 2020 among chemists graduated in Jordan in several working<br>sectors (teaching, Laboratory work and in manufactures). A total of 245 eligible subjects were asked to<br>participate in the study. The majority were females (71.0%), their ages ranged from 18 to 40 years, and most<br>of them were between 18-22 (62.9%). As for educational qualifications, 65% were students. 77.1% of them<br>had a good knowledge of chemistry. Most of the accidents were in the laboratory by females (68%), 78%<br>of the accidents were by females in the household. The age of 18-22 (58.9%) caused most of the accidents<br>in the laboratory. Also, the age of 18-22 (69.9%) caused most of the accidents in the household. 55.5% of<br>laboratory accidents were from students. As result females and students were the major reason for chemical<br>accidents. There is no significant difference in the average attitude towards chemical safety by age. There is<br>no significant difference in the average attitude towards chemical safety as per education.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Services of Specialist Doctor at Type C Regional General Hospital based on Regulation of the Minister of Health No. 3 of 2020 on Hospital Classification and License 2021-09-05T06:33:54-05:00 Wahyudi Irma Indra Wahyuni Muhammad Firdan Resaldi Mokhamad Khoirul Huda <p>The problem occurs when the number of human resources for health workers, mainly the number of specialist<br>doctors, is not comparable to the number of hospitals in Indonesia, particularly in type C regional general<br>hospitals. Currently, many private hospitals are competing to provide better and quality services. When they<br>are sick, many people choose a hospital with a much better and modern service. It becomes a concern for the<br>government to meet its citizens’ basic needs in the health sector. The problem that lies behind the researchers<br>to write is Regulation of the Minister of Health No.3 of 2020 on Hospital Classification and License to find<br>out a legal review of specialist doctor services at type C regional general hospital. Based on the analysis of<br>the Regulation of the MinisterNo. 3 of 2020 on hospital classification and license, the regulation does not<br>regulate the minimum requirements for specialist doctors in each hospital classification. It causes an unequal<br>distribution of specialist doctors in type C regional general hospital and results in the unequal quality of<br>health services throughout Indonesia.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Effects of Telehealth During Pregnancy on Maternal Knowledge and Postpartum Mental Health in the Covid-19 Pandemic 2021-09-05T06:38:01-05:00 Wahyul Anis Rize Budi Amalia <p>Background: The Covid-19 pandemic caused changes in health services, especially Antenatal Care (ANC)<br>because pregnant women are at risk of contracting Covid-19 so telehealth is one of the methods developed<br>to make ANC more effective and efficient. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between telehealth<br>during pregnancy on knowledge and mental health of postpartum mothers<br>Methods : The research method uses a case-control where there are two groups of samples. The case group<br>consisted of 30 postpartum mothers who received telehealth (routine online monitoring and counseling)<br>during pregnancy, while the control group consisted of 27 postpartum mothers who did not receive<br>telehealth during pregnancy. Samples were taken using a random sampling technique with inclusion criteria<br>are postpartum mothers who received online monitoring and counseling during pregnancy routinely by<br>volunteer mothers. The exclusion criteria were postpartum mothers who did not routinely receive online<br>monitoring and counselling. Statistical analysis used Wilcoxon Mann Whitney, Chi-Square, and Fisher<br>Exact tests.<br>Conclusions:The telehealth has influenced the maternal knowledge but it will necessary to develop a<br>telehealth strategy that contribute to the mental health of mother during the postpartum period.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Discharge Plan for Parents having Children Suffering from Head Trauma 2021-09-05T06:40:50-05:00 Walaa Abd Allah El-Tayar Eman Amin Mohammed Salma El Sayed Hassan Hyam Refaat Tantawi <p>Background: Effective discharge planning is a vital component to maintain care continuity for head trauma<br>pediatric patient. Despite this, there is a critical gap in the process and quality of discharge planning in Egypt.<br>Aim of this studywas to assess the effect of discharge plan on parents having children suffering from head<br>trauma.<br>Design: A quasi- experimental design was used.<br>Settings: This study was conducted in Emergency Department, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and<br>Neurological Department at children Hospital affiliated to Ain Shams University and El-Menshawy Hospital<br>in Tanta affiliated to Ministry of Health.<br>Subject: A convenient sample consist of 40 parents accompanied their children suffering from head trauma<br>who attended in the previously mentioned settings.<br>Tools: 1)- Pre-designed questionnaire sheet which included two parts: part I: concerned with characteristics<br>of studied parents and characteristics of the studied children,Part II: knowledge of the parents regarding<br>caring of their children suffering from head trauma, 2)- Observational check list and 3)- Child Medical<br>Record.<br>Results: All of studied parents reported that no one gave them any information about head trauma. There was<br>a marked improvement in parents’ knowledge and reported practices post implementation of discharge plan.<br>There were strong positive correlations between studied parents’ total knowledge and their total reported<br>practices related to care of children after head trauma pre/post discharge plan.There was highly statistical<br>significance difference between parents’ total knowledge regarding care of head trauma in children and<br>their level of education post implementation of discharge plan. There was statistical significance difference<br>between parents’ total reported practices regarding care of head trauma in children and their level of education<br>post implementation of discharge plan.<br>Conclusion: All of research hypothesis were accepted and implementation of discharge plan led to significant<br>improvements in parents’ knowledge and reported practices regarding care of their children suffering from<br>head trauma.</p> <p>Recommendations: Discharge plan for all parents having children suffering from head trauma must begin<br>with parents at their first day of admission.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pap Smear in A Sample of Iraqi Women with Positive Visual Inspection by Acetic Acid 2021-09-05T06:45:18-05:00 Wasan Fawzi Sanad Halah Abdulwahhab Mohammed Bothayna Ahmed Alwan 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Relationship between Poverty and Nutritional Status of Toddler in Indonesia in 2018 2021-09-05T06:49:48-05:00 Wasis Budiarto Ratna Dwi Wulandari Nikmatur Rohmah Agung Dwi Laksono <p>Data in the world states that 462 million are underweight, 47 million children under the age of 5 are wasting,<br>14.3 million are very thin, and 144 million are stunting. Previous study reports about 45% of child deaths<br>&lt;5 years are related to malnutrition—the study aim to analyzing the relationship between poverty and<br>nutritional status of the toddler in Indonesia ecologically. The study used secondary data from the official<br>report of the Indonesia Ministry of Health. The study takes all provinces as samples. Moreover, the study<br>used the percentage of poor people as an independent variable. On the other hand, the researchers analyzed<br>three other variables as dependent variables: the proportion of underweight toddlers, the proportion of<br>stunting toddlers, and the proportion of wasting toddlers. The study examined the data using a scatter plot to<br>determine the relationship. The results show that the greater the percentage of an underweight toddler in a<br>country, the higher the proportion of underweight toddler in that region. Meanwhile, the more significant the<br>proportion of the deprived population in an area, the more considerable proportion of stunting in that area.<br>Moreover, the higher the poor people in the province, the higher the proportion of wasting in that province.<br>The study concluded that poverty has a relationship with nutrition status of the toddler in Indonesia.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Culture, Ethnic, Lifestyle, and Diabetes 2021-09-05T06:53:48-05:00 Windy Tri Yuana Sri Widati Oedojo Sudirham <p>Diabetes is a social health problem that is large with special attention in the community and among<br>individuals. Nevertheless, the efforts to spread paradigm of health society to inputsocial determinant of<br>health including analysis and contextual of social factors that are considered out of the scope of the health<br>research is seldom conducted. As a result, the conceptualization of dynamic health inequality of diabetes<br>is superficial. By using a holistic anthropologist lens has the potency to offer insight intothe character of<br>socialdeterminer which is wider. The individual factor that is traditionally focused on the health of society and<br>qualitative exploration structural, deeply local context, social environment, and culture, and their interaction<br>and intersexuality, as the key factors, while considering how to reach alterations. The systematic study aims<br>to describe that culture, ethnicity, and lifestyle have much impacton the patients of diabetes mellitus. The<br>method of the systematic study is the article’s investigations which are listed by PubMed with the keywords<br>“culture, ethnic, lifestyle, and diabetes”. Twenty-nine articles are got from the result of an investigation and<br>after a selection has been done and got five articles to be analyzed furthermore. The result of the review of<br>the literature study shows that culture, ethnicity, and lifestyle are able to influence the case of diabetes illness<br>to the individual or group. On a certain ethnic group besides economic problem, the characteristic ofcertain<br>body starts from size and shape of the body make someone can suffer from diabetes, in addition,the motoric<br>activity of the body and physical activity can influence the case of diabetes.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis 2021-09-05T06:58:34-05:00 Xamrayev Xamza Goyibov Salim Tagaeva Dilnoza <p>Purpose: to study cardiovascular risk on the mSCORE scale in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).<br>Methods: We examined 140 RA patients aged 35 to 60 years. The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis was<br>made on the basis of the ACR (1987) and ACR / EULAR (2010) criteria. The mSCOREscale (SCORE /<br>EULAR) was used for early detection and prediction of cardiovascular risk.<br>Results: In patients with RA, hereditary risk factors (RF) for cardiovascular diseases were detected<br>in 31.4%, abdominal obesity in 35%, arterial hypertension (AH) in 63.6%, hypercholesterolemia<br>hypercholesterolemiain 25.7%, and hypodynamia in 37.9% of patients. Smoking accounted for 10.8% of<br>patients in the study, as the majority (82%) of the surveyed were women. At the same time, AH was observed<br>1.5 times, hypercholesterolemia 2.1 times more often in men than in women. According to the results of the<br>study on the mSCORE scale, 52 (37.1%) had low risk, 64 (45, 7%), a high risk was in 14 (10%), and a very<br>high risk was in 10 (7.2%) patients.<br>Conclusion: In RA patients, the use of the mSCORE scale enables early diagnosis of cardiovascular risk<br>and timely correction of risk factors.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Effect of Chemical Weapon Exposureon Semen Fluid Analysis and the Determination of SOD and MDA Levels in Peshmerga against ISIS War 2021-09-05T07:03:14-05:00 Yasin Kareem Amin <p>The identification of chemical weapons as “weapons of mass destruction” highlights their possible damaging<br>consequences on many civilians’ health.The effect of chemical weapon agents has been documented to<br>cause reproductive toxicity and have adverse effects on semen, leading to infertility in those exposed to<br>those chemical agents. This study analysesthe semen fluid and follows up the exposed Peshmerga forces<br>to the chemical weapon during the ISIS war.A prospective cohort study in which 58 exposed Peshmerga<br>in three chemical attacks, compared with the same number of the non-exposed Peshmerga. Semen fluid<br>analysis was performed for all, following up after one year.The serum level of both MDA and SOD was<br>measured. An individual’s BMI was calculated.The participants’ mean agein this study is (32.5) years in the<br>case group while (35.5) years in the control group, with a standard deviation of5 years in both groups. All<br>participants are male, and no gender effect be seen. All chronicillnesses have been excluded from the study.<br>The mean body mass index is 22.4, with a standard deviation of about 3.1 kg/m. Hypospermia developed in<br>18% of the exposed group(20% of the total participants), oligospermia (20% overall, only 3% of these in the<br>non-exposed), and decreased motility in 19% of all participants, but 16 of this 19% where the exposed group<br>with significant relative risk results, while morphology not changed inboth groups, also the findings showed<br>that significant elevation in MDA level and SOD activity. Chemical weapons cansignificantly affect semen<br>fluid analysis and interpretation through quantitativedisturbances in the volume and account of sperm, while<br>the percentage of abnormal spermcounts has been increased considerably in peoples exposed to chemical<br>weapons. However, the morphology of semen fluid sperms has not changed to the same degree, and its<br>functioncannot be estimated. Even when functioning, the genetic errors on future generationsmay need<br>further testing.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Comparison Study of Adding Magnesium Sulfate to Local Anesthetics During Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section 2021-09-05T07:05:20-05:00 <p>Background: Regional anesthesia is frequently used in obstetric, orthopedic, and urological procedures,<br>commonly intrathecal and epidural local anesthetics are combined with opioids to prolong analgesia; however,<br>these do not prolong the motor block time and can attenuate the response to surgical stress, in addition to<br>being associated with side effects such as respiratory depression, urinary retention, pruritus, hemodynamic<br>instability, nausea, and emesis. Objective: to investigate the effect of adding 75 mg ofmagnesium sulfate on<br>the duration of sensory block and duration of motor block<br>Patients and Methods: In a prospective randomized study, ASA I or II, 128 (64 control and 64 experimental<br>groups) pregnant women (at term) who were candidate for cesarean section with spinal anesthesia, were<br>recruited in this study. They were collected from “Baghdad Teaching Hospital” at the period from (September<br>2020 to Fab 2021).<br>Each experimental woman received 12.5 mg (2.5 ml) of hyperbaric bupivacaine<br>(0.5%) and 0.5 ml (75 mg) magnesium sulfate (15%), while controls received same does of hyperbaric<br>bupivacaine and 0.5 ml of distilled water.<br>Results: The duration of analgesia (sensory blockade) and theduration of motor blockade manifested<br>a statistically significant increase inexperimental as compared to their controls (control = 116.41 ±<br>12.47,experimental = 159.75 ± 10.56, control = 180.76 ± 11.83, experimental = 240 ±9.46 minutes<br>respectively).<br>Conclusion:Significantly increased the duration ofpostoperative analgesia and prolonged the sensory and<br>motor blockade withoutsignificant apparent maternal or fetal side effects.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Acute Pyrethroids Insecticide Ingestion in An Elderly Patient 2021-09-05T07:08:39-05:00 Yhan Batista Novira Widajanti <p>Insecticide ingestion is not an uncommon phenomenon found in daily practices. An elderly woman, 69-yearold,<br>was rushed to emergency room due to household cleaning liquid ingestion. There was a history of previous<br>suicide attempt and severe depressive episode before. Since there was no sign of severe intoxication, patient<br>received symptomatic treatment. Patient was discharged with symptomatic treatment and antidepressants.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Development of a Community-Based Model as an Assisting Approach in the Prevention of Pregnancy and Labor Complications in Pandeglang Regency, Banten, Indonesia 2021-09-05T07:12:06-05:00 Yudhia Fratidhina Nina Herlina Hamidahs Sri Mulyati <p>Most of the direct causes of maternal death is obstetrical complications. Some programs have been done<br>to reduce the incidence of complications on pregnancy and childbirth complications unfortunately the<br>implementation of the program has not been maximized. Community empowerment is required to ensure<br>the sustainability of the program. This research was conducted to develop community-based Model in<br>preventing pregnancy and labor complications based on asset and community participatory. This research<br>was conducted with a mixed method approach. On the stage of model development is conducted qualitatively<br>through Focus Group Discussion and in-depth interview with 4 key informants and 13 support informants.<br>Furthermore, model is developed quantitatively by using cross sectional study design on 80 respondents.<br>The analysis that used in this research is SEM PLS. Once the model is formed, the evaluation was conducted<br>on 83 respondents by using pre and post-test design. Application of community-based Model in the society<br>is done by mentoring models using Module of asset and participatory-based prevention of pregnancy and<br>labor complication through community-based Model. The results show that community-based model<br>can be achieved through community participation, community assets development, knowledge, attitudes<br>and behavior. The results also reveal that the community-based model is statistically proven to increase<br>knowledge (p 0.000), attitude (p 0.000) and the behavior of expectant mother (p. 0.000). Community-based<br>Model consists of five variables and it was proved to be effective in improving the knowledge, attitude and<br>behavior of expecting mothers on the prevention of pregnancy complication and childbirth.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of the PaO2/FiO2 Ratio as a Risk Factor for Hypoxemia against Septicemia Mortality in Children who Treated at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital 2021-09-05T07:16:22-05:00 Yuli Astika Arina Setyaningtyas Dominicus Husada Retno Asih Setyoningrum <p>Background: Severe septicemia can result in impaired oxygen perfusion to the tissues. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio<br>(P/F ratio) is one of the measurement parameters for hypoxemia. This study aims to evaluate the P/F ratio as<br>a risk factor for hypoxemia against septicemia mortality in children.<br>Method: An observational with a prospective cohort design was conducted. Thirty-six patients with<br>septicemia, consisting of 18 patients who living (survivor) and 18 patients who died (non-survivor). The<br>P/F ratio is obtained based on blood gas analysis carried out in the first 24 hours of treatment recorded on<br>medical records and calculated manually. The P/F ratio has an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 (95%<br>CI 0.71–0.95) with a cut-off of 226. Septicemia children with P/F ratio &lt; 226 who have a mortality risk<br>of up to 6.9 times (RR 6.9; 95% CI 1.719-27.957; p= 0.005) with sensitivity 72.70%; specificity 72.20%;<br>PPV 76.19%; NPV 68.42%. The mean P/F ratio in the non-survivor group was significantly lower than the<br>survivor group 161.60 (95% CI 1.05) compared to 391.09 (95% CI 2.13); p= 0.005).<br>Conclusion: The P/F ratio can be a risk factor for hypoxemia on septicemia mortality.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tuberculous Pneumonia as a Primary Cause of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Case Report 2021-09-05T07:20:22-05:00 Yuliza Helmia Hasan <p>Background: Tuberculosis is an uncommon and very rare cause of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.<br>Moreover, it has been associated with poor outcomes with a very high mortality rate (40-80%). The clinical<br>symptoms and radiological findings of tuberculous pneumonia that resemble bacterial pneumonia result<br>in difficulties to decide definitive diagnosis. Case Presentation: A 35-year-old male patient was admitted<br>to hospital with shortness of breath, fever, cough without expectoration. The patient had history of asthma<br>since childhood. Chest physical examination showed rhonchi and wheezing on both lungs. Initial laboratory<br>findings were leucocytosis, granulocytocis, eosinopenia, increased ALT and ALP levels, blood gas analysis<br>revealed acute respiratory failure. PaO2/FiO2 was 49 mmHg. ECG showed sinus tachycardia and chest<br>X-ray showed consolidation on both lungs. The patient was initially managed for asthma exacerbation and<br>bilateral pneumonia with ARDS. The result of microbiological findings showed acid fast bacilli (AFB)<br>positive. He had been treated with anti-TB first category. Clinical improvement was achieved after 1 week of<br>anti-TB treatment. Summary: Tuberculous pneumonia with ARDS is a rare case of pulmonary tuberculosis.<br>The diagnosis is established by a prompt and complete examination that lead to optimal treatment with<br>appropriate anti-TB.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Comprehensive Study on Homicidal Deaths in a Tertiary Health Care Institution in Nellore, Andhra Pradesh 2021-09-05T07:23:11-05:00 Z.Sashikanth <p>Homicide is a serious crime committed against humans and its detection and solution is important to the<br>entire society. Homicide may be the result of accidental, reckless or negligent acts even if there is no intent<br>to cause harm. The present study was taken up to know the incidence of homicides in the city of Nellore and<br>to determine the trends in committing homicides.<br>Aim: To study the pattern of homicides and to elucidate the different aspects of homicidal deaths.<br>Methodology: This was a retrospective study done on alleged homicide cases autopsies done in Forensic<br>Department of ACSR Medical College from March 2019 to February 2020 (1 year). Data was collected<br>from 39 reports with an alleged history of homicide.All the homicide cases for which autopsies were done<br>except for homicide cases which involved death due to rash negligent act. Data was collected from the<br>Postmortem reports of victims of homicide, police inquest reports, medical recordsand relevanthistory<br>collected from family members, relatives and friends was studied.Data was entered into MS excel and<br>expressed as frequencies and percentages.<br>Results:Total autopsies done during the study period from March 2019 to February 2020 (1 year) were<br>902, of which 39 were alleged homicide autopsies. Majority of the victims belonged to 21-30 age group.<br>Majority of the homicide cases were males. Majority of the deaths were caused by blunt objects (48%). In<br>about 67% of the cases the assailant was a known person. Most of the homicides were family centered and<br>due to quarrels. Early detection and prevention is the need of the hour.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Aadhar Arogya: Integrated Electronic Health Record as an Aid in Bridging the Gap between Individual Health and Public Health in India – A Review 2021-09-05T07:26:23-05:00 <p>Aadhar card is an Indian Government ID card that is issued to all Indian residents. It is one of the largest<br>biometric databases in the world with over 1.28 billion enrollments thereby constituting the most ubiquitous<br>ID card in India. With the additional features of QR code and biometric scanning, it forms an ideal database<br>to be linked with the electronic health record. The health records of an individual currently in India is being<br>maintained by the individuals. But most often they are misplaced, disorganized, incomplete or lost. This<br>would force the clinician to assume or ascertain the current medical status by subjecting the individual<br>to tests. Improving the quality of the medical and dental services rendered paves way for an integrated<br>electronic health record. The common concerns arising from such a linkage is data management and data<br>security. Big data management provides a systematic approach to maintaining such large data. The data<br>security concerns can be addressed by employing a data controller in every hospital and a cell to inform<br>the security breach, who can further take up legal penalties. Pseudonymisation, cryptography, audit trial,<br>firewall, antivirus software, and cloud computing are some techniques that can be incorporated.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 COVID war or KARMA war: Who Deserves Homecoming?? Are We Taught Anonymously the Forgotten Lesson of Bhagavad Gita? 2021-09-05T07:31:01-05:00 <p>History repeats itself until you learn and correct the mistakes. We all tend to create the future with the<br>same past experiences. Nothing new than the forgotten old. The great Kurukshetra war of Indian Hindu<br>epic the Mahabharata and the Lord’s unsung song Bhagavad Gita from it remind us the same. Although<br>centuries had crossed, the lessons to be learned, and learning from the Gita are the same. Amidst the<br>COVID-19 pandemic, the entire world is battling against the unseen enemy. We are fighting physically,<br>mentally, economically, and socially. Each and everyone is contributing to the maximum to win the battle.<br>But, the invisible enemy, coronavirus is seemingly stronger than the advanced technologies and growth of<br>humanity. This short write up is in search of the true etiology of COVID-19 that came up in the curious mind<br>of a medical researcher who is amazed in the bizarre situation and uncontrolled fight against this unseen<br>enemy.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Important of Morphological Examination of Bone Marrow for a Hematological and Non-Hematological Disorder 2021-09-07T02:06:08-05:00 Safaa Jassim Mohammed <p>Background: The bone marrow examination is important for the investigation, diagnosis, and management<br>of the blood, bone marrow and many systemic disorders. Morphological Bone marrow examination alone is<br>sufficient to diagnose nutritional anemias and most acute leukemia.<br>This study aimed to determine the importance of morphological examination of bone marrow to diagnose<br>hematological and non-hematological disorders like various systemic illnesses that affect the bone marrow.<br>Methods: A prospective study carried out for one year at the Hematology lab, Ninava Ibn Sena Teaching<br>Hospital, A total of 201 cases were investigated. The bone marrow examination was taken from the posterior<br>superior iliac spine.<br>Results: The age range was (15-87) years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.2. The most common disorder<br>finding was acute leukemia 17% (include AML &amp; ALL) and AML is more common than ALL, whereas<br>lymphoproliferative disorders was second bone marrow finding fallowed by Megaloblastic anemia of<br>Myeloid dysplasia syndrome (MDS) and Essential thrombocythemia (ET).<br>Conclusion: Morphological bone marrow examination is a useful procedure in ascertaining the diagnosis of<br>several hematological and non-hematological disorders.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Statistic Assessment of Spreading Cases (Total Confirmed, Recovered, Death) From Different AreasContain Novel Coronavirus (2019-n Cov) 2021-09-07T02:09:23-05:00 Huda Sahib Abdul Mohammed Al-Rawazq <p>Background: In Wuhan, Hubei Province, China 31, December 2019 were discovered several cases of<br>pneumonia of unknown causation and correlated to Wholesale Market Huanan Seafood.And caused acute<br>viral respiratory diseases called Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).<br>Aim: The aim of this study is statistic assessment of cases (total confirmed, recovered, death) from different<br>areas in world, Arab nation and in Iraq contain 2019-n CoV.<br>Methods:The first study include collected data from Center for System Science and Engineering (CSSE)<br>at John’s Hopkins University and Iraqi Ministry of Health website daily reports from 29 st February to 31th<br>December 2020 of people infected with 2019- nCoV.<br>Results: From this statistics the prevalence of 2019-nCoV the spreadingcases (83.561.252 total<br>confirmed,47.136.188 global recovered and 1.820.668 global death) from 191 countries in the world.<br>The most distribution confirmed cases represent in (19.975.250 US, 10.286.709 India, 7.675.973 Brazil,<br>3.153.960 Russia, 2.677.806 France, 2.496.231 United Kingdom, 2.208.652 Turkey, 2.107.166 Italy). Also<br>global recovered represent in (9.883.461 India, 6.848.844 Brazil, 2.553.467 Russia, 2.100.650 Turkey,<br>1.508.419Colombia, 1.463.111 Italy, 1.426.676 Argentina, 1.355.384 Germany). And global death represent<br>in (345.844 US, 194.949 Brazil, 148.994 India, 125.807 Mexico,74.159 Italy, 73.622 United Kingdom,<br>64.760 France, 56.798 Russia).From this result the Arab nation including 3.139.205 total confirmed cases,<br>2.783.448 recovered cases and 55.326 death cases from 21 countries infected with 2019-n CoVbetween<br>this result the Iraqi infected patients represent 595.291 total confirmed cases, 537.841 recovered cases and<br>12.813 death cases.<br>Conclusions: In concluded, the percentage of 2010-n CoV increase in all the global confirmed cases in<br>different areas of the world and become pandemic.In Iraq show the infection is mild to moderate in spite of<br>no special antiviral and vaccine is present.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effectiveness of Educational Package Regarding Knowledge of Somatic Symptom Disorders among Adolescent Girls- A Pre- Experimental Study 2021-09-07T05:27:30-05:00 Vishakha Rani Raman Deep Poonam Ahlawat <p>Objective : This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of educational package regarding<br>knowledge of Somatic symptom disorders among adolescent girls.<br>Methods : 75 adolescent girls were selected by using non probability convenient sampling technique. The<br>data was collected by using a reliable and validated tool to assess the knowledge regarding Somatic symptom<br>disorders.<br>Results : The quantitative assessment of knowledge regarding Somatic Symptom Disorders revealed that<br>after administration of educational package, 56 (74.67%) adolescent girls had average knowledge and<br>19 (25.33%) adolescent girls had adequate level of knowledge. There was significant difference between<br>knowledge in pre testand post test after administration of educational package. Also, thepost test knowledge<br>was statistically associated with educational level of father of adolescent girls (0.043), educational level of<br>mother of adolescent girls (0.046) and occupation of mother of adolescent girls (0.003). The study revealed<br>that, the pretest mean score value of knowledge was 9.52 with standard deviation (SD) of 2.21 and the<br>post-test mean score value of knowledge was17.00 with SD of 4.01 with a mean difference of 7.48.The<br>calculated-t value was 13.87. This indicated that there was a high statistical significant difference in the pre<br>and post test knowledge level regarding Somatic symptom disorders among adolescent girls, p value 0.05.<br>Conclusion: Results of this research generates evidence that educational package regarding knowledge of<br>Somatic symptom disorders among adolescent girls was effective.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Selective Caries Removal- A New Improvised Technique for Caries Management 2021-09-07T05:36:53-05:00 Megha J Nair Arathi Rao Suprabha BS <p>The strategies to manage deep caries are constantly evolving as evidence heaps for the use of minimal<br>conservative techniques which would prevent pulpal exposure leading to preservation of pulp vitality,<br>remineralisation of the carious dentin and arrest the progression of caries and offer a predictable success of<br>the restoration. Changes in our understanding about the caries process, advent of new adhesive restorative<br>materials and the possibilities of remineralization of demineralized dental tissues helps us to explore<br>different techniques in caries management. Selective caries removal is now considered an efficient and<br>evidence based approach in deep caries management and focuses on maximum retention of tooth material<br>thus avoiding the probability of pulp exposure to provide a sound peripheral bondable surface for restoration<br>and creating excellent hermetic seal.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessment of The Coverage Rate of Expanded Program Of Immunization Among Five Years Children In Tikrit City – Iraq 2021-09-09T05:43:53-05:00 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Childhood immunization is the initiation of immunity through the application of vaccines .It is considered important for improving child survival .Immunization is a primary health care preventive measure and remain the most cost-effective public health intervention to reduce child morbidity and mortality attributed to infectious diseases<sup>.</sup><strong>Subjects and method:</strong>Cross sectional study was conducted on five year children&nbsp; who attended (8) kindergarten in Tikrit city and their information from PHCC sector<strong>.</strong>Children&nbsp; were selected by cluster sample then simple random from&nbsp; each cluster. The study was conducted in the period from November&nbsp; 2019 to August 2020<strong>.Results: </strong>The study revealed&nbsp; a significant inverse relation was observed between household crowding and socioeconomic status children's parents. The percentageoffull immunized children ( 40.90%) these children were considered as having had complete immunization, but more&nbsp; than half of the children had one or more than one missed doses and were considered as is having had partial immunization(56.25%).The number of unvaccinated children were five children (2.84%). complete immunization of children were found among male&nbsp; (54.77%), while complete immunization among children female were (28.26%)and there strong association&nbsp; statistically. The partial immunization among male children were (39.28%) and female were (71.74%) the coverage rate of vaccination among immunized children the coverage rate was&nbsp; (97.2%).The highest for immunized&nbsp; children was for the vaccines Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG*)+OP90+first dose of Hepatitis B Virus vaccine (HBV1)(92.04%) while the lowest rate (6.0%) was for the vaccines OPV2booster+MMR+TETRA (DTaP +IVP ).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>this study concluded that the highly percentage of partially immunized children in kindergarten&nbsp; ((56.25%).</p> 2021-08-27T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Factors affecting the severity of RH Incompatibility newborn 2021-09-09T05:48:48-05:00 Anfal akram Hasan Mohammed Ahmed Jassim Alogaidi Areej Ali Abbood <p>Rh incompatibility is a not common pediatric problem, that cause morbidity and mortality in children, and it is an important cause of hemolysis, anemia and jaundice in newborn.&nbsp;&nbsp; To study Rhesus hemolytic disease, its severity, its complications; to evaluate if ABO incompatibility is protective or not, so to find out the efficacy of anti-D globulin ; to evaluate the efficacy of phototherapy&nbsp; and exchange transfusion as a treatment.</p> <p>&nbsp; This study was done on neonates with jaundice, seventy five patients (1-10 days old) who had Rh incompatibility were studied during period from the first of January 2008 to the 30<sup>th</sup> of June 2008.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; History was taken about age, gender and gestational age of the patients, determination of gestational age and hepatosplenomegally as a cause of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Investigations done for patients were hemoglobin, total serum bilirubin, reticulocyte count, blood group and Rh, and direct coombs test. From 75 patients studied, 55 patients (73%) required treatment for jaundice;25 of them (46%) required only phototherapy due to mild degree of hemolysis, and 30 of them (54%) required exchange transfusion with phototherapy due to severe degree of hemolytic. The remaining 20 patients (27%) required observation alone.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Family history of previous hemolysis was positive in 44 patients and it was a risk factor for having hemolysis in present pregnancy. Early evaluation of patients for jaundice was useful in early recovery. ABO incompatibility in association with Rh incompatibility was not necessarily protective against hemolysis. The administration of anti-D globulin to the mother within first 72 hours after delivery was protective against sensitization.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Early and proper management of of Rh incompatibility may reduce need for exchange transfusion. ABO incompatibility was not necessarily protective against hemolysis. Anti-D globulin&nbsp; administered&nbsp; to mothers within 3 days after delivery was protective against sensitization, History of hemolytic in previous siblings is considered as a risk factor for present hemolytic in neonates with Rh incompatibility.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Changes in the Cancer Antigen Markers in the Pleural Liquid During Chemotherapy among Ovarian Cancer Patients 2021-09-10T04:55:56-05:00 Abbas Abdulmueed Mustafa Alani Ihab Q. Ali Yasir Khaleel Almusawi <p>The silent killer or ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the major causes of cancer deaths among women in the<br>modern age. In view of the therapeutic roles of platinum based chemotherapy among the ovarian cancer<br>patients, objective of this report was to assess the effects of the first round of chemotherapy among women<br>with ovarian cancer. Here, the levels of the pleural markers for cancer bio markers, before and after the<br>chemotherapy were tested among ovarian cancer patients. The biochemical indices may be of use in<br>deciphering the relation between cancer relapse and platinum retrieval. The pleural analyses pre and post<br>platinum chemotherapy session demonstrated wide range of biochemical and protein marker changes among<br>ovarian cancer patients. The various cancer antigens were variedly reduced post chemotherapy. Hence, it is<br>proposed that biochemical markers in pleural liquid may serve as better indicators and early diagnostic tools<br>for ovarian cancer.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 An Analysis of the Implementation of Diversion in Efforts to Settle Medical Disputes in Indonesia 2021-09-10T05:14:21-05:00 Arista Candra Irawati Sarsintorini Putra Retno Mawarini Sukmariningsih Adhi Putra Satria <p>Based on the legal construction contained in Article 29 of Law Number 36 the Year 2009 concerning Health,<br>it has ordered that health workers suspected of neglecting in carrying out their profession. There is a need<br>for a settlement preceded by the mediation stage or what is known as the settlement of disputes out of the<br>court. The facts in the field show that the handling of medical disputes, especially for doctors who commit<br>negligence, has not been fully implemented according to the provisions of Article 29 of the Health Law,<br>meaning that the handling is not carried out through the first mediation stage, as in the case experienced by<br>dr. Ayu et al. They had to be brought to court accused of committing medical malpractice because they failed<br>to save the patient during a cito-cesarean operation. Dr. Ayu et al. at that time did not fulfill their rights to get<br>mediation. This is because there has been no further regulation governing the procedures, procedures, and<br>rules for implementing mediation, especially health services. Due to this fact, it becomes an obstacle to the<br>consistency of mediation efforts as a necessity in solving medical disputes. Law No. 29 of 2004 concerning<br>Medical Practice and Regulation of the Medical Council Number 32 of 2015 concerning procedures for<br>handling suspected disciplinary violations of Doctors and Dentists do not regulate mediation efforts, so the<br>implementation of mediation efforts in health services is not optimal.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Evaluation of the Social Wellbeing Status and Associated factors in Students of Dezful University of Medical Sciences (Iran): A Cross-sectional Study 2021-09-13T06:02:08-05:00 Fereshteh Sohrabivafa Kamal Azam Malihe Sohrabivafa 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Age Estimation from Radiological Study of Epiphyseal Fusion Around Wrist Joint in Male Population of North East Madhya Pradesh 2021-09-21T04:18:00-05:00 Harshwardhan Khushalrao Khartade Rahul Mishra Priyanka Kumarsen Meshram Vidya Garg Prateesh Shukla Shashidhar Prasad Garg <p>Apart from identification, determination of age is required in various civil and criminal cases. Age estimation<br>by observing appearance and fusion of ossification centres is most accurate and reliable method which is<br>implemented universally. However, it is not possible to establish a uniform standard for age estimation from<br>appearance and fusion of ossification centres for whole India as there is disparity in the timing of appearance<br>and fusion of ossification centres in Indian population due to various factors. Hence, this descriptive<br>observational study was conducted to estimate average age of fusion of ossification centres at lower end of<br>radius and ulna in male population of North East Madhya Pradesh. Total 80 cases in the age group of 12 to<br>20 years attending the OPD of this tertiary care centre were included in the study. X-rays of both wrists were<br>taken in anteroposterior view at Dept. of Radiology after taking written informed witnessed consent from<br>parents and legal guardians of patients and examined in Dept. of Forensic Medicine.<br>Age of fusion of lower end of radius and ulna is found to be 17-18 years in males of North East Madhya<br>Pradesh.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessment of Metabolic Profile in Relation with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 2021-09-28T04:23:00-05:00 Wasan Wajdi Intesar Jabbar Khadum <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that, by the most strict definition, affects<br>5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. There is not complete consensus about the definitive criteria for<br>the diagnosis of PCOS, which necessitates the searching for new biomarkers for definitive diagnosis.This<br>study is a case/control study carried on one hundred (100) women divided into two groups: 50 women with<br>PCOS, and 50 women were with absent features of PCOS represent a control group who were attending<br>the outpatient clinic of Gynecology department at Baghdad Teaching Hospital during the period from<br>March to September, 2018. A fasting blood sample was obtained from all women during the early follicular<br>phase (days 2–4 of the spontaneous cycle). Lipid profile, fasting blood glucose and fasting blood insulin,<br>luteinizing hormone (LH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were analyzed by immune<br>chemiluminescence method. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding total<br>cholesterol, low density lipoprotein -cholesterol, high density lipoprotein -cholesterol and fasting blood<br>glucose. On the other hand, PCOS patients showed higher serum concentration of triglycerides and insulin<br>resistance than controls.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Depressions Level among Adolescents Undergoing Chemotherapy Treatment at Pediatric Teaching Hospitals in Baghdad City 2021-09-28T04:41:43-05:00 Ali K. Ouda Qahtan Q. Mohammed <p>Objectives: A descriptive correlational study, using an evaluation approach, is conducted to evaluate the<br>level of depression for adolescents undergoing chemotherapy at pediatric hospitals in Baghdad City from<br>December 15th 2020 to June 17th 2021.<br>Methodology: A self-report questionnaire is developed for the purpose of the study. Content validity and<br>internal consistency reliability are determined through a pilot study. A purposive “non- probability” sample,<br>of (45) adolescents, is selected for the present study. All adolescents have signed a consent form for their<br>agreement to participate in the study with no obligation as part of the ethical considerations.<br>Results: Results of the study indicate that adolescents, who are middle age and males, develop depressive<br>symptoms greater than others after being treated with chemotherapy. Adolescents’ depression has highly<br>significant relationship with their socio-demographic characteristics of relapse, complications, mothers’<br>occupation, gender, education, monthly income, duration of treatment, age, fathers’ occupation, fathers’<br>education, mothers’ education and age at diagnosis.<br>Conclusion: The study concludes that most of the adolescents have experienced moderate level of depression<br>as a result of their being exposed to the chemotherapy treatment and the study confirms that the issues of<br>looking forward, sleeping, feeling, walking, energy, pain, appetite have major influence on the prognosis of<br>the health problem of depression.<br>Recommendation: The study recommends that counseling services are important issue to deal with in<br>providing treatment to these adolescents especially those who are males, middle age, and developing<br>complications and relapse. Well-designed and constructed education program can be presented to these<br>adolescents for the purposes of increasing their awareness toward the disease and making them able to<br>prevent complications and relapse associated depression.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mothers Quality of Life towards their Children with Nephrotic Syndrome at Pediatric Teaching Hospitals in Baghdad City 2021-09-28T04:45:28-05:00 Asawer Ihsan Ali Khatam M. Al- Mosawi 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Assessment of Pregnant women’s Practices Concerning Measures taken by Pregnant Women for Prevention of (Covid19) at Primary Health Care Centers in Baghdad City 2021-09-28T04:48:43-05:00 <p>Corona virus is one of the major pathogens that mainly target the respiratory system of humans. Pregnant<br>women considered to be a special population group because of the unique ‘immune suppression’ caused<br>by pregnancy. The immunologic and physiologic changes might make pregnant women at higher risk<br>of severe illness or mortality with Covid-19, compared with the general public.<br>Objectives: To assess pregnant women’s practices concerning measures taken by pregnant women for<br>prevention of (Covid19) at primary health care centers in Baghdad City. Methodology: A descriptive<br>(cross sectional) study has been carried out on Non-probability sample of (150) of pregnant who attend<br>five Primary health care centers. Study has been conducted for the period of February 8th to 18th March<br>2020.<br>Results: The results of the current study indicate that (33.3%) of pregnant women are with age group<br>(21-25) year, (28%) with age group (16-20), and (27.3%) with age group (26 -30) years. (22.7%) of<br>study sample are graduated from intermediate school, (76.7%) of pregnant women are housewives,<br>(51.3%) of sample are resident in a high class neighborhood, (76%) of pregnant women are moderate<br>monthly income, (34.7%) of pregnant women are gravid for (3) times, (81.4%) have (1-2) births,<br>(53.3%) of pregnant women reporting they have normal vaginal delivery, (34%) of pregnant women<br>have good level of practices regarding measures taken by pregnant women for prevention of (Covid19),<br>(34%) have fair levels of practices, and (32%) have poor levels.<br>Conclusion: The study concludes that half of pregnant women have good level of practices regarding<br>prevention of corona virus, and more than half of pregnant women are showing fair level of health<br>behaviors toward reduction of corona virus spread.<br>Recommendations: the pregnant women should be supplied with instructional booklets in order to<br>raise practice level of preventive measures of COVID-19 infection at the beginning of their pregnancy.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Impact of Normal and Overweight Pregnant Women upon Neonatal Outcomes in Al-Nasiriya Hospitals :Comparative Study 2021-09-28T04:52:43-05:00 Sara Ahmed Rashed Rabea Mohsen Ali <p>Background: Maternal obesity is a major risk for both the mother and the fetus, and it is considered an<br>obstetrical risk factor that leads to a high incidence of complications throughout the prenatal period, as<br>well as an increased risk of many adverse pregnancy outcomes.<br>Objectives: To assess the impact of normal and overweight pregnant women upon Neonatal outcomes<br>at Al-Nasiriya city.<br>Methodology: A descriptive analytic study was conducted from January11th, 2021 to March 18th, 2021<br>at Al-Nasiriya City Hospitals for Maternity and Children on(100) pregnant women who attending labor<br>room , (50) were overweight and (50) normal weight pregnant women with gestational age for 08-40<br>weeks were included . A non–probability (Purposive sample) was used to select the participants of<br>study sample.<br>Results: The result of study revealed that (34.1%) (36.4%) of study sample aged (26-30) years in<br>normal, and overweight pregnant respectively. The study results clarifies the previous and current body<br>mass index among normal weight pregnant women (100% &amp; 95% ) respectively, while in overweight<br>(63.6%) overweight previously and (65.9%) obesity class ( I) at current. the impact of weight upon<br>neonate outcomes; the findings indicates that weight has significant impact up on outcomes related to<br>neonate, at p-value= 0.006, while there is no impact has been reported among group of normal weight<br>pregnant women.<br>Conclusion: The study concluded that overweight impact upon outcomes related to neonate condition,<br>while there is no impact has been reported among group of normal weight pregnant women.<br>Recommendations: Increased physical activity and knowledge of healthy eating habits among pregnant women as part of primary health care centre initiatives to reduce obesity in women.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Instruction Program for Nurses Knowledge about Applying the Communication Strategies (SBAR) in Critical Care Units 2021-09-28T04:56:15-05:00 Haneen Qahtan Abadi Huda Baker Hassan <p>Background: Effective communication can improve patient care and safety by ensuring complete and<br>correct information transmission and preventing misrepresentation and misinterpretation of patientcentered<br>data. Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation (SBAR) is the one of the most<br>effective communication strategies that used in transmitted the clinical information between the health<br>professionals.<br>Objectives of the Study: Present study aims to determine the effectiveness of Instruction program on<br>nurses’ knowledge regarding communication strategy (SBAR) and find out the association between<br>the effectiveness of instruction program and nurses’ level of education, year of experiences, year of<br>experiences in critical units and training course.<br>Methodology: A pre-experimental study design was carry out in the critical care units of Imam Al-<br>Hussein Medical City at Holy Karbala City between the periods 17th of September 2020 to 25th of May<br>2021. A non-probability (purposive) sample of (25) nurses were selected based on the study criteria.<br>Results: The results of the study indicated that there were high statistically differences between the<br>pre and post-test of the instruction program related to the communication strategy. The study found a<br>high statistically significant relationship between the effectiveness of the instruction program related<br>to the communication strategy, educational level, training courses for nursing documentation, years of<br>experience in nursing, and years of experience for nurses in the critical care units.<br>Conclusion: The study concluded that the instruction program had a positive eefect on nurses’<br>knowledge concerning communication strategy (SBAR).</p> <p>Recommendations: Testing the current program on a wide group of health-care providers in hospitals.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Investigation of the Antibiotic-Resistant ESKAPE Pathogens in Ramadi Hospitals, Iraq 2021-09-28T04:59:36-05:00 Hamid M. Sharqi Omar M. Hassan A.S. Obaid <p>Bacterial species of the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella<br>pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli) are often<br>resistant to antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to find out the antibiotics resistance formed<br>by ESKAPE pathogens in hospitals in the city of Ramadi, in Iraq. All bacteria within this clinically<br>relevant ESKAPE group were isolated from September 2020 to April 2021. Identification of isolates<br>was performed by Vitek 2 system and the Sensitivity Test was carried out using a disk diffusion<br>method. The majority of pathogens isolated from patients at Ramadi Hospitals belong to the ESKAPE<br>group. The percentage of bacterial isolates was K. pneumoniae (33.96%), E. coli (20.75%), S. aureus<br>(20.13%), P. aeruginosa (11.32 %), E. faecalis (9.43%), and A. baumannii (4.41%). Some isolates of<br>E. coli were Resistance to all antibiotics, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were 100% resistant<br>to Vancomycin and Tetracycline. The presence of the ESKAPE group of pathogens is a major problem<br>in Ramadi city hospitals. The results of this study support the implementation of special antimicrobial<br>strategies to specifically target these microorganisms.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Study the Behavior of Activity and Express for Enzymes 2021-09-29T05:49:16-05:00 Antesar Rheem Obead Anmar Hameed Bloh Haider Rasol Abbass Alwahami <p>Enzymes are be defined as soluble, colloidal, organic catalysts which are produced by living cells.<br>Enzymes are biologic catalysts to accelerate the rate of biochemical reactions.<br>in this study Quantification of the Enzyme Activity, Where: E = enzyme concentration; S = substrate<br>concentration; ES = enzyme-substrate complex concentration; k1, k3= 1st order reaction rate constants<br>(t-1); P = product concentration; k2= 2nd reaction rate constant (M-1.t-1).At first, it must be stressed that<br>the formation of ES (enzyme-substrate complex) is an obligatory step to any type of enzyme-catalyzed<br>reaction. The ES, depending on the reaction conditions, can form the product (forward reaction) or<br>not (reward reaction). The immobilization technique allowed a more frequent use of biomaterials in<br>industry, therapeutics (confection of subcutaneous capsules for controlled delivering of hormones), and<br>lab analysis (automatic dosing equipments, enzyme electrode, biosensors and enzyme immunoassays).<br>In industry, the use of glucose isomerase for the conversion of glucose into fructose (high fructose<br>corn syrup), the aminoacylase for the separation of racemic mixture of amino acids, microbial lipase in<br>triglyceride hydrolysis, and the lactase for removing lactose from milk and/or whey are stressed.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 2021-09-30T05:39:17-05:00 Mohammed Radhi Radeef Fatimah Mustafa Mohammed Alattraqchi Ahmed Abbas Shlaka Shaymaa Abdul Lateef Alfadhul <p>Objective: To determine the frequency, type, and associated determinants of neurological symptoms<br>among covid19 patients.<br>Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 161 doctors from different Iraqi cities using<br>online questionnaires. They were provided information about their documented case. Data were<br>collected from the 1st to 30th of October 2020. The questionnaire consists of 2 parts, first part concerns<br>sociodemographic data of patients (age, gender, and severity of COVID-19 infection), while the second<br>part deals with details of COVID-19 neurological symptoms. Data were stored and analyzed using<br>SPSS version 24.<br>Results: A total of 161 COVID-19 cases were described in this study. Headache was found in 120<br>patients (74.5%); loss of smell in 108 patients (67.1%); and loss of taste in 86 patients (53.4%). It was<br>found that ataxia more predominant in females (34.0%) than males (17.9%), statistically, there was a<br>significant difference(P=0.024). Sever COVID-19 disease showed a significantly higher presentation<br>of vertigo, hearing loss, loss of smell, disturbance of level of consciousness, sensory symptoms, motor<br>symptoms, and stroke (p&lt;0.05). Statistical analysis showed a significantly higher presentation of<br>disturbance in level of consciousness, and stroke symptoms in patients older than 40 years(P&lt;0.05).<br>Conclusion: Different neurological presentations are reported fromCOVID-19 cases. Headache, loss<br>of smell, and taste are the most frequent symptoms. Some neurological manifestations are found more<br>predominant in females, older age, and severe cases.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Complex Training and its Effect on the Speed Force and Quantities of Strength for Specific Distances and the Achievement of 400 Meters Freestyle Under the Age of 20 Years 2021-10-04T04:24:44-05:00 Ali Hussein Sabri Rafid Saad Hadi Nadia Shaker Jawad <p>Athletics in general, and in particular the 400-meter freestyle event, requires special physical preparation<br>for the parts of the body that greatly participate in the skillful performance so that the running process<br>can be performed in the correct manner and with minimal effort by matching the muscles of the legs,<br>distributing the exerted force during the run and increasing its quantities, from this basis, we must<br>focus on the strength component, because strength has a good effect in the final achievement of the<br>400-meter freestyle, as modern training methods must be used here to improve the strength component,<br>and among these methods is the complex training whose basis is the mixing of weight exercises with<br>plyometric exercises where weight exercises are stimulated muscles well and with plyometric exercises,<br>allowing contractions moving in a circle (lengthening - shortening), therefore, the importance of the<br>research lies in providing data and information within the complex training to know its effect on the<br>force distinguished by speed and the quantities of strength for specific distances and the achievement<br>of 400 free meters, by applying these double exercises together and because they have an effect on the<br>development of the most important types of muscle capacity, either the problem of research and through<br>the follow-up of the researcher for many training units for 400-meter freestyle runners in Kerbala, the<br>researchers noted the lack of trainers’ use of modern training methods that would raise the level of the<br>muscular capabilities of runners and their reliance on traditional training methods, and the importance<br>of research is to perform exercises in a complex training method and to identify the effect of temporary<br>training on strength distinguished by speed and strength quantities for specific distances and to achieve<br>400 free meters.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Febrile Seizures in Thalassemic Patients in Babylon Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Children 2021-10-04T04:34:41-05:00 Yahya A. Altufaily Hakim Yosif Radhi Laith Jasim khejani <p>Febrile seizures are the most common seizures in children. Their incidence is (2-5 %). To date, the<br>pathophysiology of febrile seizures is unknown. But several hypotheses have been supposed that it<br>may relate with plasma iron level. Such low risk in thalassemic patients whose plasma iron level is high<br>could give some clues to this hypothesis.<br>Aim of the Study: Determine the risk of febrile seizure in thalassemic patients in comparism with the<br>corresponding control group.<br>Patients and Methods: This case –control study was conducted on one hundred fifty patients with<br>thalassemia major between six month and six years of age who were visit Babylon center for inherited<br>blood diseases in the Teaching hospital for maternity and children from April 2019 to January 2020.<br>All medical records of thalassemic patients were thoroughly reviewed and the occurrence of febrile<br>seizures are interviewed and compared with the control group .The children in the control group are<br>neither thalassemic nor has iron deficiency anemia.<br>Results: Febrile seizure was detected in one case of the thalassemic group (0.66%) versus six cases<br>(4%) of the control group. The risk of febrile seizure in the control group was 6 times more than that in<br>the thalassemia group, which was statistically significant (P =0.036).<br>Conclusion: The risk of febrile seizures in thalassemic patients was (0.16) that of the general children<br>population. Thus, iron overload may be a major factor involving the brain metabolism that prevents<br>febrile seizures.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Scout Culture and its Relationship with Scout Curricula According to the Perspective of the Sustainable Development Goals among Scout Leaders in Iraq 2021-10-04T04:38:52-05:00 Magda Abbas Muhammad Ali Mahmood Dawood Salman Amna Fadel Mahmoud <p>The Scout movement is considered a tool for upbringing and building for generations in a way that<br>reflects positively on the civilized, scientific and social development of society, for it is no longer just<br>a means to occupy the leisure time of youth, but rather has become a contribution to developing their<br>abilities and behaviour by developing their social skills, instilling sound values and ethics for them, and<br>enriching their knowledge with movements and information that It can contribute to providing them<br>with experiences that qualify them physically, mentally and socially as individuals who are good citizens<br>in their societies to build a generation capable of serving their homeland. Values have a great and direct<br>influence on the work that the mobile performs in terms of controlling his behavior and defining his<br>goals And taking decisions related to its work, and the extent of the relationship of scouting curricula<br>according to the perspective of the sustainable development goals with the application of scout culture<br>in the behavior of scouts, the research objectives. the research community was identified with leaders<br>and scout leaders in the education directorates in the governorates of Iraq except for the Kurdistan<br>region for the academic year 2019-2020, and the researchers identified the research sample in a random<br>way, Whereas, (10) leaders and female leaders were selected for the reconnaissance experiment, (40)<br>leaders and female leaders for the construction sample.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Effect of Feedback at Different Times by Using Multimedia in Learning the Performance of Some Basic Skills in Handball For Students 2021-10-04T04:42:48-05:00 Hamida Obaid Abdulamir Nisreen Hassan Naji Naseer Ahmad Kamil <p>The handball game has taken to keep pace with the development and progress in the world, where many<br>changes have occurred in the methods of learning and training in various aspects, including in particular<br>changes in the methods of playing teams in terms of applying defensive and offensive plans in order to<br>surprise the competitor, and the use of feedback in the process of learning and developing basic skills By<br>varying the time it is given in order to make the learner have the ability to absorb the skill and the process<br>of choosing the appropriate motor program to solve the motor duty in the best way and according to the<br>requirements of the situation facing him. Conclusions: The use of times (10, 20, 30 seconds) to provide<br>feedback of all kinds has an impact. Positively in learning basic handball skills and for the three groups,<br>the use of multimedia (visual display device “Data show”, video cameras, color papers for the movement<br>sequence of skills, display of the live model) has a great role in developing basic skills of handball through<br>increasing motivation In competition between players, a time of (10, 30) seconds in providing feedback is<br>more influential in learning basic handball skills.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Attitudes of Iraqi Lecturers towards E-Learning 2021-10-04T04:46:11-05:00 Alaa Khalaf Awad Fadhel Farhan Kadhum Al-Bahadli <p>Background: E-Learning activated in Iraq after Covid-19 pandemic lockdown. Iraqi lecturers suffered from<br>the electronic infrastructure of learning .<br>Aim: to note the views of Iraqi lecturers towards e-Learning. Did they approve of E-learning? What are the<br>principal conflicts of E-examinations?<br>Methods: This descriptive, observational, prospective study. It involved 78 haphazardly collected Iraqi<br>lecturers from various colleges and institutes of Al- Anbar. The data gathered by a combination of learners<br>from the higher health institute of Al-Anbar. The research began from 1st February 2021 to 1st March 2021.<br>The survey form about the lecturers’ views towards E-learning by implementing three points agreement<br>Likert scale. Microsoft Excel software used for data analysis. The institute gave the Ethical permission. The<br>dismissed lecturers were those who did not reply.<br>Results: There were seventy-eight lecturers, aged (25-55) years old. Thirty-three females (43 %) and 45<br>(57 %) males lecturers. Forty-eight (61.5 %) lecturers had two modules. Forty-nine (62.6 %) lecturers had<br>more than 100 students per a lecturer. Sixty-four (82.2 %) lecturers dislike E-learning. Fifty-five (70.7 %)<br>lecturers did not support E-learning nor E-written examinations.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alliance of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Promoter-1562C/T Polymorphism and Metalloproteinase-9 Saliva Concentration of Iraqi Patients with Chronic Periodontitis 2021-10-04T04:50:47-05:00 Atyaf Lateef Alturfa Laith Sami Mehdi Majida Sulaiman Aadai <p>Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key enzymes responsible for matrix degradation, derived from<br>polymorphonuclear leukocytes, during the early stages of periodontitis. There is plenty of evidence<br>for the role of matrix metalloproteinases in the destructive processes of periodontal disease as a viable<br>target in early diagnosis and chemotherapeutic approach. The aim of this study was to determine the<br>levels of salivary matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in patients with periodontitis and healthy<br>controls and the role of gene polymorphisms in the aetiology of the disease. Levels of MMP-9 in<br>saliva was determined by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) technique in healthy subjects<br>without any periodontal disease (n = 45) and in the patients with diagnosed periodontitis (n = 45).<br>Gene Amplification, gel electrophoresis and genotyping were also carried out on MMP-9 gene. The<br>MMP-9-1562C/T appeared in three genotypes: CC, CT and TT, allele specific gene polymorphism was<br>amplified by PCR technique. The distribution of different genotypes in patients and controls for each of<br>MMP-9-1562C/T polymorphism was in a good accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE).<br>Genotypes in both dominant and recessive models were non-significantly associated with periodontitis.<br>Significantly higher salivary MMP-9 was observed in cases of periodontitis compared to healthy adults<br>(p = 0.043). Salivary MMP-9 may serve as a biomarker of periodontal disease monitoring and aid in<br>the early detection of periodontitis.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Normal Weight-Central Obesity Females 2021-10-04T04:54:12-05:00 Sanaa Jameel Thamer 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Morphological Study of the Esophagus in the Domestic Fowl Gallus Gallus Domesticus (Linnaeus 1758) 2021-10-04T04:57:57-05:00 Wijdan Basheer Abed Hanan Raad Dheyaa Hussain Dalia H. Al-Hamawandy <p>The esophageal morphology of domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) was investigated to fill<br>the dearth of information on the morphology of esophagus from available literature and help in<br>understanding its digestive tract biology. The esophagus is under study as musculomembranous tubular<br>shape, it began from oropharyngeal cavity and terminated on the proventriculus. The esophagus was<br>divided into three regions are represented by cervical part, crop, and Thoracic part. Internal lining of the<br>esophagus consisted of un-branched straight longitudinal folds The length of the cervical part, crop and<br>thoracic part were 11.5 cm, 3.5 cm, 6 cm respectively.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mothers’ Knowledge toward Home Care for Children with Wilms Tumors at Pediatric Hospitals in Bagdad City 2021-10-04T05:08:11-05:00 Rehab A. Ali Zaid W. Ajil <p>Objectives: To find out relationships between mothers’ knowledge and their demographic characteristics that<br>includes (age, marital status, level of education, family income, home location, number of family members.<br>Methods: A descriptive research was performed from October 1, 2020, to June 1, 2021, Non - probability<br>(purposive) sample. In which the sample was objectively chosen from (100) mothers who participated in the<br>study and were obtained from three Baghdad hospitals. It included 47 mothers at the Child welfare Teaching<br>Hospital and 28 at the Central Child Teaching Hospital and 25 in the city of Miamian al-Kadhimin (peace<br>be upon them both) in Baghdad.<br>Results: Mothers’ knowledge towards homecare for “Children with Wilms Tumours” at pediatric hospital’s<br>items was not assigned at the established level in which that achieving the goal of this study.<br>Conclusion: Mothers’ knowledge towards homecare for “Children with Wilms Tumours” at pediatric<br>hospital’s items was not assigned at the established level in which that achieving the goal of this study.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Morphological Description of the Esophagus in the Mallard Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) 2021-10-04T05:11:26-05:00 Hanan Raad Dheyaa Hussain Wijdan Basheer Abed Dalia H. Al-Hamawandy <p>The esophageal morphology of Mallard Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) was investigated to fill the dearth<br>of information on the morphology of esophagus from available literature and help in understanding<br>its digestive tract biology. The esophagus is long and highly distensible, musculomembranous tubular<br>shape, it began from oropharyngeal cavity and terminated on the proventriculus. The esophagus was<br>divided into two regions are represented by cervical part and Thoracic part, the crop was absent.<br>Internal lining of the esophagus consisted of un- branched straight longitudinal folds the mean length<br>of esophagus was about 25 cm; it was wider in the anterior part than the posterior part.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Nanoparticles and Ionization Radiation on Same Oxidant and Antioxidant Enzymes 2021-10-04T05:18:14-05:00 Rafal Dawood Ali Baydaa T. Sih Dakhel Ghani Omran <p>Ionizing radiation effect on atoms and molecules of living organisms by formation of free radicals<br>because it has high energy radiation which causes gain or loss one electron or more. In last year’s<br>there are a biggest interest for using nanoparticles in medicine as a drag delivers or cancer treatments<br>, as its will knew. The present research was focused to evaluate the effects of X- ray and nanoparticles<br>(alone or together) on level of Malondiahyed ( MDA ) , it is the final product of oxidative reactions ,<br>and, on the other hand , alleviate these effects by addition of vitamin – E ( as anti- oxidant ) in blood<br>samples in-vitro. Results which were yield from this research indicated that level of MDA had been<br>significantly increased when blood samples exposed to X- rays but its values were significantly dropped<br>in the presence of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a comparison with those non- treated<br>blood samples ( control samples ) . It was well found that levels of MDA were markedly decrease in<br>the samples treated with V- E after exposure them with both X-ray and nanoparticles . From those<br>observations , it appear that exposure of living tissues to X-rays and nanoparticles causing production<br>of free radicles ( oxidative stress ) and these adverse effects can be limited and ameliorated by treatment<br>with antioxidant vitamins .</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Preparing Mixes of High Dirtary Fiber Backed and Studying their Effect on the Storage Properties of Resulting Bread 2021-10-04T05:22:43-05:00 Abdulbasit F. Al Ali Nawfal A. AlHelfi Roudha M. Al Ali 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Lung Cancer in Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital 2021-10-04T05:27:56-05:00 Mortada Abdel Reda Eajal Kareem R. Sachit <p>Objectives: To assess level of anxiety and depression among Patients with lung cancer. To find out the<br>relationship between level of anxiety and depression with age, gender, educational level, occupation,<br>residence, frequency of admission, marital status, and monthly income.<br>Methodology: Descriptive analysis designs are used to conduct the study. The study period started from<br>march 1th, 2021 to April 15th 2021 at the Department of Oncology in Al- Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital.<br>Total of (110) patients selected from oncology department in Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital. ten<br>patients were excluded from the study for the pilot study. So the total number of patients participating in<br>the study was (100) patients. The depression and anxiety Scale are consisting from 14 items self-rated<br>questionnaire that involves two dimensions. These are depression (7 items) and anxiety (7 items). These<br>items are measured on a (4) point Likert-type scale of 1 (Not applicable), 2 (Somewhat applicable), 3<br>(Often remarkable) and 4 (Very often applicable). The total score is computed by summing scores of<br>all items. The score of each dimension is calculated by summing the scores of the items and dividing<br>by the number of items.<br>Results: The demographic and clinical characteristics of the samples the vast majority of the patients<br>were (73%) were all males, (85%) are married couple, the participants (48%) were housewives and<br>unemployed, (62%) from lung cancer patients are urban, (46.8%). Monthly income, Concerning the<br>significant differences between depression and anxiety with patients’ age, the study showed that there is<br>high significant difference in depression symptoms with regard to older age patients at p-value= 0.001<br>respectively.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Self-esteem of Children Living with their Parents for Secondary Schools in AL-Rusafa: Comparative Study to the Children Living in Orphanage 2021-10-04T05:30:49-05:00 Rehab K. Habsi Zaid W. Ajil <p>Objectives: to find out differences in the level of self-esteem between orphanage children and children<br>who live with their Parents.<br>Methods: A descriptive studies that use comparative design. The method of A Purposive sampling is<br>used which is located in Rusafa, Baghdad. The sample size was 200 students (male and female) from<br>all secondary schools in Baghdad al-Rusafa who lived with their parents, and another 200 adolescent<br>who lived in an orphanage. The data was collected during January 11th to March 2nd, 2021. Short form<br>of (coopersmith,1967) scales for assessing self- esteem level.<br>Results : The result of the study shows that highly significant differences are accounted between studied<br>groups at P&lt;0.01 regarding of studied “Negative’s Items Domain”, and “ Overall Evaluation”, while no<br>significant different was accounted with reference to “Positive’s Items Domain”. Through the results of<br>the significant comparisons, it becomes clear that the trends of the negative items of the scale are the&l