Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 2020-05-21T05:30:22+00:00 Prof (Dr) R K Sharma Open Journal Systems <p>Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology is a double-blind peer reviewed international journal. The frequency is quarterly. It deals with Forensic Medicine, Forensic Science, Toxicology, DNA fingerprinting, sexual medicine, environmental medicine, Forensic Pathology, legal medicine and public health laws. It has been assigned International standard serial No. p-0973-9122 and e-0973-9130. The Journal has been assigned RNI No. DELENG/2008/21789. The journal is indexed with Scopus, EMBASE. The journal is also abstracted in Chemical Abstracts (CAS) database. The journal is also indexed /abstracted with many databases. </p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> A One Year Epidemiological Study of Mechanical Injury Cases brought to SIMS Hospital, Western Uttar Pradesh 2020-05-16T07:17:21+00:00 Abhishek Sharma, Sumit Tellewar, Barkha Gupta, Vishwajeet Singh, Gurdeep Singh <p>Aim: To find out causes and factors responsible for the mechanical injuries. Materials &amp; Methodology: This prospective study was conducted at Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Hapur, from 1st JULY 2017 to 30th JUNE 2018. There were total 306 patients of mechanical injury cases reported to the department of emergency during the study period. Result: Of the total 306 cases 228 (74.51%) cases were male and 78 (25.49%) cases were female. Most susceptible age group was between 21-30 years (30.1%) of age and RTA were the leading cause of death (83.66%).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Estimation of Age by Modified Gustafson’s Method from Incisor and Canine Teeth 2020-05-16T07:22:36+00:00 Ajay V Patil1, Chandrakant M Kokatanur2, Vinay S Bannur3 <p>Background: Estimating age from teeth is generally reliable as they are naturally preserved long after all the tissues and even bones have disintegrated. Aim of the study: The present study was an attempt to estimate the age of an individual by using modified Gustafson’s method from age related alteration in incisors and canines in Karad. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Karad for a period of 4 months from Nov 2018 to Feb 2019. Results: 95 teeth were observed, out of which 59 were incisors and 36 canines. The coefficient of variations among parameters ranged from 22.61 to 29.92%. Conclusion: - The estimated age error was minimized to 1.15 years. The age calculated by this method was found to be more accurate, reliable and reproducible</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study of Demographic Pattern of Poisoning in Patients Presenting to Emergency Department of a Tertiary Care Centre, SIMS, Hapur 2020-05-16T07:24:21+00:00 Gurdeep Singh1, Barakha Gupta2, Sumit Tellewar3, Vishwajeet Singh4, Abhishek Sharma1 <p>Poisoning is a common medical emergency and one of the important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries like India due to easy availability of poisonous substances and its low cost. This study was carried out on poisoning cases reported to casualty of Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Hapur, UP in eighteen-months duration from 1st January 2017 to 30th June 2018. In this study, incidence was more among men (58.70%) compared to women (41.30%) and maximum cases were of age group 21 – 30 years (48.91%). More cases from rural area (89.13%) were reported and highest number of poisoning cases were admitted in the month of June 2018 (10.87%) followed by May 2017 (8.70%). Maximum cases (60.87 %) reported to casualty between 8am to 4pm. Aluminium phosphide poisoning (44.26%) constituted the highest number of cases and in maximum cases manner of poisoning was of suicidal in nature (59.78%). Majority of cases 53.26% were discharged after improvement and 3.26% cases died.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forensic Evaluation of Various Osteometric Parameters of Human Mandible in both Sexes 2020-05-16T07:28:03+00:00 Priyamvada Kurveti1 , Gyanendra Kumar2, Dheeraj Singh Verma3, JayanthiYadav4, B. P. Dubey5 <p>Identification of sex could be made on differences in the size and shape of the morphological markers i.e. shapes of chin, size of condyles etc. Morphological traits are more subjective and sex determination depends on experience of the investigator. So, visual methods of sexing mandible are likely to be inaccurate when performed by an inexperienced worker and sometimes produce misleading results. Hence, metric analyses are found to of superior value owing to their objectivity, accuracy, reproducibility and lower incidence of inter and intra observer errors as compared to that of descriptive traits.<br>The focus on present study is to use morpho-metric analytical method to evaluate the ability of selected parameters to determine sex in forensic sample.<br>Aims and Objectives: To study the various osteometric parameters of human mandible and evaluate their utility in sex determination<br>Material and Method: Some measurements of the 200 mandibles were taken using sliding calliper and mandibulometer and statistically analysed.<br>Findings: On statistical analysis, it is found that height of the symphysis menti, bigonial width, shows a higher index of sexual dimorphism. Hence, these can be used for determination of sex. Other parameters such as bicondylar width, mandibular angle are found to be statistically insignificant in this study.<br>Conclusion : When the findings of present study were compared with those of past investigators, marked variations in the various osteometric parameters of mandible was noticed, which differed all over the world as well as in different regions of India. Hence, it is suggested, not to apply the findings of study of one region over the samples of other region, to avoid fallacies.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 An Autopsy Study of Drowning Deaths in and around Visakhapatnam 2020-05-16T07:30:39+00:00 Raja Sekhar Uppu1, BVS Ananda Rao2, Beemsetty Rajesh3 <p>Introduction: According to World Health Organisation, drowning is among the ten leading causes of death for children and young people in every region of the world. Drowning amounts to an estimated incidence of about 5.6 per 100,000 of population worldwide. This study is aimed to know the incidence, manner and epidemiology of deaths due to drowning in and around Visakhapatnam.<br>Materials and Method: It is a one year prospective post-mortem study of drowning in and around Visakhapatnam. All the deaths due to drowning that were autopsied at the mortuary, KGH, Visakhapatnam were studied based on inquest, post mortem examination findings to know the profile of drowning deaths.<br>Results and Conclusion: Out of 1675 total autopsies done at our centre during the study period, 79 bodies that are found in water are studied. Males in the age group of 21-30 are the most common victims. Sea water drowning amounted for most cases of drowning in contrary to other studies. About 58% of cases of drowning were during the day. Most number of drowning deaths occurred in the month of October and monsoon season. Accidental drowning is the most common manner of death in males and suicidal manner in female drowning victims. About 32% of drowning victims in the study are from low socio-economic status. Most of the female victims are married while male victims are unmarried.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Morphologic and Radiographic Effects of Acids on the Teeth: An in-Vitro Forensic Study 2020-05-16T07:32:48+00:00 Kushdeep Kumar Gupta1, Abraham Johnson2 <p>Background: Teeth are generally considered as the most durable structures that resist physical, chemical and biological insults than skeletal tissue. Human identification through dental remains is of prime importance when the remains are found in chemical accidents such as acid attacks or uneventful accident in chemical industries, where soft tissues cannot provide reliable information. Proper examination and analysis of dental remains can provide vital information in forensic context.<br>Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the morphology and radiographic features of teeth after exposure to highly acidic environment.<br>Material and Method: A sample of total 80 extracted permanent teeth was used. Teeth were exposed to different acidic conditions like - 35% hydrochloric acid (30ml), 69% nitric acid (30ml), 98% sulphuric acid (30ml), 85% phosphoric acid (30ml) at intervals of 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, 8 hr, 16 hr and 24 hr. Before and after exposure to acids, radiographic and stereomicroscopic images were taken.<br>Results: The effect of acids on teeth depends on various factors such as the type and concentration of the acid, and also the time period. The morphological and radiological changes normally includes - changes in dimensional stability, changes in texture and colour, changes in the appearance of fissures and cracks and also appearance of the fracture and fragmentation of the samples.<br>Conclusion: Teeth can serve as a tool in identification of the victim when in contact with acidic condition. Hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulfuric acid cause changes in the teeth and it is possible to deduce the approximate duration for which a body has been immersed in acid based on the changes observed. The characteristics of teeth may be of assistance in cases of human identification where soft tissue features are unavailable.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pattern of Abdominal Viscera Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Trauma Deaths in Ahmedabad 2020-05-16T07:34:55+00:00 Kunjan Modi1, Rajesh Joshiyara1 <p>In this age of speed and traffic accidents, the incidence of blunt injuries to the abdomen has been at its height due to the development of the modern industrial era with the development of the automobile. This study was conducted to describe the frequency and pattern of intra-abdominal injuries in patients with blunt abdominal trauma.<br>The present study was undertaken on 693 victims who died due to blunt abdominal injuries which were autopsied at B. J. Medical College mortuary, Ahmedabad during the year 2016-2017. This study shows that most common organ involved in blunt abdominal injuries is liver. Most common associated injuries with this is chest injuries. Highest number of people died due to shock and hemorrhage</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pattern of Fatal Firearm Injuries Pertaining to Manner of Death: An Original Research Article 2020-05-16T07:37:34+00:00 Kaulaskar Shashikant V.1, Kolpe Dayanand V.2, Udaykiran Bhalge3, S K Pandey4, Manoj Pathak5 <p>The purpose of this study was to collect a data related to, but are not limited to, medico legal aspect, manner of death, type of firearm used, anatomical site involved, range of fire and their direction pertaining to manner of death in fatal firearm injury (FFI) cases, as limited data are available for such fatalities in this region. The direction of the internal bullet path has not been investigated in this area. This study was designed to address that deficiency.<br>Method- A prospective study over a period of 22 months was carried out on FFI cases brought to the mortuary.<br>Result –Among 54 FFI cases during study period, homicidal deaths were outnumbered the accidental and suicidal cases. Country made firearm was used in 37.03% FFI cases. More than one entry wound found only in homicidal cases. The typical entry wounds (n-59) in homicide were fired from close or near distance (61.02%), thorax were commonly involved (44.07%) with direction of fire running backward 73.08% (n-19), downward 69.23% (n-18) and towards the right 76.92% (n-20). Entry wound (n-5) in accidental FFI cases were fired from close or near range in 80%, abdomen involved in 80% (n-4) with direction of fire downward 75% (n-3), towards right 75% (n-3) and forward in 50% (n-2),and backward in 50% (n-2). In suicidal cases (n-3) head was involved in 66.67% (n-2) with all direction in backward, upward and towards left side.<br>Conclusions Country made firearms were involved in majority of cases. Multiple shots were present only in homicidal cases. Non contact entry wounds strongly indicate homicidal death. In homicidal death thorax was commonly involved and the direction of internal bullet path was towards the backward, downward and to the right side (B-D-R) in majority of cases. In all suicidal cases, the direction of fire was backward, upward and to left.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Epidemiological Profile of Snake Bites over 1-Year Period from Tertiary Care Centre in Maval Region of Maharashtra, India: Original Research Article 2020-05-16T07:39:39+00:00 Rajesh Kharat1, Rahul Kedare2 <p>Estimated deaths rate due to snake bites are more than 46,000 annually in our country. Ninety-seven to ninety eight percent bites occur in rural or remote areas. Snake bite is a one of common problem faced in rural India. It takes a high toll of lives mainly of working male of the family. The current prospective observational study was carried out to study the clinical and management by systematic approach of snake bites. The 245 cases of snake bite were hospitalized to Rural Hospital in a period of July 2017 to June 2018.<br>The present data showed that majority (91.43%) of cases were encountered from rural area,in the age group ranging from 21 to 30years (24.90%) Majority were male patients (62.04%). Most affected were the agricultural laborers and farmers (56.33%). 60.82% of the cases were presented with bite over lower extremities .Most of the snake bite (75.97%) occurred during day time. July to October was the period in which most snake bite cases were observed. It was seen that syndromic or systematic approach was more effective in early diagnosis and treatment of snake bite. The average requirement of anti- serum venom (ASV) required for cobra bite was 16,krait bite 22,Russell’s viper bite 12 and saw scaled viper bite 10. The total duration of treatment in hospital for cobra bite were 6, krait bite 8, Russell’s viper bite 4 and saw scaled viper 4 days.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Informed Consent in Clinical Practice and Research and Its Awareness among Under Graduate Medical Students 2020-05-16T07:41:20+00:00 S.R. Saritha1, C.S. Sreedevi2 <p>Consent denotes voluntary agreement, permission or compliance. Informed consent in medical practice is the grant of permission by a patient for an act to be carried out by a doctor, such as a diagnostic, surgical or therapeutic procedure. Informed Consent in research is the voluntary agreement to participate in the study.<br>The study was undertaken with the objective to assess the level of knowledge regarding informed consent among Second MBBS undergraduate medical students at the beginning of the class by a pretest and to demonstrate measurable gain in knowledge at the end of the class by a posttest using the same questionnaire.<br>This quasi-experimental study conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Govt.T.D Medical College, Alappuzha, among 118 students using a structured and close ended, pretested questionnaire containing 13 multiple choice questions.<br>Statistical analysis done on average pre and posttest score and on difference in pre and posttest responses to individual questions; revealed measurable gain in knowledge at the end of the class, since p value was &lt; 0.05.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sexual Dimorphism in Mandibular Canine Crown Dimensions in Early Adolescents: A Hospital based Study 2020-05-16T07:49:04+00:00 Kanak Priya1, Poonam Agrawal2, Dinesh Kumar Bagga3, Hiten Kalra4, Disha Sirohi5, Ritika Gupta5 <p>Determination of sex is valuable in forensic investigations. Forensic odontology plays a major role due to the hardness and chemical stability of teeth. This study was done to find out the utility of mandibular canine crown dimensions as a tool for sex determination in North Indian population. Crown length and mesiodistal width of right and left mandibular canines were measured on the 60 casts and analyzed to assess sex difference using Students ‘t’ test. The canine crown parameters as measured for males and females when compared were found to be statistically significant. However, when these parameters were compared between left and right sides for the same sex, they were found to be statistically insignificant.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Rationale of Evaluation of Potency in Medicolegal Cases of Sexual Assault by Penile Color Doppler with Injection of Papaverine. 2020-05-16T07:51:16+00:00 Shilpa Domkundwar1, Varsha V Jadhav2, Sonal Khandelwal3 <p>Introduction: Impotency in male is inability to develop or maintain a sufficient penile erection to conclude the act of intercourse to orgasm and ejaculation. The question of potency arises in many lawsuits in civil and criminal courts. In India, potency testing which includes penile color doppler with injection papaverine is done for all accused of sexual assault as a blanket rule. Penile color doppler with injection papaverine has its own limitations and side effects. Our study therefore aims to analyze and ascertain the justification of subjecting each accused of sexual assault to penile color doppler with injection papapverine.<br>Aims and Objectives:<br>1. To analyse whether evaluating potency in every medico legal case of sexual assault referred to our department using color doppler with injection papaverine is justified.<br>2. To recommend changes based on our study.<br>Method: This study is a retrospective analysis of data of 166 accused of sexual assault, between the period of May 2015-April 2018. Baseline ultrasound and penile color doppler assessment of erection following papaverine injection was done.<br>Results: Procedure was performed on 166 accused of sexual assault, of whom the, 3 (1.80%) had arterial insufficiency. 6 (3.61%) accused on whom the procedure was performed developed priapism as complication. The rate of complications was found to be double than the positive result of the procedure.<br>Conclusion: We conclude from our study that, due to limited role and complications of penile doppler and change in the definition of rape and laws related to it, overburdened health infrastructure of our country, every accused of sexual assault should not be subjected to penile color doppler study</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Determination of Stature from Anthropometric Measurements of Thyroid Cartilage in the Population of Punjab 2020-05-16T07:53:00+00:00 Sunil Subramanyam1, Dalbir Singh2, YS bansal3, SP Mandal4 <p>The astonishing task of determining the identity of an individual has been simplified, with the innovation of scientific technologies like DNA fingerprinting in the developed countries. Yet the application of such advanced technologies in developing countries is still a daunting task due to its complexity. Anthropometric analysis for the identification of unknown bodies is reasonably productive owing to its inexpensiveness. The aim of this study was to correlate the anthropometric measurements of the thyroid cartilage with the stature of the individual. Thyroid cartilages from 300 post mortem cases done in native population of Punjab were studied anthropometrically. A total of seventeen anthropometric measurements of selected parameters of thyroid cartilage were defined, measured, and statistically correlated with the body length of the individual. The variables which were significantly correlating with the body length were further analysed by regression analysis for derivation of a regression equation.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study of Patterns of Injuries by Road Traffic Accidents 2020-05-16T07:54:59+00:00 Jakaregari Srinivas <p>210 autopsies (176 males and 34 females) aged between 2 to 70 years ware studied. 12(6.81%) males, 8(23.5%) females total 20(9.52) were aged between 2-10 years 32 (18.1%) males. 4(11.7%) females total 36(17.1%) were aged between 11-20 years. 52(29.5%) males, 12(35.2%) female total 64(30.4%) were aged between 21-30 years. 31(17.6%) males, 3(8.82%) females total 34(16.1%) aged between 31-40 years 21(11.9%) males, 2(5.81%) females, total 23(10.9%) were aged between 41-50 years 15(8.5%) males, 3(8.82%) females, total 18(8.57%) were aged between 51-60 years 13(7.3%) males, 2(5.88%) female total 15(7.14%) aged between 61-70 years. The types of riders were, 17(8.09%) pedestrian 29(13.8%) cyclist, 103(49%) were riding two wheelers. 49(23.3%) travelling in car, 12(5.71%) were Lorry drivers / bus travelers. The types of injuries were 72(34.2%) had head injury 22(10.4%) had neck injury, 31(14.7%) had injuries to lower limb, 21(10%) abdominal injuries, 34(16.1%) had injuries to thorax, 13(6.19%) had injuries to upper limb 17(8.09%) had injuries to face. This pragmatic study will be quite useful to medico legal expert to assess the age group, region wise injury, types of riders because accident is an unexpected mishap which claims life, who are in hurry and disobey the traffic rules.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Socio- Demographic Study of Deaths Due to Poisoning in Autopsies Conducted at KIMS Hospital, Bangalore 2020-05-16T08:58:46+00:00 Senthil Kumar V1, A. Dominic Infant Raj2, Naveen Kumar.T3 <p>Poisoning is a common day to day problem. Profile of poisoning in an area depends upon a variety of factors, ranging from access to and availability of poison, socio-economic status of the individual, cultural and religious influences, etc. A prospective study was carried out in the Department of Forensic medicine, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences and Hospital Bangalore to study the socio- demographic profiling of deaths due to poisoning. Out of the 100 cases studied, incidence of poisoning was found to be more amongst the age group of 21 to 30 years in both sexes with mean age being 25.4 years and 25.4 years amongst males and females respectively. Poisoning is more in males (68%) as compared to females. In both the sexes, married (68%) outnumbered the unmarried in rural and urban community. This study shows that maximum number of poisoning cases were noticed among Upper Lower socio economic Class and in Nuclear families(61%). It was observed that majority of the victims were Graduate (28%).Financial constraints(22%) were the most common motive behind poisoning deaths.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lifelines as a Tool to Predict Death 2020-05-16T09:05:23+00:00 Sneha.S1, Aswath2,, Priyadarshee Pradhan3, P. Sampath Kumar4 <p>The study of the relative positions of astronomical objects and their movements is called Astrology. It is used as a means for deriving information about terrestrial planets and affairs of humans. The fear of the unknown is the primary reason for the current fascination with horoscopes. The beliefs are different among different cultures and every country has their own belief systems. Some of the beliefs and superstitions of Indians are seen to have been passed on from generation to generation. The Aim of the study is to co-relate the death with life line. Plotting the data against the age for correlation in scattered diagram it was observed that it did not reflect the life span of the individuals. Though people have belief in different aspects of astrology, this study proves that the there is no scientific basis to the claims of palmistry.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Agar-Paraffin Double Embedding Over Conventional Embedding for Minute Oral Biopsies- Cohort Study 2020-05-16T09:07:26+00:00 S.Sandhya1, Pratibha Ramani2, Herald J Sherlin3, Gheena.S4, Abilasha R5, Gifrina Jayaraj6 <p>Agar-Paraffin double embedding technique is a simple technique that combines the advantages of both the embedding material. It preserves the minute tissue biopsies in orientation and holds them together from getting lost. Oral biopsies, being most commonly small incisional tissues, have to be preserved all through the processing and embedding to ensure optimal visualization of all the mucosal layers without compromise. In the present study, samples were divided into two groups: Group A: Agar-paraffin double embedding (APE) and Group B: conventional paraffin embedding (PE). Tissue samples collected were sectioned into two approximately equal sized bits. Both the bits were simultaneously processed, embedded in two different techniques (APE and PE method). Sections obtained were scored by an observer and analyzed using independent sample t-test (SPSS software version 21) to evaluate the efficacy of agar-paraffin double embedding technique in comparison to the conventional paraffin embedding technique. Agar paraffin embedded tissue was found to be well processed, firm and well preserved. Orientation was comparatively easier and the blocks yielded sections of good quality. They showed no interference with staining and cell morphology was of good clarity. Thus Agar-paraffin embedding technique represents a simple, reliable method that can greatly improve the quality of diagnostic information.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Severity Grading, Management, Outcome and Epidemiological Profiling of Snakebite Victims in Tertiary Care Hospital in South India: 5 Years Retrospective Study 2020-05-16T09:09:25+00:00 Smriti Sinha1, Sathyajith Karanth2, Avinash Kumar3 <p>Objective: We conducted this study to do epidemiological and clinical profiling of the patients with snake bite in a tertiary care referral centre, situated in suburban area of Dakshin Kannada district, Karnataka, south India.<br>Materials and Method: This retrospective, record based study was done by analysing medical records of all the patients of snake bite admitted over 5years from June 2015 to July 2019. It included demographic details and clinical profiling. Based on presenting complaint, clinical sign/symptoms and laboratory reports snake envenomation patients were divided into neurotoxic and hemotoxic group. The severity grading, amount of ASV used and outcome assessed in both the groups.<br>Results: Total 108 patient records were analysed, maximum of which were males (64.8%) in age group of 15-30 years (46.2%). In majority of the cases the species of snake was not identified (67.5%). Dry bites were reported in 40.7% cases, among envenomated cases, 68.7% presented with hemotoxic syndrome, 29.7% with neurotoxic syndrome and 0.9% had both the features. In all envenomated patients with increasing bite to needle time, the grade of severity, amount of used ASV, duration of hospital stay and complications were found to increase.<br>Conclusion: Snake bite is a neglected life threatening condition, which is a preventable disease. Tourniquet is still very commonly used first aid technique, which can be deleterious. The lack of education and awareness about snake bite management was evident and active mass education is clearly needed.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study of Organo- Phosphorous Compound Poisonings with Blood Sugar Levels in Telangana Population 2020-05-16T09:13:27+00:00 Jakaregari Srinivas <p>85 adult patients aged between 23 to 60 years of age were admitted at emergency wards were studied. These patients were known diabetic since 2 to 5 years, The clinical manifestation were 6(7.0%) had anxiety, 7(8.23%) had giddiness, 5(5.88%) had emotional liability 7(8.23%) had slurred speech 4(4.70%) had ataxia, 9(10.5%) had drowsiness, 5(5.88%) had confusion 6(7.0%) had headache, 8(9.41%) had coma, 6(7.0%) had absence of reflexes, 12(14.1%) had dyspnea, 10(11.7%) had hypotension. The random blood sugar level in 48(56.4%) had 60-200 mg% and 37(43.5%) had &gt; 200 mg% This pragmatic approach to patients of oregano phosphorus patients who were diabetic and under anti diabetic treatment will be quite useful to physician and medico- legal expert to treat efficiently to avoid morbidity and mortality in Diabetic patients because diabetic mellitus is a silent killer and challenge to the clinicians globally.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Original Article-Correlation and Comparison of Cheiloscopy, Dactyloscopy and Palatoscopy with Blood Groups among Dental Students From Western Maharashtra 2020-05-16T09:15:33+00:00 Srigiri Surath1, Sushma Bommanavar2, Sudha B Mattigatti3, Uzma Belgaumi4, Vidya Kadashetti2, Wasim Kamate2, Nupura Vibhute3 <p>Personal identification is of paramount importance in the forensic odontology for ethical, humanitarian and criminal investigations. In forensic odontology, scientific methods using DNA is considered to be the gold standard method of identification; however, it’s expensive and time-consuming approach have circumvented the need for less expensive and faster methods of identification. The latest inexpensive approach of quantifying evidences for identification of suspect in crime is using lip print, fingerprint, palatal rugae &amp; blood grouping and this has gained tremendous importance in the present days. Hence, the aim of the present study is to correlate and compare Cheiloscopy, Dactyloscopy and Palatoscopy with blood group and Rh factor. Method: A total of 200 dental students between the age group18 to 25 years were included in the study. Lip print, finger print and palatal rugae patterns with ABO blood groups were collected and compared using Chi square test. The data was analysed using SPSS version 10.0 statistical package. Results &amp; Conclusion: Statistically significant correlation existed between lip print and ABO-Rh factors (?2statistic = 37.56, p value &lt;0.05) and between finger prints and ABO-Rh factors (?2 statistic = 30.6, p value &lt; 0.05). No association was found between palatal rugae with ABO-Rhesus blood groups (?2 statistic = 17.71, p value &gt;0.05).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Unnatural Female Deaths within Seven Years of Marital Life: An Autopsy based Study 2020-05-16T09:18:10+00:00 Jeeveswararao Bagadi1, Srinivasulu Pothireddy2 <p>Unnatural female deaths pose a major challenge for society. The study was conducted on 644 unnatural female deaths during the calendar years from 2008 to 2012, in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Andhra Medical College. Women less than 29 years of age group, in the first three years of their marital life were the major victims in our study. Improving women literacy may give employment and there by economical independency of women.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study of Dimorphism of Humerus in Maharashtra Population 2020-05-16T09:35:16+00:00 Mohammad Abdul Mateen <p>45 male and 45 females right and left dried, non pathological humerus were measured with vernier caliper and weighed with digital weighing machine. The vertical diameter of superior articular surface, transverse diameter of superior articular surface, circumference of superior articular surface, circumference of mid shaft in males and females of right and left humerus were studied and found highly significant P values in both sexes and right left humerus (P&lt;0.01). These parameters will be quite useful to medico- legal expert, anthropologist because morphometric values of mesoderm are uncertain.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Perception of Students Regarding Gender based Violence. 2020-05-16T09:37:17+00:00 Muzaffar A1, Shenoy VK2, Vaswani VR3, Badiadika KK4 <p>Objectives: The study is undertaken to explore perception of students regarding violence against women with specific reference to domestic violence and sexual violence.<br>Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire based exploratory study conducted in Mangalore, Karnataka, India. 220 participants consisting of age group between 18 to 25 years were included. Responses were obtained from the study participants through open and close ended questionnaires. Results: More than half (60%) of medical students and (56%) of engineering students disagree that in modern India women are enjoying equal rights to men. Three forth (77% male, 82% female) of students believe and disagree that it is alright for a man to beat his wife in order to make her obedient. Two forth (61%) of medical students and (63%) of engineering students agree that throwing acid on a woman to cause disfiguration is an example of gender based violence. Conclusion: The perception of medical and engineering students regarding gender based violence is quite similar. This study brought out issues of increased violence against women. A significant number still felt that dressing of a woman may be a factor for sexual assault. Women are still facing gender inequality and are not getting equal rights to men. Even though incidence of harassment, domestic violence are on the rise, women are not ready to report about their suffering because of social and family pressure. There is also need for awareness to be bought in gender mainstreaming for educating all sectors of the society.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Legal & Intellectual Property Dimension of Health & Access to Medicines in India 2020-05-16T09:43:44+00:00 M.Z.M. Nomani1, Alaa K.K.Alhalboosi2, Mohammad Rauf3 <p>Trade- Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, 1995 established synergy with human rights laws in realization of right to health, access to medicine and sustainable development. The Doha Declaration on Public Health, 2001; Sustainable Development Goals, 2015-2030 and United Nations Secretary- General’s High- Level Panel on Access to Medicines Report, 2016 promote innovation of health technologies in developing countries. It is estimated that 75 per cent of the world’s population is health deficient and medicine starved due to patenting requirement of pharmaceutical industries. India passed Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005 dealing with exclusive marketing right, product patent and process patent to protect the interest of the generic drugs in compliance of TRIPS Agreement, 1995 under public interest. In post Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005 phase India faced formidable challenge of the Swiss drug maker Novartis’ patent application for Gleevec in Madras High Court, 2006; Intellectual Property Appellate Board (IPAB) in 2009 and Supreme Court in 2013. The judicial exuberance struck a balance between patent right, health right and access to medicine in Indian socio-economic context. It is followed by spelling out of the National Intellectual Property Right (IPR) Policy, 2016 focused on enhancing access to healthcare as human right.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Assessment of the Awareness of Knowledge of Dental Records in Forensic Dentistry among Undergraduate Dental Students 2020-05-16T09:46:07+00:00 Shyam Sundar Behura1, Shirsha Mukherjee2, Roquaiya Nishat3, Lipsa Bhuyan4, N Aravindha Babu5 <p>Aim &amp; Objectives: To assess the awareness of patient’s dental record maintenance among BDS students and to evaluate their knowledge regarding the potential use of their maintained records in forensic identification.<br>Materials and Method: Data was collected by means of a self administered questionnaire consisting of 24 closed ended questions, addressed on the awareness about patient’s dental record maintenance and its importance in forensic needs among 3rd, 4th year BDS students and interns of a private dental college.<br>Results: 73.1% of the respondents were aware that dentists were legally bound to maintain records in India and 83.5% were aware that these could contribute towards forensic investigations. Most of the students were aware of how to maintain dental records in an institution. 67.4% of the study population felt the need to store records for a minimum of 5 years. 65-70% had knowledge regarding denture markers and role of implants in forensic identification. The most perceived barrier to good dental record keeping was lack of time according to most of the students.<br>Conclusion: The survey revealed awareness on the importance of dental records in forensic identification among BDS students. Few areas showed inadequate knowledge, thus mandating an utmost need to train dental students in this field. Newer methods like denture marking and Aadhar number in corpoartion in prostheses should be given importance.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Study to Compare the Stress Patterns in the Edentulous Mandibular Bone around the Two Implant Retained Over Denture and the Prosthesis Restored with All-On-Four Concept Using the Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis 2020-05-16T09:54:50+00:00 Puneeth Hegde1, Satish Shenoy2, Shobha Rodrigues3, Thilak Shetty4, Umesh Pai1, Sharon Saldhana1, Mahesh M1 <p>When we consider the rehabilitation of patients with the mandibular implant supported over denture, the influence of the implant number and the cantilever design on the stress distribution on the bone needs to be assessed precisely.<br>Purpose: The purpose of the simulation study was to compare the biomechanical behavior of the two implant supported over denture design with the All-On-Four Concept using the three dimensional finite element method thereby evaluating the Von Misses stresses induced on the implant under different loading simulations.<br>Materials &amp; Method: Three dimensional models representing mandible restored with two implant supported prosthesis was compared with the models that were restored based on the ‘All-On-Four’ concept. The models were then subjected to four different loading simulations (full mouth biting, canine disclusion, load on cantilever, and load in the absence of cantilever). The maximum von Mises stresses were localized and quantified for comparison.1<br>Results: Among the models, under all loading simulations, the maximum stress concentrations were along the neck of the implant. The stress levels for full mouth loading simulation was highest for two implant supported overdenture design and the least for All-On-Four overdenture design. In all the designs, the least stress was when the implants were loaded in a lateral direction. The stress levels for cantilever and non-cantilevered designs were nearly the same for all the simulated designs.<br>Conclusion: When tested under different loading simulations, both models showed similar location and distribution of stress patterns. Thus from the study it can be concluded that the All-On-Four Concept is a clinically applicable treatment option for the atrophic edentulous ridges and induces least amount of stresses on the edentulous ridges. Therefore the overall longevity of the prosthesis is greatly enhanced.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Patient with Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Using Glove Type Silicone Finger and Toe Prosthesis 2020-05-16T09:57:49+00:00 Thilak Shetty1, Abhinav Sharma2, Shobha J Rodrigues3, Vidya K Shenoy4, Umesh Pai5, Sharon Saldanha5, Mahesh M5 <p>The hand is a powerful tool and its loss causes a severe psychological and physical drawback. A considerable number of people each year suffer finger or partial finger amputations as a result of malignant disease, trauma, and congenital deformity.<br>Prosthetic restoration is usually considered difficult for the whole or a part of the finger and it worsens if multiple fingers are involved. Additionally in patients with mixed connective tissue disorders with overlapping clinical features of scleroderma and arthritis any undue pressure from the artificial rings or vacuum fit of the prosthesis might cause further vasoconstriction that could worsen blood flow to extremities. This clinical report describes a simple and economical method for prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with mixed connective tissue disease following digital loss using a custom made prosthesis with medical grade tissue adhesive as retentive aid.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Perception of Students Regarding Gender based Violence 2020-05-16T10:00:41+00:00 Muzaffar A1, Shenoy VK2, Vaswani VR3, Badiadika KK4 <p>Objectives: The study is undertaken to explore perception of students regarding violence against women with specific reference to domestic violence and sexual violence.<br>Method: This is a descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire based exploratory study conducted in Mangalore, Karnataka, India. 220 participants consisting of age group between 18 to 25 years were included. Responses were obtained from the study participants through open and close ended questionnaires. Results: More than half (60%) of medical students and (56%) of engineering students disagree that in modern India women are enjoying equal rights to men. Three forth (77% male, 82% female) of students believe and disagree that it is alright for a man to beat his wife in order to make her obedient. Two forth (61%) of medical students and (63%) of engineering students agree that throwing acid on a woman to cause disfiguration is an example of gender based violence. Conclusion: The perception of medical and engineering students regarding gender based violence is quite similar. This study brought out issues of increased violence against women. A significant number still felt that dressing of a woman may be a factor for sexual assault. Women are still facing gender inequality and are not getting equal rights to men. Even though incidence of harassment, domestic violence are on the rise, women are not ready to report about their suffering because of social and family pressure. There is also need for awareness to be bought in gender mainstreaming for educating all sectors of the society.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation for Correlation of Cheiloscopy and Dermatoglyphics in Gender Determination 2020-05-16T10:08:23+00:00 Tim Peter Thermadam1, Laxmikanth Chatra2, Auswaf Ahsan3 <p>Background: Identification of the suspect, living or dead with the help of physical charachteristics play a vital role in forensic science. Improved methods of gender determination and personal identification are important in solving criminal cases. Cheiloscopy and dactyloscopy have been proved to be of use in personal identification. The present study aims to evaluate correlation of Cheiloscopy and Dermatoglyphics in gender determination<br>Materials and Method: The study was carried out from January 2017 to January 2019 on 2112 individuals (1056 males and 1056 females) aged from 15 to 60 years in KMCT Dental College, Calicut. For lip print analysis Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification was followed. For finger print analysis impression of all the fingers were taken. For analysis, the images were cropped and abode photoshop software was used.<br>Results: Type 1 and 1’ lip groove patterns were found to be predominant among males.Type 4 and Type 5 lip groove patterns were found to be predominant among females. Loop finger print patterns were found to be predominant among males.Whorl finger print patterns were found to be predominant among females. Positive correlation (+0.80) was found between loop finger print pattern and Type 1’ lip print pattern in males which is statistically significant (p=0.003).Positive correlation (+0.75) was found between whorl finger print pattern and Type IV lip groove pattern in females which is statistically significant. (p=0.005)<br>Conclusion: There was definite correlation of Cheiloscopy and Dermatoglyphics in gender determination</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Study to Compare the Stress Patterns in the Edenulous Mandibalur Bone Around the Two Implant Retained Over Denture and the Prosthesis Restored with All-On-Four Concept Using the Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis 2020-05-16T10:10:33+00:00 Puneeth Hegde1, Satish Shenoy2, Shobha Rodrigues3, Thilak Shetty4, Umesh Pai1, Sharon Saldhana1, Mahesh M1 <p>When we consider the rehabilitation of patients with the mandibular implant supported over denture, the influence of the implant number and the cantilever design on the stress distribution on the bone needs to be assessed precisely.<br>Purpose: The purpose of the simulation study was to compare the biomechanical behavior of the two implant supported over denture design with the All-On-Four Concept using the three dimensional finite element method thereby evaluating the Von Misses stresses induced on the implant under different loading simulations.<br>Materials &amp; Method: Three dimensional models representing mandible restored with two implant supported prosthesis was compared with the models that were restored based on the ‘All-On-Four’ concept. The models were then subjected to four different loading simulations (full mouth biting, canine disclusion, load on cantilever, and load in the absence of cantilever). The maximum von Mises stresses were localized and quantified for comparison.1<br>Results: Among the models, under all loading simulations, the maximum stress concentrations were along the neck of the implant. The stress levels for full mouth loading simulation was highest for two implant supported overdenture design and the least for All-On-Four overdenture design. In all the designs, the least stress was when the implants were loaded in a lateral direction. The stress levels for cantilever and non-cantilevered designs were nearly the same for all the simulated designs.<br>Conclusion: When tested under different loading simulations, both models showed similar location and distribution of stress patterns. Thus from the study it can be concluded that the All-On-Four Concept is a clinically applicable treatment option for the atrophic edentulous ridges and induces least amount of stresses on the edentulous ridges. Therefore the overall longevity of the prosthesis is greatly enhanced.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Assessment of Needle Stick Injury in an Institutional Set up: A Retrospective Analysis 2020-05-16T10:16:08+00:00 Shobha Rodrigues1, Thilak Shetty2, Umesh Pai3, Sharon Saldanha3, Mahesh M3, Puneeth Hegde3, Mandakini Mohan4 <p>Purpose: Occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens with needle stick or other sharp tool injuries is a serious but preventable problem. this study will be conducted to investigate the incidence of Needle stick injury (NSI) among the Dental health care providers (DHCP) of Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore.<br>Method:The NSI incidence, demographics, contributing factors, and follow up following NSI report were reviewed.<br>Results : Six, eleven , seventeen and nineteen needle stick injuries were reported in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively . Most injuries were experienced by students and least by the Faculty.<br>Conclusion: Based on the results and within the limitations of this surveillance study it is concluded that occupational exposures can be reduced and reporting of all exposures is vital. The institution of appropriate PEP, psychological support and counselling of affected HCWs and stringent follow-up are all needed to reduce the burden of occupationally acquired infections in HCWs.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Study to Compare the Stress Patterns in the Edenulous 2020-05-16T10:18:43+00:00 Shobha Rodrigues1, Thilak Shetty2, Umesh Pai3, Sharon Saldanha3, Mahesh M3, Puneeth Hegde3, Mandakini Mohan4 <p>Purpose: Occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens with needle stick or other sharp tool injuries is a serious but preventable problem. this study will be conducted to investigate the incidence of Needle stick injury (NSI) among the Dental health care providers (DHCP) of Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore.<br>Method: The NSI incidence, demographics, contributing factors, and follow up following NSI report were reviewed.<br>Results : Six, eleven , seventeen and nineteen needle stick injuries were reported in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively . Most injuries were experienced by students and least by the Faculty.<br>Conclusion: Based on the results and within the limitations of this surveillance study it is concluded that occupational exposures can be reduced and reporting of all exposures is vital. The institution of appropriate PEP, psychological support and counselling of affected HCWs and stringent follow-up are all needed to reduce the burden of occupationally acquired infections in HCWs</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular Second Molars Using CBCT 2020-05-16T10:22:56+00:00 Mohamad Qulam Zaki Bin Mohamad Rasidi1, Mahesh Ramakrishnan2 <p>Background: A thorough knowledge of root canal system, anatomy and variation in morphological plays an important role in all scopes of endodontic treatment. The practitioner should have a great understanding of the detailed morphological anatomy of root canal system in order to utilize the proper technique and method during the endodontic treatment especially in mandibular second molar.<br>Aim: To evaluate root canal morphology of mandibular second molars using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in Chennai Population based on Vertucci’s classification.<br>Materials and Method: The CBCT scans of patient age between 20 years to 40 years were retrieved from Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India from September 2018 to January 2019. The teeth were observed for the root canals system using Vertucci classification, and other parameters. The comparison between males and female were made.<br>Results: Generally the parameter values are more in females when compared to males and the most prevalence root canal configuration are Type 4, followed by Type 2 in mesial and distal roots for both gender.<br>Conclusion: The study indicates the significant values to certain extendand can serve as aids to utilize the proper technique and method during the endodontic treatment especially in permanent mandibular second molar.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Auxillary Grooves on Retention of Complete Cast Crowns in Molar Teeth – An In-Vitro Study 2020-05-16T10:25:08+00:00 Thilak Shetty1, C T Anand2, Sharon Saldanha3, Shobha J Rodrigues4, Umesh Pai3, Mahesh M3, Puneeth Hegde3 <p>Aim:The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the effects of auxillary grooves on retention of complete cast crown on molars. Method: Thirty mounted teeth were divided randomly into three groups of 10 each and grooves are placed using NOF104R diamond point. In group A , no groove is placed – control, group B, one groove is placed proximally in the centre of mesial surface – Test group. In group C, two groove is placed proximally , each in centre of mesial surface and distal surface - Test group. Castings were prepared luted and retention was checked using a Universal Testing machine Results were subjected to one way ANOVA and Student T Test. Results: Auxilary retentive features produces a significant increase in retention of complete cast crowns. Incorporation of two proximal grooves on the mesial and distal side produces the most retention as compared to one groove or conventional tooth preparation Conclusion: Retentive features produces a significant increase in retention of complete cast crowns</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Risk Communication of Welding Work at PT Dok and Perkapalan Surabaya (Persero). 2020-05-16T10:28:03+00:00 Aditya1, I Made Muliatna2, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 <p>PT Dok dan Perkapalan Surabaya Is one of the manufacturing industry sectors in which operational activities can cause accidents and work-related illnesses such as the activities of joining the ship’s hull parts, namely the welding process. The risk of welding work needs to be done risk management to determine the prevention of possible work accidents through Risk Assessment activities which are then communicated to all parties. The purpose of this study is to identify hazards, conduct risk assessments and study risk control on welding work. This research is a descriptive study with an observational approach. From the results of the risk assessment of the 3 stages with 7 job descriptions, the percentage of risk categories was obtained, namely high risk 43% and medium risk 57%, and there was no low risk category Control carried out as part of risk management went well but residual risk remained so need a strong commitment from human resources or management and awareness of the workers on the use of personal protective equipment in every work. Risk communication is carried out through coaching or training, conducting safety induction, safety talk, Safety campaigns such as the activity of installing banners, posters, conducting meetings of the Health and Safety Guidance Committee at the end of each month to discuss the problems that occur and make improvements.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prediction of The Needs for Benzene Detox with Foods Intake Containing CYP2E1 Enzyme, Sulfation, and Glutathione at Gas Stations Pancoranmas Depok, Indonesia 2020-05-16T10:30:03+00:00 Abdul Rohim Tualeka1, Pudji Rahmawati2, Ahsan3, Syamsiar S Russeng4, Sukarmin5, Atjo Wahyu6 <p>Background: Benzene was a dangerous chemical compound which was one of the products of gas stations and one of the chemicals contained in gasoline and it was carcinogenic. TTo reduce and eliminate toxin of benzene from human body, could be used the detoxification process. One of the detoxification process approach was using foods. The aim of this research was to calculate the foods intake containing CYP2E1 enzyme, sulfation, and glutathione to improve benzene detox.<br>Method: The type ofr esearch was descriptive study. The subjects was 15 workers. Location of this research was in gas station Pancoranmas Depok. Variables were body weight, duration of work, working time perweek, working time perday, and benzene concentration. After getting all variables above, breathing rate and intake non-carcinogen per respondent can be calculated. Then, effective doses of foods containing CYP2E1 enzyme, sulfation, and glutathione would be obtained.<br>Results: All respondents were at workplace shows benzene concentration below the TLV. The highest effective dose of foods containing CYP2E1 enzyme was cow brain, sulfation was tuna, and glutathione was carrot.<br>Conclusion: The level of adequacy of enzyme of each respondent was different. Effective dose of each respondent depending on body weight, duration of work, and benzene concentration at workplace. Every respondent could choose foods depending on their needs and taste</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Determination of Safe Benzene Concentration at Ciputat Gas Station 2020-05-16T10:32:18+00:00 Cut Suci Almadiana1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 <p>Benzene is a simple cyclic organic compounds whose concentrations are found usually low dilikungan. Benzene is often used in the industrial world, both home industry and the oil and gas industry. Benzene can enter into the body through the lungs, it can be through inhalation, gastrointestinal tract, and through the skin, If someone exposed to benzene at high concentrations, the levels of benzene into the lungs roughly half of the levels of benzene is absorbed, so that the incoming kealiran blood.This research is descriptive. The population in this study is a gas station worker Ciputat region totaling 10 people. The results of the study then analyzed quantitatively to determine the concentration secure benzene for workers obtained from the data concentration of benzene in the workplace, height workers, the weight of workers, heavy mice, respiration rate workers, time spent working, the surface area of the worker’s body surface area the body of laboratory mice, the highest dose of the toxin no effects in animal experiments (NOAEL), Km factors in animals (animal Km), Km factors in workers (Human Km), and the safe limit for workers toxin dose (SHD).The results of measurement of the concentration of benzene in petrol stations in the region Ciputat is 0,58mg / m3 (0.18 ppm), which means it is still below the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) according Permenakertrans 13 / MEN / X / 2011, the year 2011 is equal to 0, 5 ppm. In contrast to the NAB which have been set at 0.18 ppm, based on manual calculations for safe concentration limit of benzene obtained value of 0.02 ppm.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forensic Implications of Saliva: An Overview 2020-05-16T10:34:45+00:00 Debesh Nilendu1, Arjun Kundu1, Avaish Chand1, Abraham Johnson2 <p>Over past years, investigators and researchers have been repeatedly attracted by possible applications of saliva related evidence in forensics. It is specifically looked for in cases of sexual assault, drug abuse, driving while intoxicated, and in cases involving animal bites. Oral fluid has a role in linking suspects or victims to a crime scene, as well as in profiling of the unknown individual. Collection of salivary evidence should thus be given deserved importance and should be carried out using scientific methods, considering the progression of time, type of case, sequence and type of analytical methods to be performed, nature of surface etc. This review emphasizes the comprehensive use of saliva in forensics.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Risk Management by Implementing Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Determinant Control (HIRADC) Method in the Research Center of the University in Surabaya, Indonesia 2020-05-16T10:36:51+00:00 Ade Titis Kurniawati1, Putri Ayuni Alayyannur1, Dani Nasirul Haqi1, Tri Martiana1, Shintia Yunita Arini1, Alfin Wahyudiono F <p>The Research Center of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Airlangga is one of workplaces that have various risks to cause occupational accidents. The use of various chemicals, specimens, and special instruments at the Research Center has potential to cause various risks that can threaten workers, assets, and environment. To prevent and control every hazard with potential negative risks, a risk management using HIRADC method must be implemented. This study aims to implement Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Determinant Control (HIRADC) method in the Research Center of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Airlangga. This study is descriptive research with a cross-sectional design. Data collection was done through direct observation in the workplace and interview with a laboratory worker at the Research Center. The Research Center of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Airlangga has a moderate risk. The research results showed that of the 5 work activities, there were 20 potential hazards with 20 risks identified. Based on the risk assessment, there are 1 extreme risk, 1 high risk, 11 moderate risks, and 7 low risks. The extreme risks identified are explosion, fire, and death caused by LPG. The high risks identified are explosion, poisoning, and death caused by CO2 gas. Based on the determinant control, there are 15 controls implemented including substitution control, engineering control, administration control, and wearing personal protective equipment. However, there are still 5 controls that have not been implemented. Further recommendations are needed for 5 controls that have not been implemented in every activity conducted in the Research Center of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Airlangga.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation to Identify Benzene Safe Concentration in Oil and Gas processing Facility in East Java Area Due to Process Fugitive Emission 2020-05-16T10:41:19+00:00 Ahmad Muslih Bambang Sugiharta1, Aditya1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka2 <p>Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. Acute benzene exposure can cause central nervous system depression. Longterm exposure can result in depression of the blood-forming system and may increase risks associated with anemia and leukemia. The purpose of this research is to identify benzene safe concentration in crude oil processing plant in east java area due to process fugitive emission. Sample is taken from 20 workers include work duration and weight of the worker also crude oil plant air quality monitoring is measured using direct-measure benzene detectors.<br>In the benzene measurement on the crude oil plant in east java area, 2 spot sample is taken with resulting data 0.96 mg/m3 or 0.30 ppm and 0.86 mg/m3 or 0.27 ppm, and according to final manual calculation for safe benzene concentration with the result 1.12 mg/m3 or 0.35 ppm, all of those number are still below safe concentration limit by refer to minister of man power No.13 / MEN / X / 2011 regulation and The Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) which have been adopted globally as a company standard which is 0.5 ppm as an eight hour time-weighted average (TWA8) and 1.0 ppm as a Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) (averaged over fifteen minutes). But according to Minimum Risk Level (MRL) ATSDR 2007, those value already above threshold which is 0,009 ppm daily exposure for acute effect and 0,003 ppm daily exposure for chronic effect, Recommendation to control and reduce fugitive emission which resulting in number of benzene is by reviewing engineering design for equipment causing fugitive emission, and since this company regulation for respirator usage in benzene case are 0.5-5.0 ppm must use Half-face mask with organic vapor cartridge, 5.0-25.0 ppm use Full-face mask with organic vapor cartridge, and Greater than 25 ppm use Self-Contained Breathing Air (SCBA) then need to re asses all area which has an obligation to wear personal protective equipment (Half-full / full mask with organic vapor cartridge or Self contain breathing apparatus) by not only based on benzene level but also considering the exposure duration. .</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Common Types and Methods of Drug Usage In Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2020-05-16T10:43:59+00:00 Hamid Taghinejad1, Ali Khorshidi2, Noorollah Yadeghari3, Walieh Menati4, Rostam Menati5, Aziz Kassani6, Taha Ashayeri <p>Introduction: Drug usage is a prevalent social and health problem in most countries. The highest prevalence of drug abuse has been reported among people aged 30-40 years old. The purpose of this study was to determination of the types of drugs and the methods of drug usage in Iran in a systematic and meta-analysis study.<br>Methods: This study was performed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Databases ofSID, Iran Doc, ISI, Cochrane library, Science direct, PubMed/Medline, and Scopus were independently searched by two researchers using MeSH keywords. Articles published between 2004 and 2018 were recruited.Data was analyzed using random effectsmodel using STATA-SE12 software. Heterogeneity among studies was investigated using, T2 and I2statistical indices.<br>Results: Initial search retrieved 90 articles from which 7 articles with desirable quality were finally analyzed. Opium was the most common in used narcotic50 %(95% CI: 35-66%) followed by opium extract44%(95% CI: 5-83%), and heroin 19%(95% CI: 12-26%). Using more than one narcotic was observed in 9% (95% CI: 4-15%). The inhalation was the most common method of usage72 %( 95% CI: 61-83%) followed by oral consumption 32%(95% CI: 9-54%) and injection 14%( 95% CI: 05-24%).<br>Conclusion: Drug abuseis a common phenomenon in Iran. It is amenable to reduce the tendency to using drugs by providing appropriate training, informing the risks of drug abuse, and identifying and educating high-risk groups.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Factors Related to the Incidence of Pesticide Toxicity in Pesticide Traders in Paser District in 2018 2020-05-16T10:46:32+00:00 Baini Rahman1, Eko Suhartono, Ardik Lahdimawan3, Husaini4, Lenie Marlinae5 <p>Pesticide sale circumstances in Paser District through measuring cholinesterase enzymes by the laboratory of the Paser District on the blood of pesticide traders found&nbsp;37.5% experienced organopospat group pesticide toxicity. This research aim to analyze risk factors related to the&nbsp;level of pesticide toxicity in pesticide traders&nbsp;namely age, nutritional status, educational level, length of work, work period and use of personal protective equipment. The study design used was&nbsp;observational&nbsp;with a&nbsp;cross sectional&nbsp;approach.&nbsp;The number of samples is 42 people taken by simple random&nbsp;sampling.&nbsp;Measurement data&nbsp;using&nbsp;observation and&nbsp;examination&nbsp;sheetcholinesterase levels&nbsp;in the blood of respondents&nbsp;using&nbsp;Tintometer tool brands&nbsp;inScienPro Pest 100.&nbsp;The data were analyzed using&nbsp;Chi-square&nbsp;and multiple logistic regression. Pesticide traders who experienced pesticide toxicity were 42.9%.&nbsp;Result of&nbsp;Chi-Square&nbsp;test shows three variables that have a significant relationship with the incidence of pesticide toxicity. Risk factors for&nbsp;pesticide toxicity were age (p=0.021; OR=6.250; 95% CI=1.511-25.860), length of work (p=0.038; OR=6.769; 95% CI=1.268-36.139) and work period (p=0.043; OR=4.900; 95% CI=1.238-19.399).&nbsp;Multiple logistic regression showed that the most dominant factor associated with the incidence&nbsp;of pesticide toxicity&nbsp;namely the length of work and work period. Risk factors associated with the incidence&nbsp;of pesticide toxicity are age, length of work and work period where is the last two are the dominant factors.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Determination of Safe Benzene Concentration in Tank Car Crew at PT Pertamina Patria Niaga 2020-05-16T10:49:55+00:00 Bella Oktavia1, Farhana Syahrotun Nisa Suratna1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 <p>Benzene is a compound that can cause carcinogenic effects in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of health risk due to exposure to benzene through inhalation on tank car crews at Pertamina Patra Niaga. This type of research is a descriptive, observational and cross sectional study. The population in this study were all the Tank Car Crew (AMT) who worked in Pertamina Patra Niaga, amounting to 8 people. The sampling technique is the total population, so the sample is 8 workers. Data analysis used quantitative data to determine the safe concentration of (C) benzene in workers from animal body weight of white rats (W animals), body surface of experimental animals (BSA animals), body weight (W), height of workers (h), worker body surface area (BSA), worker respiratory rate (BR), working time (t), benzene (C) concentration, animal km. Human km, NOAEL and safe dose toxin limit (SHD).<br>The results showed measurements of benzene concentration at PT. Pertamina Patra Niaga is 0.26 mg / m3 (0.08 ppm), which means the concentration of benzene is still below the Threshold Value (NAB) according to Minister of Manpower Regulation No. 13 / MEN / X / 2011 at 0.5 ppm. Based on the calculations that have been done, the safe limit value is 0.02 ppm. This value if according to the Minimum Risk Level (MRL) of 2007 ATSDR exceeds that which is set at 0.009 ppm daily for acute effects and 0.003 ppm daily for chronic effects, so that control efforts are needed to be protected from the adverse effects of benzene on the health of workers. Control recommendations are to consume CYP2E1 enzyme contained in beef liver and salmon which serves to reduce benzene levels in the body, use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the form of mask respirators and plant a number of ornamental plants that can absorb and reduce benzene concentrations such as Boston and Golden Photos1</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Polymorphic Relationship of rs7526700, rs2278651, and rs611386 Of SLC30A1 Mothers’ Gene with Mothers’ High Levels of Zinc 2020-05-16T10:52:25+00:00 Chairunas1, Sjarif Hidajat Effendi2, Harmas Yazid Yusuf3, Eriska Riyanti4 <p>The most common facial malformation in all populations and ethnic groups is Cleft lip and palate (CB/L). Various factors cause nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate abnormalities (CB/L NS) such as interactions between environmental and genetic factors, so that CB/L embryopathy is not clear. Deficiency of Zn with certain severity in pregnant women can be a risk factor for CB/L. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of polymorphism of rs7526700, rs2278651, and rs611386 of the gene SCL30A1 mother with a group of deficiency events of Zinc maternal. The type of this research is an observational study through cross sectional approach with the research subjects are mothers and newborns diagnosed with CB/L NS in the Perinatology Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung and other Network Hospitals. The research was conducted in September 2016 to June 2017 with 34 groups samples. Data were analyzed using fisher’s exact test and correlation test. The results showed that the majority of mothers who became the research respondents aged 25-29 years were 34% and the majority of infants who became the respondents were female as much as 60%, and most types of lip and palate disorders experienced by infants who became the respondents was Unilateral CB/L which is as much as 66%. Furthermore, the results of statistical tests indicated that there was no significant relationship between polymorphism of rs7526700, rs2278651, and rs611386SLC30A1 maternal gene with levels of Zinc maternal</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Conventional Detection of Resistance of Aedes aegypti Larvae as DHF Vector in Kediri District Against Temephos 2020-05-16T10:57:26+00:00 Demes Nurmayanti1, Marlik1, Nurhaidah1 <p>Dengue Haemorraghic Fever (DHF) becomes health problem in the world. The most number of DHF sufferers in Kediri District in 2016 were in Pare Subdistrict, Ngasem Subdistrict, and Kunjang. However, controlling technique of DHF vector is such as fogging by using active substance of melathion for adult stadium of mosquito and larvasidation by using active substance of temephos for larvae stadium of mosquito. Moreover, resistance of vector against insecticide is global phenomenon, particularly for program management of infectious disease controlling vector and as a singular barrier in the success of vector control chemically. The vector resistance detection can be conducted by using Detection Conventionally through WHO standard method of Susceptibility test in impregnated paper. This research aimed at analyzing detection conventionally the resistance of Aedes aegypti as DHF vector in Kediri District against Malathion and Themepos. This research was True Experiment research and temephos was scattered to the larvae with concentration of 0.01 mg/l, 0.02 mg/l, 0.03 mg/l, and 0.04 mg/l in contact time of 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Data analysis included determination of resistance status by referring to category standard from WHO and analyzing the difference of biota test mortality by using statistical different test of Anova. The result of this research was Aedes aegypti larvae in Kediri District was resistant against temephos with concentration in 0.01 mg/l, 0.02 mg/l, 0.03 mg/l, 0.04 mg/l and there was a significant influence of contact time against the death of Aedes aegypti larvae. Furthermore, suggestion for Health Office in Kediri District was the use of temephos as larvacide was needed in concentration of more than 0.04ml/l. Besides, it was also needed resistance test of Aedes aegypti larvae with concentration of temephos in more than 0.04 mg/l.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Location Quotient Analysis of Agricultural Sector and Subsector in East Java 2010-2017 (A Reference for Law and Policy on Economics, Nutrition and Public Health) 2020-05-16T11:00:07+00:00 Erlambang Budi Darmanto1, Yunita Satya Pratiwi2, Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho3 <p>Indonesia is known as an agrarian country, should rely on the agricultural sector as an economic source as well as supporting development. In addition to the economic aspects, the progress of agriculture is also very important for the provision of nutrients for the maintenance and improvement of public health. This study uses the Location Quotient method to obtain a base subsector in the agricultural sector, so that the results can be used as material for consideration of export specialties. This study uses East Java GRDP data and as a comparison using Indonesia’s GRDP in 2010-2016. The results in this study indicate that the food crop and livestock sub-sector has an advantage compared to other sub-sectors and becomes a subsector of the base, so that these two sub-sectors can be used as export products for East Java.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Association between Soluble ST2 Basal and Global Longitudinal Strain 2D-Speckle on Tracking Echocardiography with Left Ventricle Remodeling after an Acute Myocardial Infarction 2020-05-16T11:02:41+00:00 Fani Suslina Hasbuan1, Muhammad Aminudin1 <p>Background: Left ventricle remodeling (LVR) is an important prognosis post acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Soluble ST2 is a novel biomarker for myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular remodeling. Global Longitudinal Strain (GLS) which is a reflection of the longitudinal layer of cardiac muscle can be detected in the early ischemia phase, and has been proven to predict the occurrence of left ventricular remodeling post AMI. Objective: To identify the association between soluble ST2 basal and GLS with LVR post AMI. Method: This research was conducted from August to December 2015. This is an analytic observational study with one group pretest and post test design. Soluble ST2 and GLS examinations were performed twice (2-5 days after AMI and 12 weeks after therapy). The results were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation test. Result: The sample size was 45 respondents (82.2% males, average age of 55.47 ± 10.13 years, 84.4% STEMI). There was a strong correlation between high ST2 basal levels with LVR (p = 0.0001 r = +0.723) and ?ST2 with LVR (p = 0.0001 r = 0.639). The association of low GLS with LVR was p = 0.015 and r = + 0.362. Conclusion: A significant LVR was found post-AMI, the high soluble ST2 basal and low GLS basal may be a factor for predicting LVR.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Gynecomastia Treatment by Liposuction with Gland Excision and H.H. Method 2020-05-16T11:05:57+00:00 Haider Ali Muslim AL Ramahi <p>Background: Gynecomastia (GM) is benign enlargement of male beast (glandular enlargement with fat accumulation). we classify in 6 grades depend on size and shape of breast. All cases were treated surgically as combine of gland excision and liposuction and added new method HH (Haider and Husam) method which is specific for grade 5 and 6 GM.<br>Method: From 2013 to 2018, a chart review was performed for 300 patients. Preoperative examination included endocrine and urological examination and exclusion of other pathological conditions. The surgical technique consisted of liposuction through small incision in lateral side of breast, combine with gland excision by sub areolar incision and sometime HH method depend on grade of gynecomastia.<br>Results: Total number of patient 300 cases all of them under want combination of liposuction and gland excision with drain keep for about 8 hours. Recurrent rate very rare and complication like infection or areolar necrosis also rare and 9 case only suffering from early postoperative bleeding and 22 cases develop seroma within 2 weeks.<br>Conclusions: This analysis data that include treatment of GM grade 1-6 is performed by liposuction combined with subcutaneous resection of the glandular tissue by sub areolar incision the procedure had low rate of complications and excellent patients’ satisfaction about the results. Preoperative fellow up is important to rule out and prevent specific complication of procedure and to exclude diseases or malignancy causing the GM as all gland sent to histopathology</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A View on Patterns of Weight Loss after Intragastric Balloon Insertion in Iraqi Patients 2020-05-16T11:08:21+00:00 Haider Azeez Jwad1, Salah Hadi AlJanabi2, Ahmed Kadhim Challab3 <p>Obesity is a major metabolic illness that results from increased body fat and leads to negative health consequences. Obesity increases the prevalence of various diseases, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, sleep apnea, CVA, GERD disease, gall bladder disease, certain types of malignancy, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Moreover, it is also a major avoidable health detriment. Current therapeutic approaches to obesity are lifestyle changes, pharmacologic treatment, and bariatric surgery. Materials and Method: Twenty-seven patients visited our obesity clinic in Al -Dewaniyah Teaching Hospital from September 2016 to September 2017 and selected for intra-gastric balloon insertion after discussion with the patients, all current bariatric operative options beside the discussion to choose different balloon types. Air filled balloon was chosen. Results: female to male ratio 3.1:1, with mean age 34±6.1 and mean body mass index 40.48 ± 5.16 had excess body weight 38.93 ± 8.44 Kg, all patients had been received IGB heliosphere 720 ml as treatment of their obesity. Each patient has been followed up 6 months and weight loss patterns observed. Mean weight loss after six month 9.6 ± 4.8 Kg. Conclusion: In regards of patient selection to the procedure, Patients should be selected according to their commitment to the recommended diet and life style modification, this would largely affect the outcome.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Comparison between AMH level in Multipara and Nullipara in Women More than 40 Years Old 2020-05-16T11:10:23+00:00 Hanan Khudheir Hussein1, Adnan AH Albdairi2, Rana T Mehsen3, Zahra K Hussein4 <p>Decreased ovarian reserve is considered as one of the main causes of infertility. It is about the availability of preovulatory oocytes in the ovaries. With increase age, ovarian reserve decreases. Nowadays, “ovarian reserve” assessment became a strategy to assess female infertility.<br>Objective: The current study aims to find the relationship between age and infertility type with measures of ovarian reserve (FSH, AMH and AFC) in infertile patients.<br>Material and Method: The cross-sectional study design was used for this study and a survey was conducted among 100 infertile women.<br>Result: Results revealed that Relationships between age and ovarian reserve indicators show a highly significant negative correlation with AFC (p= 0.001) and AMH (p= 0.007) level while positive correlation is found with FSH level (p= 0.001). The relation between age and FSH was moderate (rs=0.38, p&lt;0.0001) and revealed that AMH and AFC level decreases while FSH level increases with age.<br>Conclusion Study of AMH level is the most reliable source to measure age-specific changes.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Risk Factors and Outcome of Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia in Pediatric Age Group 2020-05-18T03:39:32+00:00 Ibrahim Tariq Ameen1, Raid Hamid Abdul-Ghafoor2, Bilal Hamid Abdul-Ghafoor3 <p>Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is one of emergency conditions in children. It results from entrapment of bowel or other viscera within the hernia sac. High incidence of incarcerated inguinal hernia occurs in young age and preterm. The incidence of incarcerated hernia is variable and ranges from 12–17%. The aim is to evaluate the risk factor / or factors and outcomes for patients with incarcerated inguinal hernia.<br>Patients and method: This prospective study directed in department of pediatric Surgery, Central Child’s Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. Fifty-five patients with incarcerated inguinal hernia were managed for 10 months. They were evaluated for history and sent for investigations. All patients initially treated by manual reduction. Later on they treated by elective operation. Overall outcomes were evaluated in all patients.<br>Results: The patient`s age range from 17 days to 5.5 years. There was male predominance with male: female ratio was 10:1. The frequency of right side incarcerated inguinal hernia was more than the left. Fourty (72.7%) patients were under first year. Thirty-two (58.2%) patients were preterm. Fourty-four (80%) patients have successful manual reduction and eleven (20%) patients were failed and underwent emergency surgery. Intestinal resection done to 4 patients and rate was 7.3%, and orchiectomy done to 3 patients and rate was 5.4%.<br>Conclusion: Premature and younger age patients are risk factors for incarcerated inguinal hernia. Incarceration increases the rate of overall complications. Any patient, especially young patient and preterm, with reducible hernia should be treated as soon as possible.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Harmonic Scalpel Vs Conventional Cautery Use In Hemorrhoidectomy 2020-05-18T03:43:29+00:00 Khalid K. Hussein <p>Introduction: The evidence-based literature emphasizes the requirement of prioritizing harmonic scalpel haemorrhoidectomy over the conventional surgical interventions in the context of minimizing the intra-operative and post-operative complications in the treated patients.<br>Aim: The presented research study evaluated the significance of the harmonic scalpel (HS) as compared to the conventional electrocautery in the context of facilitating safe and effective haemorrhoidectomy in the selected patients. The study question focusses on analysing the potential of HS haemorrhoidectomy in terms of minimizing the post-operative complications in the patients affected with grade III and IV hemorrhoids. The study hypothesized beneficial treatment outcomes of HS haemorrhoidectomy as compared to the conventional electrocautery-based haemorrhoidectomy.<br>Methodology: The prospective cohort study shortlisted 20 candidates for HS and electrocautery-based haemorrhoidectomies. Initial 10 patients underwent the conventional haemorrhoidectomy; however, the other 10 received HS haemorrhoidectomy.<br>Result: The research findings categorically revealed limited post-operative pain and bleeding in the harmonic scalpel group as compared to the conventional electrocautery group. HS haemorrhoidectomy substantially reduced the extent of collateral thermal damage in the treated patients.<br>Conclusion: The study findings affirmed the effectiveness of HS haemorrhoidectomy over traditional intervention in terms of minimizing postoperative complications including bleeding, pain, urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, anal stricture, and anal abscess.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Implementation of Hiradc Method in Computer Laboratory 2020-05-18T04:30:19+00:00 M. Affan Mahfudz1, Putri Ayuni Alayyannur1, Dani Nasirul Haqi1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1, Fauziah Mukti Sugiharto1 <p>The computer laboratory&nbsp;of the Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga is&nbsp;used as a research site, measurement or scientific training for about 15,000 students. There are various types of activities which are at high risk, especially in the use of electricity, which can cause short-circuit and leads to fire.&nbsp;The objective&nbsp;of this study was&nbsp;to apply&nbsp;the&nbsp;Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Determining Control&nbsp;(HIRADC)&nbsp;methods&nbsp;in the computer laboratory as an effort to prevent occupational accidents and illness of the user. This study was an observational research using cross sectional design.&nbsp;The observation was conducted on the source of hazard and control efforts on the computer laboratory.&nbsp;Interview was conducted on the lecturers&nbsp;and administrative staff&nbsp;who are in charge of the computer laboratory. The results of&nbsp;the hazard identification&nbsp;indicated that there were 17&nbsp;hazard sources that can cause 18&nbsp;risks. Based on the&nbsp;risk assessment conducted on a activities practicum, there are 18 risks classified into 2&nbsp;risk&nbsp;levels, those are 3 risks with&nbsp;moderate risk level and 15&nbsp;risks with&nbsp;low risk&nbsp;level. The three level of moderate risks include taking off the shoes in standing position which can cause sprains, there is no first aid box and using electric current which can cause short circuit, electric&nbsp;shock and fire risk. The control that can be carried out by management laboratory to reduce the three moderate risk are by giving advice to taking off the shoes in sitting position, covering the socket which has risky placement by using duct tape to avoid the risk of&nbsp;electric&nbsp;shock as well as the provision of a light fire extinguisher for fire risk and the last providing first aid kits to treat the accidents that occur in the laboratory as soon as possible.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Factors Affecting Quality of Nursing Cares for Dying Patients in ICUs 2020-05-18T04:33:15+00:00 Mahnaz Varedi Kolahi1, Mohammad Ziae Totonchi Bagheri2, Hooman Bakhshandeh3, Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh4, Esmaeil Mohammadnejad5 <p>Nursing managers have paid special attention to quality assessment as an important management tool for improving nursing performance and the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to evaluate the aspects and factors involved in the quality of nursing cares for dying patients in ICUs in 2016-7. This descriptive and analytical study was conducted in ICUs of Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex and Shahid Rajaei Cardiovascular Medical &amp; Research Center, Tehran.In total, 191 working nurses were selected via convenience sampling. Data collection tool was quality patient care scale (QUALPACS). In addition, data analysis was performed in PSSS version 20 using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean score for end-of-life care was 83.62±8.62 in the psychosocial, 85.36±7.74 in the communication and 92.23±10.88 in the physical aspects. According to the results, a significant relationship was observed between passing educational courses related to end-of-life care and quality of end-of-life care in the physical (P=0.002), psychosocial (P=0.02) and communication (P=0.01) aspects. According to the results of the study, the quality of care for dying patients was higher in the physical aspect, compared to other aspects. However, the quality of nursing care was poor in the psychosocial aspect.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effect of Crude Bacteriocin Isolated from Locally Lactococcus lactis on Cancer Cell Lines 2020-05-18T04:48:16+00:00 Mariam T. Abbdul -Kaliq1, Khetam H. Rasool1 and Rajwa Hasen Essa1 <p>Lactococcus lactis&nbsp;is a Gram-positive bacterium used widely in the production of cheese and buttermilk, but has moreover become well-known as the first genetically modified organism to be used alive for the treatment of human diseases. This study was designed to display the efficacy of lactococcus lactis, which was isolated from raw cow’s milk isolated by using the liquid MRS agar, culture, and microscopically was tested moreover, chemically was also tested to check the presence of (catalase, oxidase, protease production, gelateinase, clot formation). The isolates were confirmed using molecular diagnosis. The Bacterial isolates were developed on the M17 liquid medium at 30 °C for 24 hrs to obtain the raw bacteriocin after separation by centrifuge. The toxicity and bacterial susceptibility was tested as well the effect of Bacteriocin on E.coli, P.aerugionsa, staph.areus. The results showed a clear inhibitory effect of bacteriocin on pathogenic bacteria. The toxic effect of crude bacteriocin was investigated and its effect on cancer cell lines of breast cancer cells (MCF-7) lymphoid cell line (CCL-119) using different concentrations of the extract. The toxic effect was also examined on normal liver cell lines (WRL) with a 72 hrs incubation period. The results show a clear and high-significant effect of crude bacteriocin on cancer cells. It was also observed that the severity of toxicity increased with the increases of concentration with no effect on normal cell lines.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 New Bio-Therapeutic Candidate for Pancreatic Cancer 2020-05-18T04:52:51+00:00 Marwah Saad Joudah1, Basma Talib Al-Sudani2, Inam Sameh Arif1 <p>SIRT1 is NAD+-deacetylases, several histone and non-histone proteins which their involvement in metabolic processes, cell growth, apoptosis, and senescence are well known. Several Sirtuins targets are implicated in cancer. SIRT1 is both an oncogene and tumour suppressor, and it can act in this capacity depending on the kind of tissue and the cancer etiology. Subsequent studies in this field are going to make evident the exact function of SIRT1 at the cancer site and it is hoped that new chemotherapeutic functions of SIRT1 activators are going to be determined. In accordance with this, it is suggested that very selective ligands such as aptamer was created and investigated in various pancreatic cancer cell lines for the regulated activity of SIRT1. This study seeks to establish the therapeutic impact of the activator SIRT1 aptamer as a pharmacological model of pancreatic cancer by evaluating the impacts of activators SIRT1 (aptamer) on the growth of a series of human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, Capan-2, BxPC-3). Results gotten from in vitro cytotoxicity assays revealed that circular aptamer BAS inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer cell lines [BxPc-3 (80%), Capan-2 (83%) and Aspc-1 (82.8%)] at 72h with IC50 0.55, 0.5, 0.76 ?M respectively. Importantly, circular aptamer showed no reduction of cell viability on the non- pancreatic cancerous H6c7 cell line, implying it might be safe to non-cancerous tissue. Our results indicate that the SIRT1 activated by aptamer could a promising targeted therapeutic approach for pancreatic cancer.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Infanticides in Dakar: Medico-Legal Aspects 2020-05-18T04:55:07+00:00 Mohamed Maniboliot Soumah1, 2, Peace Renée Senami Akokbegan3, Mor Ndiaye1 <p>Infanticide is a crime that evokes emotion and misunderstanding in the general population. The overall objective was to assess the current situation regarding the killing of new-born children in Dakar. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study spread over a 12-year period from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2015. The study population was women accused of infanticide incarcerated in the prison and correctional facility of Liberté 6 and who had either been tried or who were awaiting trial during the study period. The 46 cases tried concerned 47 newborns and one mother having killed both her babies. The victims were found especially in the mother’s home (28 cases) For all women in our sample, the murder was motivated by personal, social and economic factors. The average age of the mothers was 25.5 years with the youngest being 17 years old and the oldest 41 years old. These detention periods ranged from 2 to 6 years. The average length of pre-trial detention was 3.26 years, The preventive strategies put in place in some countries are proof that prevention against these acts remains possible.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Changes in Some Urinary Variables After Potassium Citrate Therapy In Patients With Recurrent Urinary Stone Disease In Tikrit City, Iraq 2020-05-18T04:58:11+00:00 Mohammed Mohsin Abdul-Aziz1, Nihad Nejres Hilal2, Mohanned Hussam Mohammed Saeed Alkumait3 <p>Objective: to determine the effect of oral potassium citrate (k-citrate) on urinary calcium, magnesium, volume, and pH in patients with recurrent stone disease.<br>Patients &amp; Method: Interventional clinical trial study was implemented from June 2016 to February 2019 in Tikrit city, Iraq. 94 patients with recurrent urinary stone disease were enrolled in this study. Oral k-citrate therapy was given to patients in a dose of 15 meq three times daily for 2 weeks. Patients instructed for 24 hours urinary collection before and after therapy. Urinary calcium, magnesium, volume, and pH were measured before and after therapy to examine the effect of k-citrate.<br>Results: mean age was 38.5 (SD 17.4) years. Male patients were 64% while 36% of patients were females. Mean urinary calcium level decreased significantly after k-citrate therapy, p value &lt; 0.001. Mean urinary volume and pH increased significantly after therapy, p value &lt; 0.01 and &lt; 0.05 respectively. No significant change was identified in mean urinary magnesium level after therapy, p value = 0.14. No adverse effects related to k-citrate therapy were reported by patients during study period.<br>Conclusion: Urinary volume and pH increased significantly in patients after potassium citrate therapy. Also k-citrate therapy significantly produced marked decrease in urinary calcium level. No change was observed in mean urinary magnesium level before and after k-citrate therapy. No adverse effects related to k-citrate therapy were reported by patients during study period.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Bis-Nitroaryl Pyrazolonesand Estimation of Their Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Fungal Activities 2020-05-18T05:02:10+00:00 MuathJabbarTarfa Al-Abbasee1, Hamid J. Mohammad2, Mawlood K. Mawlood1 <p>A simple and efficient one-pot synthesis of bicyclic nitro pyrazolone derivatives in traditional alcoholic solvents under refluxing conditions, The chemical structure of the synthesized derivatives was substantiated byFT-IR,1H NMR ,13C-NMRand CHNS analysis, All of these compounds of the series have been testedin vitro asantibacterial and antifungalagents against four types of organisms. The minimum and maximum inhibitory concentrations were determined against each organism.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Assessment of the Correlation between the Salivary Flow Rate and Dental Caries Experience among Children with ?-Thalassemia Major 2020-05-18T05:04:57+00:00 Mudhafar Fadhil Jaddoa1, Alhan Ahmed Qasim2 <p>Thalassemia constitutes a group of congenital blood disorders which characterized by a defect in synthesis of one or more globin chains of human hemoglobin molecule and the resultant microcytosis and hypochromia of the RBCs. It is of two main divisions, ?- and ?-thalassemia and several other subdivisions. The study group composed of 40 patient years previously diagnosed with ?-thalassemia major attending the thalassemia center in Thi-Qar province/Iraq. The control group, matching the age and sex of the study group, and consisted from 40 child selected from a number of primary schools. Unstimulated salivary samples was taken from each subjects under standardized conditions. The mean value of flow rate of saliva was lower among ?-thalassemias (0.466±0.024) than for controls (0.829±0.048). The (mean±SE) for the primary teeth (dmfs) in ?-thalassemias (1.450±0.324) was higher than that for controls (1.250±0.808), this difference was not significant (P&gt; 0.05). The (mean±SE) of the caries experience (DMFs) in ?-thalassemias (6.850±0.782) was higher than for the control group (3.600±0.489).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Application of Risk Management Using HIRADC Method in Analytical Chemical Laboratory of University in Indonesia 2020-05-18T05:06:37+00:00 Muhammad Bagus Fachrudin1, Dani Nasirul Haqi1, Putri Ayuni Alayyannur1, Noeroel Widajati1, Yenni Rohma Wijaya1 <p>The analytical chemistry laboratory is one of laboratories at Universitas Airlangga which is often used in conducting analytical chemistry practicum activities and research for lecturers and students. In this analytical chemistry laboratory there are various chemicals and activities that are at high risk of causing danger, especially the exposure to toxic chemicals that can lead to risk of poisoning in students and laboratory staff. The purpose of this study was to apply the HIRADC method as an effort to prevent the risk of accidents and work-related illness in laboratory users. This research method is observational by observing the source of danger and the control efforts that have been made. From the results of the identification of hazards that have been made it is known that there are 10 potential hazards that can cause 10 risks. After doing the risk assessment, it is known that there are 4 low risks, 2 medium risks, 2 high risk, and 2 extreme risks. Control efforts have been made to minimize any risks. The recommendations that can be given from this study are the provision of personal protective equipment (PPE) that is in accordance with the hazards in the laboratory as well as training on how to use the PPE.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study of Epidemiological Factors According to the Positive Response of IgG of Patients Infected With Blastocytsis Hominis in Diyala Province, Iraq 2020-05-18T05:09:02+00:00 Muna Hameed Ahmed Alazzawi¹, Nabaa Ali Jasim², Masar H. Ismail³ <p>Background: Blastocystis hominis (B.hominis) is the most common intestinal parasite in humans and many other animals. Infections with the organism are spread worldwide and some of them have been asymptomatic, acute symptomatic and chronic.<br>Materals and Method: 100 blood samples were collected from patients with B.hominis which were reviewing to some Hospital and health center in Diyala province during the period from October 2018 to March 2019. To determine the extent of IgG antibody responses in serum patients infected with B.hominis for depending on the chromatic changes resulting from the association of antigens with antibodies.<br>Results: The results of the current study showed the percentage of infection among males was (56.25%), which is higher than that of females (43.75%), and the age group (3-6) years among males showed the highest rate of infection (33.34%) and the lowest in age groups less from one year and (9-12) years groups at (11.11%). The rate of infection in the age groups (1-3) years and (6-9) years was (22.22%) and in the age group of (1-3) years was the highest incidence among female groups (42.86%), while the age group (3-6) years showed less than that (28.57%) and significant differences at the level of probability less than (0.05). The percentage of B. hominis infection increased among the rural population by (56.5%), male infected, (57.14%) female, while the proportion of males among the urban population was (44.44%) and females reached (42.86%), with a standard deviation of (1.600 ± 0.495) and (1.480 ±0.505) respectively.<br>Conclusions: The presence of immunoglobulin IgG in serum patients has been shown to stimulate the cellular immune response and be indicative of long-term immunity against pathogenic antigens.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Risk Analysis of Occupational Disease and Accident in Environmental Health Laboratory 2020-05-18T05:11:23+00:00 Naomi Cimera1, Dani Nasirul Haqi1, Putri Ayuni Alayyannur1, Y.Denny Ardyanto1, Nur Laili Rizkiawati1 <p>Risk analysis is a process to identify hazards by calculating the size of the risks and determining whether a risk is acceptable or not. The purpose of this study is to do hazard identification and risk assessment in environmental health laboratories at Faculty of Public Health at Universitas Airlangga. This study was included in an observational and cross sectional study based on the time of his research. Primary data is obtained through laboratory observations and interviews with reports presented in the form of tables and diagrams then analyzed descriptively. The results of this study indicate that in environmental health laboratories Faculty of Public Health Universitas Airlangga there are 10 potential hazards with 12 risks out of 4 activities. Based on the results of the risk assessment, from 12 risks there are 5 types of risks with low risk category, 4 types of risk for with moderate risk category, and 3 types of risk with high risk category. The conclusion of this study is that the greatest risk level in environmental health laboratories is low risk category of 41.67%. While for the moderate risk category was 33.33% and the high risk category was 25%. Risks with high risk categories include power failure, fire, and explosion at a time caused by the flow of electric current and chemical reactions carried out in the laboratory.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Cadaveric Study on the Prevalence of Hartmann Pouch of Gallbladder with Relation to Gallstones in Basrah City 2020-05-18T06:49:53+00:00 Nawal M Abdullah1, Abdul Kareem Q Mohamed2, Sameh S Akkila3 <p>Hartmann pouch is a dilatation of the wall of the gallbladder at the region between neck and the cystic duct, It is inconstant feature found as an anatomical variant and considered a frequent site for gall stone impaction and mucocele formation as a complication . Knowledge about anatomy of the pouch is important while performing surgery for cholecystectomy to avoid serious complications.<br>Objective: To identify the incidence and nature of Hartmann’s pouch in human gallbladder and the relation with gallstones for the growing importance and use of various invasive surgical techniques for gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary diseases.<br>Material and Method: The study was carried out in the department of Forensic Medicine at Basrah city ,from Jan 2018 to Jan 2019 .Two hundred fourteen gallbladders were obtained from cadavers that were under examination in the morgue , The gallbladders were examined morphologically to show Hartman pouch and gall stone existence and biopsies from the pouch were taken for histopathological examination.<br>Results: In the present study Hartman pouch was found in 4.7%, usually at older age group (? 40 yrs.). It was slightly higher in male than female and no significant association between Hartman pouch and gall stone presence. Histological picture showed normal histology of the three layers as seen in normal gallbladder<br>Conclusion: Hartman pouch is inconstant feature, more in male with no significant relation to gall stone, exist as an anatomical entity in our area of study</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Maxillary Canine Using CBCT – A Cross-sectional Study 2020-05-18T06:54:31+00:00 Nor Masitah Mohamed Shukri1, Mahesh Ramakrishnan2 <p>Background : A clear understanding and thorough knowledge of anatomy of human teeth is the utmost of importance to all dental procedures especially in endodontic and orthodontics treatment. This includes the study of root canal anatomy and its variations according to the race and gender.<br>Aim : The scope of the research was to determine the root and canal morphology of the maxillary canine in Indian population by analyzing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.<br>Material and Method : Forty-six CBCT images consisting of 20 males and 26 females were examined in this study and a total of 88 maxillary canines were analyzed. The root anatomy of each tooth was evaluated for the following parameters: the root canal patterns, the shape of the access cavity, the mesiodistal width of the crown and the distance from occlusal pit to the pulp chamber. The data was analyzed and compared and p-value of the data was considered 0.05 statistically.<br>Result : It can be concluded that a higher prevalence of maxillary canines have Type I root canal pattern in both gender. The most common shape of access cavity in male subjects was oval. Round access cavity was the most frequently observed in female subjects. Maxillary canine in male population also had greater mesiodistal crown diameter than female population.<br>Conclusion : The present study reported the normal anatomy and variations of maxillary canines in Indian population. The incidence of root canal morphology differed with gender.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Relationship between Radiographic Evaluation with Age and Gender – A Radiographic Study 2020-05-18T06:58:16+00:00 Nor Syakirah Binti Shahroom1, Gheena.S2 <p>Background: Forensic odontology plays an important role in identification of man-made or natural disasters event which restricts identification through conventional methods. Various approaches have been specified which helps in the identification of the post-mortem remains. One such is the identification of the morphological features of the human skull and mandible. These features may help in sex differentiation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between radiographic evaluation with age and gender.<br>Materials and Method: A retrospective study was done with a total of 250 panoramic radiograph image. The images of 150 males and 100 females were selected with the range of age from 20 to 70 years old and divided into group 1 (20-45 years old) and group 2 (46-70 years old). Three parameters were evaluated from the panoramic radiograph which were gonial angle, antegonial angle and mental foramen against the age and gender. Statistical analysis was done for hypothesis testing.<br>Results: The results of this study suggests that there is no significant difference seen in the gonial angle and antegonial angle with relation to the age (p?0.05). However, the relationship between age and mental foramen is highly significant (p?0.01). With regards to gender, all the three parameter shows highly significant results with (p?0.01).<br>Conclusion: In conclusion, the three parameter assessed in this study can be used for gender differentiation but not for age estimation which were highly significant. As for age estimation, the distance of mental foramen and tangent line of inferior border of mandible can be assessed.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Corrosion of Orthodontic Metallic Brackets Immersed in Solutions of Salt and Spices in Artificial Saliva 2020-05-18T07:02:20+00:00 Nurul Afiqah Amani Binti Zaaba1, Harish Babu2 <p>Background: Orthodontic treatment is commonly use to treat dental malalignment, especially orthodontic braces as it help to realigned teeth to the normal position as well as for aesthetic purpose. As orthodontic braces is a choice of orthodontic treatment various kind of orthodontic braces had been invented based on the material used, adhesives systems as well as their strengths to bring about tooth movement. As it is placed in the oral cavity, the aggressive environments of the oral cavity, will lead to corrosion of the orthodontic brackets. This may affect it physical properties and clinical performance.<br>Aim: To study the corrosion of orthodontic brackets that immersed in the solution of artificial saliva and spices.<br>Materials and Method: Stainless steel orthodontic brackets were used for this studies. Each bracket was placed in the container contain artificial saliva and other agents. Several types of aqueous solutions were prepared for this study by using different agents (spices). They were pure artificial saliva, salt (sodium chloride), black pepper, turmeric and mixture of all of the spices along with salt. After 24 hours, surface changes was seen under the optical microscope.<br>Results: Based on the study, orthodontic brackets surface immersed in the controlled medium, revealed that more corrosion was seen in the salt medium when compared to pure artificial saliva. More pitting also was seen in the salt medium of the controlled group. Based on the surface analysis of the orthodontic brackets in the studied groups, demonstrate that more corrosion and pitting was seen in the aqueous solution of mixture of artificial saliva with salt and spices and less pitting and corrosion was seen in the turmeric solution.<br>Conclusion: Based on the study, the finding suggest that the corrosion behaviour of the orthodontic brackets is influenced by the presence of a salt (NaCl) and other spices. Salt and black pepper are responsible for the corrosion of the orthodontic brackets, while turmeric capable in reduction or slowing the process of corrosion.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Cheiloscopy: The Study of Lip Prints in Sex Identification between Indian and Malaysian Population 2020-05-18T07:04:22+00:00 Nurul Afiqah Amani Binti Zaaba1, Gheena.S2 <p>Background: The study of lip prints, is commonly applied in forensic odontology and it is known as cheiloscopy. The term cheiloscopy was derived from Greek words, in which “cheilos” means lip and “scopy” means to examine. In general, cheiloscopy is define as a method of identifying an individual based on the arrangement of lines seen on the red part of the lips or a science dealing with the various line appearing on the red part of the lips. The pattern of wrinkles and grooves that are present on the lips has distinct characteristic features of an individual which are almost similar to the fingerprints. It also will not change throughout the life. Therefore, it can be used for personal identification and sex determination.<br>Aim: To investigate lip print pattern in males and females and to evaluate them between Malaysian and Indian population.<br>Materials and Method: There were 40 participants of both gender. 20 of them are from the Malaysian population and another 20 people are from the Indian population. Each participant was instructed to clean their lips with a clean white cloth, before taking the lip print. This was followed by the application of dark coloured lip stick on lips by using the lip stick applicator. Cellophane tape was used to take the negative impression of the lip pattern. The glued portion of the cellophane tape was placed on the lips by giving a light pressure beginning from the centre of the lips till the corner of the mouth. Then, the impression was transferred to a clean white paper and seen under the magnifying glass.<br>Results: Type I lip pattern was commonly seen in Indian population, followed by type III, II and IV. Whereas for Malaysian population, type III was most common followed by type I, II and IV. There was significant difference between both population. In this study, it showed that type I was the most common lip print pattern seen in both Indian and Malaysian population for females. Whereas for male, type III was more common in Malaysian population, and both type III and IV were more common in Indian population.<br>Conclusion: There was no significant difference in both population according the general distribution of lip print pattern. There was no correlation or similarity of lip print patterns between each participants in both population. Thus, cheiloscopy can be used for sex determination and also personal identification.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study of Certain Immunological Aspects in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Patients Infected by Helicobacter Pylori 2020-05-18T07:07:13+00:00 Qusay Abdul-Wahab Khalaf1, Rajwa Hasen Essa1, Khetam Habeeb Rasool1 <p>Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia and includes individuals who have relatively insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is a spiral-shaped bacterium, infects 50% of the world’s people, and inhabits in the human gastric epithelium, causing many diseases. It had been suggested that H. pylori infection is more frequent among T2DM patients. Aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of interferon gamma (IFN-?) in Iraqi patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus infected by H.pylori bacteria. Anti-H.pylori IgG and IFN-? concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study includes 140 patients, divided into 3 groups, which are a group of patients infected by T2DM and H.pylori (T2DMHp+ve), a group of patients infected by T2DM but not by H.pylori group (T2DMHp-ve), and the third group includes patients infected with H.pylori only (Hp), in addition to apparently healthy control group (AHC). Our study revealed significantly decreasing in serum IFN-? in both T2DMHp+ve group (P?0.05) and T2DMHp-ve group(P?0.01), compared with an apparently healthy control group(AHC). Also, this study shows decreased IFN-? level in patients with Hp group compared with healthy control but without significant difference. Also, the concentration of IFN-? in T2DMHp+ve is slightly more than that in T2DMHp-ve group.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Detection of ESBLsCTX-M Gene of E.coli Isolated from Clinical Cases in Maysan Province 2020-05-18T07:09:35+00:00 Rabab Naeem Alag1, ZahidSa?doon Aziz1 <p>The antimicrobial resistance are a worldwide increasing and important problem in health care domain. ESBLs represent a main group of ?-lactamases enzymes that mostly produced by gram-negative bacteria, and give resistance toa?- lactam antibiotics, thus the detection of these enzymes are very important for optimal care of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic profile with the prevalence of CTX-M geneaproducingaE. coli isolatesawhich recovered from clinical cases by phenotypic and genotypic methods. A total of (291) clinical samples (urine, wound swabs, blood and seminal fluids) were included in this study. All bacterial isolates were subjected to the cultural,amicroscopical, and biochemical examinations methods, confirmed byaAPI 20E and Vitek 2 system. Where the results revealed that 105 of isolates were identified as E. coli. Antibiotic sensitivity was performed by using disk diffusion methods. Investigation of extended spectrum ?-lactamase(ESBL) production for isolates was performed using Initial screening and double disc synergy method(DDST). The results showed that most isolates showed high resistance to ß-lactam and Cephalosporins antibiotics and vast amajority of isolates were resistant to aminimum ofathree classesaof antibiotics, which indicate that identified E. coli were multidrug resistant and ESBLs producer. While all isolates were sensitive to Imipenem and Amikacin. PCR technique was performed to detect ESBLs blaCTX-M gene, the results revealed that (100%) of E.coli isolates carried this gene.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Impact of Electronic Games on the Behavior of Children and their Academic Achievement upon Schools in Mosul City 2020-05-18T07:12:53+00:00 Radhwan Husain Ibrahim1, Adbul Kareem Ghanim2, Hana A. Alkhaderjameel2 <p>The research aims at finding the effects of electronic games on the behavior of children and finding the relationship between the demographic information and the impact of these games on their behavior and educational achievement. A descriptive and analytical study of the effects of electronic games on the behavior of 60 children in the schools of Mosul city, conducted for the period from Feb.2019 to March 2019. (Non-probability) The sample was chosen according to us of phone or computer and other smart devices for the purpose of playing. Boys and girls equally chosen after fill a questionnaire which was used with a semi-guideline for collecting information. Results of the study revealed that time taken by the students to play a daily or intermittent basis is less than two hours, at 45.7%, and that higher than who spend one to two hours are 32.6% and those who spend more than two hours are 21.6%. Students playing electronically at the age of 3-6 are 19.5%at 7-8 years at 43.5% and, at 9 years are over 37.0%.<br>Yes, No, sometimes are answers of questionnaire.?2 value was less than p&lt;0.05.The study showed differences between males and females in use of games.The study recommends Ministry of Higher Education, with assistance and participation of Ministry of Education, should develop an educational program for parents about electronic games and their harm to children.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment, and Determining Control (HIRADC) Method in a University Laboratory in Surabaya, Indonesia 2020-05-18T07:16:57+00:00 Rika Fauziah1, Putri Ayuni Alayyannur1, Dani Nasirul Haqi1, Sho’im Hidayat1, Alfin Wahyudiono F1 <p>Risk management is a system owned by every organization, including university laboratory, to prevent losses. Amongst the methods of risk management that are usually applied is HIRADC method, which is a systematic stage to identify hazards, to assess and analyze risks, and to plan controls measures according to the existed risks. This research is observational research which aims to describe the phenomena. There are several stages in this method, namely hazard identification, risk analysis, and determining control. The data is collected by conducting observation before doing data matching with laboratory worker. The research results indicate that from five activities performed in the Laboratory of Histology Anatomy at Faculty of Medicine Universitas Airlangga, such as experiments by the medical students, dry cadaver shaping, new cadaver shaping, cadaver maintenance and the goods burning by the laboratory worker, there are 16 hazards discovered, with two extreme-risk hazards and three high-risk hazards. The controls and recommendation provided are giving socialization about the importance of wearing PPE (rubber gloves, safety goggles, and laboratory coat), providing explanation about the work to the worker as well as explanation about the laboratory SOP and providing the fire extinguishers</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Investigating Relationship between Positive Organizational Behaviors and Organizational Commitment among Nurses at Emam Khomeyni Hospital in Jiroft, Iran, in 2017: A cross Sectional Study 2020-05-18T07:20:38+00:00 Saadat Salari1, Fereshteh Daneshi2, Motahare Pilevarzadeh1 <p>Introduction: One of the most important indicators of development and excellence of an organization is the presence of committed and loyal manpower. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between positive organizational behaviors and organizational commitment among nurses working at Emam Khomeyni Hospital of Jiroft, Iran in 2017.<br>Method: This study is correlative-descriptive. The statistical population consisted of all the nurses working at Jiroft Hospital and they were all selected as samples. The data were analyzed using SPSS v25. Independent t-tests were applied to investigate the relationships between demographic specifications, organizational behavior, and organizational commitment, while correlation coefficient was employed to study the relationship between the main variables and Regression test and Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used to examine the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational behaviors and its dimensions.<br>Results: the results indicated that there was an inverse and significant relationship between organizational behavior and organizational commitment in general (p&lt;0.001) and in emotional dimension (p&lt;0.001) and normative dimension (p&lt;0.01) in particular. Moreover, a positive and significant relationship was observed between positive organizational behavior and organizational commitment (p=0.03).<br>Conclusion: since positive behaviors are of great importance for performance evaluation systems among nurses and, at the same time, can affect a variety of their attitudes, including organizational commitment, it is suggested to improve nurses’ understanding of positive organizational behavior and organizational commitment to allow them to have better opportunities to better provide services in their workplace.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Alcoholic Extract of Shilajit as Anti Protein Denaturation, Anti Blood Hemolysis, and Anti Microbial 2020-05-18T07:39:13+00:00 Saba Hadi1, Sundus Hameed Ahmed1, Noor Talib1, Hassan Abdul Hussein1 and Isam Hussain T. Al-Karkhi2 <p>Shilajit is a natural material found mostly in the Himalayas (India), formed by the slow decomposition of certain plants by the action of microorganisms. It is an effective and extremely safe dietary supplement, and potentially able to prevent several diseases. Shilajit alcoholic extract was prepared by dissolving 10 grams of it in 200 mL of 95% ethanol. FTIR and other chemical procedures were used to detect the presence of Phenols, Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Tannins, Proteins Carbohydrates and, Steroids. Different concentrations of the extract were prepared and antimicrobial activity against several positive and negative gram stains, anti-protein denaturation and anti-blood cell hemolysis. Investigation results show that the nanoparticles were effective in inhibiting protein denaturation of albumin. Proteins denaturation refers the cause of inflammation, while the maximum inhibition of albumin was 87% observed at 300 ?g/ml of Shilajit alcohol extract compared with aspirin at the same concentration. The results of inhibiting hemolysis at 300?g/ml in comparing with standard drug Diclofenac sodium 300?g/ml resulted in good protection against the damaging effect of heat solution.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Stereomicroscopic Analysis of Dentinal Micro Cracks after Root Canal Preparation Using Four Different Rotary Instruments. 2020-05-18T08:02:27+00:00 Samar Abdul-Hamed1, Rasha H Jehad1, Zainab M. Abdul-Ameer1, Jacob Al-Hashemi2 <p>A variety of single-engine driven files and kinematics have been introduced to improve the clinical performance of NiTi rotary files. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure and compare the incidence of dentinal defects after root canal preparation with different single file systemsA variety of single-engine driven files and kinematics have been introduced to improve the clinical performance of NiTi rotary files. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure and compare the incidence of dentinal defects after root canal preparation with different single file systems</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Studying Effective Factors on Overweight and Obesity in High School Students in Erbil 2020-05-18T08:50:04+00:00 Sarhang Qadir Ibrahim1 , Tariq S. Al- Hadithi2 , Kameran Hassan Ismail3 <p>Introduction: Overweight and obesity are explained as excessive fat depositions in human body. They have become one of the serious public health problems of the twenty-first century in low income countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is increasing worldwide, and currently 1 child in 10 is overweight or obese. The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in high school students in Erbil.<br>Method: It was a cross-sectional study in which 1,000 students in the age range 16-18 years of Erbil, Iraq in 2016-2017 were randomly selected. Data were gathered by a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22 by appropriate statistical tests.<br>Results: our results showed that some effective factors such as Computer games, watching TV, and irregular sleep (P-value&lt;0.05) were the known factors/ affecting obesity/overweight in this study.<br>Conclusion: This study revealed that there are many factors involved in emerging over weight, such as overeating, eating snacks just before bedtime, and eating between meals especially between dinner and bed time, having lunch/dinner outside at restaurants and eating rice frequently, taking a nap during the day and watching TV/play video games/computer games.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Removing Methods of Ultracide Residues in Imported Apple Peels in Iraqi Local Markets 2020-05-18T08:52:11+00:00 Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly1; Saba Riad Khudhaier 2; Jazzer, A, J. Al-Temmemi3 and Ahmed S.A. Al-Tae1 <p>The resides of ultracide insecticide used in controlling apple insets may have public health problems. This work was designed to find much effective method that capable of removing as much as possible of such residues from imported apple peels available in local markets. Imported apple samples were collected during winter 2018 from different local markets and divided into four subsamples as physical treatments where the first was left unwashed apple, the second was washed by tap water, the third was washed with saline solution and finally apple sample washed by tap water with acetic acid. Apple peels of all examined samples were left to dry in an oven at 85° C for 24 h and then powdered. 2.5 g from each sample was received 12.5 ml distil water to estimate the insecticide residues by using gas chromatography. It has been found that unwashed apple peels had the highest ultracide insecticide level followed by that which washed by tap water while the peels washed by saline water was obviously free from the insecticide residues.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Benzene Threshold Value in Benzene Exposed Work Environment: Case Study at Ciputat Gas Station 2020-05-18T08:55:52+00:00 Shinta Arta Mulia1, Zikri Fathur Rahman1, Ahmad Muslih Bambang Sugiharta1, Lili Susanti1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka2 <p>Benzene is dangerous chemical compounds from products General Fuel Filling stations (gas stations) and is one component in gasoline with 1-5% carcinogen content. The purpose of this study was to determine the limits of safe concentration for benzene in the work environment of gas stations in Ciputat. This type of research is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. The population in this study were all workers at one gas station in the Ciputat region. The sampling technique is the total population, so the sample is 27 workers. The design of the study begins with the collection of secondary data related to work processes which include chemicals in the work area and the number of workers involved. Furthermore, primary data collection was carried out related to the concentration of benzene in the workplace air, length of work time, and worker weight. In addition, secondary data was collected in experimental animals, namely the weight of white mice. The type of data in this study is primary data, obtained through questionnaires and observations as well as measurements of benzene in the air of the respondent’s workplace.<br>The measurement results of the concentration of benzene in the gas station in Ciputat in point 1 and point 2 are 0.58 mg / m3 or 0.18 ppm so that the concentration is still below the Threshold Value (TLV) according to Minister of Manpower Regulation Number 5 of 2018. Based on the manual calculation for safe limits of benzene concentration obtained 0.085 mg / m3 or 0.026 ppm. Control recommendations are to consume the CYP2E1 enzyme contained in beef liver and salmon which serves to reduce the level of benzene in the body, use the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the form of half mask respirator with an organic vapor cartridge, and plant a number of ornamental plants that can absorb and reduce benzene concentrations such as Boston and Golden Photos 1</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Complete Perusal of Polluter Pays Principle “Incorporation and Application In India” 2020-05-18T09:02:40+00:00 Shyamantak Misra1, Hiranmaya Nanda2 <p>Since long it’s a common practice to pay for the destruction and management of destruction caused by one, may it be destruction to property, life, nature etc. However for each kind of destruction there are specific laws and regulations enacted by the parliament. Apart from the laws there are few fundamental truths that act as the base or foundation for a system or in other words some theorems that have numerous special applications across a widespread area which are otherwise known as principles. Polluter pays principle is one of such preventive and remedial theorem applied to people causing environmental damage. This research work focuses on how the polluter pays principle was incorporated in India and emphasizes on its judicial application in various perspectives in India only. This paper starts with the introduction of the principle by “OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)” in 1972 and further tracing its movement through the extended version of the principle, being enshrined under principle 16 of the Rio Declaration (UNCED) in 1992, being adopted by the European Community, being adopted as an extension of the rule of Absolute Liability in Torts and finally coming to how it started being applied to, by the Indian Judiciary. This article analyses the judgments pronounced in various cases by the Indian Courts relating to Polluter pays principle.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Risk Communication at Drug Industries PT. Kimia Farma (Persero) Tbk. Plant Bandung 2020-05-18T09:05:13+00:00 Suherdin1, Noeroel Widajati1, Ratna Dian Kurniawati2, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 <p>There have been many accidents and occupational diseases caused by weak risk management efforts. Risk management can be carried out by starting with a risk assessment. Risk assessment is an important aspect of occupational health and safety. The pharmaceutical industry has a high risk of occupational health and safety. This study aims to identify the level of occupational health and safety risks and provide control recommendations. This research is descriptively using the Job Safety Analysis (JSA) method. The results of the identification show that from 19 work steps 10 of which include high risk, 8 including moderate risk and 1 low risk. The hazards identified include chemical, physical, ergonomic and fire hazards. High risks include hazards originating from chemicals as raw materials for making drugs. Several control measures have been taken, but to ensure worker health and safety, additional efforts should be made such as noise suppression personal protective equipment, special masks for use in chemical hazards and work accident emergency response procedures. Risk communication at the drug company is going well.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Work Safety Risk Assessment at Container Load Unloading Jobs at PT. Pelabuhan Indonesia II (Persero) Palembang Branch 2017 2020-05-18T09:08:03+00:00 Tedi levinrarian1, Zikri Fathur Rahman1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 <p>Loading and unloading of container goods is carried out using cranes and truck containers as a means of transportation besides facilitating activities, which can also lead to the risk of workplace accidents. In 2014 there was a work accident in Kuningan Jakarta, workers were crushed by a container during the loading and unloading process. Container loading and unloading is a routine activity carried out at PT. Pelabuhan Indonesia II (Persero) Palembang Branch. This activity involves tools that can cause accidents such as being hit by a container and hit by a truck head, therefore a risk assessment is carried out on container loading and unloading work. The purpose of this study was to analyze occupational safety risk assessments on container loading and unloading work. This study uses a qualitative research design, using Job Safety Analysis (JSA) for the risk identification process, the US / NZ 4360: 1999 semi-quantitative risk assessment table for risk analysis and semi-quantitative risk level Cross (1988) for risk evaluation. The results of the study indicate that container loading and unloading work consists of the preparation stage, the operation phase of the QCC and the stage of moving containers. The risks identified based on the stage of work are overtaken by containers, falling from heights, collisions between head trucks, falling lifts, hit by a lock lock, getting hit by a truck head, falling into the river, collisions between QCCs and electric shock. The hazards included in the acceptable risk category include being crushed by repair equipment, hands pinched, tripping, slipping lubricants and head banging. The suggestion of this research is that all activities in the field should be carried out in accordance with the applicable regulations and supervision should be carried out more specifically in the use of PPE and conduct periodic health checks on workers.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Correlation of Smoking and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients 2020-05-18T09:10:34+00:00 Yunike Tourisiana1, Mohammad Saiful Islam1, Joseph Ekowahono Rahardjo1 <p>Background: Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke with 87.00% prevalence of atherosclerosis as one of the causes of cerebral vascular lumen occlusion. Smoking is known as a modifiable risk factor for stroke. The process of atherosclerosis leads to a neurological deficit resulting in impairment of the patient. One of the scales used to assess impairment is the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS).<br>Objectives: To know the correlation between smoking status and functional degree of acute ischemic stroke patients as measured by NIHSS.<br>Method: The subjects were 48 patients. The study design was cross-sectional and clinical sampling consecutive admissions and an acute ischemic stroke image imaging. Smoking status data was obtained through anamnesis at the time the patient was hospitalized supported by the testimony of the immediate family. NIHSS values were obtained on the first day of hospitalization. Data analysis used chi-square test and logistic regression.<br>Result: Sex (p = 0.001) and smoking (p = 0.013) were variables that had significant correlations with NIHSS. There was no association between smoking and the functional degree of acute ischemic stroke patients measured by NIHSS, (p = 0.57) with Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.5 (CI 95% 0.35 - 6.9).<br>Conclusion: There was no significant association between smoking with functional degree of acute ischemic stroke patients as measured by NIHSS.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Risk Communication in the Carpet Industry: PT. ‘X’ Pandaan. East Jawa 2020-05-18T09:13:18+00:00 Zikri Fathur Rahman1, Nur lailatul masruroh2, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 <p>There are many work-related accidents and diseases caused by weak risk management efforts. Risk management can be done by starting with a risk assessment. Risk assessment is an important aspect of occupational health and safety. The garment textile manufacturing industry has a high risk of occupational health and safety. This study aims to identify the level of occupational health and safety risks and provide control recommendations. This research was descriptive using the Job Safety Analysis (JSA) method. The results of the identification show that out of the 4 work stages and 19 job descriptions, 10 descriptions or 52.6% are at high risk for Occupational Safety and Health. Identified hazards include chemical, physical, ergonomic and fire hazards. High risks include hazards from chemicals as raw materials for the process of making carpets. Several control measures have been taken, but to ensure the health and safety of workers, additional efforts must be made such as personal protective equipment, special masks for use in chemical hazards and work accident emergency response procedures. Risk communication in drug companies is running well.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Coal Dust and Acute Respiratory Infections in South Kalimantan PT ‘X’ Coal Mining Workers. 2020-05-18T09:15:57+00:00 Zikri Fathur Rahman1, Shinta Arta Mulia1, Ahmad Muslih Bambang Sugiharta1, Lili Susanti1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka2 <p>Occupational illness is a disease caused by a person’s work or work environment. This disease is caused by the actions of someone who is unsafe (unsafe act) and unsafe condition (unsafe condition) in carrying out his work activities. The unsafe act is an act of someone who deviates from the rules of security standards that have been set in doing work. While unsafe conditions are conditions that can endanger workers. Acute respiratory infection is an acute inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract caused by infection with microorganisms, bacteria, viruses, and rickets, without or accompanied by pulmonary parenchyma. Factors that affect a person affected by ARI are environmental factors, individual characteristics, and worker behavior. Environmental factors include air pollution (air pollution due to industrial output and smoke from burning fuel). Dust particles that can cause acute respiratory problems from industrial products that pollute the air such as coal dust, cement, cotton, asbestos, chemicals, toxic gases, dust in rice mills (organic dust).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enhancement the Antimicrobial Activity of Disinfectants by the Purified Lipase from Coronobacter Dublinensis 2020-05-18T09:19:28+00:00 Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali1, Sahira Nsayef Muslim2 <p>There are many different commercial disinfectants purchased, choosing of effective product is a prime target to ensure its decontamination efficiency. Thus we screened Coronobacter dublinensis isolates to produce lipase enzyme with using of vegetable oil like olive oil as inducer of lipase production in the medium. The lipase was purified by using two-step purification procedure consisting of ethanol precipitation and ion exchange chromatography with a yield of 48.3%. The lipase has an important role in enhancement of disinfectant activity. Since the combination between this disinfectant and lipase led to increase the activity of disinfectant to higher levels and the width of inhibition area enlarged to 28 mm against Acinetobacter sp. followed by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus with 25mm, respectively. So that we can conclude that lipase has excellent activity for enhancement of the commercial disinfectants purchased in decontamination activities in the laboratory and hospital environments.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Estimation the Antibiotics Activity Against Vaginal Pathogenic Microorganisms in Pregnant Ladies with Early Rupture Membrane and their Fetal Outcome 2020-05-18T09:23:10+00:00 Ban Amer Mousa1, Ehsan F. Hussein2 <p>Background: The Preterm Labor: is the mean reason of the (80%) from the neonatal intrapartem, postpartum morbidity and mortality. Recently, vaginal infections have been related to high risks of PPROM and PROM. However, preterm labor and subsequent neonatal bad outcome can be avoid through several protective actions. Methods: This study was prepared through the period from January to December 2018 at Babylon Province, were for estimate the effect of vaginal infections in patients pregnant women with premature rupture membrane, the samples were 100 pregnant women, 50 were vaginal infected (as patients) and 50 were no(as controls). Results. Shows significant increasing of the fetal weight, while significant decreasing of the Maternal age and duration time in the patients, also elevation in the percentages of C/S and PROM in patients when comparing all these with controls. The pathogenic microorganisms; were CONS (coagulase negative staphylococcus auerus) are major insulated organism followed by Candida, and Bacteriod spp., and to less extent were Staph., Proteus and Bacteriod. The Cifixum, Ampicillin, Clotrimazol and Metronid were appropriate antibiotics used for treatment of the vaginal infections.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Criminal Responsibility among Murderer Presented to Forensic Committee in Al-Rashad Training Hospital/ Forensic Department, 2016-2017.. 2020-05-18T09:27:04+00:00 Basheer F. Hummadi1 Firas A. Al-Kadhimi1, Ghazi A. Al-mashhadani1 <p>Background: The insanity defense, also known as the mental disorder defense, is a defense by excuse in a criminal case, arguing that the defendant is not responsible for his or her actions due to an episodic or persistent psychiatric disease at the time of the criminal act. This is contrasted with an excuse of provocation, in which defendant is responsible, but the responsibility is lessened due to a temporary mental state. The aim of current study was to find out the results of criminal responsibility assessment for the murderers and related mental illness as well as to study a sociodemographic and personal criterion for murderers. Methods: The study was conducted in AL-Rashad Hospital, forensic department in Baghdad. It was a descriptive retrospective study. Case files of (70) murderers, examined by the forensic committee during the period from 1st, January 2016 till 31st, December 2017, were studied. Comprehensive data were collected and analyzed by the SPSS version 23. Results: The study showed that murderers were mainly young adults within age group (20-40) years that were married, illiterate/low educational level and had no job or unstable type of jobs. About 30% of victims were 1st degree relative and 30% of them were family in law. The main weapon was used in the murder was gun (45.7%) and knife (40%). According to murderers who presented to the committee, about 38.6% had no mental illness, 17.1% had personality disorder, 32.9% had psychotic disorders and 8.6% had neurotic disorders. The majority of murderers (52.9%) presented to committee were considered responsible, 8.6% had partial responsibility and 28.6% considered irresponsible. Conclusions: This study showed that about more than half of murderers presented had full criminal responsibility and insanity defenses were succeeded only in one third of the cases. The studied murders appeared to be obvious among young adult age groups, with no job or unstable financial resources, and illiterate or had low educational level. The victims were more likely to be from 1st degree relatives or family in-law. The available weapon (gun and knife) was mostly used.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Effect of Doubled Concentration of Nanoparticles with Gamma-Rays Energy as Simulation Radiotherapy in Lung Cancer 2020-05-18T09:34:36+00:00 Shihab Ahmed Jasim1, Nihad A. Saleh2 <p>Background: Nanoparticles are considered main mediatorss to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy. By their nano size, they can penetrate the cellular environment and concentrate inside it. Nanoparticles own high cross-section and energy mass attenuation coefficient which means that they have high energy absorption. This study focused on decreasing the irradiation dose required to kill malignant cells by direct injection of NPs inside tumor cells in order to increase the amount of absorbed dose by adding a doubled increased concentration of (zinc and tellurium) NPs in tumor cells with minimum injury to the surrounding healthy tissue and increasing the number of destroyed cancer cells. Method: The theoretical basis for conducting current study was that to increase organ tolerance for radiation dose absorption, the injected particles inside the tumor should have high radiation dose absorption inside tumor. Results: There was increasing apoptosis of cancer cells and decreasing malignant cells survivor in low dose in comparison with high dose without NPs. The number of dead cancerous cells was increasing with doubling increase of NPs which depends on cross-section that is usually depending on high mass energy absorption coefficient and type and amount of energy. Conclusion: Zinc and tellurium nanoparticles can potentiate the effect of radiotherapy on lung tumor cells through increasing number of destroyed malignant cells which depended on atomic number and cross-section.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation the Levels of Thyroid Hormones among Iraqi Pregnant Women 2020-05-18T09:38:02+00:00 Zahraa Safaa Al-deen Musa <p>The present study was carried out to evaluate the levels of thyroid hormones among pregnant Iraqi women according to the age.. The study group comprised of (140)of full term pregnant women scheduled follows up the alterations of thyroid hormones, the control group included (50)of healthy women volunteers. Serum concentrations levels of T3, T4 and (TSH) were estimated using (ELFA) technique. In the study groups, blood samples were obtained from various ages pregnant women . Range age of the study groups was (20-40) years. In the control group: serum T3 andT4 levels were decreased slightly with increasing age respectively, while TSH levels were increased slightly with increasing age without significant difference P&gt;0.05 and the values were within the normal range. In the hyperthyroidism which included (45) patients women , there were continuously higher in concentration levels of T3, and T4 than that in the control group, but TSH concentration decreased with highly a significant difference P&lt;0.01.While, in hypothyroidism which included (45) patient women ,the concentrations of T3 and T4 were lower than that in the control group, but TSH increased with a highly significant difference P&lt;0.05.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Distribution of Abnormal Number of Teeth and Gender Differences: A Sample of Al-Muthanna University Students Aged 18-24 Years Old 2020-05-18T09:47:19+00:00 Hayder Saad Hanfoosh1, Osamah Mohammed Aldaghir1, Arkan Muslim Alazzawi2 <p>Congenital or developmental missing teeth (Hypodontia) is one of important numerical anomalies of teeth. So that many subject field have been carry out in different element of the humans, to find the prevalence of hypdontia. Hyperdontic dentition are teeth that appear in plus to the regular number of teeth.<br>This review was planned to assess the distribution of abnormal number of teeth decreased (hypodontia), increased (hyperdontia) and gender differences.<br>This review was applied from 23 /10/ 2016 to 12 /4/ 2019 on 1971 (1065 males, 906 females) students in four colleges in Al-Muthanna University were College of medicine (294), College of dentistry (299), College of pharmacy (185) and college of economics (1193) were clinically examined, only (202) of them had abnormal number of teeth and subjected to orthopanto-mograms to detect the missing teeth and extra teeth. Their age was ranging from 18 to 24 years.<br>The abnormal number of teeth in (10.2%) students. Hypodontia in (9.18%) students. The hypodontia of maxillary lateral incisor in (34.8%) students followed by hypodontia in mandibular second premolar (30.9%) students. The hyperdontia in maxillary and mandibular teeth (1.06%) students. Mesiodens in (0.7%).<br>The study displays that about (10.2%) students had abnormal of teeth number. Hypodontia happens more often than hyperdonti. The foremost repeatedly absent tooth was maxillary lateral incisor and the second one was the mandibular second bicuspid. About hyperdontia, the most frequently hyperdontic tooth was Mesiodens. All of them, difference between gender was non-significant.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Impact of Residency Area on Dental Caries and Nutritional Status among 10 Years Old Children in Al-Hillah City, Iraq 2020-05-18T09:51:28+00:00 Sarah Y. AL Khafaji1, Nadia Aftan Al Rawi1 <p>The dental caries are still the most common oral disease affecting children through the world especially in developing countries as in Iraq; however, these are not life threating human disease.<br>This study was conducted to assess dental caries experience and the nutritional status among 10 years old primary school children in urban and rural area in Al-Hillah city.<br>Eight hundred ninety one (891) students, 10 years old, selected randomly from different primary school, in urban and rural area in Al-Hillah city. Oral examination of dental caries was done according to the criteria described by WHO in 1987. Nutritional status was assessed according to body mass index (BMI), then followed the criteria of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart (CDC).<br>A high percentage of total samples were affected with dental caries and significantly higher in urban areas than rural areas. The majority of children had normal weight and the lowest percentage had underweight<br>This study revealed that a higher prevalence of dental caries experience was recorded, in children of urban than children of rural areas. Therefore, there is need for an improving public and school preventive programs, and encouraged to orient health knowledge in a positive direction.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Molecular Investigation of Plasmid–Mediated Quinolone Resistant Genes among aminoglycoside-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Babylon Hospitals, Iraq 2020-05-18T09:53:56+00:00 Khadeeja Obaid Alm’amoori1, Zainab Jaber Hadi2, Ali Muhsin Almohana3 <p>Background: Uropathogenic E coli is the most frequently causes of UTIs in humans ,accountable 75- 95 % of UTIs. PMQR have been identified in family Enterobacteriaceae worldwide. The purpose of this study to examine the dissemination of aac(6’)-Ib-cr and PMQR genes in isolates of UPEC.<br>Method : A cross sectional study of mid-stream urine of the participate patients their approval for direction usage their specimen. The susceptibility test by disk diffusion for UPEC were isolated from urine and screening of quinolone resistant by multiplex PCR for qnrA, qnrB and qnrS genes and monoplex PCR for qunD ,qepA and aac(6’)-Ib-cr genes.<br>Results : A total of 1072 mid-stream urine were collected randomly, overall 132 were identified E. coli , among these 60 aminoglycoside resistant UPEC isolates were screened to the five quinolone antibiotics. The resistance proportion to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin were 75.0%, as well as to lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin were 76.7%, 73.3% and 71.7%, respectively. The susceptibility test for antibiotics showed a high incidence of the resistance to the majority of antibiotics class. It was found that 73.3%, 38.3% , and 20.0% of the isolates harbored aac(6’)-Ib-cr, qnrS and qnrB genes ,respectively either alone or in combination, while the qnrA. qunD ,qepA genes were not detected.<br>Conclusion : All isolates were identified as multiple antibiotic resistances, only one isolate can be considered as possible PDR and high prevalence of aac(6’)-Ib-cr, qnrS and qnrB genes among isolates.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study of the Effectiveness of Some Raw Plants and Materials in the Treatment of Pediculosis in Najaf province Iraq 2020-05-18T09:58:12+00:00 Sundus Wafi Al-Zayyadi <p>Head lice are a public health problem and resistance to over-the-counter medications is a source of concern for many. The current study was conducted to evaluate the activity of three plants as a natural alternative to medical pesticides to treat pediculosis in Najaf province ,Iraq. It was noted that the Lawsonia Inermis plant (Henna paste) mixed with mercury has scored the highest effectiveness for killing lice in two hours from the first use by 100% followed by the Allium cepa juice mixed with Curcuma longa plant, where the rate of killing 80% of the second use and finally vinegar mixed with sodium chloride (food salt) by 46.66%. our suggestion that these blended Materials give better results than if they were alone and are excellent alternatives to medical pesticides.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Molecular and genotyping for Cryptosporidium parvum isolated from children with diarrhea in pediatric hospital of Karbala 2020-05-18T10:04:45+00:00 Ahmed Hussain Mibder1, Ghada B. Al-Omashi1 <p>The study involved surveilling sampling of children suffered cryptosporidiosis like symptoms.The present study was conducted on 90 children who suffer from abdominal pain and diarrhea .Samples were collected from patients suspected infection by cryptosporidium who attended in pediatric hospital of Karbala Governorate from January-2019 to May 2019,They were (1month-5 years old age). Each sample was divided into two parts. The first part was used to prepared a moderate thick smears stained with modified zehil nelson stain(m ZN stain)and the second part was preserved at -20 c for molecular detection by nested PCR to identify the positive samples and genotyping by RFLP-PCRthat showed the PCR product analysis of HSP70 gene in Cryptosporidium parvum from Human stool samples, at (587bp) PCR product.Some positive samples by RFLP-PCR making nucleic acid sequencing.The. main. Purpose. of .the .current. study. was. to explore the prevalence rate of cryptosporidiosis in the mentioned province targeting children at different age categories of both genders. For the gender and infection by C. parvum, the current work findings .revealed. the. presence. of. C. parvum .in. the sampled children distributed under gender categories of male and female and the species was parvum .The results of the AFS showed that 12 (13.33%) out of 90 samples were positive to the presence of cryptosporidiosis. This technique is a good method for detecting C. parvumin stool samples of children in both genders, and 27 out of 90 samples was positive by nested PCR and RFLP-PCR respectively. For the age and infection by C. parvum, the current work findings revealed. the. presence .of .C. parvum .in .the. sampled children distributed under three age categories of 1-6 months, 7-12 months, and 13-60 months. Positive results of the age categories were 5 (29.41%) out of 17 samples, 12 (32.43%) out of 37 samples, and 10 (27.78%) out of 36 samples, respectively. The total infection was 27 (30%) out of 90 samples. No significant (p?0.05) differences were recognized for infection rates occurred for the age categories.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hyperlipidemia that Induced in Male Rats and Role of Flavonoids Extract of Quercus infectoria in Treatment 2020-05-18T10:14:03+00:00 Marwa Amer Shakir1, Iman Nozad Mahmood1 <p>The aim of the study demonstrates flavonoids of Quercus infectoria as anti-hyperlipidemia. 20 adult male rats used and divided to four equal groups (each group consist 5 rats); rats received ad libidium, rats were given normal water containing 0.5% of hydrogen peroxide and 1% of cholesterol in the feed for 60 days for induction of hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia rats treated with (50mg/kg/daily) flavonoids, fourth Hyperlipidemia rats treated with (100mg/kg/daily) flavonoids. The results show non-significant changes (P &lt; 0.05) in levels of HMG-raductase compare with control group. in hyperlipidemia rats, levels of malonedialdehyied (MDA) show significant increase (P &lt; 0.05) in and significant decrease (P &lt; 0.05) in levels of glutathione (GSH) and catalase compare with control group. While, after using flavonoids extract in treatment, the results showed non-significant changes (P &lt; 0.05) in HMG-raductase, MDA, GSH and catalase compare with control group. It was concluded that flavonoids extract of Q. infectoria extract has been a protective effect in rats with hyperlipidemia.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Impact Age in Treatment Myofacial Pain with Temporomandibular Joint Disorders by Botox Injection 2020-05-18T10:18:09+00:00 Zina Ali Daily1, Nawres Bahaa Mohammed2, Muntather Muhsein Hassan3 <p>Background:Temporomandibular joint disorder is defined as a dysfunctional temporomandibular joint resulting from myoarthropathy of the masticatory system because of possible multifactorial nature of the disorder . Use of botulinum toxin A injections in treatment temporomandibular joint disorder that caused locally reduction of muscle activity by inhibiting acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction leading to decreases the muscle contractions, relief of myofacial pain and relieve the tenderness and restore functions of the temporo mandibular joint . The current study aim to evaluate the effect and duration of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections in the masseter, temporalis and lateral pterygoid muscles to treat Temporomandibular joint disorder symptoms in terms of pain intensity, maximum mouth opening, joint click and deviation on opening, with correlation of the patients age during three months following injection.<br>Materials and Method :The human sample consists of 28 patients suffered from myofacial pain, trismus, and TMJ sounds related to temporomandibular joint dysfunction , males and females, with age range of (16-42) years. The subjects recruited for the study were patients attending and whose get treatment with 100 U dose of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) was injected with 100 mL at sites per masseter ,temporalis and lateral pterygoid muscles that carried out at the dental clinics. The subjects were divided into four groups:Group I : consisted of 7 males and females patients, with age 16-22.Group II : consisted of 7 males and females patients with age 23-29.Group III : consisted of 7 males and females patients with age 30-36.Group IV : consisted of 7 males and females patients with age 37-43,all of these patients had symptoms of myofacial pain with Temporomandibular joint disorders of whole groups. The clinical evaluation:An intraoral examination was performed to assess the dental occlusion and teeth and periodontal damage caused by bruxism or parafunction. The existence of dentoskeletal dysmorphosis was also evaluated. The initial and follow-up reports after the BTX-A injection identified four main TMD symptoms: pain intensity, maximum mouth opening, joint click , and deviation on opening, and clinical evaluation of efficacy and tolerance was performed at 10 days, 1 month and 3 months after the injection. Patients were re-examined to assess the pain intensity, maximum mouth opening, joint click, and deviation on opening, the symptom release, and average duration of the BTX effect.<br>Results: The mean age of patients was 29.4 ± 7.879 years (ranged from 16.2 to 42.0 years). A detailed sex and age distribution . Highest mean and ±SD(standard deviation)values of the pain intensity, maximum mouth opening, joint click and deviation on opening were recorded in Group IV(older age ) ,followed by Group III then Group II and Group I (youner age)in the initial(pre-treatment visit) and follow-up visits after the BTX-A injection.Inter study visits comparisons of each group regarding of the pain intensity, maximum mouth opening, , joint click , and deviation on opening revealed, HS differences between the initial (pre-treatment visit) and follow-up visits after the BTX-A injection.<br>Conclusions: Aging process leads to change physiology of neuromuscular junctions and distinct muscle mass and strength loss. The decline of the effectiveness and duration of BTX-A used as same dosage in the older group than the younger group, so that mean BTX-A dosages of the older group was little higher required than those used of the younger group in treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders and pain relief.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Leukocytosis as Prediction for Early and Late Complications in Patient with St Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction 2020-05-18T10:21:39+00:00 Radhi Farhod Shlash1, Ahmed Diab Raheem2 <p>Background: AMI ( acute myocardial infarction ) is one of the most common cause of death . In this study the prognostic value of WBC count in patient with AMI was assessed in 24 hrs after admission.STEMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction) is frequently associated with leukocytosis, it is that the peripheral leukocyte count have important prognostic implication in AMI .<br>Aim of The Study: This study conducted to evaluate and measure level of WBC count in patient with STEMI and their effect on cardiovascular outcome.<br>Patients and Method: we have 100 patients (male and female) with mean age (40-80) years admitted to the AL-diwaniyha teaching hospital CCU ( coronary care unit )department and peripheral blood sampling taken after 24 hrs of admission and another sample after 1 week and we record the main early and delay squally occurred. Patient that admitted to CCU were confirmed with AMI by clinical features ,examination and investigations (ECG with ST segment elevation, positive cardiac troponin) .<br>Results: The mean WBC count in all patients was 11.260 ± 3.600 X103/ CC. There is no significant difference in mean WBC count among patients with inferior, lateral and posterior wall MI (P &gt; 0.05); however, mean WBC count was significantly highest in patients with extensive anterolateral MI (P&lt;0.001); followed by patients with anterior MI. Early complications were observed in 52 patients (52.0 %), these complications were in the form of arrhythmias such as VF, VT, AF, heart block and bradycardia and acute heart failure. The most common early complication was VF ( 32.0 %.)<br>Late complications were observed in 28 patients (28.0 %), these complications were in the form of chronic heart failure or unfortunately death of patients. we noted that patient with high WBC after admission have close relation to more damage and necrotic myocyte an liable for early complications like arrhythmia (VT ,VF) and acute HF.<br>Conclusion: WBC count remained a significant predictor of complication after admission for patients with STEMI.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Role of Interleukin 33 During Infection with Toxoplasmosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients 2020-05-18T10:30:37+00:00 Israa Kasim Al-Aubaidi1, Marwa Ali Al- Oqaily1, Sadia Shahab Hamad2 <p>Toxoplasma gondii is avery common obligate intercellular parasite with highest infection rate among worlds populations. The Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) considered as an autoimmune disease characterized by loss immunological tolerance to self-antigens. Present study Aims to detection the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among RA patients and healthy control and evaluate concentrations of IL-33 to understand their role during infection. Seropositive cases of IgG was 36.7% percentage in RA patients with highest value of IgG 0.395 IU/ml while control group was 100% seronegative. Three cases only were seropositive to IgM with 1.17% and their mean 0.54 IU/ml.<br>IL-33 levels in RA patients with toxoplasmosis was highest 187.74± 33.24 pg/ml when compared with RA patients 107.88±18.41 pg/ml and control group 55.59±25.75 pg/ml ,there was a significant differences in comparison between studied groups.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Treatment of Induced Lead Toxicity by using DMSA in Puppies 2020-05-18T10:34:19+00:00 Omar-Althani Shareef Saed1, S. M. A. AL-Kubaisi2, Jassim Mohamed Suleiman1, Mustafa Salah Hasan2 <p>To determine efficacy of DMSA in treatment of sub-chronic lead exposure in dogs, fifteen puppies aged 2-4 months from both sexes were used for experimental induction of lead toxicity. These puppies were adapted for two weeks and divided randomly to three groups , each group contain five puppies; Group 1 which was regarded as negative control; Group 2, this group was drenched 15mg/kg of lead acetate daily for sixty days; Group 3, this group was drenched 15mg/kg of lead acetate daily for sixty days then were treated with DMSA 10 mg/Kg twice daily orally for one week. These animals were clinically examined daily till the end of experiment, then whole blood, bone, liver and brain were collected for estimation the lead concentrations. The results showed presence of several signs after 15 days of exposure which included depression, diarrhea, tremor then these signs subsides after 7 days of treatment with DMSA. Also, the results presented a significant increasing in the concentrations of lead in liver, blood, bone and brain in group 2 as compared with control group, after treatment with DMSA, group 3 showed a significant decrease in lead concentrations in liver , blood, bone, and brain as compared with group 2. In conclusion, DMSA is an effective therapy for clinical cases of lead toxicity.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study the Effect of Humidity Variable on the Patient with Jaundice Stay Period inside the Incubator 2020-05-18T10:42:51+00:00 Auns Q. Al-Neami1, Yasser Ibrahim2, Husam Yahya Naser3 <p>In this study, a DHT22 sensor was used based on the Arduino platform for the purpose of measuring and monitoring the humidity in the incubator during the period of treatment of new-borns suffering from jaundice. This system was adopted because it has a range of advantages that make it accessible to researchers as it does not need a highly experienced or specialist operator because it is easy to use as well as low-cost. The use of this system provides continuous and real monitoring of the humidity in the incubator to help determine the effect of humidity on the treatment period of the child with jaundice in the hospital. In addition, checking the level in the humidity error and the difference between the required moisture and the actual moisture recorded.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prevalence and Classification of Maxillary Canine Impaction among Iraqi patients at An-Najaf City 2020-05-19T05:10:02+00:00 Sarmad M. Hamozi 1, Kareem M. Alghanim1, Yahya Abdali2 <p>Canines play an important role in functional occlusion, occlusion protection and in aesthetic smile. So the proper knowledge of permanent canine impaction incidence and its position is essential before orthosurgical procedures. The aim of this study is to highlight the prevalence and difficulty of the treatment of maxillary impacted canine. A 1995 panoramic radiographs were taken, total number of males were 737 (37%) and 1258 (63%) were females, a 79 (3.9%) patients were diagnosed with canine impaction where females were 3.6 times more than males, also most patients diagnosed with unilateral, right-sided and type II impactions.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Efficacy of Chlorhexidine Gel as an Adjunctive Treatment for Patient with Chronic Periodontitis 2020-05-19T05:30:28+00:00 Ban Zuhair Ahmad <p>Background: chronic Periodontitis is considered to be an inflammatory disease and is characterized by the damaging the connective tissue and supporting bone due to secondary infection by periodontal bacteria. Chlorhexidine has been used in the dental practice as an excellent antiplaque agent. Chlorhexidine not only exhibits special property of substantivity, it also possesses a broad antimicrobial spectrum which makes its use in wide variety of oral disorders. Virtually all disciplines of dentistry make use of this material in different formulations like mouth wash, gel, spray, varnish, and restorative material.<br>Aims of study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of locally delivered Chlorhexidine gel as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing in treatment of chronic periodontitis.<br>Material and methods: five patients with chronic periodontitis were selected. Pocket depth between 4 and 6 mm was selected and the patient had two sites on his mouth (splitting mouth). A total of 17 control sites were scaled and root planed and 17 test sites were scaled and root planed and Chlorhexidine gel was added. The clinical parameters, probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival index were recorded at baseline, 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks.<br>Results: From baseline to a period of 4 weeks, significant difference was found between test and control group for PD, CAL, PI and BOP.<br>Conclusions: Subgingival injection of Chlorhexidine gel adjunct with scaling and root planing appeared to cause significant improvement compared with scaling and root planing alone in persons with chronic periodontitis.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iron Overload Estimation by Oral Exfoliative Cytology in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients Undergoing Repeated Blood Transfusion 2020-05-19T05:33:59+00:00 Anaam Mahdi Hadi1 Layla Sabri Yas1 <p>?-Thalassemia major patients require regular blood transfusion therapy lifelong this lead to iron overload in the body tissues, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Exfoliative cytology, a non-invasive and inexpensive technique based on microscopic evaluation of epithelial cells after a procedure of their fixation and staining. The aims and objectives of this study were: 1.To estimate iron overload by oral exfoliative cytology using Perl’s Prussian blue stain in ?-thalassemia major patients. 2. To correlate perl’s Prussian blue staining positivity with their serum ferritin levels. Smears were obtained from buccal mucosa of 60 ?-thalassemia major patients (who had taken ?10 transfusions) and 30 healthy subjects of the same age group (5-26) year. Smears were stained with Perl’s Prussian blue stain kit. Blood samples were taken from the study and control group at the same time for estimation of serum ferritin levels. Grading criteria were defined for assessing the Prussian blue positivity. Perl’s positivity was observed in 48 out of 60 of thalassemic patients (80%), with a positive correlation to serum ferritin levels. Perl’s Prussian blue staining of exfoliated cells from buccal mucosa can be used to assess iron overload in ?-thalassemia major patients, as a screening tool.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Incidence of Contrast Induced Nephropathy-Acute Kidney Injury after cardiac catheterization in Basra Cardiac Catheterization Center. A Prospective Cohort Study 2020-05-19T05:36:13+00:00 Alhasan Mujtaba1, Mohammed Abbas Taher1, Hayder Kadhum AlRubay2, Mazin Abed Hazza3, Hasan Mohammed AlRubaye4, Hamid AbdulWahab4, AbdulAmeer AbdulBari3 <p>Introduction: Patients who opt for coronary interventions to help them with their IHD problems face several adverse reactions; the most frequently faced is acute kidney injury from contrast media exposure or contrast induced nephropathy. Those patients have higher mortality and morbidity both in the short and longterm period. The incidence of this adverse reaction in Al-Basra Cardia Center is poorly studied so far. We measured the incidence of AKI in this center and tried to correlate the risk with some important covariates identified by previous researches. Method: this was an observational prospective study. It was a part of the double blind single center study (the effect of spironolactone on the incidence of AKI in patients with Stable IHD admitted for coronary intervention, trial registration: NCT03329443). Results: The overall incidence of CIN was 20.2% in this cohort sample. Priori defined high risk variables were tested in univariate logistic regression, and if found to be significant they were to be added to a Multi-Logistic regression model analysis. In Regression analysis only GFR (Log Odds ratio) [0.984 (0.971-0.998)] and Mehran Risk score [Mehran &gt;6 (2.456(1.335-4.519), Mehran &gt;11 (3.931) Mehran &gt;16 (12.366) compared to Mehran &lt;5) were positive in the model analysis. Conclusion: there seems to be a high incidence of AKI in this cohort. Important significant factors include low GFR and a good correlation with Mehran risk score.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of the Correlation Between Vitamin D3 Serum Level, Age, gender and BMI in Rheumatoid arthritis Patients in Al- Kut City/Iraq 2020-05-19T05:38:33+00:00 Ameerah M. Zarzoor1, Wafaa Sahib Hamza2, Zaidon T. Al-aqbi3 <p>Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an auto-immune disease a chronic characterized leading to joint loss (RA) disease affects nearly 1% of the world. This study is aimed to determine the effect of age, gender and vitamin D level on the efficacy of RA. One hundred and twenty patients (twenty male and one hundred female) with RA in this study were divided, into groups according to their age. Vitamin D levels were measured in the serum using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) blood test. Assessment of the relationship between disease severity and average level of vitamin D was examined by the scale of scores in different groups with rheumatoid arthritis. At p&lt;0.05, significant levels of the above tests have been detected. The current study indicates there is a significant relationship between overweight high underweight below (18.5) BMI and age rate (26-36) patients with RA with deficiency of vitamin D level in serum. The results showed a highly significant difference between patients’ gender groups in as compared disease severity, female more than male with RA disease.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effect of Antimicrobial Agents Extracted from American Cockroach Insect Periplaneta Americana L. on Some Species of Microbes 2020-05-19T05:53:26+00:00 Alaa Ali Hussein Al-Hindera1, Osama nadhom Nijris2, Husham Nagy Hamoudi1 <p>current study was conducted for the period of October 2017 until November 2018 to investigate the effect of antimicrobial material of American cockroach Periplaneta americana hemolymph against strains of pathogenic bacteria and yeast. The samples of adults American cockroach was collected and divided into three major groups, the first collected their haemolymph without injecting the cockroaches with bacteria (non-immunizator) the second collected their haemolymph after 12 hours of being injected with E. coli (immunizator 12h), and the third group after 24 hours of being injected with the same bacteria (immunizator 24h), then divide each totals above to two subgroups one by cooling centrifuge on 4ºC and the other by table centrifuge at room temperature (non-cooling). protein concentration had measured of all transactions and was the highest value is immunizator 12-hour by cooling centrifuges.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Is there Any Correlation between Periodontal Diseases and Sleeping. 2020-05-19T06:00:13+00:00 Nadia Mohammed Kadim1, Wasan LaftaAbdulla2, Suha Talal Abd3 <p>Background:Sleep deficiency has develop a worldwide occurrence, and epidemiologic facts show that little sleep period unfavorably influences human physical health. Essential methods include variation of immune-inflammatory mechanisms. These modifications possibly will donate to potentiation of critical periodontal disease.<br>Aim of the study:The aim of this study was to assess if there was an relationship between periodontal diseases and sleeping in a sample of patients from the College of Dentistry.<br>Materials and Method: Forty-Five subjects were sorted into 3 groups (n = 15 each) viz. clinically healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis. Periodontal status of subjects was evaluated by plaque index, gingival index and probing pocket depth. All the study subjects were managed Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire for the judgment of sleep deficiency.<br>Results: Current study shown that the mean of PSQI was statistically non-significant for all all groups in this study which are: Healthy, Gingivitis and Periodontitis.<br>Conclusion: This study with initial results is indicative of independent association of sleep deficiency with severity of periodontal disease, but certainly calls on for another studies in the future with larger samples number.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Establishing the Ordinary Narration of Men with Originally Negative Prostate Biopsies 2020-05-19T06:02:45+00:00 Ahmed Turki Obaid <p>The prostate is an organ of reproduction in the man, resembling chestnut or walnut in shape and size, located directly under the bladder and in front of the anus surrounding the first part of the urethra. The aim of study is determine the health results of Basra Governorate, Iraqi males with history of a single negative transrectal prostate biopsy TRUS-Bx, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2018. The researcher used billing claims from Basra Educational Hospital database (BEH) to determine the patients whom have understand about TRUS – BX with using billing claim of PNB (Prostate Needle Biopsy) and was separated for concurrent ultrasound pelvic. The 94% from database was practicing in Basra as billing claim which meaning that who doesn’t accept billing will compensate accordingly. The drugs tests were implantation for all patients as Basra Educational Hospital ethical. Compassion, specialty, high quality predictive rate and negative prophetic value had been used to decide the analytical rate of PCa diagnosis of TRUS-Bx. The records were then analyzed by the use of SPSS version 14. The ethical was asked patients to own an eleven minutes rest before measure of their pressure level of blood and whole experiment. Young people (under the age of 45) are considered low levels (the risk of prostate cancer is few), when they are less than 2.5 Nano g/ml. For older men (older than 45 years), the value is low if it is less than 4 Nano grams/ml. In spite of the foregoing, it is known that about half of the cases of Prostate-Specific Antigen PSA in proportions that do not exceed these limits. For this reason, it is important to monitor the PSA values every year. Large-scale prostate biopsy identifies large prostate cancer in many men and of whom the previous sextant was a benign biopsy. This procedure should be considered when the suspicious results are for the morrow, despite the previous negative TRUS-BX.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mutans Streptococci and Removable Orthodontics 2020-05-19T06:04:22+00:00 Kasem Ahmed Abeas1, Zainab Al-Mahdi2, Issam Merza3, Lamis Khudir4 <p>Numerous studies have investigated the influence of orthodontic therapy and appliances on the oral microbial flora. Little is known about the effect of removable orthodontic appliances on oral colonisation by mutans streptococci. The original aim of the present investigation was to assess the mean and the statistical mean difference of colony values of S. Mutans in a removable orthodontic appliance fabricated from two types of acrylic resin for an Iraqi sample. According to certain predetermined sample criteria; the present study consist of eleven consecutive young patients scheduled for orthodontic treatment with removable orthodontic appliances at the department of orthodontics at the college of dentistry/ University of babylon as well as dental student seeking orthodontic treatment. Each subject included in the present study had to wear an upper (hot cured) and lower (cold cured) well adaptive removable orthodontic appliance. A swab was taken from the lingual/palatal gingival and inoculated within the brain heart agar then cultured within Mitis- Salivarius Bacitracin (MSB) agar. The colonies were calculated for each plate, afterwards the colony forming unit (CFU) will be calculated. of the present study showing that all bacterial colony values were higher in the lower than upper arch. However, a statistical non significant difference was registered between the colony mean values of both arches. The present study signify both types of acrylic resins (heat/ cold) can be used as an orthodontic acrylic base in removable appliances within the orthodontic practice with a careful monitoring of patients treated orthodontically for risk of caries development.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Impact of Prenatal Nutritional Status on Occlusion of Primary Teeth among Kindergarten Childrenin Al- Kut City/ Wassit 2020-05-19T06:06:50+00:00 Wathba Mohammed Jabber1, Ban Sahib Diab2 <p>Background: When malnutrition begins early in life it affects adversely various aspects of growth including dental arch and increase the severity of oral problems in later life. The aim of present study was to assess the effect of prenatal malnutrition on the occlusion of primary teeth<br>Material and method: This survey was conducted among urban kindergarten children in Al- Kut city of Wasitt governorate. The sample959 children aged 4 and 5 years were randomly selected from different areas of Al-kut city. The assessment of nutritional status was performed using prenatal anthropometric measurements,and primary dentition terminus was used for assessing dental arch relation.<br>Result: According to prenatal anthropometric indices preterm children constitute 23.46%, whereas low birth weight children constitute 13.66%. Flush terminus plane was the more prevalent type of occlusion for the total sample 47.86% while among preterm and low birth weighted children the mesial step terminus was more prevalent type of occlusion.<br>Conclusion: The prenatal mal nutrion had some effect on the arch relation among kindergarten children.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Association between Mn-SOD Gene Polymorphism and Peripheral Neuropathy in Type2 Diabetic Patients of Babylon Province-Iraq 2020-05-19T06:09:37+00:00 Asma’a H. Mohamed1, Haider K. Zaidan2, Ali H. Al-Saadi3 <p>Background: Oxidative stress has been known to be implicated in the onset and development of impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance and both are involved in diabetes. The mechanisms involved in oxidative stress-induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy include the generation of reactive oxygen species ROS, excesses reactive nitrogen species RNS, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and reduction in cellular antioxidants. Polymorphisms in genes responsible for encoding these antioxidant enzymes causes the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Aim: this study was aimed to indicated the role of genes encoding manganese (Mn-SOD) superoxide dismutase in the pathogenesis of DPN in a type2 diabetic patients of Babylon province. Ala(-9)Val polymorphism of Mn-SOD gene polymorphism were studied in type2 diabetic patients with (n=30) and without DPN (n=30).<br>Results: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique were used for detection Mn-SOD polymorphisms. This technique included the use of PCR primers (Forward and Reverse) to produce a restriction site in the amplified Mn-SOD gene product just with the polymorphic base. Then, the product of (PCR) was digested with Bsh TI restriction enzyme to detect Ala(-9) polymorphic position. The results of Ala(-9)Val polymorphism showed that the frequency of Ala/Ala, Ala/Val, and Val/Val were 63.3%, 20%, and 13.3% in healthy control subject and 36.6%, 33.3%, and 30% in diabetic without neuropathy countered by 23.3%, 20%, and 56.6% in diabetic with neuropathy. This proposed that the Ala(-9)Val polymorphism in the Mn-SOD gene is significantly associated with a risk for progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.<br>Conclusions: Homozygote pattern Ala/Ala were more frequent in control groups compared with homozygote pattern Val/Val were significantly more frequent in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lemon Crude Extract Modulates Ito Cells Activation in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Liver Steatosis in Male Mice 2020-05-19T06:20:00+00:00 Liqaa Oday Ali1, Ahmed G. AL-Helal1 <p>Background: Different types of polyphenols exist in many sources such as fruits, vegetables and herbs. For example, lemon has mainly flavonoids (such as Hesperidine, Eryoketrine, Narignine, Hesperidine, routine and chlorogenic acid). Research conducted in vivo and in vitro showed that lemons have different health benefits, such as anti-cancer effect, antimicrobial, antihyperlidemia and protective effect against liver disease. In addition, lemons are used to treat liver disorders. Therefore, current research was aimed to investigate the protective effect of the prolonged use of Lemon Crude Extract. Methods: Sixty male albino mice (4 weeks old, weighing between 20-25g) were used. They were divided into 3 groups (n= 20) for each group during the period from January 2018 to May 2018. Group I was used as control, Group II induction group was fed with (HCD), Group III was fed a (HCD) and treated with 1:1m/v of 100% (LCE) for 12 weeks.: Results Histological variations were identified in Group II by disturbed hepatic architecture, congestion in blood sinusoids and portal veins and infiltration of lymphocytes. Also, there was peri portal steatosis that was observed in HCD-fed mice. In addition, there was significant increase in Ito cells that was identified by desmin antibody. Moreover, these variations were less noticeable in Group III. Conclusion: Lemon has a protective effect against activation of Ito cells in fatty liver</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Assessment of Serum Advanced Glycation End-Product Level and Its Effect on Periodontal Health Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis 2020-05-19T06:22:27+00:00 Lara Kusrat Hussein1, A.N. Mohammed2 <p>Background: The bidirectional relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis was obvious as both of them are considered chronic diseases. The risk of developing periodontitis was reported to be higher in diabetic patients specially with poorly control diabetes mellitus, which in turn can negatively impact glycemic control. Advanced glycation end-products have intertwined relationship with oxidative product; increased in advanced glycation end-products could lead to oxidative stress and vice versa. The aim of current study was to investigate the possibility of using serum levels of (AGEs) for identification of the periodontal pathological condition in periodontitis patients with and without diabetes. Method: Twenty healthy individuals (control group), 30 patients with severe chronic periodontitis and 30 poorly controlled diabetic patients with severe chronic periodontitis were included. Full mouth (plaque index PlI, gingival index GI, bleeding on probing BOP, probing pocket depth PPD, clinical attachment loss CAL) were recorded by periodontal probing and serum advanced glycation end-products concentration were assayed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Results: A non-significant difference was reported in plaque index PlI, gingival index GI, bleeding on probing between diabetic and non-diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis, while probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss revealed a significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Advanced glycation end-products presented with highest level in diabetic group (26.92) followed by chronic periodontitis group (15.91) then the control group (6.60), however, the correlation was non-significant with periodontal parameters. Conclusions: It is possible to use serum advanced glycation end-products level in the early diagnosis of chronic periodontitis in patients with and without diabetes.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Serum Fatty Acid Synthase Level in Patients with Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 2020-05-19T06:25:24+00:00 Farooq Yaseen Khuhair1, Hassan H. AL-Saeed1, Laith Amer Abd-Al-Hussain2 <p>Background: Human Fatty Acid Synthase is highly expressed in many human cancers. Previous studies have shown that this enzyme is expressed at very high levels in prostate cancer and that the growth of prostate cancer cell line can be inhibited by pharmacological inhibitors that target this enzyme. Additionally, some studies have reported that this enzyme is overexpressed not only in tissue, but also in serum of patients with various cancers. The aim of this study was to,evaluate serum levels of this enzyme in patients with prostate cancer and in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as to investigate whether it can be used as a biomarker for detection of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods: By using an FASN ELISA kit, we measured serum levels of Human Fatty Acid Synthase in 35 patients with prostate cancer and 35 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We also measured serum FASN levels of 35 healthy volunteers enlisted as normal controls. Results: Serum FASN levels in prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than in healthy control subjects, but FASN levels in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were not significantly higher than in healthy control subjects. Conclusions: Serum FASN levels are expressed at significantly high levels in human prostate cancer. Serum FASN levels were not expressed at significantly high levels in human benign prostatic hyperplasia. FASN serum levels may be additional biomarker for prostate cancer detection.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Antibacterial Activity of Crude Extracts of Spirulina Platensis Against Some Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi Isolated from Different Sites on Human Body 2020-05-19T06:27:34+00:00 Intesar Kareem Abdul Hassan1, Ammar Adnan Tuama1, Khamael Ali Kareem1 <p>Spirulina platensis are filamentous, undifferentiated, non-toxigenic cyanobacteria that have been used as food since ancient times. There have been numerous studies on its antioxidant and antimicrobial actions. Spirulina as many other cyanobacteria species have the potential to produce a large number of antimicrobial substances, so they are considered as suitable organisms for exploitation as biocontrol agents of plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. In the present study, antimicrobial activity of Spirulina platensis solvent extracts in serial dilution was investigated against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antimicrobial activity of Spirulina platensis was determined against pathogenic bacterial and fungal isolates. The methanol extract of Spirulina platensis showed maximum zone of inhibition against all the bacterial and fungal isolates.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Problem of Multidrug Resistance Bacterial Strains in Daily Clinical Practice in Dealing with Typhoid Fever in Mid-Euphrates Region of Iraq: A Cross Sectional Study 2020-05-19T06:29:54+00:00 Huda Jabbar Dibby1, Radhi Farhod Shlash2 <p>Background: in our community, typhoid fever is common infectious disease based on daily clinical practice and the emergence of multidrug resistant strains a evidenced by worldwide reports and our daily clinical observation necessitate optimizing antibiotic approach to treat such common infectious disease.<br>Aim of the study: we aimed in this study to highlight the problem of multi-drug resistance in daily clinical practice when treating typhoid fever.<br>Patients and methods: The present cross sectional study included 95 cases with clinical and laboratory evidences of typhoid fever. Venous blood sample was obtained from each patient and sent to the lab for purpose of culture and sensitivity. The study was carried out at the department of Medicine / Al-Diwaniyah teaching hospital, Al-Diwaniyah province, Mid-Euphrates region of Iraq. The study started on January 2018 and extended through October 2018.<br>Results: Regarding amoxicillin, azithromycin and cefotaxime, isolates obtained from 60 patients (63.2 %) were resistant whereas isolates from 35 patients were sensitive. Ciprofoxacin and ceftriaxone were totally ineffective since resistance was recorded in all enrolled isolates (100.0 %). On the other hand, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and imipenem produced the best results since all isolates were sensitive to these antibiotics. The resistant strains of Salmonella enterica&nbsp;serotype typhi were more associated with urban areas than with rural regions, 75 % versus 58.2 %; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P &gt; 0.05).<br>Conclusion: antibiotic approach to typhoid fever is a dynamic rather than a static phenomenon that needs revision regularly and that drug individualization according to culture and sensitivity rule should be adopted by all health workers and institutes when dealing with outbreaks of Salmonella enterica&nbsp;serotype typhi.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Analysis of CTLA-4 (+49A/G) Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Babylon province of Iraq 2020-05-19T06:32:07+00:00 Raafat M. AL- Enzi1, Jawad Kadhim Tarrad1, Moshtak A. Wtwt1 <p>Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (pTB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). It typically affects the lungs, but can also affect other sites (extra- pulmonary TB). The disease is spread when sick individuals expel bacteria into the air, for example by coughing.<br>Aim of Study: To highlight the effect of CTLA-4 (+49A/G) gene polymorphism on the risk of pulmonary Tuberculosis (pTB).<br>Patients and Methods: This case-controlled study used single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) to analyze the CTLA-4 (+49A/G) gene polymorphism in 60 patients with pTB who were referred to consultant clinic for respiratory diseases in Hilla – Babylon province/ Iraq during the period from December 2017 to July 2018, and 60 healthy persons’ control. Blood samples were collected from both groups according to the standard methods.<br>Results: Data analysis revealed that the frequencies of AA, AG and GG genotypes in patients were 73.33%, 23.33%, and 3.34% respectively. In controls, this frequency was 51.67%, 35%, and 13.33% respectively. Logistic regression test detected a significant difference in the frequency of the (GG genotype) mutant homozygous of this polymorphism between patients and controls (3.34% versus 13.33%), The GG genotype of CTLA-4(+49A/G) showed a significantly decreased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis disease (OR= 0.18, 95% CI= 0.04 – 0.88, P value = 0.035).<br>Conclusion: The GG genotype of CTLA-4 may decrease the risk of pTB.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Screening Motives among Attendants of Breast Cancer-Early Detection Clinics, in Iraq 2020-05-19T06:33:55+00:00 Marwah Imad Al Ameen1, Khalid Kareem Rajab2, Besmah Mohammed Ali3, Jawad Kadhim Al Diwan4 <p>Background and Objectives: The early detection model for breast cancer in Iraq is a combined program of an early diagnosis for symptomatic attendants and an opportunistic unsystematic breast clinical examination screening that mainly depend on attendants’ request. With an aim to initiate breast cancer screening program, the current study’s objective is to illustrate the prevalence and motives of screening behavior among attendants.<br>Method: A cross sectional study was conducted for a period of three months, interviewing 500 randomly selected attendants of two breast cancer early detection clinics in Baghdad city. Data presented in frequency and percentages and analyzed by binary logistic regression, P ? 0.05 reflected a significant association.<br>Results: The results showed that only 42 (8.4%) attended the breast clinics with screening intention. Being employed (OR= 3.198; 95% C.I.= 1.284 – 7.964; P=0.013) or a student (OR=6.605; 95% C.I.= 1.125 – 38.759; P=0.037), of high socioeconomic status (OR=2.695; 95% C.I.= 1.036 –7.012; P =0.042) and having a positive family history of breast cancer (OR= 5.17; 95% C.I.= 2.466 –10.855; P &lt;0.001) were significant reasons for breast cancer screening.<br>Conclusions: Reforming the health system and tackling access barriers to screening should be endorsed through applying multiple components interventions to increase women participation in the service with a special focus on the less empowered under-served ones.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study the Toxicity and Anticancer activity of Some New Amic Acid and Their Derivatives of Mefenamic acid 2020-05-19T06:39:10+00:00 Ali A. Sabah1, Muna S. Al-Rawi1, Jumbad H. Tomma1 <p>A series of amic acid derivatives of mefenamic acid were synthesized with the aim of inhibitting topical gastrointestinal toxicity of mefenamic acid. The key intermediate amic acid (III) was prepared from the reaction of acid hydrazid of mefenamic acid(II) with phthalic anhydrides in dry actone. The new type of imide compound (IV) was dehydrated the amic acid(III) with acetic anhydrous and sodium acetate. The esterification of hydroxyl groups of amic acid (III) produce corresponding ester(V), which was condensed with hydrazine hydrate to give acid hydrazide (VI), then the later compound reacted with syringaldehyde in dry benzene to yield new schiff base (VII). The new derivatives containing heterocyclic unit (VIII)-(X), four and five, member ring were successfully formed such as azetidin-2-one, thiazolidin-4-one, and,imidazolidin-4-one. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed using FTIR, 1HNMR, Mass and CHN-S. The antibacterial activities of some synthesized compounds were screened and showed a highest or low inhibition against Staph.aureus (G+), Bacillus subtilisa (G+), Klebsiella pneumoniae (G-), and E.coli (G-). Also, The cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of some the synthesized compounds was tested against MCF-7 cell line (human breast carcinoma cells) and positive results were obtained for some of them, which encouraged us to study the toxicity using living organisms (mice) to evaluate its acute toxicity and proved the resules of non-toxicity of the derivatives.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Investigating Effects of Salvia Officinalis (Sage) on Development of Mice Embryos Kidney and Some Hormonal Effect of Treated Mothers 2020-05-19T06:41:55+00:00 Ban Thabit Al- Ani1, Rana R Al Saadi2, Raad Ghazi Reshan3 <p>Background Salvia officinalis (sage) is commonly employed in both medicinal and culinary preparations, Salvia&nbsp;plants are antioxidant and can improve ‘head and brain’ function.<br>Aim of study: To examine effects of aqueous plant extract of sage on development of mouse embryos kidney and hormonal effect of treated mothers.<br>Material and Method: Thirty adult albino Swiss female mice were used in this experiments study, their weight was 23-27 gm, three groups with 10 mice per group were categorized as:<br>G(A) orally treated with sage aqueous extract (167.8) mg/kg, G(B) administration orally with sage aqueous extract (83.9) mg/kg, G(C) orally treated with distilled water (control group) for 6 weeks. For histological study, the pregnant female mice have been sacrificed at day 17 of gestation of each group and 30 mice embryos were fixed in Bouin’s fixative, paraffin infiltration. Specimen stains with H&amp;E. After 24 hours from last orally dose of treatment period, 3 animals from each groups were sacrificed under ether anesthesia, 3 ml blood sample was collected from each animals, serum reproductive hormonal assay of FSH, LH, E2 and P4 were performed depends on kit assay procedure of ELISA kit.<br>Result :Histological examination of embryonic kidney after maternally oral administrated of sage reveals, different histopathological changes of embryonic renal tissue, also results revealed an increase that is highly significant (P&lt; 0.01) in the numbers of fetuses belongs to G(A) and G(B) mothers at day 17 in comparison with G(C). Statistical analysis revealed in contrast with G(C) a highly significant (P&lt; 0.01) rise in weights of fetuses (males and females) belonged to mothers of G(A) and G(B), while, serum hormones level show highly significant (p?0.01) rise in E2 and P4 level in G(B) when compared with G(A), while significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in FSH level in G(A) and G(B), and there was a significant rise (P&lt;0.05) in LH hormone level in G(A) and G(B).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Association among Vitamin D Deficiency with some Inflammatory Marker in Iraqi Patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis 2020-05-19T07:06:11+00:00 Noor Alhuda Kh. Ibrahim1, Zaid Nsaif Abbas2, Wasnaa J. mohammad1 <p>Background: Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a common chronic autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland, characterized by painless goiter and elevated thyroid antibodies. Hypovitaminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency) is common among patients with HT.<br>Method: : the study include (60) subjects compared with 30 apparently healthy control group were visiting nursing home hospital in Baghdad medical city, Levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free-triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), TgAbs, and TPOAbs were determined with automated immuno chemiluminescent assay (ICMA) kits (Abbott Laboratories, IL, USA). Levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH) D) were determined using a competitive protein-binding assay (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). The inter-assay variation coefficient for 25(OH)D measurement was 8.5%.<br>Results: the level of the study parameters in autoimmune thyroiditis which show significant correlation in age ,BMI, vitamin D, anti TPO antibody,IL-17, TNF-? and thyroid function (p&lt;0.05) (p&lt;0.01) test but calcium shoe non significant correlation between patients and control group.<br>Conclusion: The present work shows a significant association between circulating 25(OH)D and HT, also IL-17.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Statistical Study on Microorganisms that Cause Tooth Decay and Prevention and Treatment Methods 2020-05-19T07:15:53+00:00 Widad sameer jaaz1, Ohood Salman Jawad2, Hassanain Jwad Abid Al Hussein1 <p>The current research includes knowledge of the effect of microbes on dental caries, by providing the environment suitable for the growth of bacteria and fungi that cause this decomposition, fermentation and decay and thus erode the texture of the tooth and then full tooth decay. These are the macrophages that lead to tooth decay (streptococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida, Lactobacillus, Actinomycosis, Micrococcus, Antibacterials, Bacillus, Actinobacillus) in different percentages: 33.3%, 21.3%, 14.7%, 12.1%, 8.2 , 4.5%, 3.4%, 1.3%, 1.2%), respectively. There are many other factors that help tooth decay occur: the host (tooth and saliva), microorganisms in the form of tooth plaque, substrate (diet).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 In vitro Antifungal efficacy of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Mediated Nanoparticle Against Resistant Candida Albicans Isolates 2020-05-19T07:17:24+00:00 Hussein A. R. Abbood1, Bari L.Mohammed2, Hawazin A.Aboid2 <p>Dry yeast Saccharomyces. cerevisiae was obtained from markets in Kirkuk and used to study their ability to prepare silver nanoparticles and shows that the silver nitrate solution at 1Mm changes its color to brown and is an initial indication of the formation of nanoparticle particles and X-ray diffraction peaks were measured at (111), (202) and (220) respectively. Particles also appeared in clear minutes in the scanning electron microscopy images at a size of 44 nanometers . A total of 103 vaginal swabs were taken from women who suffered from vaginitis from the Kirkuk General Hospital. The results revealed that Candida types were responsible for 67% of the cases. Candida albicans, C.glabrata, C.tropicalis, C.krusei and C.parapsilosis were isolated. 30.8%, 22.8%, 20%, 15.8% and 11.5%, respectively . In addition, the sensitivity of the drug in the drilling method against the isolates of Candida albicans showed high resistance to fluconazole and gresiofulvin antagonists, with 100% of gresiofulvin (85%) of fluconazole. For nystatin, Resistance ratios (14%) The solution of the nano-silver particles recorded from Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast was also shown. had a significant inhibitory effect on Candida albicans, a multi-resistance yeast antimicrobial resistance (21,21,22mm) at 100% and (10,13,10mm)at 50% and inhibition(5, 4,5 mm) has a 35% dilution and a 25% concentration did not receive any inhibition.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Application of Chemical Techniques in the Manufacture of Some Industrial Dental Materials 2020-05-19T07:20:45+00:00 Hamed Ibrahim Mohammed1, Aara Ali Hadi1, Hassanain jwad abid al Hussein1 <p>This method of manufacturing Separating Medium was used in the field of chemical polymerization, in which a semi-gelatinous liquid was placed on the dental kits to prevent the adhesion of the gypsum material to the dermis made of hot processed polymer. After the experiments on the plant seeds, specifically the flax plant, the final extraction of the substance has been reached. It has given all the desired good specifications that are used in the field of dentistry. It is known that this material is a polar compound was diluted with distilled water after preparation. It is worth mentioning that 10% of the industrial pigments have been added to give them the red or pink color as these colors are desirable and common in the commercial markets as well as It is recommended for the dental products manufacturers, as well as 10% of the original alcohol and 1% of formalin to prevent the growth of bacteria and other types of microorganisms that cause rotting and decomposition of the manufactured material.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Isolation and Identification of Pantoea agglomerans from Open Heart Operations Unit of Marjan Hospital in Hilla City 2020-05-19T07:26:00+00:00 Enas R . Al-Kidsawey1, Kawther H. Mhdi1, Mohammed A. Al kaif1 <p>The nosocomial infection of Pantoea agglomerans has become an important cause of many systemic infections in humans, and considered of present study was to isolate and identify this pathogen from open heart operation unit of Marjan hospitals in Hilla city during a period from April to September 2018, (19) isolates of Pantoea agglomerans. Was isolated from (150) swaps which were collected from the environmental of open heart operation unit. 8/30 isolates from system, 3/35 from bed, 3/25 from earth , 3/35 from door and 2/25 from nurse hands isolated identification of microbes were done according on the morphological, cultural ,microscopically characterization and list of biochemical test. To emphasize the identification of Pantoea agglomerans. We used the API20 technique biochemical strips ( biomerieux SA/marc y-1 Etoile France).<br>The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates was studied using different types of antibiotics. The microbes showed resistance to the routinely used antibiotics.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Immunological and Molecular Study of Human Cytomegalovirus contribution to Anemia in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease 2020-05-19T07:28:09+00:00 Zahraa Abdulridha Baqer AL-Fayyadh1, Musa Nima Mezher1 <p>Background: Renal failure is a condition in which the kidneys fail to remove metabolic end-products from the blood and regulate fluid, electrolytes and pH balance of extracellular fluids. The aim of current study was to investigate the role of human cytomegalovirus in renal failure and its contribution to anemia among patients with renal failure. Methods: This study was carried out at AL-Sadder Medical City Hospital during the period from December 2018 to February 2019. The study involved a total of 50 patients (32 males and 18 females) with kidney disease with age range between (20-70) years and 20 healthy individuals considered as controls. The human cytomegalovirus antibody were detected by cassette (rapid test) and compared the results of cytomegalovirus diagnosis (by rapid test) with molecular technique (Real time-Polymerase chain reaction ) results. Erythropoietin hormone concentration was detected by ELISA technique. Results: Data obtained from rapid test showed that positive patients for human cytomegalovirus were 32(64%) for all cases, while patients negative for human cytomegalovirus were 18(36%) compared with those of controls. Real time-Polymerase chain reaction amplification for presence of human cytomegalovirus DNA in serum samples revealed that human cytomegalovirus genome was detected in 10(20%) of the 50 serum samples. Erythropoietin hormone showed lower concentration in patients than controls. Erythropoietin showed significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in all groups of patients compared to those of control group. Conclusion: Human cytomegalovirus seemed to have relationship with chronic and acute renal failure and can affect patient’s immune status. Also, the decrease of erythropoietin hormone is the mean cause of anemia in renal failure patients.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Comparison between HSP70 Levels in Acute and Chronic Coronary Artery Diseases 2020-05-19T07:29:58+00:00 Wurood A.Kadhim1, Noora M.Kareem2, Samar A. Al-Shami3 <p>Background: Heat shock proteins are a family of endogenous proteins that act as molecular chaperon and increase in different stress situations like heart disease and atherosclerosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference between Hsp70 level in the blood of myocardial infarction patients and apparently normal population; and between recent myocardial infarction patients and previous myocardial patients using immunocytochemistry technique. Method: Peripheral blood sample was taken from 50 patients with history of myocardial infarction divided into two groups (11 with acute or recent myocardial infarction and 39 with old or chronic myocardial infarction. Another 50 apparently healthy individuals were taken as a control group. Heat shock protein 70 level was measured by immunocytochemistry technique. Results: There was significant rise of heat shock protein 70 in myocardial infarction patients as compared with control group. Also, a significant decrease in heat shock protein 70 level in the chronic myocardial infarction patients group as compared with the acute myocardial infarction patients group. Conclusion: this study showed that heat shock protein 70 increases in acute myocardial infarction patients’ but its level decreases in chronic myocardial infarction. So heat shock protein 70 can be used as a biomarker to differentiate acute, from chronic, myocardial infarction and may be helpful as an indicator of acute myocardial infarction.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Statistical Study to Determine the Factors of Vitamin D Deficiency in Men: the City of Baghdad as a Model 2020-05-19T07:32:55+00:00 Suad Turky Ali1, Hind Tahir Qadir2, Shaimaa Khalid Moufak1, Mohammed Ali Mohammed Al-Badri3, Mohammed Nsaif Abbas4 <p>Background: Exposure to sun in the sunny days for 10 to 15 minutes a day and two to three times a week is enough to get vitamin D requirements in the majority, but people with darker skin need to be exposed to sun for longer periods to get their vitamin requirements. The purpose of this research was to achieve a statistical study to know and determine the factors behind deficiency of vitamin D among men in Baghdad city in addition to knowing the most important diseases associated with its deficiency in order to inform and educate the community as well as to raise awareness of the society about the role of this vital vitamin, prevention of its deficiency and to propose appropriate treatment for it. Methods: The research was conducted in several private clinics in Baghdad throughout 2017. The investigation was including study of 500 cases of men who were randomly selected. The cases were divided according to age groups into two groups: the first group was (20-40) years, while the other group was (more than 40 years). Also, the cases were classified according to vitamin D level to sufficient, insufficient and deficient. Results: The results obtained from the study showed that the percentage of vitamin D insufficient and deficient were 69.6% and 18.8%, respectively, while the sufficiency percentage was the lowest and scored 11.6%. Common chronic diseases, such as high blood pressure and diabetes as well as sleep disorders and muscle fatigue, were also followed in the cases. The results illustrated that 47.6% of men cases had diabetes and 39% had high blood pressure, while 28.2% and 17.2% of them had muscular fatigue and sleep disorders, respectively. These chronic diseases and symptoms were related in one way or another with Vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: Vitamin D can be given for preventive and therapeutic purposes.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mutation Evaluation in P53 exon 5 in Iraqi AML Patients with 4 Growth Levels 2020-05-19T07:34:42+00:00 Ishtar Imad1, Abdulameer N. Ghaloub1, Mehemt Ozaslan2, Alaa F. Alwan3 <p>Background: The role of TP53 is not limited to repairing damaged DNA and regulating its proliferation, it also activates other repairing genes and prevents mutated DNA from multiplying which prevents malignancy formation that’s why it’s called “ DNA`s gatekeeper”. The aim of current study was to evaluate the role of Exon 5 of P53 gene in the development of AML in Iraqi patients. Method: Sixty newly diagnosed AML patients at Baghdad (haematology national centre) were involved in ccurrent study. Peripheral blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes then they followed a month after receiving 3 and 7 AML treatment regimens to compare mutational status pre and post treatment. The patient divided into 4 age groups based on growth level (0-15 years, 16-40 years, 41-65 years and 66 years and above) in a 15 sample for each. Results: We uncovered transcriptional downregulation of significant p53 acetyltransferases in both CN-AML and APL, joined by expanded Mdmx protein articulation and deficient Chk2 protein enactment. Mutation study on exon 5 of P53 gene showed no differences in gene sequence from the standard sequence of NCBI geneBank sequence. Conclusion: Exon 5 of P53 gene not included in the AML causes since the patients of this study showed no alteration in sequence from the reference sequence</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Assessment of Antagonistic Effect of Alcoholic Extract from Cyanophyta (Spirulina Platensis) Against Several Human and Plant Derived Pathogenic Fungi 2020-05-19T07:36:30+00:00 Raghad J. Fayyad1, Rasha Saad Nuaman2, Noor T. Hamdan3, Rasha Saatam Hameed4, Sara A. J. Maliki5 <p>Background: Blue-green algae have been proved to producing different bioactive compounds. For this reason Spirulina platensis isolates have been used in the present study as a biocontrol agent against several human and plant pathogenic fungi. Current study was aimed to investigate the use of crude extract of Spirulina platensis as antifungal agent by determining the antagonistic activity of methanolic extract of Spirulina platensis against several human and plant pathogenic fungi. Also, to determine the antifungal phytochemicals within algal alcoholic extract through GC-mass analysis. Method: Four different concentrations of alcoholic extract were prepared (100,75, 50 and 25mg/ml) from algal isolates and their antagonistic activity was investigated against molds isolated from spoiled fruits (two isolates of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor sp. and Botrytis sp.) and against several Candiada spp. (Candida albicans, Candida glurbrate, Candida fameta, Candida lustrans) which were isolated from different clinical sources. Results: The results showed that algal extract displayed wide range of antagonistic activity against tested fungi depending on applied algal extract concentration and tested fungal species. Also, GC-Mass data analysis had been performed for algal extract and 36 different bioactive chemicals have been identified including eight compounds authenticated as having antifungal activity. Conclusion: Spirulina could be used as alternative drug to treat Candida sp. infections as well as added to food industries to enhance their nutritional value and simultaneously decreasing the possibility of food spoilage by molds.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Differentiation between Premenstrual Tension Syndrome and Dysmenorrhea in Young Age Group in Kerballa City: Cross-Sectional Study 2020-05-19T07:38:25+00:00 Manal Nasih Ahmed Hamdan1 Maysaloon Adnan Abdul Razzak2 <p>Background: The repeated psychological and physical symptoms that occur during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle and relief with menstruation called Premenstrual syndrome.<br>The aim of study is to identify the symptoms of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual tension syndrome in young age group female and how can differentiate between these two symptoms.<br>Material &amp; Method: The study was across sectional which was conducted with 259 students randomly selected from Karbala secondary nursery school of girls ,Their ages ranged from (range 15-29 years) with mean age 17.85±1.920 years. A questionnaire was used to collect the data, and was distributed randomly to all students in 3 classes in period from October 2017 to May 2018.<br>Results :259 girl shared in this study with mean age 17.85±1.920 years (range between 15-29 years) . 96.2%.Out of 259 , 205 had PMS (79.15%) with different symptoms.Most patients with PMS , developed dysmenorrhea (77. 5%) , There was significant difference between them p value (&lt;0.001).<br>Conclusion: high rate of young girl had premenstrual syndrome .The diagnosis of PMS is generally undervalued due to different features for PMS are used in different research. Though dysmenorrhea would distort the physicians about the actual giving symptoms from these women .</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Bacteriological and Pathological Study on Kidneys of Slaughtered Sheep in Fallujah City 2020-05-19T07:40:05+00:00 Ahmed Sami Jarad1, SMA AL-Kubaisi1, Roua Jamal Abdulkhaliq2, Mustafa Salah Hasan1 <p>This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and type of renal lesions in sheep that were slaughtered at Fallujah abattoir. A total number of 100 clinically normal sheep of different sex and age randomly selected, renal samples were taken for , bacteriological, macro and micro study. One hundred swabs were taken from cortex and medulla were cultured on blood, nutrient, and MacConkey agars, then biochemical tests were done for identification of these bacteria. Bacteriological examination of kidney revealed that (65%) of samples show positive results in bacterial isolation including (15%) Bacillus, (10%) Escherichia coli, (11%) Klebsiella, (18%) Staphylococcus, (8%) streptococcus, (3%) Corynebacterium spp., (3%) pseudomonas aeruginosa, (1%) Salmonella and (1%) Proteus. Pathological study showed that 24 (24%) and 38 (38%) gave positive results in macroscopic and microscopic lesions respectively, the results of gross pathology were renal hemorrhage 8%, pale kidneys 4%, enlarged kidneys 4% white spotted kidneys 3%, renal fibrosis 2% , pigmented kidney 2% and renal cyst 1%. Meanwhile the microscopic lesion were nephritis 24 % (interstitial nephritis 9%, glomerulonephritis 6%, tubular nephritis 5%, and pyelonephritis 4%) nephrosis 5%, kidney fibrosis 3%, infarcted kidneys (2%), amyloidosis 2% hemosiderosis 2%. From the presented study, it was concluded that most kidneys are infected with many gram negative and gram positive bacteria and many kidney problems such as renal hemorrhage and interstitial nephritis are the most common renal lesions in sheep.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prevalence of Dental Anomalies (Mesiodens and Enamel Hypoplasia) Among Primary School Children in Badra/Iraq 2020-05-19T07:42:50+00:00 Sanaa Rasheed Abd Al-Aaloosi1, Maitha Sameer Kadhim2, Basma Fathi Alanbari3 <p>Background: Dental anomalies considered as one of the developmental defects during teeth formation caused by both genetic and environmental factors which responsible for notable deviation from normal size, color, number, contour and developmental degree. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of defect in number (hyperdontia or mesiodens teeth) and structural defect (enamel hypoplasia, localized and generalized,) among primary school children.<br>Material and methods: A cross sectional study that comprises data from 403 boys and 411 girls; a primary school students aged from 5-12 years with a total of 814 student; was conducted in Badra/ Iraq.<br>Results: The study shows a prevalence rate of a mesiodens from 814 students was 0.49% and it represented more frequently in males more than females with a ratio of 3:1. While, the prevalence of enamel hypoplasia was estimated to be 0.86 % among the observed population, it observed more in girls than in boys, with the proportion being around 1: 1.333 male: female ratio.<br>Conclusion: the prevalence of dental anomalies was found to be more in males than in females and most of the cases found in age group between 8-10 years old. Routine checkup for these anomalies during primary and mixed dentation which can help for early diagnosis and detection of these disorders that will help minimizing future complications and give well prognosis.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of the PCR Method for the Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in AL Hawija District, Kirkuk, Iraq 2020-05-19T07:44:49+00:00 Husain F. Hassan1, Moath M. Salman1, Burhan M. Mohammed1 <p>Males (191) and females (229) with skin lesions were enrolled in this investigation with the highest incidence of the disease in both sexes being in the age group (0-5) years . The clinical features of the lesions were covered by firmly adherent crust and some were edematous. By using classical microscopic examinations, the amastigotes were detectable in 143 cases out of 200 lesion samples. On the other hand , the use of specific PCR system and DNA sequences provided evidence that Leishmania tropica is the only etiologic agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in AL Hawija district, Kirkuk province, Iraq.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Some Blood Parameters in Anemic Patients in Relation to Periodontal Condition 2020-05-19T08:04:41+00:00 Noor Sabah Irhayyim <p>Background: Periodontal diseases are the inflammatory process result from microbial-host interaction in the tissues surrounding the teeth. Gingivitis and periodontitis are the most common type of periodontal diseases. Anemia of the chronic disease(ACD) is common health problem occur in patients with acute or chronic activation of immune system and production of inflammatory cytokines, so it is resemble to periodontal diseases from this aspect.<br>Aims of the study: To compare the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index(PLI), gingival index(GI), bleeding on probing(BOP), probing pocket depth(PPD) and clinical attachment level(CAL)) and the levels of hemoglobin(Hb), mean cell volume(MCV), and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin(MCH) in blood, and correlate them in patients with gingivitis, chronic periodontitis(CP) and clinically healthy periodontium.<br>Materials and method: 90 subjects included in the study with age range from 30-50 years old. There were divided into three groups: 30 patients with chronic periodontitis, 30 patients with gingivitis, and 30 subjects with clinically healthy periodontium. Blood samples were collected from the subjects for automated blood analyzer to determine the levels of Hb, MCV, and MCH, after clinical periodontal examination was done for(PLI,GI,BOP,PPD, CAL).<br>Results: statistically highly significant differences among the groups (Gingivitis and chronic periodontitis) in PLI, GI and BOP score1. The highest mean value of Hb shown in control group(15.33) while the highest mean value of MCV demonstrated in gingivitis group(87.44) and the highest mean value of MCH demonstrated in control group(32.09). The correlation of Hb, MCV, and MCH with clinical periodontal parameter shown almost weak negative correlation.<br>Conclusion: the periodontal diseases like other inflammatory diseases can lead to development of anemia type(anemia of chronic disease)and the severity of disease increase with increase the severity of periodontal diseases.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effect of Algal Extracts on the Growth of Tow Bacterial Types Isloated from Pollutants Discharge 2020-05-19T08:07:35+00:00 Thaer Mohammed Ibrahim1, Raad Abdul Hadi Nayyef2, Buthaina Abdul- Aziz Hassan Al-Magdamy1 <p>Effect of Chlorococcum humicola alcoholic algae extract was studied on the growth of, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia, which were isolated from contaminated water. The extract of Ch. humicola showed a high efficiency in reducing the numbers of the two types of bacteria. . The removal rate of K. pneumonia were 0.0, 48.4 and 57.0, The removal rate of P. aeruginosa were 63.1, 79.8 and 82.9% after24,48, 72 h respectively. The results improved that the K. pneumonia is more sensitive than P. aeruginosa for algae extract concentrations used in study ,and the beast effective time is 24h for the two bacterial species The aim of the study was to eliminate microorganisms using the Alcoholic algae extract. Especially P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia of bacterial isolates that cause many diseases for human and animals.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prevalence of Aerobic Bacterial Vaginosis and Trichomonas Vaginalis Associated with Socioeconomic Factors among Women in Misan Governorate.. 2020-05-19T08:09:57+00:00 Zahrah Adnan1, Huda Dhaher2, Mohammed F. Marjani3 <p>Vagina is an ecosystem balance, human vagina is dominated by lactobacillus spp which creates a vaginal acidity environment(3.8-4.5) to protect vagina from Vaginitis pathogen .Vaginitis is an inflammation of vagina caused by bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis . The aims of this study was investigated aerobic bacterial vaginosis , lactobacillus spp. and T.V in women with vaginitis. Study the clinical feature and demographic factors with vaginitis .&nbsp;345 samples were collected from women with vaginitis. Study a demographic variables such as age , education level, socioeconomic state , residence, parity , in pregnant and non-pregnant women .</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Synthesis, Characterization of New Tris Hydrazones based on Cyanuric Acid and Studies the Biological Activity as Antibacterial and Antifunga 2020-05-19T08:16:54+00:00 Thaer Saleh Ghali <p>In this study synthesis of new Tris Hydrazones derived from Cyanuric acid , these compounds synthesized by reaction of Cyanuric acid with Chloro ethyl acetate to product [I], then converted it to acid Hydrazide [II] by reacted with Hydrazine hydrate(80%) in absolute ethanol as a solvent. Compound [II] refluxed with different aromatic aldehyde in present of Glacial acetic acid (GAA) as a catalyst to formation new Tris Hydrazones [III]a-f. All new compounds were synthesized characterization by FT-IR and 1H-13CNMR spectroscopy. The biological activity of new Tris Hydrazones studies against to positive and negative Gram bacteria also test it against to Candida albicans as a sample of Fungi.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Assessment of Hyperurcemia in Patient with End Stage Chronic Kidney Disease 2020-05-19T08:19:53+00:00 Sarah Salih Mahdi1, Elaf Ayad Kadhem1 and Nada Nazar Al-faris1 <p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health problem because of its high prevalence and the accompanying increase in the risk of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Progression of CKD is associated with a number of serious complications including increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, anemia and metabolic bone disease. Hyperurcemia may be a major contributor to the development of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although there is no clear cutoff uric acid (UA) value associated to the risk for kidney damage, it appears to be an increased risk as UA rises.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Reduced Glutathione, Lipid Peroxidation and Malondialdehyde Status in Women with Mild and Severe Preeclampsia for Babylon Governorate 2020-05-19T08:22:36+00:00 Taha H. Farhood1, Mufeed J. Ewadh1, Suhailah F. Alshaik1 <p>The presented study aims to evaluate the levels of serum reduced. glutamine , lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde status with Mild, severe preeclampsia and healthy pregnant control in the case – control study. Twenty five patients with severe preeclampsia, twenty five patients with mild preeclampsia and fifty healthy pregnant as control in Babylon province / Iraq were enrolled in this study. Results of this study were shown The median serum reduced GSH concentration in the preeclampsia group was significantly lower than that in the group with normal pregnancy, indicating that there is more extensive oxidative stress in preeclamptic pregnancy. Also In this result, there was increased in malondialdhyde level in preeclampsia pregnant women groups when compared with non-preeclampsia pregnant women group.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Association of Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus With Severity of Children with Celiac Disease 2020-05-19T08:24:35+00:00 Bashar S Khalaf <p>Purposes of study: analysis and measurement of incidence and association between autoimmune thyroiditis(AIT) and type 1 Diabetes mellitus(T1DM) with clinical and serological severity of patients with Celiac disease.<br>Design and Methods: This is prospective study, All children (107 children with 41 male and 66 female ) with celiac disease are admitted and follow up in Hospital. Age groups ( 1-12 years) are arranged into two groups (1-6 and 7-12 years old). The celiac disease are divided into: Group1= 25-50 IU/ml, Group2 = 50-100 IU/ml, Group3 &gt;100 IU/ml. All patients with celiac disease are follow up for AIT and type 1 T1DM.<br>Results: (107) patients with celiac disease, mean age is 6.78±2.85, median age is 8, and female :male ratio are 1.6:1. All celiac patients are divided into: group 1 (43 patients), group 2 (50 patients), and group 3 (14 patients). Incidence of T1DM in all patients is 8.4% while AIT 2.8% . T1DM incidence in group 2 is 3.7% and in group 3 is 12.3%. But AIT incidence in group 3 is 4.6%. All cases with AIT have hypothyroidism with TSH &gt; 100 ?U/ml. All diabetic patients have random blood sugar &gt; 450 mg/dl. Age group are divided into two groups, 1-6 and 7-12 years old. Incidence of T1DM are 6.25% and 11.6% in these two age groups respectively, while AIT is 7% in age group 7-12 years. The association between celiac patients groups with T1DM and AIT is insignificant association ( (P value is 0.265 and 0.717 respectively). Also age groups have no significant association with T1DM and AIT ( (P value is 0.48 and 0.062 respectively) .<br>Conclusion: follow up of celiac disease is important step for diagnosis AIT and T1DM . These two autoimmune diseases are increasing especially when there high concentration of IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase level ( &gt;100 IU/ml) and advanced children age group . AIT may presented initially with hypothyroidism.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Role of PSA in Diagnosis of Chronic Prostatitis 2020-05-19T08:27:49+00:00 Yasir Abdulateef <p>Background: Prostatitis is the poor cousin of prostatic cancer and Benign hyperplasia. The prevalence of prostatitis in general population was estimated to be 0.5 to 14.2% in developed countries. Publishing in Iraq was concern mainly with treatment of prostatitis.<br>Objective: This work was carried out to comment on the concept of prostatitis in clinical practice.<br>Method: A total of 275 males was included in this study. They were complaining of urinary symptoms (frequency, urgency, hesitancy, straining, difficulty in initiation urinary stream).All cases were confirmed to have chronic prostatic after excluding prostatic carcinoma by abdominal ultrasound, free to total PSA and urinary Prostatic carcino-antigen-3. Their age was 45.6 ± 9.6 year. Urine samples were proceeded immediately after collection. Centrifuged and non-centrifuged specimen were examined.<br>Results: PSA was affected significantly by age (p = 0.002). A significant high level was observed among those complaining of pain during ejaculation (p = 0.0001).Those showed epithelial cells in urine had significant high level of PSA (p = 0.0001). Uric acid in urine was associated with significant high level of PSA (p = 0,03).<br>Conclusion: The diagnosis of CP / CPPS might be outside the traditional urologic practice and might consider PSA level too.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Treatment and Experimental Infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae in Rats 2020-05-19T08:30:32+00:00 Aqeel A. Alsadawi1, Dhuhah Hayder Abdul-Jawad1, Noor Hani AL-Naji1 <p>So many diseases are caused by Klebsiella species including urinary tract infections (UTIs), pneumonia, sepsis, diarrhea and bacteremia. Also Klebsiella is responsible for a significant number of community-acquired infectionssuch as pneumonia that results in severe injury in the lung and responsible for a high death ratein children. The intranasal and left lung route of K. pneumoniae infection causes pathological change in the lungs tissues due to acute and chronic injury. Conducted to detect the histological and immunological changes in experimental rat’s lung infected by different routes with K.pneumoniae.<br>Twenty-sevenAlbino Swiss male rats (Rattus rattus) were infected with 0.2ml of K. pneumonia suspension in different routes. After seven days from the last injection K.pneumoniae, the Lung and spleen are examined for histopathology changes. The blood vessels congestion with dispersed lymphocytic cells, infiltration throughout pulmonary parenchyma parts, edema formation along with hemorrhages Early neutrophils distribute into the Broncho-alveolar space, were detected. An acute splenitis was present in rat’s infection by left lung injection route after 10days, were observed in the Spleen tissue with mild white pulp within pulp hyperplasia.<br>What makes K. pneumoniae infections more difficult to treat is that they gradually became more virulent and antibiotic resistant through time.The early&nbsp;K. pneumoniae infection -induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha as pro-inflammatory cytokines.The level of cytokines has been related to severity of pulmonary inflammatory process.TNF-?is important for the acute phase response as proinflammatory responses.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Post Cementation Marginal Seating of Monolithic Zirconia Crown Restorations Using Different Preparation Designs (A comparative in vitro study) 2020-05-19T08:32:59+00:00 Adel F. Ibraheem1, Lena S. Abdullah2 <p>Objectives: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate post-cementation vertical marginal seating of full contour zirconia crown restorations using different finish line designs (deep chamfer and shoulder) with different occlusal reduction schemes (planar and flat).<br>Materials and Method: Thirty-two sound maxillary first premolar teeth freshly extracted for orthodontic purposes were collected to be used in this study. Teeth were divided into two main groups according to the design of finishing line used (n=16): Group A: Deep chamfer; Group B: Shoulder. Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups according to the scheme of occlusal reduction used (n=8): (A1, B1) Planar; (A2, B2) Flat. Standardized preparation for full contour zirconia crown restorations was carried out with finishing lines depth 1.0 mm, total convergence angle of 6 degrees and axial height 4 mm (buccally and palatally).<br>Results: The results of this study showed that there were statistically highly significant differences among different groups (p &lt; 0.01) using one-way ANOVA analysis and Student’s t-test. Additionally, comparison of significance between each pair of subgroups at pre and post-cementation intervals using Paired-Samples t-test showed a statistically highly significant differences.<br>Conclusions: Deep chamfer with planar occlusal reduction scheme provided better marginal fit compared to that obtained with shoulder. On the other hand, shoulder with flat occlusal reduction scheme provided better marginal fit compared to that obtained with deep chamfer. Concerning the effect of the cementation procedure, the marginal gap was increased post-cementation as compared with the pre-cementation gap for all subgroups, but still within the clinically acceptable limit.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effect of the Different Disinfectants on the Microbial Contamination of Alginate Impression Materials 2020-05-19T08:35:19+00:00 Haider M. A. Ahmed1, Rawof Rasheed Jawad2, Mohammed Nahidh1 <p>Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different solutions used to disinfect Alginate impression material.<br>Materials and Method: Twenty Alginate impressions for the maxillary arch of five patients recently completed their treatment (four impressions for each patients) were taken swabbed before and after disinfecting them with Chlorhexidine, Desident CaviCide and Alcohol and one just washed with tap water as a control. Swabs were cultured to detect bacteria and fungi and count them.<br>Results: Only Streptococcus bacteria were detected with no fungal contamination. Tap water reduced the bacterial count while other disinfectants killed the bacteria completely.<br>Conclusions: Chlorhexidine, Desident CaviCide and Alcohol can be used to disinfect the dental impression effectively.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Role of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Some Bacteria Causes Tonsillitis among Children Under 5 Years Old in Duhok City 2020-05-19T08:39:13+00:00 Najat Abdeal-Qadir Zaman1, Asma Sumiea Karomi1, Nora Esam Aldeen Mahmood1 <p>Background: Acute infection of the respiratory tract is a prevalent cause of death in children under the age of 5 years, particularly in developing nations. Infection with respiratory syncytial virus is a causative factor for bacterial co-infection with an increase in the incidence of respiratory disease.<br>Objective: This research was intended to clarify the connection between the Respiratory Syncytial Virus RSV and the tonsillitis-causing bacteria.<br>Method: In 120 patients with acute and chronic tonsillitis, swabs were obtained from the tonsils to detect pathogenic and commensal bacteria in the throat, and blood samples collected to identify RSV infection by identifying the antibody value in the serum.<br>The results: Culture results showed that 78.53% of the bacteria isolated belonged to the Gram-positive group and that only 21.47% belonged to the Gram-negative group, (51.98%) were positive for pathogenic bacteria while (48.02%) were positive for commensal bacteria and showed the highest rate of pathogenic bacteria isolated from tonsillitis patients was to Staph. aureus and Strep. pyogenes. Serological testing using ELISA showed that respiratory syncytial virus infection increases tonsillitis co-infection. Type of antibodies showed a change depending on the sex group and the stages of immune response maturity.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Broad-Spectrum Cytotoxic Effect of Calendula officinalis L Against Breast Cancer Cells 2020-05-19T08:40:55+00:00 Khulood M. Alsaraf1, Maeda H. Mohamed1, Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari2, Ibrahim S. Abbas3 <p>Background: Calendula officinalis L used in Iraqi folklore medicine for several medical applications. This research evaluated the leaves extract as an anti-breast cancer agent in in-vitro cancer cell line systems and studies its active compounds. Crystal violet viability assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the leave methanolic extract of Calendula officinalis L against diverse breast cancer cell lines. Human breast cancer MCF7, AMJ13, MDAMB, and CAL51 cells were treated with different concentrations of extract for 72 hours. Morphological study for the exposed cell was done by examination under a phase-contrast inverted microscope. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was performed to measure the concentrations of each component of phenols and flavonoids in the Calendula officinalis L extract. Results: It was found that methanolic extract of Calendula officinalis L inhibits the proliferation of all breast cancer cells significantly at the meantime; it does not affect normal embryonic cells. Additionally, it induced the cytopathic morphological changes in cancer cells. Furthermore, HPLC study revealed that Calendula officinalis L extract contained an important component of flavonoids. Conclusions: Calendula officinalis L leaves extract inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells especially MDAMB cells with no effect on normal cells. This work showed that Calendula officinalis L is a possible natural source as broad-spectrum anti-breast cancer drug.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Role of c-ERBB2(Her-2) and P53 in Differentiating Low Grade from High Grade Urothelial Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder 2020-05-19T08:42:39+00:00 Roaa Salih Mahdi <p>Background: Urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder, represents 90% of all primary tumors of this organ, and one of the most common ten malignancy in Iraq and world wide. These tumors can range from low grade papillary neoplasms to less frequent more aggressive and invasive solid tumors. More than 70% of superficial tumors recur, and about one-third of the patients have tumor progression, which can affect the quality of their life HER-2\neu receptor as an important growth factor . This receptor possesses intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and all members of this family are frequently overexpressed and \or their respective genes are amplified in human neoplastic tissue . Its overexpression has been associated with high grade and advanced stage of bladder carcinoma specially TCC. Altered expression of the p53 gene has also been associated with transitional cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: 62 patients with TCC were included in this study and conducted in the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kufa University during the period from January 2012 through April 2013. EnVision method (polymer based immunohistochemistry) was used for the immunohistochemical detection of p53 and Her_2/neu. Results: HER-2\neu overexpression was found in 62.9% of bladder carcinoma , and no expression in benign bladder lesions (cystitis) was detected , (P value &lt; 0.05) . HER-2\neu overexpression and its intensity were well correlated to grade of tumor indicating that HER-2\neu positive bladder carcinoma are biologically aggressive and detected more frequent in grade III than grade I or grade II (P value &lt; 0.05, R = 0.0181).P53 was expressed in (66.12%) of bladder carcinoma , and no expression in benign bladder lesions (cystitis) was detected , (P value &lt; 0.05) . P53 overexpression and its intensity were well correlated to grade of tumor indicating that P53 positive bladder carcinoma are biologically aggressive and detected more frequent in grade III than grade I or grade II (P value &lt; 0.05, R = 0.0821). Conclusions: From the above results we concluded that p53 and Her_2/neu over-expression play an important role in pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma evolution, as their positivity associated with higher tumor grade.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Serum Secretagogin and Focal Adhesion Kinase as Markers for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Beta Cells Function 2020-05-19T08:45:49+00:00 Shahad Ali Al-Eqabi1, Zeena Abdul llah1, Mahmood Shakir Khudhair2 <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the world’s major public health problems. The increasing incidence of DM worldwide makes it a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for the anticipated future. Secretagogin (SCGN) is a protein enriched and secreted from pancreatic islets, it demonstrates protective effects on ?-cell function. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a critical role in ?-cell survival and is a vital regulator of insulin secretion. In this research, serum SCGN, FAK, fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, C-peptide, lipid profile, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were measured in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and in healthy volunteers. The results showed that there was a significant increase in the levels of serum SCGN in patients with T2DM compared to the control group. There was a significant decrease in levels of FAK and C-peptide in T2DM patients compared to the control group. In addition, a significant increase was seen in FBG and HbA1c levels in T2DM patients compared to the control group. The lipid profile of T2DM patients was altered compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in the levels of BUN and creatinine among the study subjects. The results of this study suggest that both SCGN and FAK may serve as potential biomarkers reflecting the state of islet cells dysfunction in T2DM patients which may present additional markers for the diagnosis of T2DM.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Thyroid Nodules of Iraqi Patients with Acromegaly 2020-05-19T08:49:30+00:00 Nihad Abdallah Selman1, Abbas Mahdi Rahma2, Atheer Yass Ali3, Hayder K. Abed4 <p>Acromegaly is a chronic endocrine disorder caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone. The incidence of malignancy like colorectal carcinoma is well documented to increase in patients with acromegaly. While the real incidence of thyroid neoplasm in these patients are not well known.<br>Aims: Find out the rate of structural thyroid disorders in a sample of Iraqi patients with acromegaly; Identify the rate of thyroid malignant transformation in patients with acromegaly.<br>Settings and Design: A case control study<br>Methods and Material: seventy patients with acromegaly were enrolled compared with 70 controls from 2 endocrinology centers from Jan. -Dec. 2017. Their mean age 46+/-11years ;41(58.5%) males. Thyroid ultrasound was conducted for all participants while fine needle aspirate conducted for those with nodule diameter ?1cm.<br>Results: . Goiter was founded more in patients with acromegaly versus control group (81.4% vs 18.5% respectively ;P&lt;0.0001) .The overall nodular thyroid disease were found in (61.4%) acromegalic patients(of those : (11.4%) had single thyroid nodule and (50%) had multiple thyroid nodules. The ultrasonic feature of thyroid nodule were suspicious in (13.9%) of acromegaly group and none in control; P&lt;0.0001). The fine needle aspirate results were suspicious in(9.3%) acromegaly group versus none in control group, P&lt;0.05). One patient (2.3%) with acromegaly had papillary thyroid carcinoma and none in control; P=0.31).<br>Conclusions: Nodular thyroid disease were more prevalent in Iraqi patients with acromegaly but the risk of malignancy is not significantly different from normal population.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study on the Role of Interleukin-2 and Human Cytomegalovirus in Cases of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion of Women in Wasit Province 2020-05-19T09:20:12+00:00 Kadhum J. Gatti1, Suhad F. Hasson1, Asawer K. Alsadoon1 <p>Recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA) is the loss of pregnancy for two consecutive times at least before the arrival of the fetus for 24 weeks gestation. This study was conducted to investigate the role of IL-2 and human cytomegalovirus in recurrent spontaneous abortions women in Wasit province. to conduct immunological studies and viral by 90 women who suffer from abortion frequently (At least two abortions) and two sets of control (pregnant and healthy women), The average age of the groups ranged between (17-45) years, the results showed a high significant increase (P &lt;0.001) at the level of IL-- 2 patients compared with pregnant women and healthy women, according to different age groups. And also it showed the results of a study of opposites immune IgM, IgG-virus human cytomegalovirus rise significantly (P &lt;0.05) for patients when compared with pregnant women and healthy women In the cases of chronic and acute infection .</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene in Iraqi Infertile Men 2020-05-19T09:25:38+00:00 Randa Rasool Ghmayes1, Abdul Kareem A.Alkazaz1, Ahmed Adnan A.Rasool2 <p>The study was directed to determine Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs6166 A&gt;G) of follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene and their association as a risk factor with male infertility in Iraqi sterile patient. In the present study after seminal and serum analysis 50 patient (25 Azoospermia and 25 oligozoospermia) and 50 healthy fertile control were joined. The samples were collected from the Biotechnology Department/college of science/Baghdad university and Kamal Al-Samarie IVF Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. through the period of two months from November 2018 to January 2019. The SNP (rs 6166) determination was carried out by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of blood samples. The difference in the mean of genotype showed a significantly different (p&lt;0.05) in infertile patients group likened to corresponding means infertile control group. Survey of follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene SNP genotypes and allele frequencies in Azoospermia and oligozoospermia patient groups with the control group, showed that there was a significant variation in the heterozygous (AG) and homozygous mutant (GG) genotype frequencies in (rs 6166). It concluded that this SNP may have a role in an Azoospermia and oligozoospermia Iraqi patients complaining from idiopathic infertility.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Follicle –Stimulating Hormone Receptor Polymorphisms in Iraqi Women with Primary Amenorrhea 2020-05-19T09:28:14+00:00 Rawan Ahmed Nijeeb1, Abdul Kareem A.Alkazaz1, Ruqayah Gheyath Yaseen2 <p>The study was carried to determine Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs6165) of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene in blood samples of 62 Iraqi women with primary amenorrhea and 40 healthy control females. The research included chromosomal study and serum analysis of 62 patient samples. The samples were collected from Educational laboratories, City of Medicine, Baghdad and Biotechnology Dept. College of Science- Baghdad University through the period from October 2018 to March 2019. The determinations of SNP (rs6165) were carried out by real-time PCR. Results of rs6165 genotyping showed significant variations between PA patients and controls, Inspecting FSHR gene genotypes and allele frequencies in PA patients groups with the control group, revealed that there was significant variation in the heterozygous (AG) and homozygous mutant type(AA) genotype frequencies in (rs6165). the SNP of target gene may have a role in PA patients complaining from idiopathic puberty problems.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study Effect of Clarithromycin drug on Cryptosporidium Parvum and Efficiency of ELISA Technique in Diagnosis Comparison with Some Traditional Methods in vitro 2020-05-19T09:30:31+00:00 Hussein A. Kadhum1, Shaimaa A. Shlash2 <p>This research aimed to study effect of Clarithromycin drug on Cryptosporidium Parvum and efficiency of ELISA technique in diagnosis comparison with some traditional methods in vitro. Samples collected from four different sources water were 400 liters:100 liters tap water provider by Al-Kufa District River,100 liters house tank water,100 liters from sea of Al-Najaf and 100 liters stagnant water during period from October 2018 to April 2019.Examined samples by three laboratory methods: Modified Ziehl-Neelson stain, Flotation by saturated sugar solution method and ELISA to detecting from Cryptosporidium oocysts in the water as used Clarithromycin drug effective against C.parvum in vitro. Capability test was performed by impregnation of isolate on cell monolayers and determination the parasite counted after 48 h from the incubation at 37°C. Differ concentrations from Clarithromycin were 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/L respectively compared with control group.<br>Results of the current study showed that oocysts were found in 182 from 400 liters 45.5% as showed that height oocysts in stagnant water then followed Sea of Al-Najaf were 55% and 45% respectively, height percentage of oocysts were in April and March were 69.09% and 66% while decrease percentage of infection in October was 25%. As showed study results presence significant differences in efficiency of ELISA technique was 83.33% at detection from oocysts compared with Flotation by saturated sugar solution and Modified Ziehl-Neelson stain methods were 66.66% and 61.11% respectively. Shown results this study that Clarithromycin drug in concentrations of 16 and 32 mg/L caused decrease in number oocysts was 17.3±3.5 and 15.4±3.9, sporozoites counts was 17.1±3.4 and 14.9±4.0 compared with control group was 20.5±2.8.As observed significance differences (P?0.05) in the mean numbers of oocysts and sporozoites in three replicate plates after 48 h. These results proved that Clarithromycin have effectiveness in inhibition C.parvum in vitro</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Indirect Method for Determination of Paracetamol in Pure and Pharmaceutical Drugs using CFIA with Homemade Ayah 3SBGRX3-3D Solar Cell Microphotometer Analyzer 2020-05-19T09:34:00+00:00 Nagam S. Turkey Al-Awadie1, Marwah A. Kadhim Al-banaa2 <p>A method is described for the determination of paracetamol(based on the formation of a orange-reddish color species by reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by paracetamol and then reacted with 1,10-phenanthroline) in the range 0.001-0.09mMol.L-1 (r =0.9801, r2 = 0.9606 , and R2% = 96.06) with a detection limit (LOD) 21.77ng/160?L(3SB)(S/N=3) and with RSD% for 0.01 and 0.07mMol.L-1 less than 1 % (n=6). The method was applied successfully for determination of paracetamol in pharmaceuticals formulation. Analysis of drugs used the standard additions method via the individual t-test. The results showed a significant., difference between the quoted..value of each company. with calculated t-test at 95% confidence(?=0.05) from new method.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Expression and Conservation of rol-genes in Rue, Ruta graveolens L., Plants Regeneration from Hairy Roots 2020-05-19T09:40:42+00:00 Al-Mahdawi M. M.1, Al-Mallah M. K2 & Al-Ne’ma Q. Sh.3 <p>In this investigation hairy roots were induced on leave petioles of Ruta graveolens L. plants. These roots were white in color and negative geotropism. Paper electrophoresis of hairy roots extract resulted in the separation of black spots of agropine . These transformed roots were cured from Agrobacterium rhizogenes, some cultures of these roots were directly produced shoots, and other was orientated to produce callus. Subsequently this callus was capable to produce numerous regenerates. Both groups of shoots were rooted easily and successfully adapted to field conditions. Evidences of molecular biology assessment, including isolation and amplification(PCR) of DNA of each transformed tissues and plants coupled with DNA electrophoresis data proved the transfer of rol-genes, except rol B , in the regenerated plants.<br>Conclusion: The genetic modified R. graveolens plants possess unique characters due to the conservation of rol-genes in their genomes.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Assessment of Bioactive Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Restorative as a New CAD/CAM Material. Part I: Marginal Fitness Study 2020-05-19T09:43:02+00:00 Huda A. Abdulla1, Manhal A. Majeed2 <p>The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the marginal fitness of monolithic crowns fabricated from a newly developed bioactive CAD/CAM resin block and reinforced resin CAD/CAM block pre-and post-cementation with adhesive and self-adhesive resin cements. Bioactive CAD/CAM block were fabricated from ACTIVA BioACTIVE-RESTORATIVE (Pulpdent Corporation, USA) using a clear rectangular Teflon mold. Thirty-two human maxillary first premolar teeth were prepared to receive full crowns then divided into two main groups of 16 teeth each according to the type of block used to fabricate the crowns: Group A: crowns fabricated from the bioactive resin block, Group B: crowns fabricated from reinforced composite block (BRILLIANT Crios, Coltene). Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups according to the type of resin cement used for cementation, Subgroups (A1, B1): RelyX Ultimate cement, Subgroups (A2, B2): ACTIVA BioACTIVE-cement. The prepared teeth were scanned using CEREC Omnicam digital intra-oral and the crowns were then designed using CEREC Premium software (version 4.4.4) and milled using CEREC MC XL milling unit. The marginal gap of each crown was measured before cementation at four points on each tooth surface using a digital microscope at a magnification of 230x. Each crown was then cemented on its respective tooth according to the manufacturers’ instructions of each cement, and the marginal gap was measured again at the same aforementioned points. The results of this study showed that the marginal gap of all groups are below the clinically acceptable limit. Meanwhile, the marginal gap of the crowns fabricated from both block types increased significantly after cementation with both types of cement. Pre-cementation, student’s t-test revealed that there is no statistically significant difference in the marginal gap of crowns fabricated from both block types (p&gt; 0.05). Post-cementation, a statistically highly significant difference was seen between both block types with both types of cement (p&lt;0.01). From the results of this study, the newly developed bioactive resin block seems a promising material for CAD/CAM applications in terms of marginal fitness.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study Genotoxicity of Ciprofloxacin in white rats 2020-05-19T09:45:38+00:00 Mustafa Ahmed Shihab1, WAJDI Sabeeh Sadek1 <p>The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ciprofloxacin drug on the bone marrow of white male rats were assessed by the Micronucleus test (MN) in polychromatic Erythrocytes (PCEs). The DNA damage was assessed by the Comet assay technique in bone marrow, liver and spleen. The white male rats were administered by oral gavage of single doses (93.5), (187) of body weight with twice a day for 7 consecutive days, while the negative control group was administered distilled water. The results showed a significant increase in the number of micronuclei corresponding to the duration of exposure., there was a change in the percentage of immature erythrocytes in bone marrow. This increased with an increase in treatment duration. As for the number of immature erythrocytes containing micronuclei, there was a significant increase corresponding to the treatment duration. When using the comet assay technique, the values of DNA damage increased in a dose-related manner.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Thirteen New Yeast Strains Isolated from Cancer Patients in Basrah-Iraq by ITS rDNA Sequencing 2020-05-19T09:47:58+00:00 Mustafa A. Aldossary1, Bashar S. Abdulraheem2, Nasir A. Almansour3, Munaff J. Abd Al-Abbas3 <p>Yeast isolates were grown on CHR OMagar Candida medium to detect different types of the yeast species, and then the unidentified isolates were diagnosed by using molecular analysis of ITS region. From a total of 54 yeast isolates, 37 isolates appeared as different species of the genus Candida, the rest of species belong to Hanseniaspora, Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Magnusiomyces, Pichia and Saccharomyces. 13yeasts species in this study reported as new strains in Gen Bank, also species belong to C. pronicula, H. uvarum, K. exigua, K. marxianus, M. capitatus, Magnusiomyces sp., P. kudriavzevii, P. manshurica and S. bayanus x S. cerevisiae isolated for the first time in Iraq. We concluded that there are new emergent species of the yeasts inhabit the oral cavity of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, and the results showed that the molecular method provide a good approach for the identification.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Effectiveness of Boswelliaserrata (Kundur) Gum Extract on Some Biochemical Parameters in Male Rats Induced Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) 2020-05-19T09:50:57+00:00 Ahmed Neema AL-Mosawy1, Saatar Jasim Hatroosh1 almosawy748@gmail.comrenal <p>Objective: The study was to test water extract ofKundurby treatingchronic renal failure that induced by Cadmium chloride CdCl2.<br>Method: CdCl2. at a concentration of 5 mg /kg body. wt./day of rat at chronic level with drinking water for six weeks as animal model.measuring some predicate biomarkers functional common kidney was done serum creatinine and novel biomarker measured KIM-1 and NAGL, Cystatin C, demonstrate that a regular oral intake of CdCl2 solution (in drinking water) for 45 days.<br>Results: There is significant increase of Serum Urea, creatinine, KIM-1, NAGL and Cystatin C, when compared with control group, also indicate there is significant increase in serum biomarkers for kidney injury. After the treatment with water extract of Kundurby different concentrations 10,20, and 30 mg/kg all these Urea, Scr., KIM-1, NAGL and Cystatin C were significantly decrease when compared with CdCl2 group, compared with control group and after the treatment the damages were not found or minimize. At this exposure of CdCl2.<br>Conclusion: The biomarkers KIM-1, NAGL and Cystatin C may be good predictive indicator of chronic renal failure, plant extract may be having a highly effect for treating the renal failure and showed highly response to treatment.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The effect of Toxoplasmosis on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Pregnant Women in Thi-Qar Province 2020-05-19T09:55:38+00:00 Dawood S. Mahdi1, A.H. Awad2, Abeer T. Ali1 <p>The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of infection with Toxoplasma gondii on hematological and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Blood samples (103) were collected from emergency unit of Bent Al-Huda Hospital in Thi-Qar province during the period from October 2018 till March 2019. Samples gave agglutination results with latex test (79) were tested with ELISA test. Ten blood samples were collected from healthy pregnant women as control. Concentration of blood hemoglobin (Hb), total WBCs count, liver enzymes Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (GOT) and Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT), lipid profile (total Cholesterol and Triglycerides) were estimated during this study using different commercial Kits.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Paper Based Glucose Biosensor Depending on SPCE Modified with Hemoglobin and Silver Nanoparticles 2020-05-19T10:00:04+00:00 Ali Saad Elewi1, Shatha Abdul Wadood1, Abdul Kareem Mohammed Ali1 <p>In this study, new strategy intended for rapid glucose detection utilizing disposable glucose oxidase (GOD) paper disk integrated with screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with hemoglobin (Hb) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The GOD adsorbed on the surface of paper disk and after drying it placed on the surface of the modified SPCE and 16?L of glucose solution were added for the testing. Different parameters such as applied potential, concentration of enzyme, pH, size of paper disk, and the volume of buffer were optimized to improve the efficiency of this glucose biosensor.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Noise Pollution Levels in Hospitals and its Effects on Staff Health in AL - Najaf City in Iraq 2020-05-19T10:02:55+00:00 Ahmed Abdel Hamid A. Hamoud1, Zaid Makki Mohammed H. AL-Hakkak1 <p>The aim of the study was to determine levels and sources of noise pollution in the hospitals and its effects on staff health in AL - Najaf city in Iraq. The study included measure sound levels in all wards in three hospitals (Al-sadr teaching hospital, Al-hakeem general hospital and Al-zahraa’ teaching hospital) using a digital sound level meter. The present work also examined distribution of symptoms caused by noise in employees of three hospitals and main sources of noise in hospitals by using prepared questionnaire through direct interview in the workplace. The results showed that the average measured A-weighted equivalent continuous level (LAeq) in all hospitals and in different shifts was more than recommended level (20 – 35 dB) of World Health Organization (WHO).The study revealed that the main sources of noise in inside the wards rooms of hospitals Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital, Al-Hakeem General Hospital and Al-Zahraa’ Teaching hospital were “staff conversation” (91%); “maneuver-patient treatment” (83%); “doors opening or closing” (77.5%); “mobile phone ringing and conversation” (76.5%).Moreover, it was observed that (32%) of respondents were headache by noise in hospitals . Moreover, the type of noise health effects that most complained among employees were vocal fatigue (31%), dizziness (30.5%), and feeling sick at the end of the workday (28.5%). This study concluded that the noise level in three hospitals was higher than the WHO rating; therefore, this problem causes raising the noise annoyance on of hospital staff.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Academic Achievement among Students at Secondary Schools in Babylon City 2020-05-19T10:05:44+00:00 Hadeel Sahib Ali1, Qahtan Qassim Mohammed1 <p>Objectives: The main aim of the study is to determine the influence of emotional intelligence on academic achievement among the students. A descriptive study is carried to assess the influence of emotional intelligence on academic achievement among Students at secondary schools in Babylon City. A systematic random sample of (586) students are selected throughout the use of probability approach. The study sample selected from (4) secondary schools, which divided into (2) schools for female and (2) schools for male. The selection of sample divided into (141) students for each of male school and (152) for each female school. The schools were randomly chosen by lottery in the purpose to select 4 schools out of 28 schools (15%) and 25% of the students in these schools, which was convenient to the investigator. A total of (650) secondary school students, they were met the study criteria and agreed to contribute in the study The finding reveals that there is a significant influence of students’ emotional intelligence on academic achievement at p-value= 0.01</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Biochemical Health Measurements to Predict Backpack Achievement (50m) 2020-05-19T10:10:15+00:00 Imad Kadem Yasser1, Ali Khalif Ali2 <p>The tests and measurement is one of the most important scientific subjects that seek to achieve the requirements of research by linking to the delicate aspects that are objective through the results of measurements that carry the scientific side, and swimming on the back is very important in the field of sports and biochemical indicators scientifically shows us the amount of potential To predict the level of achievement of young swimmers indicate the amount of safety of different devices and reflect the positive side of the level of real achievement.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Road Traffic Fatalities in Babylon Province – Six Years Epidemiologic Study 2020-05-19T10:13:34+00:00 Hasan Alwan Baiee1, Karim AL-Araji2, Ahmad Jawad Mohammed3 <p>Road Traffic Accidents are the fifth leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Iraq, traffic accidents are increasing continuously leading to more fatalities that rank Iraq as number four in in the world. Objectives: To assess the epidemiological features of fatal Road Traffic Accidents in a time, place, person epidemiologic model and to identify the trend of Road Traffic mortalities in Babylon - province during six years. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study included a analysis of the forensic medicine data presented in the records of forensic medicine department in Babylon Health directorate for the period 2010-2015. After the approval of the study protocol by the local health ethical committees , a structured questionnaire was used to collect data according to the descriptive epidemiologic model (person , place, time model). During the period 2010-2015 mortality rates were higher in males than females with male to female ratio of 3:1 Higher mortality rates reported in the year 2015 and the highest frequency of mortality was in the age group (16-35)years (34.9%) followed by the age group (6-15)years (14.7%) the lowest rate was among the age group(46-55) years , the highest mortalities reported among Wage earners (58.8%).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Comparative Evaluation of Gutta-Percha and Sealer Removal of Rotary Niti File Retreatment Systems 2020-05-19T10:16:55+00:00 Mirvet M. Rashad 1, Noor H. Fadhil 2, Raghad A. Al-Hashimi 3 <p>Forty lower premolars with single root canals prepared with ProtaperNext files to size 25, and obturated with GP/sealer using lateral compaction. Teeth divided randomly into four groups (group n=10). Protaper universal retreatment kit (PUR), D-Race desobturation files (DRD), R-Endo retreatment kit (RE) and Hedstrom (H) files (control) were used to remove GP/sealer in each group. Removal effectiveness assessed by measuring the GP /sealer remnants in the roots after sectioning them into two halves. Stereomicroscope with a digital camera used to capture digital images. Images processed by ImageJ software to measure the percentage of GP/sealer remnants surface area in total, coronal, middle and apical areas of the canal. In the coronal area, PUR had significantly lower R% than RE and H groups, respectively (p&lt;0.05). Also, DRD had significantly lower R% than RE (P&lt;0.05). There was no significant difference between PUR and DRD (p&gt;0.05), as well as no significant difference between RE and H groups(p&gt;0.05). In the middle, apical and total root areas, Both PUR and DRD had significantly lower R% than RE and H groups, respectively (p&lt;0.05). There was no significant difference between PUR and DRD (p&gt;0.05). Also, there was no significant difference in R% between RE and H groups (p&gt;0.05).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Clinicopathological Study of Oral Giant Cell Fibroma 2020-05-19T10:23:02+00:00 Fatimah J.Ismael1 , Bashar H.Abdullah1 <p>Giant Cell Fibroma (GCF) is a relatively rare oral mucosal lesion, so named due to the characteristic giant cells present within the fibrous stroma of the lesion, limited number of clinicopathological studies were performed in previously published literature. This study was performed to evaluate the clinicopathological features of Giant cell fibroma in a sample of Iraqi patients. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 22 giant cell fibroma in period between 2010 and 2018 were retrieved from the laboratory of oral pathology of Baghdad University/College of Dentistry, Clinical data and microscopic features were reviewed and analyzed according to the available surgical reports. The mean age of patients at the time of diagnosis was 29.68 years with slight female predilections (1.4:1), the gingiva is the most common site of occurrence (36.4%), the lesions were 2-10 mm in greatest dimension. The most frequent provisional diagnosis is fibroma (54.5%) and papilloma (27.3%). Histologically, the distinctive diagnostic feature is the presence of mono, bi or multinucleated large stellate giant cells with a mean of 48.59 which is most numerous in the lamina properia beneath the epithelium.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Impact of Health Education Program on Health Status of Heart Failure Patients: A Quasi-Experimental Study 2020-05-19T10:25:50+00:00 Younus Khudhur1, Yousif Mohammed1 <p>Heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in ageing people, it affects and kills a large number of people. Objective: The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an education program on the health status of patients suffering heart failure. The study design is quasi-experimental. The patients were allocated into either the experimental group ( taking the program, n = 200) or the control group (not taking the program, n= 200). The extent of samples knowledge about the disease was tested at both the pre and post education stages. A structured teaching program for imparting knowledge on various aspects of nutritional status was developed based on an extensive review of the literature and expert opinion. The results of the study were elicited based on two statistical approaches, first, descriptive statistics and the second is an inferential statistical analysis. The shows that health status sub main domains at pre-period in case and control groups was non significant, while the health status sub main domains at post period in both groups were high significant. Regarding the study global main domains in both groups along pre-post period were high significant.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mouse Hepatocellular Carcinoma Sensitivity to Cisplatin and Docetaxel and Analysis of Related Proteins 2020-05-19T10:38:06+00:00 Aymen Radhi Habeeb1, Baydaa Hussein Mutlak1 , Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari2 <p>Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) globally ranked fifth common cancer and the third-leading cause of death. This study aimed to characterize the new mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HCAM) for some of the most important proteins involved in cell cycle regulation P53, HER2/neu, and EGFR by immunocytochemistry. Also, to measure the sensitivity of the cells to some common chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin and docetaxel by the MTT cell viability assay. The findings of immunocytochemistry appeared that HCAM cells proven to express the p53 and EGFR positively when compared with the negative control. Furthermore, showing nuclear only low expression for the HER2/neu. For evaluation of the chemotherapeutic agent’s efficiency, the cells of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCAM) were treated for 72 hours using different concentrations for Cisplatin and Docetaxel. The IC50 values of docetaxel and cisplatin after 72 h exposure for HCAM was 12.82 and 10.74 respectively. Our in vitro results demonstrate that Docetaxel and Cisplatin are toxic to HCAM cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results showed positive expression of p53, EGFR, and weak HER2/neu. Also, HCAM cell line showing to be sensitive to docetaxel and cisplatin, which inhibit cell proliferation.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Triple Negative Breast Tumors In Iraqi Women 2020-05-19T10:42:15+00:00 Faisal Ali Lattef1, Noor Fouad Mohamed Ali2, Basim Mohammed Abdulmajeed3, Ahmed Salahuddin Mohammed4 <p>Breast cancer is heterogeneous disease. From this; a special group of tumors, triple negative tumors, has a distinct interest from having its unique behaviors regarding biological, clinical, histological, hormone receptors status, Her2/neu expression, and therapeutic modalities. We made a study on Iraqi women, with triple negative tumors, focusing on some important parameters in this group of patients, comparing our results with the others (from the world). We conclude that most of these parameters are identical except the tumor grade, where we found that it is significantly low. Results from studies done before on Iraqi women, for the same purpose, showed some differences from ours. These differences include percentage of these tumors among other types of breast tumors (our results looked less), grade of tumors (our results showed medium grade), and lymph nodes metastasis which looked less in our study.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Seroprevelance of Toxoplasma gondii (IgM,IgG) among Aborted Women in Some Karbala Hospital by using ELISA Technique and Microscopic Examination 2020-05-19T10:46:45+00:00 Bahaa Alaa Farhan <p>In this study, 100 pregnant women experiencing unnatural birth cycle go to the Karbala Maternity and Children Hospital from October/2018 to April/2019. These women submit to a history and physical examination . Blood tests from pregnant ladies were tried for IgG and IgM. Antibodies and suicide Mo graphic information’s were gathered. Their normal age was 29 years. The investigation demonstrated that enemy of Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and by and large seropositivity of all antibodies were 42.85% and 57.14% separately. There was noteworthy impact of age on extent rate .The most noteworthy disease rates were found at 20-25 age gathering, while the least contamination rate found at 36-40 age gatherings. The all out predominance was more in Second Trimester of pregnancy (12.22%). IgG was increasingly amassed in Second Trimester (13.33%) than IgM (11.11%). No noteworthy distinction was found among residency and the commonness of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in both rustic and urban territories. Watchwords: Toxoplasma gondii Infection, Toxoplasmosis. Using a microscopic sample of blood samples, 14 positive blood samples from 100 were found and the infection was identified by its characteristic characteristics .</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Estimation of the Serum Concentration Levels of Ferritin and Vitamin D for Hypothyroid Patients. 2020-05-19T10:49:08+00:00 Amera Kamal Mohammed1, Thanaa Abdulmahdi2, Zainab Nasser Nabat2 <p>The paper investigates the serum concentration levels and the association between the levels of ferritin or vitamin D with thyroid dysfunction in Hypothyroid Patients. 90 participants were involved in this study; 47 healthy people (controls) (18 males and 29 females) and 43 hypothyroid patients (16 males and 27 females). Both groups have a mean age (age ± standard error) and body mass index (BMI) (BMI ± standard error) of 34.36. ± 1.19 years and 27.55± 0.52 kg/m2, respectively. The obtained results indicated that the age of participants played an ignorable role in this investigation (P ?0.05), while significant differences were noticed between the patients and controls (P &lt;0.05) in terms of BMI, 25(OH) vit D, ferritin, TSH, T3 and T4. There was also a significant difference (P&lt;0.05) between male and female patients in terms of ferritin, TSH, T3 and T4 in comparison with the controls.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Impact of Nutritional Milk for Lactating Mothers upon Efficiency of Breast Feeding for Iraqi Mothers at Maternity Hospital in Baghdad City 2020-05-19T10:50:45+00:00 Hawraa Hussein Ghafel1, Bahaulddin Hassan Abbood2 <p>Objective: This study conducted to find out: The impact of nutritional milk for lactating mothers upon efficiency of breast feeding 2.The impact of nutritional milk for lactating mothers upon the number of breastfeeding 3.The impact of nutritional milk for lactating mothers upon t babies’ weight. This study conducted at AL-Elwaya Maternity Hospital in Baghdad City. The study started in January 2019 to march 2019. The study sample included (100) lactating mothers that feed their newborns by breast feeding only despite of the method of delivery (normal vaginal delivery &amp; caesarian section) this sample divided in two groups the first one is the( study group) consist of (50) lactating mothers that consumption nutritional milk for three weeks and the other (control group ) consist of (50) lactating mothers that not consumption nutritional milk and then comparison between the two groups to detecting the impact of nutritional milk on the efficiency of breast feeding . results showed that the nutritional milk have impact upon the efficiency of breast feeding for the lactating mothers who were consumption the nutritional milk for at least three weeks and have impact upon their babies’ weight and growth.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Risk of Osteoporosis in Patients with Crohn’s Disease Not Respond to Infliximab Therapy Undergoing Surgical Intervention 2020-05-19T10:53:02+00:00 Fatima A.Mohammad1, Fatin Fadhel ALkazazz2, Sura A.Abdusattar3 <p>Osteoporosis is one of the most common complications of Crohn’s disease (CD). Proper history with blood samples were collected from (30) healthy control group, (30) Crohn’s disease patients have been respond to biological therapy ( infliximabIFX) (response group) and (30) CD patients with (non-response group) to biological therapy undergoing surgical intervention for the estimation of some biochemical parameters. This study demonstrate a significant decrease in FGF-23 (fibroblast growth factor 23) and vitamin D Levels between (non- response group) and control group (p&lt; 0.01). Similary , parathyroid hormone (PTH) Levels were increased significantly ( p&lt; 0.01) in (non- response) group. Moreover the calcium (Ca) and phosphours (P) decreased significantly (p&lt; 0.01) in same group. While in CD patients that have been treated with infliximab only vitamin D and FGF 23 decreased significantly (p&lt; 0.01)compared with control group. Levels of Serum FGF23 are considerably lower in CD patients, It is independent pattern was not affected by type of treatment (medical or surgical) . Hypovitaminosis common finding in CD patient’s .Although CD is not disease of vit D deficiency but it clearly is a disease whose pathogenesis seems closely related to vit D Level.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Bioactivity of Gutta flow II versus Modified Gutta Percha based Silicon Endodontic Sealers by Nanobioactive Fillers 2020-05-19T10:56:05+00:00 Saad A. Ramadhan1 , Raghad A. Al hashimi2 <p>The success of endodontic therapy is relied on radicular system cleaning, shaping, elimination of micro-organisms, and three dimensional filling of the radicular complex.This study was conducted to develop and assess new root canal sealer incorporating nano-sized bioactive glass into Gutta Flow II. The following concentration was used depend on a pilot study included adding (3%) of 45S5 bioactive glass into the Gutta Flow II. These materials were tested through assessment bioactivity. bioactivity test was undertaken after immersion of the tested samples into PBS for three days, seven days, fourteen days, and twenty eight days using FTIR too. study was found that it’s peaks was appear at level 800-1000 cm-1. The results showed that GFII group revealed no peak at the 910 cm-1, while, while BG3% revealed 179.85 pixel height, in conclusion the newly developed sealers exhibited apparent apatite and apatite precursor forming ability significantly with BG 3% while GuttaFlow II sealer showed no apatite layer forming ability.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Assessment Self-Care of Patients’ Undergoing Hemodialysis with end Stage Renal Disease 2020-05-19T10:58:12+00:00 Haider Mohammed Haloob AL-Abedi1, Zahraa Abdull Abbass Al- Khafajy2 , Ali J. Eidan3 , Dhafer Ameen J. Al-Mossawy4 , Athraa Abbas Al-Zeyadi 5 <p>Objective: this study designed to assess self-care of patients’ undergoing hemodialysis with end stage renal disease and to determine out association between self-care of patients with end stage renal disease and their socio-demographic characteristics. Descriptive cross-sectional design is adopted in the recent study to perform the early stated objects. Started the study from (October 1st, 2016 until May, 6th, 2017). A Non-Probability (Accidental Sample) of (61) ESRD patients, those who visit dialysis centers of Al-Sadder Medical City in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf., are included in the study sample. Analyzed data by descriptive analysis contains (Frequencies &amp; Percentages) and statistical figures (Pie Charts) and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients. The outcome of the present study that the self-care activities are interdependent and there is a positive relationship between the patients’ self-care with their age, income and marital status. While there is a non-significant difference between self-care activities and their clinical data in all items except there number of admission to emergency is a high significant difference. The study concludes that most patients with ESRD need moderate assistance in performing in dietary, exercise and other activities.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hypertension in Relation with Smoking in Azadi Teaching Hospital at Kirkuk City 2020-05-19T11:06:25+00:00 Saad S. Mustafa1, Taghlub H. Ryhan2, Ali A. Ismail3 <p>Background: smoking and hypertension are two common health problems effecting body organs and increasing morbidity and mortality.<br>Aim of Study: determining the relationship between smoking and hypertension, the affect of the amount and duration of smoking on the severity of hypertension and complications of smoking among hypertensive patient.<br>Patient and Method: the study is cross sectional, in which 200 hypertensive patient were collected in Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk. There blood pressure was measured and the patients were asked about smoking habits, and if they have complication of hypertension.<br>Results: hypertension is more common among male, married, illiterate and primary educated, intermediate socioeconomic state, physically inactive and more in urban than rural area. Uncontrolled rate of hypertension is high in both smokers and non smokers and this rate increase with increase with increasing duration of smoking. Heart and cerebrovascular complications of hypertension is very high in smokers compared with non smokers. P-value less than 0.05 regard as significant relationship.<br>Conclusion: very low control rate of hypertension in both smokers and non smokers. We recommended public health education via mass media regarding the side effect of smoking combined with hypertension and it’s complications.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Determination of Some Volatile Organic Compounds in the water produced at Al-Ahdab oilfield in the Governorate of Wasit, Iraq using Headspace SPE-GC-FID. 2020-05-19T11:08:20+00:00 Najla Mohson Hammod1, Khalid Waleed S. Al-Janabi2, Salam Abbas Hasan1 <p>The study was conducted over the period of Oct 2018 to Apr 2019 and is aimed for the detection and estimation of four hazardous Volatile Organic Compounds VOC (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) so-called (BTEX) in samples collected from the produced water in the Al-Ahdab oil field in Iraq also to track their availability in the important natural water sources around the field. These compounds pose a risk to human health as well as environment. To avoid the laborious and tiresome conventional extraction methods, water samples were collected and concentrated using solid-phase extraction technique (SPE) which is a robust and cost-effective method of sample extraction with minimal exposure and handling of solvents and then to be analyzed via a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). All of the collected samples were found contaminated with the BTEX compounds by unacceptable limits exceeding the recommended percentages. BTEX compounds were also found in the aquatic samples outside the field. Standard deviation (SD) was ranging from 0.01-0.73. The purpose of this study was to track and monitor the BTEX concentrations in the water produced by the Al-Ahdab oilfield and compare it with the BTEX levels in the water sources near the oilfield. Which is very important to control the impact of the discharged waters on the environment.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Histological Changes in Mice (Balb/c) Induced by Newcastle Virus in Digestive System 2020-05-19T11:10:23+00:00 Abbas Abed Sharhan1, Ahmed Obaid Hussain2, Ameer Jawad Hadi3, Ruqya jaafer baqer3 <p>Many domestic and Newcastle disease is a contagious bird disease affecting wild avian species,it may be transmissible to humans . Detection of Newcasstle virus confirmed by rapid test technique(Immunochromatography) . ten sample (10% ) out of 100 fasces sample collected from chickens were positive. Twelve mice used in this study devided into two groups ,first group consist of six mice induced with 0.2 ml from one positive sample of Newcasttle virus suspension to evaluate some histopathological changes caused by Newcasstle virus in small intestine and stomach of mice,second group induced with 0.2 ml from phosphate buffer saline only. The results revealed that histopathological changes in small intestine (duodenum )induced by using 0.2 ml from the positive Newcasstle virus suspension to complete necrosis and fragmentatin in the villi.Jejenum of mice treated with this concentration of Newcasstle virus has partial necrosis for villi with filtration of villus core while ilium of mice treated with same concentration has wide spread of villus necrosis . Stomach of treated mice has oedema in submucosa layer and partial necrosisin gastric glands.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Effects of Newcastle virus Histologically Suspension on Some Organs of White Mice (Balb /c) 2020-05-19T11:12:17+00:00 Alaa Abd Alzahraa1, Ahmed Obaid Hossain1, Abbas Abd Sherhan1 <p>Newcastle disease is a contagious bird disease affecting wild avian species and many domestic,it may be transmissible to humans. Detection of Newcasstle virus confirmed by rapid test technique(Immunochromatography) . ten sample (10% ) out of 100 fasces sample collected from chickens were posative. Twelve mice used in this study devided into two groups ,first group consist of six mice induced with 0.2 ml from one positive sample of Newcasttle virus suspension to evaluate some histopathological changes caused by Newcasstle virus in small intestine and stomach of mice,second group induced with 0.2 ml from phosphate buffer saline only. The results revealed that histopathological changes in liver induced by using 0.2 ml from the positive Newcasstle virus suspension as hyperpalsia in kufper cells. Lung of mice treated with this concentration of Newcasstle virus has partial pnemonia and thicking the intra alveolar walls. While brain of mice treated with same concentration suffering from increase in number of glial cells ( glialosis ) and apoptosis in brain cells.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Molecular identification of Ascaridia columbae in the Local Healthy Pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Gmelin, 1780) in Karbala Province 2020-05-19T11:14:34+00:00 1 Dhiaa J.Hamzah, 2Ihsan k. A. Al kardhi, 3 Haider A. H. Al saegh, 4 Hayder A. Muhammed , 4 Firas ALAli <p>The current study was conducted to investigate dissemination of gastrointestinal Ascariasis in local pigeons (Columba livia domestica) living in Kerbala province. Forty domestic pigeons with different ages were purchased from different markets. Each bird was examined for intestinal parasites. Out of 40 birds examined, the prevalence of gastrointestinal Ascariasis in examined birds were ( 12.5% ), Ascaris sp. was detected in 100% of intestinal contents using macroscopic and microscopic examination assays, molecular diagnosis from bird belly, with the emphasis on primer designed specificity it used in our study.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effect of Addition of Composite Polyamide Micro Particles and Silicone Dioxide NanoParticle on Some Mechanical Properties of Room Temperature Vulcanized Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer Before and after Artificial Aging 2020-05-19T11:16:29+00:00 Bahaa F. Alanssari1, Bayan S. Khalaf2 <p>Background: The most common reason for re-making a maxillofacial prosthesis is the degradation of the mechanical properties of the silicone.<br>Aim of this study: To assess some mechanical properties of VST-50F maxillofacial silicone reinforced with a composite of silicon dioxide nanoparticle and polyamide-6 microparticle before and after artificial aging.<br>Material and Method: Preparing 240 samples tested for tear strength, tensile strength and elongation percentage, hardness, and roughness before and after aging. The Silicon dioxide was added in concentrations of 1% by weight and Polyamide-6 in the concentration of 0.25% and 0.5% by weight to the VST-50F RTV maxillofacial silicone. The one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests were used for inferential statistics.<br>Results: The one-way ANOVA showed a highly significant difference between all tested groups. The effect of the addition of composite fillers showed an increase in tear strength, hardness, and surface roughness but a decrease in tensile and percentage of elongation. However, the effect of artificial aging showed increased in tear strength, Percentage of elongation, and surface roughness, but a decrease in tensile strength and hardness.<br>Conclusion: Addition of composite of fillers into the silicone elastomer allowed enhancement of some mechanical properties. The composite of different types of filler reinforcement improves the anti-aging properties of silicone and maintain some of the mechanical properties to enhance the service life.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Elements of the Crime of Copyright Infringement on the Internet 2020-05-19T11:19:00+00:00 Ammar Ghali Abdulkadhim <p>With the creation of the human mind, the intellectual production of such machine created by the Creator began to appear in various forms starting from drawing and engraving on stones, the manufacture of clothing from plants leaves and animal skins, and making fishing rods and eventually to all cognitive sciences known by the world today and the evolution reached in all fields and aspects. Intellectual property rights are among the most important forms of human rights related to his intellectual production in the scientific, literary, artistic, and all forms of intellectual production in the different aspects of human life. It is clear to all that this production has its material and moral fruits. The intellectual property rights have become one of the most important forms of material rights that entitles its holder to dispose them, give them up and invest them. This right can be defined from the researcher point of view as a set of ideas that are written and issued by the human mind, and that can be accessed and identified just as tangible material objects. It includes all rights resulting from the intellectual activities of man in the literary, artistic, scientific, industrial, commercial and similar fields.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effect of Iron Oxide Nanopartical on The FSH, LH and Testesteron Hormones in The offspring of Albino Rats 2020-05-19T11:20:47+00:00 Reyim Hameid Kamel 1, Amel Ali AL-Taee2 <p>The study was carried out to investigate the effect of iron oxide nanoparticle(NP) on FSH,LH and Testosterone hormones in the offspring of albino rats. The study included twenty (20) offspring divided into two groups ,treated and control group . The results of the hormonal study showed the existence of significant increase (P? 0.05) in the mean levels of FSH,LH ,Testosterone of offspring treated groups compared with controls .</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Genetic variability of the Mite Varroa destructor Isolated from Honey Bees in Iraq and Some Middle Eastern Countries 2020-05-20T04:46:36+00:00 Muntasser S. Mahdi1 , Mahmood B. Ali 1, Aqeel N. AL-abedy2 <p>This study was conducted to isolate and diagnose different isolates of Varroa parasite collected from different regions of Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Egypt, and Jordan. The different Varroa isolates were identified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene I (mtCOI) to determine the nucleotide sequences generated from these isolates. These nucleotide sequences were analyzed to identify the similarities and differences in the amplified gene regions. The results obtained from the nucleotide base-sequence analysis indicated that all isolates of Varroa parasite collected in this study were Varroa destructor. Furthermore, the results showed differences in the nucleotide sequences resulting from the amplification of the target mtCOI by PCR. The isolates from Egypt (No.12) and from Syria (No.14) were the most genetically different among the other isolates in this study (17 samples) . By the phylogenetic tree analysis, isolates of parasites numbered with 12 and 14 appeared in separate clades from the other clades of isolates under study. Besides, these isolates (No.12 and No.14) showed differences to other isolates of the same parasite formerly recorded at NCBI. The V. destructor isolate of Egypt (12) and Syria (No.14) showed a genetic similarity of 99%.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effect of Preoperative Breathing Exercise on Postoperative Patients’ Lung Functions 2020-05-20T05:12:26+00:00 Dhiaa A. Al-Reda1, Rajha A. H1 <p>Pulmonary complications after surgery are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and therefore are a source area of concern in both developed and developing countries. Presently, surgical patients didn’t acquire education about deep breathing activities that were adequate and many of them only received some education post operation. Aim of the study: To investigate the Effect of Preoperative Breathing Exercise on Postoperative patients’ Lung Functions. A quantitative quasi-Experimental, Pre-Test and Post-Test design. A non-probability (purposive sample) of (60) patients divided into two equal groups distributed as the case and control groups (30) patients for the case group are exposed to the breathing exercise program, Pursed-lip method, and (30) patients without exposed to the breathing exercise program categories as control group. the study have been carried out in Al-Diwaniyah teaching hospital, This study conducted from 22nd of October 2018 to 25th of June 2019. There were statistically significant difference between case and control groups, patients in the case group had improvement in all parameters of lung functions than control group ( P &lt; .05) in the two periods of measurement post-operatively. The program show obvious difference between the lung function for both study and control groups during the post-test.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Glomerular Diseases: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is Most Common Finding: A Cross-Sectional Study 2020-05-20T05:15:47+00:00 Fadhil Handhal Khleif 1, Haider Jebur Kehiosh 2, Salman Azeez Aljubori3, Sabah Nemah Alfatlawi 4 <p>The objective of this study was to assess the connection amongst’s immunological and histopathological findings of renal biopsy acquired from patients with glomerular diseases. This cross sectional study was done in Al-Kafil private hospital and included 110 patients who were diagnosed by nephrologist as having glomerulonephritis as per clinical introduction, physical examination and laboratory findings of biopsy. The age scope of patients enlisted in the present investigation was between 2.8 to 72 years. The study included 67 male patients (60.9%) and 43 female patients (39.1%). The examination began at January 2016 and reached out through January 2017. At the point when clinical introduction and the entire workup of examination were at long last joined, with exceptional accentuation on histopathology and immunofluorescent tiny examination, the accompanying classification was gotten. Cases with glomerular association optional to foundational lupus erythematosis represented 27 out of 110 (24.5%). Consequently lupus nephritis is the most incessant reason for glomerulonephritis obsereved in the present examination. As indicated by the International Society of Nephrology (ISN)/Renal Pathology Society (RPS) grouping of lupus nephritis, the most incessant compose was ISN/RPS class IV (A/C) represented 14 case (12.7%), trailed by ISN/RPS class III ( A/C) (8 case, 7.3%)</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Synthesis of Diimidazole Has Pyrazole, Isoxazole and Pyrimidine Derivatives and Evaluation as Antibacterial 2020-05-20T05:17:49+00:00 Sahar Abdullah Kadham.1, Abdul Jabar Kh. Atia2 <p>New diimidazole contains pyrazole , isoxazole and thiopyrimidine were synthesized by using simple methods. All compounds were synthesized by using hippuric acid (1) as stating material which was obtained from benzoyl and glycine with. pyrazole derivatives (6a – b ) was obtained from reaction (5a – b) with hydrazine hydrate while reaction of (5a – b )with hydroxyl amine isoxazole derivatives (7a – b) were obtained ,finally reaction of thiourea was reacted with 5a – b thiopyrimidine derivatives were get (8a –b ) . FTIR and 1HNMR spectra were used to characterized derivatives several bacterial species like Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumanii were used to tested antibacterial activity</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Novel Approach and Cloud Point Extraction Method for Determination of Acetazolamide Drug 2020-05-20T05:20:41+00:00 Muna Iskandar Mahdi1, Kassim Hassan Kadhim1 <p>Acetazolamide was hydrolyzed to primary aromatic amine by using (0.4) M NaOH under reflux. The product was evaluated by two a ways. The first way, Diazotization coupling reaction (approach) as simple, sensitive, rapid and selective Spectrophotometric method, using 8-hydroxyquinoline as Chromogenic reagent to give Azo dye (red) in basic medium. The second way involves applying Cloud point extraction, using Triton-x114 as surfactant. The Azo dye was diagnosed by FT-IR, 1HNMR and UV-Visible technique. The analytical data for Approach and Cloud point extraction method, involve concentration rang (5-150), (0.5-6) ?g.mL-1, molar absorptivity (2.3×103), (1.3×104), Sandall’s sensitivity (0.096) ? (0.017) ? and detection limits (0.952) ?g.mL-1 and (0.043) ?g.mL-1 respectively. In addition the measurement enrichment factor (100) and preconcentration factor (6.30), The proposed methods don’t affect by the existence of excipients so the methods were applied successfully in determining Acetazolamide in pharmaceutical preparations.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Effect of Pilates Exercises in the Repair of the Aberration and Balance of the Muscles of Shoulder Girdle as a Beginning for the Fitness 2020-05-20T05:23:21+00:00 Hussein Ali Kadhim1, Haidar Shmkhi Jabar1 <p>Fitness refers to the good health of athletes, then, it is necessary for every athlete to duty the importance of management and agreement in the training of muscle groups then everything related to the substratum and muscle balance and evaluate it by using the Pilates way to identify its elements and secrets so as to raise the substratum of the athlete and rehabilitation of distortions and deviations, creating healthy habits, and spreading fitness awareness among athletes through working to improve strength, lengthening and muscular balance of the shoulders. Thus, the researcher used the experimental approach by using the experimental design with one suitable group of the research, while, the sample of the research that made up of (12) athletes, that has been chosen by the researcher by using the intentional method for those who are suffering from the aberration of the shoulder fall. The researcher made sure to applied the Pilates exercises by using repeat contraction that aims to improve muscle balance, strength and flexibility of the sample of the research, with (8) weeks and consists of (24) Training modules, (3) modules a week, the most important conclusion in the research is that the using of Pilates contribute to reduce and rehabilitation the aberration of the shoulder fall, if the essential strength of the shoulder girdle muscles that assist in developing the muscular balance, it can be concluded that these exercises agreed with the aberration of shoulder fall and muscle balance.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effect of Specific Tactical Exercises in Some Biochemical Indicators and Psychological Endurance and Achievement of 400 M Hurdles for Young Players 2020-05-20T05:26:04+00:00 Mahmoud Nasser Radi1, Ali Bukheet Hassan1, Muntadher Mohammed Ali1 <p>This study dealt with several topics including the introduction of the research and the importance of the use of specialized tactical training during the training units, which are manifested in the development of biochemical indicators, psychological tolerance and performance of the effectiveness of 400 m hurdles, so researchers thought to conduct this study and go in the process to identify the results that will be achieved. In the results to the lack of the use of specialized lactic exercises, which are based on scientific foundations and that would make adaptations functional, in addition to the effectiveness of this need of self-sufficiency of large runners because it is a difficult activity that requires the will and determination to win, if The research problem involves two main axes: the first is the low speed restriction and tolerance of the special speed in the 400 m hurdles, and the second axis in the search is to obtain a high level of functional efficiency of some biochemical indicators associated with special speed and the tolerance of the speed Therefore, the researchers considered going into this experiment.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Comparative Molecular Study between Some Plant Extract and Tinidazole of Hydatid cysts in Basrah, Southern Iraq 2020-05-20T05:28:07+00:00 Jalal Y. Mustafa1, Ghazi Y. Azzal1, Suzan A. Al-Azizz1, Fatin A. Muatafa2, Arwa R. Lazim2 <p>Hydatid disease or Echinoccosis is one of the serious public health problems. This study was designed as a comparative molecular study between some plant extract and tinidazole of sheep hydatid cysts in Basrah province. In this study, 213 sheep were examined and the number of those infected with hydatid cysts was 75 (35.2 %). The results showed that hydatid cyst were detected successfully by performing PCR technique. In addition, Quercus aegilops has been shown the best plant extract for destroying all genes, the second plant extract which is Capparis spinosa showed destroying of two genes (G6-7, COI) and failed to destroy (sh4-1). Furthermore Prosopis fracta has showen to destroy only (G6-7) and tinidazole failed to destroy any of these genes used in this study.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Histological, Histochemical And Immune Histochemical Study of Effect Aging on the Parotid Salivary Glands in Buffalo 2020-05-20T05:30:05+00:00 Dhuha Adel Kareem1, Hiba M. Abd Alrahman1 , Fawzi-Alasadi1 <p>The present work were carried out on twenty parotid salivary glands were collected from head of buffalo(slaughtering of Basra) and divided into two equal groups( one year age and five year age) . The results were showed that the parotid salivary gland consist of spherical serous acini connected with branched ducts, intercalated ducts which attached with striated ducts , these duct involved the intra lobular ducts. The larger duct named interlobular duct, myoepithelial cells located between the basal membrane and secretory acini and ducts. The results revealed that the effect of aging on the histological structures of parotid salivary gland by using routine stain, histochemical stain steriological histologically, and immunohistochemistry. The high intensity of connective tissues in the parotid salivary glands with age of five years as compared to the age of one years (normal intensity),also showed fibrosis in the parotid gland of five year age as compared with parotid gland of one year no appear any fibrosis, stereological histologically of the mean diameter of acini for parotid gland of five years age increased significantly p&lt;0.05 (13±0.33 micron)while acini of one years age(10.4±0.02 micron), the mean diameter of intercalated duct for parotid gland of five years age increased significantly p&lt;0.05 (40.13±2.61 micron) as compared of intercalated duct for age one years (26.56±1.22 micron). The histochemical results by using PAS stain showed low intensity of glycogen for parotid gland of five years age as compared to the group of one years age. The immuonohistochemistry (VEGF) showed decrease in the parotid salivary gland of five year age as compared to the group of one years age .</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study the Protective Role of Vitamin (B6 and B12) on the Some of the Blood Physiological, Biochemical Parameters and Histological Induced by Treatment of Sodium Fluoride Male White Rat 2020-05-20T05:32:25+00:00 Alyaa Neamah Al-Saidi 1 , Zainab Shnewer Al-Turfi 1 <p>The study was conducted in the Faculty of Pharmacy / Karbala University for the period from 12/2018 to 7/2019. The first group was orally injected with a saline solution with a concentration of 0.9 ml and was considered as a control group. The second group was injected with sodium fluoride at a concentration of 20 mg / kg body weight (Positive), while the third group was injected with sodium fluoride with the same previous concentration with vitamin B6 leaves Group G was also injected with sodium fluoride with the same previous concentration with vitamin B12 at a concentration of 25 ?g / kg body weight. In the fifth group, sodium fluoride and vitamins B6 and B12 were injected with the same concentrations mentioned above with 1 mg / kg body weight. Ml of each of the solutions above and for all groups where the duration of the dosage lasted 21 days and once a day. a significant decrease in the ratio of body weight, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, high density lipoprotein and glutathione peroxidase, whereas white blood cells, platelets, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins and Malondyaldehyde increased significantly in the sodium fluoride treatment group with control group.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Outcome Following Medical and or Surgical Intervention (ESPAL) for the Treatment of Epistaxis in ENT Unit in Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital: Cohort Study 2020-05-20T05:38:30+00:00 Ali Najm Abdullah Alibadi1 , Wasam Abbas Abdulhsen Albusalih1 <p>Aim of the study: In the current study the aim was to evaluate a sample of Iraqi patients with epistaxis regarding medical and surgical interventions and their outcomes. The study was carried out in Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) unit in Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Mid-Euphrates region, Iraq. The study started on January 2018 and ended on June 2019. The main variables included in the study were age, residency, level of education, occupation, clinical presentation (cold versus emergency), severity of bleeding, type of intervention (Medical versus surgical), presence or absence of associated disease and response to treatment. Medical intervention included, direct pressure, anterior nasal packing and chemical cauterization with silver nitrate; whereas, surgical intervention included transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation (TESPAL). Bleeding was more frequently of emergency presentation rather than cold in association with surgical group, more severe in surgical group and characterized by more frequent attacks per month in surgical group in comparison with medical group. Response to medical and surgical intervention was good and satisfactory in all patients even after follow up for 6 months at least. There were negligible adverse effects in association with surgical intervention.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Safety And Efficacy of Implanon Implant in A Sample of Iraqi Women: A Cohort Study 2020-05-20T05:44:06+00:00 Samah Radhi Lateef 1, Makkiyah Radhi Lateef 2, Qatarulnada Khudhair Abbas3 <p>Aim of the study: we planned and conducted the current cohort study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this new contraceptive method in a sample of Iraqi women.<br>Patients and Method: This cohort study was carried out at some governmental health institutes such as Al-Diwaniyah Maternity and Child Teaching hospital and Al-Shamiyah teaching hospital and some private clinics. The beginning of the study is dated back to the 2nd of January 2016; the study continued till end of June 2019 and included 53 women. Inclusion criteria included any women with implanon implant that was recently impanted. The variables to be evaluated included age, residency, gravidity, parity and abortions in addition to principal outcomes, complications (amenorrhea, bleeding and development of ovarian cysts) and pregnancy six months following removal of the implant. All women participating in the current study were followed up till at least six months after implant removal.<br>Results: The outcome of implanon use was assessed following a period of follow up that ranged from 2 to 3 years with a mean of 2.89 years, as shown in table 2. Contraceptive failure was no seen in any case with a failure rate of 0.0 %. Amenorrhea was the most frequent side effect and it has been seen 18 (34.0 %). Ovarian cyst was seen in 6 cases accounting for (11.3 %) and bleeding was seen in 2 cases only accounting for (3.8 %). Complications, amenorrhea, ovarian cysts and bleeding were not significantly correlated to any of demographic or obstetric characteristics of the study group (P &gt; 0.05.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sperm Activation of Asthenospermic Infertile Patient by Using Swim-up and Swim-down Techniques 2020-05-20T05:46:18+00:00 Rana F. M. Al- Dulaimi <p>The study included ten semen samples collected from infertile patients with asthenospermia . Each sample was divided into two equal parts where the sperm were activated by swim up techniques up on a part of the sample while the second part was used to activate the sperm by swim down . The results showed a significant decrease (p &lt; 0.05) in both the recovered sperm concentration and the concentration of leukocytes after activation with both techniques compared with their values before activation . A significant increase was observed in the percentage of sperm motility style A+B and a significant decrease in sperm motility percent style C after activation compared with their values before activation. The significant difference was not observed ( p &gt;0.05) when comparing between the two techniques . There was also no significant difference ( p &gt; 0.05) in the percentage value of the abnormal sperm percent before and after activation. The study concludes that the techniques of swim up and swim down are effective in activating the sperm of infertile patients who are infected with asthenospermia .</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Impact of Both Types of Leukemia on the Concentrations of Alpha-TNF and serum C and Serum Immunoglobulin in Both Sexes 2020-05-20T05:48:17+00:00 Thamer Ismail Ahmed1, Mounif Saab Ahmed2 <p>Vascular leukemia is a malignant disease that affects the tissues that form the blood cells. These cells are carcinogenic and occur due to the deficiency of cells to differentiate and develop to be normal blood cells. The acute leukemia includes two types of acute and chronic, the seriousness of the disease on human life and its ability to infect all age groups, Gender The research is demonstrated to evaluate the level of tumor necrosis factor, active C protein and total white blood cells and their types in the blood of the study groups (leukemia patients and control) The research is conducted in the period from September 2018 until the end of April 2019 in the center of the province of Kirkuk specialized for tumors and blood diseases. Blood samples are collected from 141 patients with leukemia and 30 normal subjects (control group) in different age groups.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Psychological Factors Affecting on Performance in Speaking Skill 2020-05-20T05:50:49+00:00 Raziqa Aliwy Naser Al- Khafaji1, Jalal Azizi Farman Al-Barqawy1, MuneerUbeid Najem Al-Jiboory1 <p>The aim of this research paper is to evaluate performance during styles of simple perspective sensible learning due to VARK model which identifies four primary types of learners: visual, auditory, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. The study sample consists of (140 teachers of both sexes) who are distributed according to the school kind (for boys or for girls) and location, for elementary schools. The research paper is descriptive, the paper tool is a form of 25 teaching skills of learning styles. The statistic means are used in the centigrade scale, weighted average and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC). The study has concluded results like visual and auditory control because of getting the highest degrees in the statistic means.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effectiveness of an Instructional Programs on Patient’s Knowledge Regarding Self- Care Management after Ischemic Heart Disease 2020-05-20T05:57:49+00:00 Ahmed Abdul-Hussein Kittan1, Rajha Abdul Hassan Hamza2 <p>Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and there is a rising global burden. The effects of diet on cardiometabolic risk factors have been studied extensively. Healthy habit as a cost-effective approach to risk reduction in post- ischemic heart disease patients is proven to be beneficial. A quasi experimental study design is carried out at An Nasiriyah Heart Center in AL-Nasiriyah City, from 15th of September, 2018 to the 2nd July, 2019. A non-probability (Purposive sample) of (100) patients diagnosed with myocardial infarction divided into two group (50) patients as control group and (50) patients as study group. The data were collected through the use of questionnaire designed by researcher, which comprised of (2) parts: Part I: related to the Socio-demographic characteristics and Part II: Clinical characteristics. Part III: Assessment self-care management of IHD patients’ knowledge .Reliability of the questionnaire is determined through a pilot study and the validity through a panel of experts. The descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were used for analysis of data. Findings of the present study indicated that the instructional program recorded positive and meaningful results in improving patients’ knowledge with self-care management.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Inactivation of Enterococcus Faecalis in Drinking Water using Silver Nanoparticles Embedded Paper 2020-05-20T06:00:39+00:00 Alaa H Al-Fatlawi1 , Shahad A. Raheem2 <p>In this paper, a cellulose paper was impregnated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for the purpose of removing Enterococcus faecalis from drinking water. AgNPs papers were prepared by chemical reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) with various concentrations (0.005 M, 0.01 M, 0.015 M, and 0.025 M) using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as a reducing agent. Two ratios of NaBH4/AgNO3 of 2:1and 10:1 were used to show the effect of reduction on the formation and removal efficiencies of AgNPs. AgNPs papers were characterized using SEM and TEM. TEM images showed that the silver nanoparticles size in the papers varies from 1.3 to 75 nm.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Assessment of the Correlation between the Salivary Flow Rate and Dental Caries Experience among Children with ?-Thalassemia Major 2020-05-20T07:38:34+00:00 Mudhafar Fadhil Jaddoa1, Alhan Ahmed Qasim2 <p>Thalassemia constitutes a group of congenital blood disorders which characterized by a defect in synthesis of one or more globin chains of human hemoglobin molecule and the resultant microcytosis and hypochromia of the RBCs. It is of two main divisions, ?- and ?-thalassemia and several other subdivisions. The study group composed of 40 patient years previously diagnosed with ?-thalassemia major attending the thalassemia center in Thi-Qar province/Iraq. The control group, matching the age and sex of the study group, and consisted from 40 child selected from a number of primary schools. Unstimulated salivary samples was taken from each subjects under standardized conditions. The mean value of flow rate of saliva was lower among ?-thalassemias (0.466±0.024) than for controls (0.829±0.048). The (mean±SE) for the primary teeth (dmfs) in ?-thalassemias (1.450±0.324) was higher than that for controls (1.250±0.808), this difference was not significant (P&gt; 0.05). The (mean±SE) of the caries experience (DMFs) in ?-thalassemias (6.850±0.782) was higher than for the control group (3.600±0.489).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Determine Effect of Carbothera Therapy on Foot and Leg Ulceration for Diabetic Patients in Endocrine and Diabetic Center at Al-Nasiriya City 2020-05-20T07:46:23+00:00 Dr. Sameer Razak Oleiwi 1, Dr. Oday Faris Washeel 2, Dr. Hassan Al-Yassin 3, Dr. Adel Gassab Mohammed <p>Background: Diabetic foot is a serious complication of diabetes that aggravates the patient’s condition whilst also having significant socioeconomic impact. Increasing physicians ‘awareness and hence their ability to identify the «foot at risk,» along with proper foot care, may prevent diabetic foot ulceration and thus reduce the risk of amputation.<br>Objectives: 1.Determine the socio demographic data on diabetic foot and leg ulceration<br>2.Determine the relationship of socio demographic data on diabetic foot and leg ulceration<br>3.Determine the Effeteness of Carbothera therapy upon diabetic foot and leg ulceration improvement<br>Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted on a sample consisting of (50) patients is having diabetic foot and leg ulceration who were selected randomly from Endocrine and Diabetic Center in Nasiriya City. Diabetic patient who have diabetic foot and leg ulceration, carried out in Nasiriya city / endocrine and diabetic Center starting from January/ 2019 to July /2019<br>Results: 40% the age between 60-69 years ,males was 68%, the patients residing in the city (urban) by 66%,78% of them consider that their monthly income is not enough, infected with diabetes For diabetes for a period of 10 years and more is 76%, the average age of patients was 59 years, patients discovered diabetes disease was 66% , improvement in their health through the carbothera therapy 66% indicated a positive effect on the patients, a significant mean relationship at level of 8% between the urban and rural environment variable with improved carbothera therapy indicates that therapy is more effective when the patient has a more urban than rural. In addition, a very weak and statistically insignificant relationship between the patients is other demographic data and the improvement of carbothera therapy.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Outcome of Endoscopic Endonasal Repair of CSF Rhinorhea using Fascia Lata Graft 2020-05-20T07:56:16+00:00 Hani Musa Al-Akbi1, Ahmed Adhab Mayan2, Ammar Jabbar Najm Alkelabi3, Laith Ali Mahmood4 <p>Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea occur when there is communication between skull base and the nasal cavity. Nowadays endoscopic endonasal repair of CSF rhinorrhea become the preferred surgical intervention.<br>Setting:ENT department at Ghazi AL Hariri Hospital for specialised surgeries, Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq.<br>Aim: To assess the effectiveness of fascia lata as sealing graft in the endoscopic endonasal repair of CSF rhinorrhea.<br>Patients and Method: Fifteen patients present to our department with possible clinical diagnosis of CSF rhinorrhea. The patients submitted to full history, examination including nasal endoscopy, radiological investigation (CT and MRI) of the nose and paranasal sinuses and skull base and CSF analysis. Operative technique was endoscopic endonasal repair using fascia lata graft .With monthly follow-up.<br>Results: Successful rate noted in 93% of the patients .No recurrence of meningitis attacks among those who reported meningitis on their presenting illness.<br>Conclusion: Endoscopic endonasal repair of CSF rhinorrhea has less operative and postoperative complication. Fascia lata graft offers a good choice for the repair.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Genotype and haplotype of HLA- class II in Type I and Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Iraqi Patients 2020-05-20T08:00:07+00:00 Abeer Mazin1, Abdalnabi J Abid <p>Background: Diabetes is one of the common complicated disease associated with multiple influenced factors, immunological serological and molecular factors play a great role in susceptibility and diagnosis of this disease. HLA genotyping were reported to have an influencing in both types of diabetes.<br>Aim: The current study was conducted to investigate the association of human leukocytes genotypes in Diabetes patients.<br>Method: Case-control study enrolled 225 blood samples collected from patient attended to the Marjan Teaching Hospital- Hilla and 25 apparently healthy from October 2018 to May 2019. Class II HLA genotyping was performing for 60 patients with diabetes mellitus and 25 healthy unrelated controls by means of the PCR-SSP method. The diagnosis of T1D and T1ID was set up according to American Diabetes Association criteria.<br>Results: both types of diabetes were significantly associated with HLA-DR3. Associations were also observed with HLA –DQA105:01, the appearance of these two alleles differs in both TID and TIID . Conclusion. Certain HLA class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes have related to diabetes mellitus so it can be dependent as a genetic marker for susceptibility of this disease in Iraq.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Cloud Point Extraction, Preconcentration and Spectrophotometric Determination of Co (II) and Cu (II) using 15-Crown-5. 2020-05-20T08:06:02+00:00 Yussra O.Mussa1, Azhar A. Ghali2, Ashwaq S.Hussei1 <p>In the current study, a cloud point extraction (CPE) with UV-vis spectrometry for detection of Cu (II) and Co (II) ions with 15-crown-5 as a chelating agent was developed to be more selective and sensitive. The CPE method is improving the analytical signal and permits the preconcentration of metals ions. After phase separation induced by change temperature to become higher more than the temperature of the cloud, the point is performed with centrifugation. The Co (II) and Cu (II) ions are determined in the enriched phase by UV-vis spectrometry. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized, e.x. pH, the concentration of the chelating agent, non-ionic surfactant concentrations, and cloud point temperature. Under optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.5-5 ?g mL-1 of Co (II) in the initial solution with r2 = 0.9994 (n=8) and 0.2–7?g of Cu<br>(II) in the initial solution (mL-1) with r2 = 0.9991 (n=8) were obtained. Detection limits of 0.4and 0.1?g are for Co(II) and Cu(II) along with preconcentration factors (66 and 50) for these ions, respectively. The method was used for detection of Co(II) and Cu(II) in some food samples.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hormonal and Immunological Study in Serum of Pregnant albino rats Treated with Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles 2020-05-20T09:11:54+00:00 Haneen M. Alsoltane1, Amel A.Altaee1 <p>The present study was aimed to elucidate the effect of Nickel oxide nanoparticle (100mg /kg b.wt) on some parameters in pregnant Albino rats which including serum reproductive hormonal level, Leutinlizing Hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating Hormone ( FSH) and Testosterone (Test), and some Immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgG, IgM) for different period of pregnancy ( 12 and 14 days). The hormonal results showed significant (P?0.05) increased of treatment groups as compared with control groups. Immunological results showed significant decreases in treated groups as compared with control groups, It could be concluded that increasing concentrations of NIO- NPs and durations of exposure leads to negative effects on the pregnant albino rat.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Assessment of Mental Health of Healthcare Professionals Working in the Infectious Diseases Units: Comparative Study 2020-05-20T09:14:18+00:00 Maysaa Niama Aboalshon1 , Hayder H. AL-Hadrawi2 , Ammar Abbas Shalan2 <p>Background: Health care professionals working in infectious diseases units or hospitals are at higher risk for being affected by certain contagious pathogens than other professional groups through direct contact, equipment, and contaminated supplies; therefore, they are working under ongoing stress that negatively impacting their psychological well-being.<br>Aims: This study aims to assess the mental well-being of healthcare professionals working in infectious diseases units and compare these results to the score of other healthcare professionals working in other units.<br>Methodology: A comparative study design using a convenience sample of (N=300) healthcare professionals (150 working in the infectious diseases units and 150 working in different units). The General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to assess the mental health of study subjects.<br>Results: Recent findings indicate a statistically difference between study group and comparative group (p= &lt;0.05), which means that healthcare providers working in the infectious disease units are at higher risk for psychological disturbance than the comparative group. Moreover, other work factors are found to have significant relationship with professionals’ mental health, such as infection prevention trainings, years of experience in infectious diseases units, availability of personal protection equipment and hand hygiene, and number of patients in the unit.<br>Conclusion: Working in high risk work environment increases the concern about personal safety and impose ongoing stress, which negatively influence professional’s mental well-being. More training about infection prevention and provide personal protection materials help reducing the risk of disease transmission among patients and to health care providers.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Emotional Intelligence and Work-related Stress among Nurses Working in Psychiatric Hospitals 2020-05-20T09:17:50+00:00 Zaman Ahmed Hrefish1, Hayder H. AL-Hadrawi2 <p>Background: Emotional Intelligence is a broad concept that connecting various personality and cognitive traits of human beings. The concept of emotional intelligence is described as the individual’s capability of recognizing their own emotions and the emotions of others, and practice this understanding to navigate important interactions successfully.<br>Aims: The purpose of this study is to assess emotional intelligence among nurses working in psychiatric hospitals, as well as the relationship between emotional intelligence and workplace stress.<br>Methodology: A descriptive correlational study design using a convenience sample of (N=109) nurses working in two main psychiatric hospitals. Two separated scales (The Emotional Intelligence Scale-34 items and The Work-related Stress scale-24 items) was used to meet the study objectives.<br>Results: The study findings indicate that emotional intelligence levels were ranged between moderate to high among study participants. However, the majority had moderate work-related stress about (61%). Nurses’ work stress was found to have significant relationship with their emotional intelligent level.<br>Conclusion and Recommendations: Despite the positive levels of emotional intelligence nurse have, working in psychiatric hospitals is still cause of stress for nurses. The statistical relationship found in this study highlights the importance of enhancing emotional intelligence among nurses working in psychiatric hospitals settings by engaging them in effective training programs to maximize their abilities of adjustment and reduce their levels of work-stress.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Relationship between Smoking and Urokinase Gene 3’-UTR T/C Expression on Occurrence of Bladder Cancer 2020-05-20T09:20:30+00:00 Zainab Nizar Jawad 1, Kamal Abdul Rasool 1, Weaam Awad 2 <p>Bladder cancer (CA Bladder) is the malignancy that affects the lining of the bladder (which is the most common types of urinary epithelial cancers that associated with the most invasive types of cancers and has the highest incidence of recurrence and infections). This study was designed to investigate the role of cigarette smoking on expression of urokinase gene that has a prominent role in the incidence of CA bladder. The samples were collected from 90 patients after being clinically diagnosed by the specialist surgeon of Imam Hussein Center for Cancer Diseases, Holy Kerbala, Iraq who were heavily smokers (more than one pocket/day). These patients were compared to 90 non-smoker patients with CA bladder and 90 persons who apparently healthy individuals as a control groups, DNA was extracted from all blood samples. The level of gene expression was correlated with cycle threshold value calculated by using real time PCR.<br>The results showed significant association between smoking and occurrence of CA bladder (by increased expression of urokinase 3’-UTR T/C gene) in comparison to both control and non-smoker patients groups.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effect of Carcinogenic Substance (7,12 Dimethylbenz [a] Anthracene (DMBA)) on Tissue, Hematology Character and Enzyme Activity in Rat 2020-05-20T09:29:20+00:00 Abdulridha Mohammed Al-Asady1, Ntisar Kadhum Ghaleb2, Abeer Muhammedali Jasim Alnasrawi3, Thoalffakar A. ALhamed4 <p>This study aimed to investigate the effects of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) on some blood parameters and hepatic histopathology in rats and antioxidant enzyme. twenty female Wistar albino rats, weighing 180–200 g, were randomly divided into two group. DMBA group (positive group) who received 20 mg DMBA/kg body weight/ (single Douse). Control group (negative group) don’t received any thing. The animals in the groups were sacrificed at the end of the 90 days: The histological structure of the liver tissues in the control group was normal. the liver exhibited hydropic degeneration and coagulation necrosis in hepatocytes, severe dilation in the sinusoids, congestion in the central and portal regions , DMBA groups, was degenerative and necrotic changes were detected. MDA levels increased in the DMBA group , compared to the control group, Antioxidant activity CAT, SOD and GPX, the results showed increased enzyme activity in positive control compared with negative groups, ,the hematological parameter was increase in WBC, PLT, GRA, and LYM and decrease in RBC value .</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Psychological Factors Affecting on Developing Reading Skills and Evaluation of Reading Strategy Knowledge 2020-05-20T09:31:47+00:00 Wathiq Al – Husseini1, Asst. Prof. Dr. Diaa Oued Al Arnousi1, Qassim Raheem1 <p>The questions are one of the most common and used methods in the educational process and in schools all over the world and are the most important educational strategies. Because questions are a great place in teaching, which is the mainstay of the dialogue method and is like the driving force in the lesson. The educators say (If you want to become a highly competent educator, it is important that you begin to apply and develop educational questions). These questions also occupy great importance in the educational process after which the standard means of knowing the readiness of the students and the level of information they received, in a good question, we achieve the desired goal and achieve a desirable educational product. Besides , the exams are a means to help educators to make different educational decisions, so that , there have been wide concerns calling for the reform of the test questions and the evidence of that conferences that discussed this problem, studies and research aimed at diagnosing them in order to address, improve and develop their defects to achieve best results in education.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Comparison Between Photoselective Vaporization of Prostate by Diode Laser and Monopolar Transurethral Resection of Prostate in Single Center Experience 2020-05-20T09:34:53+00:00 Zaid Ali Abdul Hussein1, Ali Hamdan Fahad2 <p>Background: Transurethral resection of prostate has been regarded as the gold standard surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).With the evolution of new technologies, laser prostatectomy emerged as an alternative.<br>Aim of the study: To compare the rate of outcome of diode laser vaporization of prostate and Transurethral Resection of Prostate in Al Diwaniya governorate.<br>Patients and Method: From October 2017 to October 2018, forty patients with surgical indications of prostatectomy were enrolled in this study. Their ages ranged from 60-75 years with a mean age 68.6 years and prostate size ranged from 40-80 ml with a mean size 62.175 ml. Twenty patients underwent diode laser vaporization of prostate and another 20 patients underwent Transurethral Resection of Prostate. The choice based on surgeon preference and patient ability. Preoperative evaluation was done for all patients by history, physical examination and investigations. International Prostate Symptoms Score, maximum flow rate, digital rectal examination, prostate specific antigen, abdominal ultrasound, urinalysis, blood urea, s.creatinine, complete blood count were all done preoperatively. One pint of compatible fresh blood prepared.<br>Results: The rate of significant bleeding and transfusion in diode PVP and TURP was (zero vs. 35% respectively), in PVP and TURP the mean irrigation amount perioperatively was (10.10 vs. 33.15 pints respectively), mean operative time was (70.80 vs. 50.00 min respectively) ,mean hospital stay was (16.03 vs. 30.09 hours respectively), mean time to urethral catheter removal was (24 vs. 81.71 hours respectively), postoperative complication rate (mainly dysuria) was (75% vs. 65% respectively), mean postoperative IPSS was (14.40 vs. 14.20 respectively) , mean postoperative Qmax was (15.45 vs. 16.30 ml/sec respectively ). There was no statistical difference between both groups in regard to lowering IPSS or increment in Qmax. The mean cost was (1500 vs. 500.42 dollars) in diode PVP and TURP respectively.<br>Conclusion: Diode laser vaporization of prostate is a good alternative to TURP with comparable results in treatment of BPH especially in patients taking anticoagulant drugs who cannot stop their medication. However, the high cost of this procedure and dysuria as a complication may prevent the common use of this technique.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Tympanometric Findings among Adults with Chronic Nasal Obstruction Due to Sinonasal Pathology 2020-05-20T09:37:20+00:00 Salim Hussain Ibrahim <p>Background: The nasal obstruction is one of the causes that affect the middle ear function, but the physiological mechanism of this effect is not well understood. This study aims at 1st; evaluation of the middle ear function among adults with chronic nasal obstruction due to sinonasal pathology using tympanometry, and 2nd, at comparison between the anatomical and mucosal inflammatory causes of nasal obstruction and its impact on the middle ear function.<br>Patients and methods: A prospective case study of (310) adult patients with chronic nasal obstruction were subjected to tympanometry for study of middle ear pressure in the private ENT clinic for a period of two years in the Salah Al-Deen governorate.<br>Results: this study found that (13%) of adults with chronic nasal obstruction had abnormal tympanogram (type B or C), (17.2%) was due to mucosal inflammation and (7%) due to anatomical and structural cause. Commonly one ear affected (unilateral) was (67.5%). Myringotomy and aspiration of middle ear found that (64%) had OME and VT was inserted.<br>Conclusion: The study statistically proved that adults with chronic nasal obstruction due to mucosal inflammation differs from others due to anatomical and structural causes in the followings; 1.The incidence of abnormal tympanogram (type B and C) is more. 2.The type B (OME) was more than type C (Eustachian tube dysfunction). 3.In the treatment ,it was found that the need to VT insertion was more.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The impact of Mindfulness Education on Elementary School Students 2020-05-20T09:39:09+00:00 Rawaa Saadoun Al-Abedi1, Rassem Ahmed Al-Jerayi2 <p>The current research aims at evaluating the reading for the fourth grade of primary school in the light of the habits of mind and followed the researcher descriptive approach to suitability the current research procedures to achieve the research objective, the researcher prepared a list that included the criteria of habits of mind based on this researcher prepared a questionnaire &nbsp;(6) standards and (141) paragraphs after verifying the authenticity of the tool from its presentation to a group of arbitrators the stability of the analysis using Holistic equation (0.83) The tool consists of (128) paragraphs distributed in six areas The researcher has developed three alternatives (valid), (invalid), (need to be modified), and the researcher used the appropriate statistical means for their research. The data obtained from the analysis process are: Holistic equation, centimeter weight, square cay, and weighted mean.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prevalence of Bronchiolitis among Hospitalized Children less than Two Years in Babylon Province 2020-05-20T09:41:01+00:00 Maha. A. Kadim1, Nuhad M. AL-Doori2 <p>Background: Bronchiolitis is one of viral lower respiratory tract infections that constitute a heavy burden to public health in the Pediatric population worldwide, which occurs most frequently before age 2 years in the winter and early spring months and most frequently induced by a viral infection (respiratory syncytial virus).<br>Settings and Design: A survey descriptive study conducted in Babylon Province through-out the period of “1st January 2019 to 30 March 2019” (three) special hospitals of pediatrics.<br>Method and Materials: Non-probability “purposive” sample consists of 3374 subjects, which collected through a review of patient records for (2016, 2017, 2018) in the statistical units in Babylon hospitals. The information of data was collected retrospectively through-out the special questionnaire obtained from the patient’s sheets in the statistical unit.<br>Statistical analysis used: The data are coded and tested by the application (SPSS) through the descriptive and inferential analysis.<br>Results: The analysis of the study indicated that the majority of the children (62.7%) were aged (1- 6) months old who lived in rural areas, the male percentage was higher than the female. In addition, the study indicated that the prevalence of bronchiolitis progressed during the last three years.<br>Conclusions: The study concludes that the higher morbidity of bronchiolitis was in 2018, most of them admitted to the hospital in January months. Also, the duration of hospital stay was &gt; 4 days.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nanotechnology issues included in the subjects of the Department of Biology in the Colleges of Education 2020-05-20T09:43:53+00:00 Mazen Thamer Shenif 1, Mustafa Abdel Amir Raheem Al-Zamili2 <p>This research aimed to: Recognize how much including in content of subjects in the Department of Biology College of Education in accordance with the Nanotechnology Issues. To achieve this aim, the researchers built a standard for the Nanotechnology Issues, were verified validity by presentation to a group of arbitrators specialists in the methods of teaching the Biology , and that standard is finalized be from (8) Nanotechnology Issues and emerged of them (90) sub- Issues, then the researchers analyzed the content of subjects of the Department of Biology in Colleges of Education for the academic year (2018-2019) in the light of this criterion as the number of analyst was (12201) page, and it adopted the explicit idea and implicit idea as units for registration and repetition unit of the census, The results were : weakness of subjects in the Department of Biology in Colleges of Education to contain Nanotechnology Issues compared with the ratio based on the opinions of experts (20%), (16) only of 90 terms were achieved , that was equal of (17.77%)</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Resin Composite Materials: A Digital Image Analysis 2020-05-20T09:46:15+00:00 Shatha Abdul-Kareem1, Ahmed G. Al-Maroof 2, Noor H. Fadhil3 <p>This study aimed to evaluate and compare the color stability of three commercially available resins composites after exposure to different staining solutions using digital image analysis.A total of ninety-disc shape specimens of a microhybrid composite (Amelogen plus), ultrafine hybrid composite (Essentia), and nanohybrid composite (Beautifil II) were produced in Teflon mould (n=30/ resin composite type). Specimens of each resin composite were then divided into 5 subgroups (n=6/subgroup) and immersed in 200 ml of Pepsi, orange juice, tea, coffee and artificial saliva (control group), respectively. Digital images of the specimens were taken before (baseline) and after 28 days immersion against a black and white background. Adobe Photoshop CS6, Ver.13.0.1 graphic program (AdobeSystems Inc., San Jose, CA, USA) was used to analyze the digital images and calculate the change in color (?E). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA and Tukey Posthoc test at a significance level of p&lt;0.05. This study concluded that all resin composites exhibited color changes after immersion in all staining solutions. However, Amelogene Plus showed better resistance to staining compared to Beautifil II and Essentia.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Bergamot Essential Oil Effect against Candida Albicans Activity on Heat Cure Acrylic Denture Base 2020-05-20T09:48:00+00:00 Zinah Salah Mawlood1, Ghassan Abdul-Hamid Naji2 <p>The aim of the current study is to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of several different percentages of Bergamot Essential Oil (BEO) incorporated into heat cure PMMA denture base material against Candida albicans.<br>Materials and Method: Eighty samples were divided into eight groups including six various percentages of BEO (2%,3%, 4% ,5%, 6% and 7% by volume) and 0% BEO as a control group, in addition to 1.4% by weight of nystatin which represent the positive control group. All these additives were incorporated into heat cure PMMA denture material. After 48h incubation in distilled water, all samples were assessed by Candida albicans colonies viable count test.<br>Results: For Candida albicans activity test; the experimental groups (2%,3%, 4%, 5%, 6% and 7% of BEO) showed highly significant decrease in the mean values of the viable count of Candida albicans when compared to the control group (0% BEO) (p&lt;0.01). In contrast, a non-significant difference among experimental groups and 1.4% nystatin group.<br>Conclusion: Bergamot essential oil was successfully incorporated into heat cure PMMA denture base material and could act as potential antifungal agent with a drug delivery system against Candida albicans. It seemed that adding of 5% and 6% BEO was the most beneficial effects against the growth of fungi.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Antimicrobial Activity And Characterization of Some Oxazole, Thiazol And Quinoline 2020-05-20T09:49:48+00:00 Amjad Gali. Eliwi1, Safaa. Abdul-Hameed. Dadoosh1, Zainab Z. Mohammed Ali 1, Abdul Jabar Kalaf Atia1, Iman Rajab .Mohammed 1, Zaman Ahmed. Hussein1 <p>New Heterocyclic compounds derivatives comprising 1,3-oxazole, chalcone ,thiazole, pyrimidine, quinolone moieties are reported. New derivatives of Quinazolin-4 (3H)-one ring comprising Schiff’s bases,(1,3,4-Thiadiazole),(1,3,4-Oxadiazole) and (1,2,4-Triazole), Thiaurease moieties are reported. Compounds (1), (2) and (5) were synthesized by reaction of benzoyl chloride with urea , thiourea and anthranilic acid respectively , then compounds (1)and (2) were converted into(3a-c) and (4a-c) derivatives. While compound (5) reaction with urea to convert to compound (6) which was converted to (7a-c) . chalcone derivatives (9a,b ) were readily obtained by reaction of compound (8) with different aldehydes, Compounds (9a , b) were converted into (10a,b) and (11a,b) The structure of these compounds has been established on the basis of their spectral data FTIR and 1HNMR. These compounds were tested for invitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Sepidermidis, S.aureusand Klebseillastandard methods. These synthesized compounds have been shown moderate to good antibacterial activity.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nurses Staff Knowledge Regarding Standard Hand Hygiene Precautions in Rania City/Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq 2020-05-20T09:52:55+00:00 Blend B. Ameen <p>Objectives: -To assess nurses staff level of knowledge regarding standard hand hygiene precaution, and to find out the association between their level of knowledge and some of socio-demographic characteristics such as (gender, and level of education).<br>Method: Quantitative design, a descriptive study was carried out at Rania City. To achieve the objectives of the present study, non-probability purposive sample was used. The study sample was (66) nurses who were providing nursing services at two hospitals (Rania teaching hospital and Rania maternity and pediatric hospital). 10 of samples were excluded for a pilot study.<br>A questionnaire was constructed by the researcher for the purpose of the study technique and it was used as a tool for data collection. The data were collected through using an interview technique (face to face) approach.. Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive statistical analysis, such as: (frequency, percentage, mean of scores), and inferential statistical analysis (Pearson’s chi-square and correlation coefficient), by using the statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) version (20).<br>Results: The study indicated that the most of samples aged between 32-36 years old and represents 28.6% of the study samples. In addition, the highest percentages of the nursing staffs were female 73%. Concerning of the educational level, more than half of nurses graduated from the medical institute 66 %. And the largest study sample have 6-10 years of experiences 28.5%The findings of the study reveal that the nurses have a good level of knowledge about hand hygiene (HH) and appropriate time to do HH. The majority of the stay sample routinely used HH and they disinfectant their hands either by washing hands with water and soap or use alcohol-based jell for, while some of the nurses don’t wash their hands either because they are busy, they forget to do it or even the products are not available or not easy to reach. The study also approves that there was a statistically no significant association between the knowledge of nurses and gender and years of experiences.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Risk Factors Increasing Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Under the Age of 40 Years attending Al- Diwanyia Teaching Hospital 2020-05-20T09:57:08+00:00 Hassan Raji Jallab1, Zahraa Abdul Ameer Kadhim1 <p>The present case control study of Iraqi people living in Aldiwanyia city to identify the attributable risk factors that leads to type 2 diabetes in younger age groups and the correlation of the most prevalence risk for developing diabetes. The study was designed to be a case control study includes 315 individuals, 150 is the number of controls, and the rest of the participants are patients that have been diagnosed by diabetes mellitus type 2 before or at age of 40 years .All these participants attended outpatient clinics at Al- Aldiwanyia teaching hospital in Al-Dewaniyah province/ Iraq. The beginning of data collection was dated on the January 2019 and ended on June 2019. Mean age of patients with diabetes mellitus was significantly higher than that of control subjects There was highly significant difference in the frequency distribution according to marital status, occupation, residency, level of education,economic status in patients and controls groups .It appears that the rate of overweight and obesity is comparable in patient and control group.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Psychosocial Consequences of Children with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency in Baghdad 2020-05-20T09:58:58+00:00 Adraa H. Shawq1 , Zaid W. Ajil1 <p>Study aim: to evaluate psychosocial problems of children with growth hormone deficiency.<br>Methodology: A cross sectional study, of (80) children from both gender, (4 – 15) years diagnosed with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency, attending endocrine clinics in Baghdad city. Consent form taken from children and their guardians to participate in the study. Pediatric Psychosocial Symptoms Inventory (mood, behavioural, somatic, learning, and personality problems) was used to evaluate children psychosocial consequences. SPSS programme version 23 used for data analyses.<br>Result: children with growth hormone deficiency experience moderate psychosocial problems, especially personality and behavioural problems.<br>Recommendation: The researchers recommended details psychological assessment for children with growth hormone deficiency during their routine physical examination and provide suitable psychological support for them and their parent.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viruses in ?-thalassemia Major Patient in AD-Diwanya province, Iraq 2020-05-20T10:00:46+00:00 Hassan Raji Jallab1 , Zahraa Muayad Eesa1 <p>Background: transmition of infectious agent is still the most common cause of death and disability related to blood transfusion.<br>Objective: to estimate the prevalence of HBV and HCV in beta thalassemic major patients in Ad-Diwayah governorate.<br>Method: The current study is a retrospective cross sectional study involving sample of 80 thalassemic major patients who regularly visit thalassemia center in Ad-diwuryah for treatment, data that required in the study had been collected from patients, their guardians and from the records.<br>Results: The prevalence rate of HBV was 2.5% (l male and 1 Female ) which was significantly associated with family history of hepatitis ; while the prevalence rate of HCV was 3.8% (1male and 2 female) which was significantly associated with age and family history of hepatitis.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Deposition of TaN Film on Commercial Pure Titanium Disk by Modified Reactive Plasma Sputtering Technique 2020-05-20T10:04:32+00:00 Deposition of TaN Film on Commercial Pure Titanium Disk by Modified Reactive Plasma Sputtering Technique <p>Background: The new trend of implants is to find materials which accelerate bone formation at bone implant interface and improve Osseo integration to provide immediate or early loading after placement and eliminate waiting period which is uncomfortable and disturbs patients. Titanium as an implant material still need some improvement of surface properties physically and chemically. Tantalum which is gaining more attention as a new metallic biomaterial. Coating layer over implant is an important way for improvement of surface properties of titanium. Plasma used for surface modification, has several advantages such as changing surface topography, increasing surface roughness and in increasing the wettability of the surface.<br>Aim of study: To evaluate the effect of TaN coating by modified plasma sputtering technique of commercially pure titanium disk on wettability, surface roughness, surface chemical composition in comparison to non-coated surface.<br>Materials and method: Two groups were tested in this study which include non -coated commercial pure titanium disks and coated commercial pure titanium with TaN. Modified reactive plasma sputtering apparatus was used to coat CpTi with TaN at 4, 6 &amp;8, h. Surface characterization by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS), contact angle measurement, were carried out for coated and uncoated disks.<br>Results: The result of coating specimen with TaN at times (4,6&amp;8) h showed that 8 h coating time was the best time. And this was according to the results of X-ray diffraction analysis which show a new peak formation of Ta N coated CpTi disk which was not present in non- coated CpTi disk. The results of wettability test for CpTi disk coated with TaN disk was more than wettability of non- coated CpTi disk. Surface Roughness was more and better distributed in CpTi coated with TaN disk than non- coated one which appear clearly in electron microscope.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Influence of Carcinogenic Substance (7, 12 Dimethylbenz [A] Anthracene (DMBA)) on Tissue, Hematology Character and Enzyme Activity in Rat 2020-05-20T10:17:43+00:00 Abdulridha Mohammed Al-Asady 1, Intisar Kadhum Ghaleb2, Abeer Muhammed ali Jasim Alnasrawi 3, Thoalffakar A. ALhamed4 <p>This study designed to investigate the effects of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA)on some blood parameters and hepatic histopathology in rats and antioxidant enzyme. twenty female Wistar albino rats, weighing 180–200 g, were randomly divided into two group 1- DMBA group (positive group) who received 20 mg DMBA/kg body weight/ (single Douse) 2-Control group (negative group) doesn’t receive any item. The animals in these groups were sacrificed at the end of the 90 days:The histological structure of the liver tissues in the control group was normal. the liver exhibited hydropic degeneration and coagulation necrosis in hepatocytes, severe dilation in the sinusoids, congestion in the central and portal regions , DMBA groups, was degenerative and necrotic changes were detected.MDA levels increased in the DMBAgroup , compared to the control group, Antioxidant activity CAT, SOD and GPX, the results showed increased enzyme activity in positive control compared with negative groups , ,the hematological parameter was increase in WBC, PLT, GRA, and LYM and decrease in RBC value .</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Immunohistochemical Expression of CD68, P53 and Bcl2 in Thyroid Tumors 2020-05-20T10:20:46+00:00 Samar Abdul Raheem AL-Gharrrawi 1, Ali Hussein Mohammed Ali Alkhafaji 2, Rana Zuhair Naji 3 <p>Background/aim: The aim of this study was to determine the expression of CD68, P53 and Bcl2 in thyroid tumors and correlation between them.<br>Materials and Method: The expression of CD68, P53 and Bcl2 was examined by&nbsp;immunohistochemistry&nbsp;on paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from patients with benign and malignant tumors between 2010 and 2015.Thirty three malignant thyroid tumors of variable subtypes and 10 benign tumors. The extents of staining and intensity were scored semi quantitatively.<br>Results: CD68 have shown strong positive score expression in (28.9%) in PTC while score was found in (18.5%). The higher percentage of strong weak positive score expression of P53 was in PTC (6.1%) Followed by (3.03%) strong score in FTC, (3.03%) moderate score in benign and (3.03%) in MTC. The expression of Bcl2 was higher in benign tumors (20%) than in malignant tumors were PTC (9.1%) followed by FTC (3.03%), the strong positive expression seen in MTC (9.1).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prevalence of Lung Cancer in Non Smoker Patients Attending Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital 2020-05-20T10:23:36+00:00 Hassan Raji Jallab1, Thimar Malik Khudhair2 <p>Background: Smoking is a well known risk factor that is implicated in a number of human malignant disorders.<br>Aim of the Study: To study the prevalence of lung cancer in a sample of Iraqi non smoker patients and the main risk factor implicated in such malignant tumor.<br>Patients and Method: In this hospital based study, in order to explore the prevalence rate of bronchogenic carcinoma in non smoker patients ,it retrospectively collected data about those patients for the last four years, starting from January 2016 through June 2019. These information were retrieved from patients records that are already present in oncology and respiratory units in Al-Diwaniyah teaching hospital, Al-Diwaniyah province, Mid-Euphrates region of Iraq. The following variables were included in the questionnaire form: Age, gender, occupation, education level, residency, socioeconomic status, marital status history of smoking, history of second hand smoking, number of household smokers, type of smoking, history of alcoholism, history of chronic illness, the main presenting clinical features and clinical features of carcinoma and finding in examination as well as those obtained from investigations.<br>Results: In the current study, the prevalence rate of all cases of lung cancer during the period of study was 61 out of 403 (15.1 %). the rate of lung cancer in none smokers, in the current study, was 39.3 %. Old age individuals were the main age group affected and there was female predilection. there was also no significant difference in the distribution of patients and control subjects according to residency, occupation, level of education marital status and socioeconomic status (P &gt; 0.05). In the current study, the prevalence rate of passive smoking in patients was significantly higher than that in control subjects, 70.8 % versus 40 %. Moreover, the number of household smokers was significantly higher inpatients group than in control group.<br>Conclusion: Lung cancer in non smokers appears to be significantly correlated with passive smoking in addition to increase incidence in old age and women.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effects Hydrocortisone on the Body Weight of the Pregnant Rabbits and their Embryo with Histological Effects Skin, Stomach and Small Intestine of Embryos 2020-05-20T10:27:39+00:00 Abid AL.Shammary1, Rasha Noori Abid AL-Shammary1 <p>The aim of the study was to investigate the effects hydrocortisone of on the body weight of the pregnant rabbits and their embryo with histological effects pregnant skin ,stomach and intestine of embryos for 45 days. The rabbit were randomly divided into two equal groups (control and one treated groups), and the animals were treated as follow: 1- Control group C. (n = 12) received Distilled water 1ml /kg b.w five times a week intramuscular for 26days. 2-Treatment group. (n=12) treated daily with hydrocortisone 100mg/kg b.w/day/ intramuscular for 26 days. The body weight of the animals detected at the 1th,7h ,14th ,21th and 26thdays of the experimental period. At 26 days animals sacrificed and embryos weighted and skin ,stomach , intestine were removed and taken for histopathological study. The present study showed that treatment with hydrocortisone causes a significant decrease in body weight of embryos and pregnant rabbits .As a conclusion: hydrocortisone cues decrease body weight of embryos and pregnant rabbits.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Comparison of Preoperative Ultrasound Report with Intraoperative Findings of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Gallstone Disease in Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital 2020-05-20T10:30:30+00:00 Adel Shakir Al-Timimi1, Anwar Majeed Hussein1 <p>Background: Gallstones constitute a significant health problem in developed societies, affecting 10% to 15% of the adult population, meaning 20 to 25 million Americans have (or will have) gallstones. The resultant direct and indirect cost of gallbladder disease represents a consumption of ~$6.2 billion annually in the U.S., constituting a major health burden that has increased more than 20% over the last 3 decades.&nbsp;The best diagnostic tool is ultrasound; however, several authosr have raised the issue of inconsistency between preoperative ultrasound evaluation and laparoscopic operative findings.<br>Aim of the study: To compare preoperative ultrasound findings with operative findings in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in order to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound in detecting gallbladder pathology.<br>Patients and Method: In this hospital based study, in order to evaluate the concordance and discrepancy between preoperative ultrasound findings and operative findings in patients subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. At the end of study we were able to include 100 cases. The study started on January the 2nd 2019 and ended at June the 15th 2019. The study was carried out at laparoscopic unit in Al-Diwaniyah teaching hospital. Ultrasound findings were retrieved from available reports that are already kept with the case file sheet of each patient. Operative findings were obtained the surgery team and by the use of a special device which provide information about size of stone and gallbladder wall thickness.<br>Results: Regarding number of stones and for purpose of unification both ultrasound sound findings and operative findings were contrasted as single stone versus multiple stones, as shown in table 2. Indeed, there was almost complete agreement between ultrasound and operative findings since 22 patients were diagnosed as having single stone by both methods and 76 were diagnosed as having multiple stones by both methods. According to MeNemar test, there was no significant difference in distribution of patients into having single versus multiple stones (P = 1.000), a finding that was further supported by Kappa agreement statistic of 0.944 (P &lt; 0.001), table 4.3.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Frequency of Arrhythmia after Acute Myocardial Infarction During Admission to the Coronary Care Unit in Ad_diwaniyah Teaching Hospital 2020-05-20T10:32:10+00:00 Radhi F. Shlash1, Sarah Abdul Kareem Abdul Jabbar1 <p>Aims of the Study: ]To study the incidence of arrhythmias after Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) with respect to type of arrhythmia, risk factors , age and sex distribution, and location of infarction in a sample of patients during their admission in the coronary care unit in Ad Diwaniyah teaching hospital.<br>Patients and Method : This is a cross sectional study involving a cohort of 97 Iraqi patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction and admitted to the coronary care unit of Ad Diwaniyah teaching hospital in Ad Diwaniyah governorate / Iraq . All patients who admitted in the ccu for the period from January 2019 to july 2019 were followed by ECG records for any arrhythmia detected.<br>Result : Out of 97 patients diagnosed with AMI, 61 patients (62.88%) developed one type or more of arrhythmia, including 35 male (57.3%) and 26 female (42.6%), with the highest incidence (40.98%) above 70 years of age .<br>Reviewing the main risk factors in the past Medical History of those patients : hypertention was the most significant with 39 hypertensive patients (63.93%) .The types of arrhythmias found in the patients included in this study were 27 cases with Premature Ventricular Contraction (27.8% of all patients with AML), 13 cases of Atrial Fibrillation (13.4%), 18 cases of Sinus Tachycardia (18.5%), 7 cases of premature Atrial Contraction (7.2%) , 6 cases of Ventricular Tachycardia (6.2%) , 3 cases with Ventricular Fibrillation (3.09%), 3 cases of Sinus Bradycardia (3.09%), 5 cases with accelerated junctional rhythm (5.1% ) , 3 cases of first degree A-V Block (3.09%), 2 cases with Complete Heart Block (2.06%) , 7 cases of Right Bundle Branch Block (7.2%) and 5 cases with Left Bundle Branch Block (5.11%).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sex Determination of in Vitro Produced Goat Embryos by Epididymal Spermatozoa Selected by Swim up Technique 2020-05-20T10:33:51+00:00 Sura Shakir Hammood <p>The study was conducted to determine the sex of the male and female goat embryos produced in vitro fertilization by Epididymal spermatozoa of local buck and separated by swim-up technique. The sex of produced embryo was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results indicate that the fertilization by Epididymal spermatozoa selected using Swim-up technique at 200×g centrifugation showed that 48.70 ±0.62 % of spermatozoa were detected in the supernatant while the precipitate contained 42.1±0.70. Spermatozoa in the supernatant were used for IVF of matured oocytes. The sex of goat embryos produced in vitro fertilization was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers to detect the SRY gene. The percentage of male embryos recorded 71.73% while female embryos recorded only 28.26% from the total goat embryos obtained after IVF by sperms selected using swim-up at centrifugation force of 200×g. It was concluded that the use of swim-up technique up at centrifugation force of 200×g on Epididymal spermatozoa showed the ability of selection male embryos in caprine.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Associations System for Breast Cancer Microarray Data 2020-05-20T10:35:38+00:00 Kain R. Qasim <p>The aim of this paper is to give biologists a tool to explore reasons and impacts of the breast cancer as patients with the same stage of illness can have different treatment responses. This paper proposes a Breast Cancer Associations system (BCA) to discover and interpret the associations among the breast cancer patient’s gene expressions data. The data used in this paper is the array data of 24.483 gene expression measurements recorded for 19 breast cancer patients. BCA consists of: data preprocessing, and data mining. In the first process in BCA, the data is carried out four preprocessing steps to be suitable and enhance the second process in BCA. These four steps are data filtration, normalization, discretization, and data adaptation. The mining process stage uses a new algorithm called Row Intersection Support Starting (RISS), which traverse the row enumeration space using the user-defined mines up threshold as a starting point deploying a new data format called Row Set (RS). The last stage in the system concerns the production of the association rules based on the user defined minimum confidence threshold. Fifteen different experiments have been conducted with different parameters. The results of the experiments are recorded and compared.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Physico-Mechanical Behavior of Room Temperature Vulcanized Maxillofacial Silicon after Addition of Glass Flakes 2020-05-20T10:39:20+00:00 Ghassan Abdul-Hamid Naji 1*, Mohammed Moudhaffer Ali 2, Firas Abdulameer Farhan3 <p>The aim of this study was to assess the effect of glass flakes addition on some physical and mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone material. Material and method: A room temperature vulcanized (RTV) maxillofacial silicone (VST-50, Factor II Inc., USA) and Micronized glass flake, surface pre-treated with silane coupling agent (GF002, Glass flake Ltd, Leeds, UK) were used in this study. Two hundred (200) specimens were prepared and divided into five main groups based on the tests conducted (tear strength, tensile strength, elongation percentage, surface hardness and surface roughness). Then, each group was farther divided into four subgroups according to weight percentage of glass flakes as follow; control group (0%), other groups contain 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of glass flake micro-particles (10 specimen from each group). Results: The collected data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and LSD multiple comparison test were utilized to show the differences among four studied groups. The 1% glass flakes-incorporated specimens exhibited the highest mean values of tear strength, tensile strength and elongation percentage. While, the highest mean values of hardness and roughness were obtained with 1.5% specimens.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Investigation the Anti-Sterility Role of Ubiquinone-10 Against Procarbazine-Induced Infertility in Male Rats 2020-05-20T10:41:47+00:00 Ayyed Hameed Hassan1, Wafaa Kadhim Jasim1 <p>Procarbazineis cytotoxic chemotherapy drug with obvious deleterious effects on male fertility. The present study aimed to investigate protective method via co-administration of Ubiquinone-10 with procarbazine to reduce harmful effects of procarbazine. Twenty- eight adult healthy male rats (3 months in age and weighing 250-300g) were randomly divided into four equal groups as following: animals of first group were received propylene glycol 20% orally and phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) intraperitoneally as control group while of second , third and fourth group were received procarbazine (30mg/ kg), Ubiqunone-10 (10 mg/kg) and combination of Ubiqunone-10 with procarbazine respectively, all treatments were lasted for 9 weeks. Results revealed that procarbazine induces significant increase in serum FSH and LH level while Testosterone level was significantly decreased .Similar decrease were also noticed in levels of glutathione (GSH)&nbsp;,as well as activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in testis . Moreover, procarbazine caused significant decrease in sperm count, motility and viability and significant increase in sperm abnormality. On the other hand, Co-administration of Ubiqunone-10 with procarbazine lead to ameliorate levels of hormone as well as to improve testicular catalase activity in addition to glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Association of BRCAI Epigenetic, with Breast Cancer 2020-05-20T10:44:28+00:00 methylation, unmethylation, BRACA1, modification, CPG <p>Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among Iraqi women cancer. Epigenetic alterations such as<br>DNA methylation were involved in the earliest phases of tumorigenesis and help for early diagnoses of<br>breast cancer.<br>In this study, the methylation and unmethylation BRACA1 gene have been detected of Iraqi women patients<br>having breast cancer.<br>DNA extraction kit and DNA modification kits as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been used.<br>The samples of 80 women patients’ blood with breast cancer and 20 apparently healthy individual’s blood<br>sample are collected during the period of February2018- April2018 from Oncology Hospital in the Medical<br>City - Baghdad, Iraq.<br>On using PCR(24) out of (80)patients havingmethylated BRACA1 and (56) having unmethylated BRACA1.<br>As discussed in this thesis, one can recommend by using BRACA1 gene as biomarker for prediction of early<br>diagnoses.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Hematological Parameters And DHEA-S Hormone Association with Acne In The Province Of Thi-Qar 2020-05-20T10:49:05+00:00 Ayat S. Saleh1 Ali N. Salman2 <p>This study was conducted in the labs of the College of Education for Pure Sciences, Al-Hussein Educational Hospital and Al-Nahrain Specialized Laboratory of the Health Department of Thi-Qar province, during the period from October 2018 to March 2019. The study included of 100 blood sample of patients with acne (39 males) and (61 females) and their age between 10-35 years. The aim of the study was to assess the level of DHEA-S hormone in acne vulgaris patients in the serum using a technique enzyme- linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).The study included the test of the susceptibility of phagocytic cells on phagocytosis (coefficient of phagocytosis) and measurement of hematological parameters (Red blood cell count, hemoglobin ratio, total and differential white blood cells count).<br>The results showed the presence elevate in the level of DHEA-S for 21 sample out of 70 patients with acne. Results showed that there was no association between disease incidence and DHEA-S when compared with the healthy control in the population of Thi- Qar province.Increase coefficient phagocytosis was significant (P? 0.05) in all patients with acne compared with a group of control. As for the blood parameters, the results of the present study showed no significant differences (P?0.05) in the rates of red blood cells and hemoglobin in all acne patients compared to the control group. It also showed increased rate of counting the total of WBCs and differential cell neutrophils and lymphocytes (P?0.004), (P?0.004),(P?0.025), respectively in acne patients compared to healthy controls group.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Humoral Immunological Profile in Infertile Women after IVF Failure in Baghdad City 2020-05-20T10:52:25+00:00 Heba Mohammed Abed Al-Tamimi1, Farhan Abood Risan1 <p>Background: An (in Vitro) Fertilization (IVF), means fertilizing an ovum with a spermatozoon outside the body in a culture dish under controlled culture conditions. And It was taken a principle option to treat infertility, which is define as a disease of the reproductive system can be diagnosis by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. The cause of infertility may be immunological or genetic. A progress was made an in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques, However the majority of transferred embryos fail to implant. Morphology embryo scoring is the standard procedure for most IVF centers for choosing the best embryo, but remains limited since even the embryos classified as (top quality) may not implant. The initial investigation on the cause recurrent (in vitro) fertilization failure ignites the attention on the reproductive immunology. The production of antibodies is an immunomodulatory factor that causes failure of embryo implantation, and the most commonly studied antibodies in women with implantation failure after IVF procedure , include antiphospholipid (aPL), antisperm antibodies (ASA), and antinuclear antibodies (ANA).<br>Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the immunological aspects of patients after IVF failure, such as ; antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs), antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), and anti-sperm antibodies (ASA).<br>Patients, Materials and Method: This prospective study was undertaken on ninety infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) programe. Their age was from 20years to 49 years. Blood specimens were collected from all women, on the day of egg pick up, and screened for all studied parameters by ELISA, and were statistically analyzed.<br>Results: In the present study clinical pregnancy rate was 27.8%. And the present study showed a highly significant difference (P&lt;0.01) in aPL (IgM, IgG) between patients and control group.The data in the present study, demonstrated a highly significant difference (P&lt;0.01) in Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) between the studied groups. Also a highly significant difference (P&lt;0.01) in Antisperm antibodies (ASAs) between the studied groups.<br>Conclusions: In vitro fertilization (IVF) failure, precisely failed embryo implantation, associated with produced auto-antibodies (anti-phospholipid antibodies, anti-sperm antibodies, and anti-nuclear antibodies), in the sera of the female.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Socio-Psychological Variables in the Meaning of Self-Consciousness and Movement Satisfaction of Physical Education and Sport Sciences Students 2020-05-20T10:55:04+00:00 Amer Saeed Jassim1, Mustafa Jawad Mraidi2, Sanna Jabbar Gatea3, Saleh Chuaied Hilaiel4 <p>This research aims at determine socio-psychological variables, self-consciousness and movement satisfaction of Physical Education and Sport Sciences students. Then, identify the relationship among the socio-psychological variable, self-consciousness and movement satisfaction of Physical Education and Sport Sciences students and predicting the socio-psychological variables in the meaning of self-consciousness and movement satisfaction of Physical Education and Sport Sciences students. In order to achieve the aims of the research, the researchers used the descriptive method by using the surveying method to recognize the variables of the research, the relationships between them and the predictions studies in order to find out how much self-consciousness and movement satisfaction contribute to the psychosocial variable. The community of the research made of Physical Education and Sport Sciences students/ University of Babylon / Fourth grade- morning classes, they were (140) students, the sample of the research made up of (15) students in order to represent the research sample by (11%), the researchers distributed the questionnaires for the research variables to the sample of the research, after analyzing and discussing the results they found out the following:<br>1. Physical Education and Sport Sciences students enjoy high degrees in movement satisfaction, self-consciousness and the socio-psychological variables.<br>2. The increasing of socio-psychological variables degrees has a relationship with the increasing of degrees in movement satisfaction, self-consciousness.<br>3. There is an ability of predicting the psychosocial variables, depending on the reality of movement satisfaction, self-consciousness.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of Oral Cyclosporine in the Treatment of Severe Alopecia Areata 2020-05-20T10:56:49+00:00 Sahar A. Majeed1, Asmaa Abdul Jaleel Swadi2, Ekhlas Sabah Hassan1 <p>Background: One of common forms of scaring hair loss is alopecia. Alopecia is an autoimmune disorder that is characterized by relapsing and remitting episodes of non scaring hair loss. Several treatment options are nowadays available to be prescribed to patients with alopecia areata including local and systemic corticosteroid therapy, immune suppressant agents and contact immunotherapy. Nonetheless, none of these agents have been 100 % effective in eradication of the disease totally and some agents are associated with intolerable side effects. Therefore, dermatologists are continuously searching for new agents and modalities in order to get better response and less sided effects.<br>Aim of the Study: The current study was planned and conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral cyclosporine in treating alopecia areata.<br>Patients and Method: This study included 35 patients with alopecia areata. The study was conducted at the dermatology unit, Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Al-Diwaniyah Province, Mid-Euphrates Region of Iraq. The study started on June the 2nd 2018 and extended to June the 2nd 2019. The study was approved by the institutional ethical approval committee and included a verbal consent was obtained from each participant following full demonstration of the aim and procedures of the study. Every patient has received a daily dose of oral cyclosporine (3 mg/kg) for a period in the range of 2 to 12 months. Variables included in the current study were age, gender, type of alopecia areata, duration of disease, duration of treatment and treatment response. Outcome in the end of the study included clinical response and main side effects.<br>Results: Following treatment with oral cyclosporine, 28 patients (80 %) had satisfactory response and 7 patients (20 %) had unsatisfactory response. Treatment response was not correlated to age, gender, disease duration or type of disease (P &gt; 0.05). There were unremarkable adverse effects in association with oral cyclosporine use.<br>Conclusion: oral cyclosporine is effective and safe mode of treatment in patients with alopecia areata.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Removing Methods of Ultracide Residues in Imported Apple Peels in Iraqi Local Markets 2020-05-20T10:59:02+00:00 Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly1; Saba Riad Khudhaier 2; Jazzer, A, J. Al-Temmemi3 and Ahmed S.A. Al-Tae1 <p>The resides of ultracide insecticide used in controlling apple insets may have public health problems. This work was designed to find much effective method that capable of removing as much as possible of such residues from imported apple peels available in local markets. Imported apple samples were collected during winter 2018 from different local markets and divided into four subsamples as physical treatments where the first was left unwashed apple, the second was washed by tap water, the third was washed with saline solution and finally apple sample washed by tap water with acetic acid. Apple peels of all examined samples were left to dry in an oven at 85° C for 24 h and then powdered. 2.5 g from each sample was received 12.5 ml distil water to estimate the insecticide residues by using gas chromatography. It has been found that unwashed apple peels had the highest ultracide insecticide level followed by that which washed by tap water while the peels washed by saline water was obviously free from the insecticide residues.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Perception of Roles as Peer Educators in High Schools to Prevent Drug Abuse among Adolescents 2020-05-21T03:29:08+00:00 Ira Nurmala1, Elisa Dwi Pertiwi1, Yuli Puspita Devi1, Muthmainnah1, Riris Diana R1 <p>Adolescence is a transition period between childhood and adulthood, adolescent tends to have high curiosity and seek identity. Adolescent is a vulnerable group as a target for drug dealer. The objective of this study was to determine the perception of students in carrying out their duties as peer educators. This study used qualitative study approach with a case study design which intended to define the perceptions of the research subjects through in-depth interviews, observations, and also document studies. The students’ perception of their roles as peer educators such as a keeper of confidential informations, motivators, sources of information, and discussion partners. The conclusion was that the students who were selected as peer educators in their school environment had a positive perception of the application of the method to prevent drug abuse among their peers. Therefore, the application of peer educator method in high schools in North Surabaya can be used as a reference for other schools to implement peer educator method to their students.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Identification of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve and Parathyroid Glands Intraoperatively by Methylene Blue Spraying Technique 2020-05-21T03:35:58+00:00 Zeena Noor eldeen Abdulrahman1, Waleed Qahtan Rajab1, Zainab jameel Ali2 <p>Background: Thyroid surgery has been associated with complications ranging from recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, inadvertent para- thyroidectomies to death. Improvement in thyroidectomy techniques have reduced the mortality rate to minimum, while morbidity remained a significant concern. Aims: This study aims to assess a method to identify recurrent laryngeal nerve and localize the parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery by using methylene blue stain which improve outcomes following thyroidectomy.<br>Materials and methods : This a prospective cross- sectional study was performed on 48 adult patients of both sexes who presented to the surgical ward at Salah Al-Deen general hospital in Tikrit city between October 2017 and July 2018. Full medical history was taken and clinical examination was done to those who were suitable for surgery. After indirect larngyoscopic confirmation of normal vocal cord mobility, in addition hospital medical records were obtained including patient’s name, age, gender, residence, nature of thyroid disease, duration of thyroid disease, previous thyroid surgery, family history of thyroid disease and past medical history, relevant investigations like final histopathology ; all were chosen to undergo thyroidectomy, following superior but before inferior thyroid pedicles ligation, methylene blue dye, in a concentration of 2:8 and 1:10 of Methylene Blue: Normal Saline was sprayed over the thyroid lobe and perilobar area, in the region where recurrent laryngeal nerve is predictable to be found. Recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands were identified and safe dissection of the thyroid without injuring these structures were ensured. Results: Recurrent laryngeal nerve was not stained in all cases, in contrast to the blue stained adjacent tissue. Within three minutes parathyroid glands washed out the dye and the yellow color was regained. Conclusions: Several techniques of recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands identification were established , our study demonstrate that visual delineation of these structures by methylene blue dye spraying during dissection of thyroid is a simple, safe and effective method for localization and injury avoidance to both recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of the Mexiletine Effects on Normal Cats’ Electrocardiogram 2020-05-21T04:35:10+00:00 Alireza Narenjian1, Nastaran Rahimi2, Seyed Ali Shabestari Asl1 <p>Mexiletine has been suggested in various studies for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Extremely low toxicity of this drug has been reported in these literatures; however, there is no reasonable report on the effects and function of this drug on the cat’s heart processes in different phases of cardiac contraction. This article evaluated the effects of different dosages of mexiletine on cat’s electrocardiography.<br>Seven cats were used for this study and incremental dosage method with oral capsule has been used. Before starting the study, each cat were evaluated by an electrocardiogram sample, which was considered as a normal electrocardiogram) ECG(. To evaluate the effects of mexiletine, doses of 4, 10, 15, 20 and 40 mg/kg were adjusted and prescribed. For each cat, the doses were prescribed sequentially every 24 hours and after prescription of the drug, the cats were examined clinically and electrocardiographically. This evaluation was done at the peak of the drug, about 2 hours after prescription. Finally, all clinical observations and ECGs were evaluated.<br>In the clinical study, any clinic symptoms was considered and rhythm, heart rate, and determination of heart electrical functions such as P amplitude and duration, QRS duration, R amplitude, ventricular contraction time (QT interval) and PR interval were evaluated in electrocardiographic experiments.<br>According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the drug is quite safe for cats and no cardiac complication and electrophysiological disorder was observed even with the use of high doses or even incremental doses, so this indicates that the drug can be safe in terms of cardiac effects.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Role of BRAF Mutation (V600E) in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) 2020-05-21T04:37:25+00:00 Azhar Azher M. Al-Ankoshy1, Karrar A. Alqershi2, Hussein W.S. Rabeea3 <p>Introduction. Thyroid cancer is usually associated with genetic alterations. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was found to be accompanied by point mutation occurs in a part of exon 15 in specific gene called BRAF which is a part of pathway that responsible for cell main functions such as division. The role of BRAF gene point mutation (V600E) in the occurrence of PTC was investigated in this study.<br>Study designs and subjects: 70 patients previously diagnosed with PTC in addition to 35 controls were recruited in this control-based study. Patients were grouped according to their ages and gender. Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. PCR was run to detect V600E point mutation in BRAF gene.<br>Results: PTC incidence was found to be higher in patients aged from 40-49 years. The percentage decreased as ages increased. Females had higher PTC frequency than males, 66% to 34%, respectively. The V600E point mutation was detected in 35 patients out of 70 (50%).<br>Conclusion. Genetic studies have to be a part of thyroid cancer investigations. The study confirmed that PTC is usually associated with molecular defect. Other studies such as thyroid profile tests (TSH, T3 or T4) have to be done along with genetic studies for more confirmation and more understanding of this molecular defect.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forensic and Legal Victimology Education: The Actualization of Ethical Values in Law 2020-05-21T04:39:42+00:00 Djunaedi <p>Ethics need to be redeveloped as an effort to build the excellent forensic and legal victimology education, and law-abiding human beings with moral value. Being ethical means, therefore the awareness of the importance of ethics must always be a basic requirement in the forensic and legal victimology education order. The relation between ethics and educations is indeed close. There are many links which make both share similarities and differences, but the difference is not meant to separate them one from another. In addition, ethics and legal norms both have the same social aims, namely humans to do deeds according to the norms of society. Without a strong ethical principle, the awareness of forensic and legal victimology education may not grow well, the education may lose its substance. Even, the forensic and legal victimology is used as a tool to merely invigorate greed and selfishness. But by sticking to ethical principles, the awareness of forensic and legal victimology might grow well, as it may deliver and elevate human standards may realize social justice in Indonesia.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Risk Factor based on the Type of Stroke at RSUD Dr. Soetomo, Surabaya, Indonesia 2020-05-21T04:43:48+00:00 Kurnia Dwi Artanti1, Santi Martini1, Sri Widati2, Muhammad Alminudin1 <p>Introduction: Stroke defined as a disease due to the trouble in the blood circulation which affected by several risk factors. It consists of fixed factors and unfixed factors. The fixed factor such as age, and gender, while unfixed factors including hypertension, blood glucose level, dyslipidemia, and job. Aims: This research aims to identify the distribution type of stroke, and risk factor which affecting the stroke patients in the RSUD Dr. Soetomo, Surabaya. Method: Research was designed as descriptive research to the stroke patient in the RSUD Dr. Soetomo, Surabaya. Various data was collected including age, gender, job, blood pressure, blood glucose level, and lipid profile when patient involved in the hospital at the first time, history of smoking, history of stroke in family. All of stroke patients in the RSUD Dr. Soetomo, Surabaya within October-December 2018 was addressed as subject in this research. Result: Result showed that ischemic stroke had the highest incidence rate in the hospital (72,6%), most of patient of stroke are male (56,2%) with age in less 65 years old (72,6%). Both hypertension 37(50,7%) respondent and smoking 29 (39,73%) respondent are the highest modified risk factor in this research. In the ischemic stroke, hypertension (62,3 %) is the highest modified risk factor. Whilst, in the hemorrhagic stroke, smoking (35 %) is the highest modified risk factor.. Moreover, the highest risk factor in all type of stroke is in age less than 65 years old (72,6%). Conclusion: Number of ischemic stroke case is higher than hemorrhagic stroke. Hypertension is defined as the highest risk factor in hemorrhagic stroke, while smoking is the highest risk factor of ischemic stroke</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus Occurrence in the Elderly at the Griya Antapani Public Health Center 2020-05-21T04:45:50+00:00 Ade Saputra Nasution1, Fitriani Pramita Gurning2, Muchti Yuda Pratama3, Fauzan4 <p>Diabetes Mellitus is a health disorder that is caused by an increase in insulin levels. Diabetes Mellitus, including disease, is also a risk factor for heart and blood vessel disease. Risk factors for Diabetes Mellitus itself from Abdominal/Central Obesity, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and smoking. This study aims to see whether there are factors associated with the place of Diabetes Mellitus in the work area of the Griya Antapani Community Health Center. The research method used is Analytical Epidemiology with a Cross-Sectional approach, Sampling many as 84 respondents. The results of study showed that there was a relationship between Abdominal/Central Obesity, Hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking the relationship between the incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Working Area of the Griya Antapani Public Health Center in Bandung. Based on the results of this study, it is expected that the community will find an unhealthy lifestyle to be healthy.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Medical Environment of Traditional Market Quality in A Business Competition 2020-05-21T04:48:15+00:00 Mohamad Tohari1, Khudzaifah Dimyati2, Absori Absori2, Nurhadiantomo2, Kelik Wardiono2, Wafda Vivid Izziyana3, Arief Budiono3 <p>There are two emerging markets in Indonesia, namely traditional markets and modern markets. Traditional market reform is one of the government’s programs to improve the performance of market traders. The existence of medicine environment aspects as the development of the quality of traditional markets is important to be discussed. The greater the health and medicine environmeny that occur shows a is a reflection of the level of public welfare. its development Traditional markets are beginning to be marginalized, this is due to the quality of commodities and un health environment that are not guaranteed.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Triability or Observability That Influences The Youth Decision Using Mobile Application “Remaja Sehat” ? 2020-05-21T04:50:22+00:00 Pulung Siswantara1, Muthmainnah1, Riris Diana R1, Astri Meidah S1 <p>Reproductive health of adolescents in Indonesia has become an unresolved priority problem and the number of its cases keep increasing from year to year. It caused by access to information and adolescent health programs that are haven’t been distributed evenly. In fact, not all programs use the media that is in line with the current characteristics of adolescents. Media is an adolescent health promotion strategy that has to be considered in order to increase knowledge. There have been many kinds of media related to adolescent reproductive health in the form of posters, leaflets, public service announcements and so on. According to the previous research, during all this time the media tend to be patronizing and boring. The adolescents nowadays will not be far from gadgets, so researchers have developed “Remaja Sehat” application as a media for adolescent health education. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of media on the variables of triability and observability on the decision to use “Remaja Sehat” application.<br>This research was conducted to high school students in Surabaya. The method used in this research is the Quasi Experiment and uses post only design. Samples in this study were 302 conducted by using simple random sampling. The students were given a number of questions in the questionnaire after be given intervention in the form of exposure to a healthy adolescent application.</p> <p>The results showed that there was a significant effect on triability (p value = 0,000) and obsevability (p value = 0.042) on the decision to use “Remaja Sehat” application. Based on this research, it can be concluded that the “Remaja Sehat” application can be used as a media for health promotion which matches the characteristics of adolescents.<br><br></p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Biochemical Analyses of Male Rat’s Serum Administered Dexamethasone and Green Synthesis Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Treatment 2020-05-21T04:53:20+00:00 Ruaa M. Ali1, Nada K. Abbas1, Amal K. Abbas2, Lamia K. Abbas3 <p>Current research involves preparing cerium oxide nanoparticles using simple, environmental- friendly green synthesis approach via fresh green tea leaf extract (Camellia sinensis) as a capping and reducing agent, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis.) is used to check the formation of nanoparticles by investigate the absorption peak and energy gap (Eg); Maximum absorption peak was around 295nm and Eg was 4.2eV calculated using Planck’s equation, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of Nano powder stated that Cerium Oxide has a cubic fluorite structure with face centered cubic (FCC) structure, blood serum glucose levels, liver functions after CeO2 Nanoparticles treatment for rats were reported in this paper. Forty eight adult male rats were used and divided randomly into six groups each group has eight rats (n=8), Results stated that blood glucose levels, liver enzymes were increased in groups that injected by dexamethasone while considerably modified in rats administered by Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Study of the Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Reducing Methadone Consumption and Increasing Self-Esteem in Drug Addicts 2020-05-21T04:55:32+00:00 Zakaria Zakariaei1, Seyed Khosro Ghasempouri1, Touraj Assadi2, Ali Asghar Manouchehri3 <p>The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing methadone consumption and increasing self-belief in addicted to substance people. This study is in terms of the objective of applied research and from the developmental branch and in terms of nature and method it is a quasi_experimental research. The study population of this study includes all clients of methadone clinic of razi hospital in qaemshahr. The sample consisted of 30 subjects selected through targeted sampling available were divided into control and experimental groups, who referred to methadone clinic at razi hospital in Qaem-shahr during the study period. Data collection tool was a standard and researcher-made questionnaire. Franken’s Methadone Consumption Reduction Questionnaire (2002) and Self-confidence researcher-made questionnaire, which reliability was calculated to be 0.94 and 0.74 respectively, using Cronbach’s Alpha. Spss22 software was used to analysis the research hypotheses and data from the questionnaire. The data analysis method has been descriptive and inferential statistics (Kolmogorov–Smirnov, Levine, T2 and covariance test). The result of this study has been shown that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing the consumption of methadone addicts. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) increases self-belief in addicted people.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study Effect of Clarithromycin drug on Cryptosporidium Parvum and Efficiency of ELISA Technique in Diagnosis Comparison with Some Traditional Methods in vitro 2020-05-21T04:58:28+00:00 Hussein A. Kadhum1, Shaimaa A. Shlash2 <p>This research aimed to study effect of Clarithromycin drug on Cryptosporidium Parvum and efficiency of ELISA technique in diagnosis comparison with some traditional methods in vitro. Samples collected from four different sources water were 400 liters:100 liters tap water provider by Al-Kufa District River,100 liters house tank water,100 liters from sea of Al-Najaf and 100 liters stagnant water during period from October 2018 to April 2019.Examined samples by three laboratory methods: Modified Ziehl-Neelson stain, Flotation by saturated sugar solution method and ELISA to detecting from Cryptosporidium oocysts in the water as used Clarithromycin drug effective against C.parvum in vitro. Capability test was implement impregnation isolated and determination cells of parasite counted when at 37°C/ 48h incubated. Differ concentrations from Clarithromycin were 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/L respectively compared with control group.<br>Results of the current study showed that oocysts were found in 182 from 400 liters 45.5% as showed that height oocysts in stagnant water then followed Sea of Al-Najaf were 55% and 45% respectively, height percentage of oocysts were in April and March were 69.09% and 66% while decrease percentage of infection in October was 25%. As showed study results presence significant differences in efficiency of ELISA technique was 83.33% at detection from oocysts compared with Flotation by saturated sugar solution and Modified Ziehl-Neelson stain methods were 66.66% and 61.11% respectively. Shown results this study that Clarithromycin with 16 and 32 mg/L lead to reduction in number oocysts was 17.3±3.5 and 15.4±3.9, sporozoites counts was 17.1±3.4 and 14.9±4.0 compared with control group was 20.5±2.8.As observed significance differences P.0.05 in the mean numbers the oocysts and sporozoites in three replicate plates after 48 h. These results proved that Clarithromycin have effectiveness in inhibition C.parvum in vitro.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Study of Tuberculosis Related Topics in Baghdad, Iraq 2012-2016 2020-05-21T05:01:08+00:00 Ali Kareem Durib1, Ekterina Valerievna Blinova2 <p>Objective(s): The present study designed to explore topics related to Tuberculosis, such as new smear positive cases, causes, treatment and new pulmonary positive cases in Baghdad City, Iraq for 2012-2016.<br>Method: A descriptive “retrospective” design was performed throughout the present study from the period of November 12th 2017 to February 13th 2018. All registered tuberculosis patients in Baghdad, Iraq for the period of 2012-2016. An instrument was constructed for the purpose of the study. Data were collected from the health records at the National Tuberculosis Center, State TB center, and district TB center for the period of 2012 to 2016 with the use of the study instrument. Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive statistical data analysis approach of frequency, percent, incidence rate and ratio.<br>Results: The study findings depicted that most of the new smear positive cases are accounted for the age group of (15-24) year old during the years of 2012-2016. Causes of Tuberculosis in the rural area were accounted for poverty (39.95%), smoking (22.39%), untreated cases (12.4%), alcoholism (11.32%), malnutrition (10.30%) and overcrowded (3.57%) respectively, and accounted for alcoholism (27.77%), overcrowded (27.16%), malnutrition (24.69%), smoking (11.93%), poverty (7.62%) and untreated cases of Tuberculosis (0.80%) respectively in the urban area.<br>Conclusion: The study concluded that Most of the new smear positive cases are accounted for the age group of (15-24) year old during the years of 2012-2016. Patients, in 2014, had benefited out of the Tuberculosis Program more than others based on the success rate.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Forensic Examinations and Therapeutic Agreement in Indonesia 2020-05-21T05:03:17+00:00 Osgar Sahim Matompo <p>This research describes the type of legal protection for doctors and patients in forensic examinations. The therapeutic agreement is an agreement between doctors and patients which gives doctors the power to give forensic examination services. In the legal aspect of the therapeutical agreement, there appears the rights and responsibilities of each party. This means that both patients and practitioners have their own rights and responsibilities. The method used in this research is the doctrinal method with deductive and inductive approaches. Meanwhile, before the forensic examinations, the doctor needs therapeutical agreements to fulfill rights and responsibilities. Without this agreement, the doctor’s work may not reach a maximum positive effect. Thus, there must be a balance. The doctors need the therapeutic agreement to fulfill their responsibilities in the forensic examinations.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Effect of Ciprofloxacin Exposure on Ctx-M Gene Pattern of Escherichia Coli 2020-05-21T05:12:37+00:00 Muhammad Amin1, Eddy Bagus Wasito1, Erwin Astha Triyono2 <p>Background: An exposure of ciprofloxacin on Escherichia coli (E.coli) may cause cross-resistance to beta-lactam groups. The researchers obtained that ciprofloxacin, aminoglycoside, cotrimoxazole and second generation of cephalosporins were the risk factors for infection caused by Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria. Exposure of ciprofloxacin to E.coli causes resistance of cefotaxime and produces ESBL which is genotypically evidenced by the presence of CTX-M.<br>Objective: To know the effect of ciprofloxacin exposure on CTX-M gene pattern of E. coli.<br>Method: A total of 30 E.coli isolates were exposed to ciprofloxacin for 14 days with the Kirby-Bauer antibiotic disc diffusion method. ESBL confirmatory test and Modified Double Disk Susceptibility Test (MDDST) method was used the antibiotic disc and continued electrophoresis using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The data analysis used the chi-square statistic test with ? = 0.05.<br>Results: In the PCR examination, 10.00% of ESBL isolates were obtained to have CTX-M-15 gene, and 33.00% of non-ESBL E.coli isolates having CTX-M-15 gene. While 10.00% of E.coli ESBL isolates and 53.30% non-ESBL did not have CTX-M-15 genes. There was no significant difference between ciprofloxacin exposure and the presence of CTX-M-15 gene (p = 0.290).<br>Conclusion: Most of the E.coli isolates had CTX-M-15 gene after the exposure. There was no difference in ciprofloxacin exposure to the presence of CTX-M-15 genes of E. coli.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Visum Et Repertum Forensic Examination as Evidence of a Rape Crime in the Trial Process of Kupang District Court 2020-05-21T05:14:52+00:00 Siti Syahida Nurani1, Absori Absori2, Khudzaifah Dimyati3, Kelik Wardiono4, Zainur Wula5, Arief Budiono6, Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho7 <p>This research aims to prove visum et repertum as an evidence of a rape crime in the trial process at Kupang District Court (PN Kupang), so as to know how the judge assembly accommodate all evidences in the court as a basis to make a verdict, regading the weight of the punishment which will be given the rape crime perpetrator. This is a juridical- empirical descriptive research, as it uses primary and secondary data in the form of the judges’ verdict at the rape crime trial which is absolute and also interviews conducted to subjects who are involved in the research. The health aspect in proving the rape case is evidenced in the visum et repertum papers and expert information from the doctors who examined the victim.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Inhalant Abuses in India: A Review 2020-05-21T05:16:54+00:00 Raghavendra Reddy1, Tim George Jose1, Danie Kingsley2 <p>This review article explores the studies of inhalants and inhalant misuse in India. Since much research is focused on illegal drugs not much work had concentrated on the commonly available inhalants. The abuse of inhalants is common phenomenon in the world. In this review, we will explain why these inhalants addiction is an inalienable thing which depressed youths can’t avoid. Then we will look into various inhalants commonly used and also into various case studies available in the literature hence knowing the abuse of inhalants among youths and techniques employed by them to get a kick.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of Antioxidant (GSH, Vitamin A, E, C) and MDA in Iraqi Women with Toxoplasmosis 2020-05-21T05:19:40+00:00 Fayhaa M. Khaleel1, Areej Sh. Hameed1, Ashgan S. Dawood1 <p>Background: Pregnancy loss, also referred to as a miscarriage or spontaneous abortion, is generally defined as a nonviable intrauterine pregnancy up to 20 weeks gestation. Early pregnancy loss, which occurs in the first trimester, is the most common type.<br>Objective: The aims of the study were to assess the role of (MDA, GSH, and levels of antioxidant vitamins, C, E and IgG, IgM of Toxoplasma gondii) causes of Abortions.<br>Materials and Method: For this study, 45 aborted women have been selected in first – trimester, and 25 well-matched women as control group their ages range from ( 20 – 33 years).<br>Results: The study shows is an increasing level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) in women with toxoplasmosis. Furthermore, there is a decreasing level of antioxidant vitamins (A, C, and E), and Glutathione (GSH).</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prevalence of Celiac Disease among Cases of Irritable bowel Syndrome in Baghdad- Iraq 2020-05-21T05:22:08+00:00 Marwan Majeed Ibrahim <p>Celiac disease is a common illness need not to be mistaken as IBS or GI motility disorders and careful evaluation of IBS patients especially those with diarrhea predominant type may need to be considered.<br>This study disclose that about more than 12% of patients who had been already diagnosed as IBS is discovered to have positive serology of gluten sensitivity and the diagnosis of Celiac disease had been confirmed by histopathology study.<br>Though and careful evaluation of presumed cases of IBS especially those with poor response to conventional therapy or those who with atypical presentations is essentialin order to reach to an alternative diagnoses.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Psychological Empowerment and Organizational Commitment among Nurses 2020-05-21T05:24:15+00:00 Rifaie Yaseen Hameed Al-Hussein <p>Background- Psychological empowerment plays an important role in behavioral, emotional and cognitive constructs, such as Job Satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. Aim- The study aimed to identify the relationships between Psychological Empowerment and Organizational Commitment among nurses. Methods and Materials - A cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study design carried out in a period from 5th of September/2017 till 30th of May/2018 at five Public Hospitals in Mosul/Iraq. Non-probability sampling technique and accidental sampling method depended to select the sample of the study, which accounted for (317) nurse. Two instruments were used to collect data via an interview method with each subject “Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire”. The findings of the study presented by mean, standard deviation, while the relationships among variables presented through stepwise regression. Results- Total PE and its domains had significant relations to total OC and its Affective and Normative domains.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The Position Medical Forensics and Visum Et Repertum in Adultery (Overspel) Cases in the Jenang Kutei Traditional Trial in Bengkulu, Indonesia 2020-05-21T05:26:13+00:00 Emma Ellyani1, Khudzaifah Dimyati2, Absori2, Kelik Wardiono2, Sakroni1, Arief Budiono3 <p>Proving is the action of presenting legally valid evidences by the Rajang Lebong customary judge to inspect cases of adultery (overspel), to achieve the truth according to the forensic science. This research uses a sosiological method with a descriptive-analysis approach regarding the forensics’ expert information and the position of visum et repertum in customary trials in the case of adultery. The aim of this research is to understand the real position of forensic experts and visum et repertum in the Rejang Lebong traditional trials. This research shows that the position of the forensics’ expert information of evidences and visum et repertum are accepted as proof in overspel cases.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation Efficacy of Clarithromycin and Levofloxacin in the Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori (H.P) Infected Iraqi Patients at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital 2020-05-21T05:28:02+00:00 Marwan Majeed Ibrahim1, Mohamed Ghalib Zakari2 <p>Helicobacter pylori (H.P) infection is an increasing concern in modern medicine due to its effect on the pathogenesis and management of peptic ulcer disease and gastritis and its possible link to gastric adeno carcinoma cases. The eradication of HP is a mandatory approach in documented cases of HP infection mainly gastric and duodenal ulcers. The treatment options is variable globally according to microbial susceptibility test and local guidelines. This study focused on two main options in the eradication of HP and found that levofloxacin based therapy is superior to clarithromycin based approach in the rate of eradication , with comparable rate of adverse events.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Job Satisfaction and Relationship with Organizational Commitment among Nurses 2020-05-21T05:30:22+00:00 Rifaie Yaseen Hameed Al-Hussein <p>Background- Nurses’ job satisfaction is one of the most important factors affecting organizational commitment. Aim- The study aimed to identify the relationship between job satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among nurses. Methods and Materials- A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional study design carried out between (5th/September/2017 till 30th of May/2018) at five hospitals in Mosul/Iraq. Depending on the convenience sampling method and Non-probability sampling technique, a sample of (317) nurses were selected. Two instruments were used to collect data via an interview method with each subject (Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire “JS” and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire “OC”). To measure the content validity of the questionnaires, they exposed to five experts in the nursing field, whereas, the reliability of them was checked by Cronbach’s alpha. The results of the study were demonstrated by descriptive statistic through (mean standard and deviation), and by inferential statistic through (stepwise regression). Findings- Total JS and its domains had significant relationships with total OC and its Affective and Normative domains, while they hadn’t any significant relationships with total OC.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020