Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology <p>Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology is a double-blind peer reviewed international journal. The frequency is quarterly. It deals with Forensic Medicine, Forensic Science, Toxicology, DNA fingerprinting, sexual medicine, environmental medicine, Forensic Pathology, legal medicine and public health laws. It has been assigned International standard serial No. p-0973-9122 and e-0973-9130. The Journal has been assigned RNI No. DELENG/2008/21789. The journal is indexed with Scopus, EMBASE. The journal is also abstracted in Chemical Abstracts (CAS) database. The journal is also indexed /abstracted with many databases. </p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> Institute of Medico-legal Publications Pvt Ltd en-US Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 0973-9122 <p><strong>Re use and mixing of content policy</strong>- We follow Creative Commons Licence Policy. We follow CC BY. Please refer below for all details</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>CC BY</strong></p> <p>This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon our work, even commercially, as long as they credit us for the original creation.</p> <ol> <li>The journal allows readers to <em>read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles</em> and allow readers to <em>use them for any other lawful purpose</em>.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions</li> </ol> Determination of Sex by Osteometry of Third Metatarsal <p>In forensic anthropology and bio archaeology, sex determination is considered to be a primary step, as<br>accurate identification of one sex eliminates half of the population of other sex. Though pelvis, cranium<br>and long bones are considered more accurate indicators for sex determination, they are often not available<br>or fragmented. The aim of this study is to specify the relation between prediction of sex of an individual<br>and osteometry (length and mid shaft diameter) of third metatarsal and to assess the reliability of these<br>morphometric traits in predicting the sex of the individual. Sample used in the study were 100 cases (50<br>males and 50 females) presenting for post mortem examination in the mortuary of Lok Nayak Hospital and<br>Maulana Azad Medical College. The present study found sex determination accuracy of third metatarsal to<br>be 67% to 72%, which rose to 75 % on combination of variables from both sides. The results suggest that<br>metatarsal bones can be used for sex determination when remains are fragmented or incomplete.</p> Arthy1 , Rohit Goel2 , Sreenivas M3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1 6 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10315 Incidenceof Tuberculosis in Unidentified Dead Bodies amongst Autopsy Conducted at Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai <p>A autopsy based prospective study on incidence of tuberculosis was conducted at government Stanley</p> <p>medical college for two year from June 2016 –June 2018in that 425 cases of unidentified bodies were</p> <p>subjected for postmortem in that 376 cases were taken for the present study these based on exclusion criteria</p> <p>during autopsy in that 201 cases were male and 175 cases were female, in all the cases sterile swabs were</p> <p>taken from intra bronchial region and directly from caseous necrosed sites and lung tissues from pathological</p> <p>sites are subjected for histopathological examination during autopsy and sterile swabs were subjected for</p> <p>acid fast staining and culture by lowenstien Jensen medium medium among the376 cases studied 52 cases</p> <p>had pulmonary tuberculosis and 2 cases had milliary and intestinal tuberculosis respectively.</p> A.Gokulakrishnan1 , S.Praveen1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 7 11 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10316 Study of Lip Print Pattern among Young Individuals in Bangalore City <p>Chieloscopy or study of pattern of lip print is one of the easiest tools available for the identification of an</p> <p>individual in a medico legal investigation. The present study involves evaluating the pattern of lip prints</p> <p>among hundred individuals with 50 male and 50 female subjects. Lip prints are obtained on a white bond</p> <p>paper and studied involving all four quadrants. It was observed that Type I pattern was commonest lip print</p> <p>pattern among all the individuals and in female subjects, where as type II pattern was common among males.</p> <p>No two individuals had the same lip print pattern.</p> Chandru K1 , Naveena Preethi2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 12 15 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10317 Effectiveness of Educational Intervention on Knowledge & Attitude about MTP Act 1971 among Apparently Healthy Reproductive Age Group Population Visiting A Tertiary Care Centre, Puducherry <p>Medical termination of Pregnancy Act is one such Act which was brought by the Indian Government to</p> <p>streamline the process of abortions conducted in India. Its rules were framed for the first time in 1972,</p> <p>amended in 1975, 1977, 2003, and 2009 and recently in October 2014. The main motive of passing such</p> <p>bills was to decrease the female foeticide rate, decrease the maternal mortality rate, improve the health of</p> <p>the mother and the newborn and to avoid unwanted and illegal abortion practises. In spite of these measures</p> <p>from the government, more than 5000 deaths due to unsafe abortions take place every year in our country.</p> <p>The main cause of such death related to abortion is mainly due to the ignorance of the general public towards</p> <p>abortion. Majority of the women, not only in the rural parts, but also in the urban regions does not know about</p> <p>the mere existence of the MTP law. Hence this study was aimed to estimate the level of awareness about the</p> <p>MTP Act among the apparently healthy reproductive age group public, visiting the hospital and apart from it,</p> <p>we also educate them regarding the MTP Act and its uses. Among our participants the minimum age reported</p> <p>was 20 and the maximum age was 45. Out of total 220, female accounted to 63.2% and male 36.8%. Among</p> <p>them married people accounted for 69.5%, unmarried 28.2% and others were 2.3%. 42.3% of people had</p> <p>history of abortion their family but 64% of people doesn’t know whether the conducted abortion was a legal</p> <p>or a illegal one. Eleven questions were asked to the participants and an initial assessment of their knowledge</p> <p>was done with the help of a questionnaire. After this immediately, educational intervention was carried out</p> <p>about the law and after a gap period of one month the participants were asked the same questions as before</p> <p>using telecommunication device and their knowledge was tested.</p> Fathima S1 , James Rajesh J 2 , Jothi Marie Feula3 , Siva Reddy4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 16 21 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10318 Study of Profile of Motor Vehicle Accidents in Thiruvanmiyur Traffic Police Station <p>Accidents are an intentional act which is not a voluntary act done by the people. Accidents, tragically, are not</p> <p>often due to ignorance, but are due to carelessness, thoughtlessness and over confidence [1]. Human, vehicle</p> <p>and environmental factors play roles before, during and after a trauma event. Accidents, therefore, can be</p> <p>studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place</p> <p>and nature of injury.</p> G.Shivani1 , V.Dekal2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 22 26 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10319 Demographic Profile of Poisoning Cases in a Tertiary Care Center in South India – An Observational Study <p>The word ‘poison’ has been evolved from the Latin word ‘potion’ i.e. ‘to drink for health’, but in the due</p> <p>course of time the definition of ‘poison’ has changed reversibly to its present form i.e. any substance which</p> <p>when administered, inhaled or ingested is capable of acting deleteriously on the human body. In the current</p> <p>study we have aimed at determining the demographic profile of poison cases reporting to our institute. This</p> <p>prospective study was carried out involving 353 cases of poisoning admitted in Sri Ramachandra Medical</p> <p>College &amp; Research Institute, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, during the period of June 2014-</p> <p>June 2015. Age-wise distribution of poisoning cases revealed that the maximum cases are in the age group</p> <p>of 20-29 years and the incidence decreased as the age increases. It is evident that the incidence of poisoning</p> <p>is more in case of females when compared to males. Occupation-wise distribution revealed poisoning is</p> <p>more common among people who are skilled workers contributing 167 cases. Socio economic status wise</p> <p>distribution revealed poisoning is more common among the people who belong to Upper middle (52%),</p> <p>followed by 33% of cases belong to Middle class. Poisoning is more common among married people when</p> <p>compared to unmarried people. Out of 353 cases, 203 cases were married, which accounts for 58%, 150</p> <p>cases were unmarried, which accounts for 48%. Distribution of the study population based on the type of</p> <p>family revealed that out of total 353 cases, 299 cases belonged to nuclear family. Persons who belong to joint</p> <p>family were 46 in number.</p> James Rajesh J1 , Sampath Kumar P2 , Priyadarshee Pradhan3, Jothi Marie Feula A4 , Siva Reddy B5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 27 32 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10320 Estimation of Age through Elbow Joint in children of Karnataka <p>70(35 male and 35 females) children aged between 11 to 18 years were studied for ossification of elbow joint</p> <p>radiologically, 4(11.4%) were 11 years 5(14.2%) were 12 years, 7 (20%) were 13 years of age, 5(14.2%)</p> <p>were 14 years, 3(8.57%) were 15 years were 16 years, 3 (8.57%) were 17 years and 4 (11.4%) were 18 years</p> <p>old. The radiological study of elbow joint was Appearance of trochlea was observed only in female at 11</p> <p>year. Fusion of trochlea was in males at 14 to 15 years of age and in 12 to 14 years in females. Appearance</p> <p>of lateral Epicondyle in male was 11 to 12 years but in females at 11 years only. Fusion of lat epicondyle in</p> <p>males was between 13 to 16 years and in females 13 to 14 years. Fusion of medial epicondyle in males was</p> <p>between 14 to 16 years but in females between 11 to 15 years. Fusion of head of Radius in males between</p> <p>14 to 16 years of age but in females between 11 to 13 years only. Appearance of olecranon process in males</p> <p>between 11 to 13 years and in females between at 11 years only. Fusion of olecranon process in males was</p> <p>between 17 to 18 years of age in females between 15 to 16 years only.</p> <p>This study of elbow appearance and joint in which early appearance and ossification of females bones</p> <p>will be helpful to medico-legal expert, orthopedician, radiologist, anthropologist and anatomist. Moreover</p> <p>this study has ethnic and regional importance because morphometric values of mesodermal derivatives are</p> <p>uncertain</p> Manjunatha A Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 33 35 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10321 Identification of Sex of Sacrum in Karnataka Population <p>35 male and 35 females adult, non pathological dried sacra were studied. The height and width was measured</p> <p>with vernier caliper. In comparison of height of sacrum, the mean value of male was 106.4(SD±0.30) and</p> <p>female 90.1(SD±0.16), ‘t’ test was 395, and P value was highly significant (P&lt;0.01). In the comparative</p> <p>study of width of the sacrum mean value of males was 99.3 (SD±0.44) and female was 112 (SD±0.08) ‘t’ test</p> <p>was 122.65 and P value was highly significant (P&lt;0.01). The sacral Index of male was 93.3 and female was</p> <p>124.27. This significant value to differentiate the male and female genders will be quite useful to medico</p> <p>legal expert anthropologist and anatomist because these obtained value represent the regional or ethnic study</p> <p>of sacra. Moreover morphometric values of mesodermal derivatives are un-certain.</p> Manjunatha A Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 36 38 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10322 Demographic Profile and Pattern of Presentation of Organophosphorus Poisoning at Tertiary Care Hospital Agra <p>India is agriculture dominant country and organophosphorus commonly used by former in agriculture field.</p> <p>Therefore, Organophosphorus poisoning is common India. Study done at emergency department to know</p> <p>the pattern of sign and symptoms presentation at the time of admission. Total number of cases was 160, out</p> <p>of them 102 (64%) were males and only 58 (36%) were females. Male to female ratio was 1.75:1. farmers 61</p> <p>(38%) were commonly affected, followed by 35(22%) of patients were housewives and 26 (16%) of patients</p> <p>were students. symptoms presented were vomiting 150 (93.75%) and salivation 150 (93.75%), followed</p> <p>by sweating 147 (91.88%), lacrimation 102 (63.75%) and blurring of vision 80 (50%), breathlessness</p> <p>(40%), faecal incontinence (31.88%), urinary incontinence (18.13%), headache (18.13%) and convulsion</p> <p>(10%). commonest signs were smell of poison 150 (93.75%), followed by tachypnoea 134 (83.75%),</p> <p>altered consciousness 115 (71.88%), miosis 86 (53.75%), fasciculation 70 (43.75%), tachycardia (36.25%),</p> <p>bradycardia (28.13) and pulmonary oedema (06.25%). Increased body secretions were the commonest</p> <p>presentation then other symptoms followed were blurring vision, tachypnoea altered consciousness, and</p> <p>respiratory symptoms. It can be helpful to make diagnosis and take awareness, preventive measures about</p> <p>organophosphorus poisoning.</p> Mustaria Pankaj Kumar Shusil1 , Ajay Agarwal2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 39 44 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10323 Green Pitch- Be the Part of Solution <p>Pursuing “Green” has become the new drive for organisations on the quest towards growth, competitiveness</p> <p>and global excellence. Environmental issues have gained importance in business as well as in public life</p> <p>throughout the world.Green dentistry is a part of strategy to promote our practise by employing environmental</p> <p>credibility. In growing concern of global warming, switching our practice over to green is the need of hour</p> <p>as it involves abundant utilization of natural energy and also produces large amount of biomedical waste at</p> <p>the same time, creating a huge environmental impact. We cannot deny the fact intelligence is the ability to</p> <p>adapt to change. This article speaks about the various concepts of how to go for eco-friendly dental practise.</p> Nandhini V1 , Gayathri S1 , Sumathi H Rao2 , .P. B.Anand3 , T. Geetha4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 45 48 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10324 A Four Years’ Retrospective Study of Poisoning Cases in Southern India <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To study the pattern of poisoning in Visakhapatnam and its demographic correlates.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; method: </strong>The study was retrospectively conducted in all poisoning cases admitted in Casualty</p> <p>department of Anil Neerukonda Hospital, Visakhapatnam and carried out during the period of 1st Jan 2014</p> <p>to 31st Dec 2017.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Majority (47.37%) of the subjects were between the ages of 20-29years with slight preponderance</p> <p>towards female (52.63%) as compared to male (47.37%). Most of the cases belonged to lower socioeconomic</p> <p>status (94.74%). Place of occurrence was most commonly within the house (85.97%) &amp; it was predominantly</p> <p>observed during winter season. Aluminum phosphide (21.05%) was the most commonly abused substance</p> <p>followed by Organophosphate compounds (14.04%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The government should take legislative steps to curb down the menace of poison in the hands</p> <p>of the vulnerable people in the society primarily focusing on developing the poisons with less toxicity or</p> <p>non-toxic to humans.</p> P.C. Sahoo1, Karma Mingur Diki Bhutia2, Ashim Mishra3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 49 55 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10325 Effect of Audio Assisted Relaxation Therapy on Level of Blood Pressure among Mothers with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The incidence of PIH is about 8-10% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy</p> <p>if unchecked will result in eclampsia with generalized convulsions, HELLP syndrome etc. It is usually</p> <p>managed with medicines. There are various non-pharmacological treatment like muscle relaxation,</p> <p>meditation, breathing etc. which are used to control of hypertension. Present study was aimed to assess the</p> <p>effectiveness of audio assisted relaxation therapy on level of blood pressure among mother with pregnancy</p> <p>induced hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Experimental approach with one group pretest- posttest design was used for the study. Study was</p> <p>conducted among 30 antenatal mothers diagnosed with PIH admitted in Kamla Nehru Hospital, Shimla H.P,</p> <p>selected by using convenience sampling technique. Semi structured interview schedule is used to collect</p> <p>background information and sphygmomanometer was used to measure the level of blood pressure. The</p> <p>blood pressure (BP) was monitored three times a day for two days to obtain a baseline data and average</p> <p>of it was considered as pre-test. Audio assisted relaxation therapy was then administered for 20 minutes</p> <p>per sessions, two times a day for three days. The blood pressure (BP) was monitored before and after each</p> <p>session of relaxation therapy</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean posttest systolic is BP, 139.81 mm of Hg was significantly lower than the mean pretest</p> <p>systolic BP, 146.45 mm of Hg. The mean posttest diastolic BP, 87.63 mm of Hg was also lower than the</p> <p>mean pretest diastolic BP, 92.06 mm. Both differences were significant at the level of &lt;0.001.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> The result of present study shows there is a significant difference in BP before and after</p> <p>intervention. So audio assisted relaxation therapy can be used as an effective add on intervention for the</p> <p>management of with women hypertension during pregnancy.</p> Shasi Bala1 , Lekha Viswanath2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 56 62 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10326 A Demographic Study on Cases of Drowning with Special Reference to Histopathological Changes of Lung and Other Tissues in a Tertiary Centre <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>Drowning is the 3rd leading cause of unintentional injury deaths.As drowning is a preventable</p> <p>cause of mortality, our aims for the benefit of society at large is to minimize the events as far as possible.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong>A clear knowledge about factors which play a major role behind such incidences is important.It</p> <p>has equal forensic importance as determination of cause and manner of death require thorough investigation.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We conducted one-year study of demographic variables and the histopathological changes</p> <p>in relation to lung and splenic tissues in cases of drowning deaths, in the hot and humid climatic region of</p> <p>Eastern India.<strong>Results:</strong> The demographic findings were presented in graphs and charts. However, none of</p> <p>the commonly known autopsy findings (histopathological) are found to be individually confirmatory of</p> <p>drowning. <strong>Conclusion:</strong>Several factors inclusive of autopsy findings, biochemical examination, radiological</p> <p>and molecular technique,are needed to be taken together as complementary methods to conclude drowning</p> <p>as the cause of death when bodies are recovered from water.</p> Somnath Maity1 , Soumeek Chowdhuri2, Saikat Das, Sovan Kumar Das4 , RupamKarmakar5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 63 69 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10327 Fixing the Deepest Point on Greater Sciatic Notch for Measuring or Calculating Maximum Depth of Greater Sciatic Notch <p><strong>Background</strong>: Aim of the present study is to fix the deepest point in the curvature of greater sciatic notch for</p> <p>measuring or calculating maximum depth.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method</strong>: Hip bones of each sex (30 male and 30 female) were divided in two groups consisting</p> <p>of 15 bones in each group. For first group the farthest point from the maximum width of greater sciatic</p> <p>notch was taken as the deepest point. For the second group the point of first touch from arcuate line onto</p> <p>the greater sciatic notch curvature was taken as the deepest point. Maximum depth of greater sciatic notch</p> <p>was calculated from that point for both groups. The maximum depth of greater sciatic notch for each sex</p> <p>were checked for any statistical difference between the two groups by using two tailed t-test to calculate the</p> <p><em>p</em>-value.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong><em> p</em>-value, for maximum depth of greater sciatic notch between group 1 and 2 was found to be 0.149</p> <p>for male hip bones and 0.8883 for female hip bones. Statistically there was no significant difference in the</p> <p>maximum depth of greater sciatic notch calculated by fixing the deepest point either from maximum width</p> <p>of greater sciatic notch or from arcuate line.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We can use the point of first touch from arcuate line to greater sciatic notch as the point of</p> <p>maximum depth of greater sciatic notch.</p> Uday Pal Singh1 , D Vijaya Raghavendra2, Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 70 75 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10328 Enrofloxacin poisoning in Humans – A Rare Case Report <p>Enrofloxacin flouroquinolone - Veterinary Medicine. It has the general effect of the class of flouroquinolone.</p> <p>This poison is rarely reported in human. We present a case of Enro poisoning. Patient ingested Enrofloxacin.</p> <p>Which was followed by seizures and altered sensorium .Patient was taken on mechanical ventilator. He was</p> <p>managed symptomatically .He developed ST-T changes in ECG. But coronary angio was normal. We also</p> <p>tried doing plasmapheresis. But patient expired even after all efforts. The best of our knowledge, we did not</p> <p>find any such reported case of enro poison in Human .Hence we present this case report.</p> Vipul Khandelwal1 , Namrta Pradhan2 , Priya Mathu2 , Shailesh Jhawa2, Ajay Pal Singh3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 76 78 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10329 Serotonin Syndrome Precipitated by Escitalopram <p>Depression is characterized by symptoms like sad mood, loss of interest and pleasure, low energy,</p> <p>worthlessness, guilt, psychomotor retardation or agitation, change in appetite and/or sleep and suicidal</p> <p>thoughts, etc. It may be a unipolar or a bipolar cyclic disorder in which cycles of mood swings from mania to</p> <p>depression occur over time. Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Citalopram and Escitalopram</p> <p>are the various SSRIs( Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) preferred as first line of drug in such</p> <p>conditions. Among the SSRIs, Escitalopram exerts a highly selective, potent, and dose-dependent inhibitory</p> <p>effect on the human serotonin transport. By inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin into presynaptic nerve</p> <p>endings, this drug enhances the activity of serotonin in the central nervous system. Herein we report a case</p> <p>of a 82 year old male who presented with altered sensorium, tachycardia, hypertension and restlessness</p> <p>to emergency department of our hospital. Patient was known case of Adjustment disorder with Depressed</p> <p>mood and was on treatment with Tablet Escitalopram 10 mg OD and Tablet Zolpidem 10 mg OD since 1</p> <p>month. Patient overdosed himself with 4 Escitalopram tablets of 10 mg. He presented with features similar</p> <p>to serotonin syndrome.</p> Deshna H. Lad1 , Harsha Makwana2 , Vidhi Shah3 , Supriya D. Malhotra4 , Pankaj Patel5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 79 82 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10330 Pattern and Profile of Injuries Sustained During Assault by Sharp Weapon: A Prosective Study During Year 2015-16 at Sms Medical College-Jaipur <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Death and injuries by sharp weapons needs proper attention as regards to their pattern and</p> <p>manner of infliction. This study was thus undertaken to obtain statistical data of the injuries caused by sharp</p> <p>force in fatal and non-fatal medico-legal cases at SMS Hospital, Jaipur to evaluate their pattern and medico</p> <p>legal profile for of intentional injuries inflicted by others.</p> <p><strong>Material and method: </strong>This study consisted of all the Medico-legal cases of sharp force trauma inflicted</p> <p>by others during assault, including fatal and non-fatal cases comes in department of Forensic Medicine of</p> <p>S.M.S. Medical college Jaipur during the period extending from April, 2015 to March, 2016. A total no. of</p> <p>93 cases of sharp weapon injuries were studied.</p> <p><strong>Observations: </strong>Males predominated in the present study with 86.02% of cases. Injury inflicted by others was</p> <p>more common in urban population (90.32%). In this study majority of cases of injuries inflicted by others</p> <p>were incised with 62 cases (60.78%) In 24 cases single edged weapon was used to inflict stab wound. Out</p> <p>of all the cases only 5 succumbed to death and was most commonly resulted from by hemorrhagic shock (4</p> <p>cases).</p> N.L. Disania 1 , Rajesh Kumar Verma2 , R.K. Punia3 , Vinod Kumari Jat4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 83 87 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10331 A Study of Awareness on Artificial Insemination among Medical College Students <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Artificial Insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female’s cervix or</p> <p>uterine cavity for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than</p> <p>sexual intercourse. This is one among the methods of assisted reproductive technique. This study aims to</p> <p>find out the level of awareness about Artificial Insemination among medical students</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>This is a questionnaire-based study. A self-administered questionnaire in multiple</p> <p>choice format distributed among the medical students of Saveetha medical college. Total of 120 students,</p> <p>Forty students from each batch from second to final year were randomly chosen to participate in the the</p> <p>survey.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>120 medical students participated in the survey out of which 76.67% of students had adequate</p> <p>awareness on artificial insemination. 85% of students knew the correct definition of AI while 86.74% were</p> <p>able to correctly identify the techniques used for artificial insemination. Final years medical students had</p> <p>more awareness on artificial insemination than their junior colleagues, and 2nd years medical students had</p> <p>least awareness.Students have inadequate knowledge on the technical aspect of artifical insemination like</p> <p>storage of semen (21%, n-25) and the time duration of sperm viability (54%, n-65) etc. Students also having</p> <p>inadequate knowledge on the legal, social and psychological issues like donor selection, consent of the</p> <p>spouse and the importance of understanding between the partners on artificial insemination.</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>Most of the respondents knew about the basics of Artificial insemination with less awareness on</p> <p>its technical aspect, legal and ethical implications. Medical education have been a good source of information</p> <p>and the inclusion of Artificial Insemination as a form of infertility management in the curriculum of medical</p> <p>students could help in increasing awareness among students.</p> Shifa Shahina Nijamudeen1 , Dekal V2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 88 93 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10332 A Cross-Sectional Study of The Pattern of Cases of Deliberate Self-Harm in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>Objective of the Study</strong>: To study the different methods used for DSH and precipitating factors</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method</strong>: The present study was conducted in the department of emergency medicine in</p> <p>St John’s Hospital, Bengaluru. 337 individuals who were brought to the emergency department with an</p> <p>alleged history of DSH and were stable after medical management were selected for the study. Subjects</p> <p>were assessed using the structured questionnaire and a thorough history. Group differences for categorical</p> <p>variables were examined with fissure exact test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Analysis revealed that 60.5% of DSH cases were in the age group of 18-30 years, 54.3% were</p> <p>females, 37.7% of family problems, 42.1% preferred drug over dosage, 10.7% in February and17.8% on</p> <p>Mondays.</p> <p><strong>Interpretation &amp; Conclusion:</strong> Young adults were the most vulnerable group. Singles outnumbered all</p> <p>others. Nuclear family and urbanization proved to be risk factors. Most of them attempted DSH because of</p> <p>family problems and most attempted at home. Drug overdose was the most preferred method.</p> Shinto Devassy1 , Varghese P.S1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 94 98 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10333 Study of Profile on Juvenile criminals in Chennai <p>Juvenile delinquency is a serious offence and it is detrimental for the social order in any country .There is</p> <p>a trend of increase in juvenile crimes world-over, with more and more involvement of the youth in violent</p> <p>crimes. Chennai shows similar trends of increasing rate of violent crimes committed by the juveniles. It is a</p> <p>very serious concern for the district and solutions to end the problem need to be sought very carefully. Indian</p> <p>legal system and judiciary has responded to these trends and has brought some amendments in the laws</p> <p>pertaining to juvenile justice in India [1]. This paper aims at looking at the causes of juvenile delinquency</p> <p>and explanations in Chennai for the year 2016. The analysis of statistical data available at the CBCID</p> <p>office crime branch indicates increasing involvement of the juveniles in heinous crimes. Observation homes,</p> <p>Shelter homes have been started by the government for the sake of such offenders then also the rate is</p> <p>continuously increasing day by day. For delinquent juvenile we can say that Prevention is better than cure</p> <p>juveniles should be protected from going to the wrong path.</p> Siddharth.R1, V.Dekal2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 99 105 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10334 Characteristic Properties of «Enoant» Bioflavonoids in Alcoholic Liver <p>At present, the question of the effectiveness of the use of bioflavonoids in the treatment of the alcoholic</p> <p>liver disease is of practical interest and attention from modern medicine. <em>Aim of our research</em> is to analyse</p> <p>the antioxidant properties of Enoant in alcoholic liver and to establish the ultra morphostructural changes</p> <p>in liver tissue. <em>Materials and methods - </em>assessment of changes in alcohol-impaired rat liver were studied</p> <p>before and after administration of Enoant bioflavonoid concentrate. <em>Results - </em>The positive effect of “Enoant”</p> <p>is explained by the antioxidant properties of bioflavonoids, their ability to reduce peroxidation of proteins,</p> <p>stimulate reparative processes, activate protein synthesis and enhance the system of antioxidant protection</p> <p>of hepatocytes. All this allows to attribute the concentrate of bioflavonoids “Enoant” to highly active</p> <p>hepatoprotectors and is of practical interest at all stages of treatment of patients with different stages of liver</p> <p>lesions.</p> Zakharova A.N1 ., Malev A.L.2 , Kaliberdenko V.B.3 , Shanmugaraj K4 , Keerthanaa B4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 106 110 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10335 Effectiveness of Occular Muscle Exercises on Myopic Individuals with Forward Head Posture <p><strong>Background: </strong>The dependence of today’s younger generation on technology is increasing and the work</p> <p>hours spent by professionals in front of computer screens are also increasing. These are the leading causes of</p> <p>myopia. Task related postural adaptation may also cause myopia. However, very few if any people suffering</p> <p>from myopia are being referred to a physiotherapist. There is positive effect of ocular muscle exercises on</p> <p>increasing visual acuity and decreasing stress on the ocular muscles.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this study was to find out the effect of ocular muscle exercises on myopic</p> <p>individuals with forward head posture.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>There were total 46 subjects who were willing participants of this study. They were divided in</p> <p>two groups one excremental who received exercises while other was control. Pre intervention and post</p> <p>intervention postural assessment were taken and analysed.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> There was a significant effect of the ocular exercises on craniovertebral angle of these myopic</p> <p>individuals compared control group (p = 0.0219). Its effect on forward shoulder angle was not quite</p> <p>significant (p = 0.0619).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ocular exercises are not quite effective in improving forward head posture.</p> Shradha Patel1 , Trupti Yadav2 , Amrutkuvar Pawar2 , Radhika chintamani2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 111 115 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10336 An Autopsy Based Study of Sexual Dimorphism of Adult Human Sterna <p>Creation of an individual’s biological profile is of extreme importance and depends on age, sex and stature.</p> <p>The cranial and pelvic bones are important in identifying the sex of an individual. However, loss of complete</p> <p>bones or bones getting destroyed renders it impossible to use them for such estimations. However, since</p> <p>such sex-specific bones are hard to find at each and every scene, forensic experts are left with no choice but</p> <p>to depend on less sexually dimorphic elements of the human skeleton such as the sternum.</p> <p>This study was conducted in subjects that were subjected to medicolegal autopsy. The deceased aged 18</p> <p>years and above, of either sex, were included in study. The deceased with evidence of trauma and surgery to</p> <p>the anterior chest wall, generalized bone diseases, observable deformities over the sternum were excluded.</p> <p>The analysis of 300 sterna was carried out to study sexual dimorphism in sternum using different parameters</p> <p>such as width of suprasternal notch, width of sternum at level of fourth rib, posterior curved length of</p> <p>sternum, manubrio-corpus index and length of sternum.</p> Bhumesh Darade1 , Pawan Sabale2 , Shailesh Mohite3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 116 121 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10337 Effect of Jack Knife Stretching Versus Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (Hold Relax) Stretching Technique in Asymptomatic Individuals with Hamstring Tightness: A Randomized Clinical Trial <p><strong>Background: </strong>Study is to compare the effectiveness of Jack knife stretching and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular</p> <p>Facilitation (PNF) stretching Technique in asymptomatic individuals with hamstring tightness.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives : </strong>1. To study the effect of jack-knife stretching on the individuals with asymptomatic</p> <p>hamstring tightness in terms of Active knee extension test, finger to floor, passive SLR and LEFS</p> <p>Questionnaire.2.To Study the effect of PNF stretching on individuals with asymptomatic hamstring tightness.</p> <p>3.To compare the effect of Jack knife and PNF stretching in individuals with hamstring tightness.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method:</strong> Ethical approval was obtained. 56 healthy subjects were assigned into two groups.</p> <p>PNF (hold relax) stretching technique was given to the Group A and Group B received Jack Knife stretching.</p> <p>Active knee extension test, Finger to floor test, Passive single leg raise test and Lower extremity functional</p> <p>scale these parameters were measured .</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Intra-group comparison for all the outcome measures in both the groups showed statistical</p> <p>significance. Inter-group comparison for all the outcome measures for both the groups had differences but</p> <p>showed statistical significance. Group B Jack knife stretching was more effective than group A PNF (hold</p> <p>relax) stretching.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study results indicate that to increase hamstring flexibility both the treatment</p> <p>techniques i.e PNF stretching and jack knife stretching are effective in asymptomatic individuals with</p> <p>hamstring tightness. Thus, our study shows jack knife stretching gives immediate effect due to closed pack</p> <p>position of stretching compared to open pack position of PNF group</p> Amruta Kabra1, Kajal Salekar2, Tanvi Kalanekar3, Kajal Salekar2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 122 126 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10338 Comparative Effectiveness of Kinesio Taping and Ift in Upper Cross Syndrome- A Randomized Clinical Trial <p><strong>Background:</strong> Upper cross syndrome refers to a particular configuration of overlapping overactive and</p> <p>underactive muscle groups in the neck, chest and shoulders. Typically, poor posture causes the syndrome,</p> <p>including the forward head posture, which occurs when people use electronic devices, read, and drive. The</p> <p>present study is intended to investigate the effect of kinesio taping on upper cross syndrome</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> 1. To study the effectiveness of kinesio taping, Hot Moist Pack and exercises in upper cross</p> <p>syndrome, 2. To study the effectiveness of IFT, HMP and exercises in upper cross syndrome and 3. To</p> <p>compare the effectiveness of kinesio taping and IFT in upper cross syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study consisted of 2 groups. Group A was experimental group and Group B was</p> <p>conventional group. Both the groups received treatment protocol for 2 weeks. Sample size was 60 with 30</p> <p>in each group.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Visual analogue scale, cranio-vertebral angle and forward shoulder angle were used as outcome</p> <p>measures. Statistically significant results were found with VAS p=&lt;0.0001, cranio-vertebral angle p=0.0632</p> <p>and forward shoulder angle p=0.285</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that the use of kinesio taping is recommended in reducing pain and</p> <p>improving the neck angles in participants with upper cross syndrome as compared to conventional therapy.</p> Amrutkuvar Rayjade1 , Trupti Yadav2 , Radhika Chintamani2, Nisha Joshi3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 127 132 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10339 Proportion of Diagonal Ear Lobe Crease and its Association With Sudden Death Due to Coronary Artery Disease- An Autopsy Study <p>Coronary artery disease has been a number one killer worldwide and in India it has increased phenomenally</p> <p>as the most important cause of sudden natural death of cardiac aetiology in the last few decades. Changing</p> <p>lifestyles, stress, habits, presence of other predisposing pathologies etc have played direct as well as indirect</p> <p>roles in its causation. Conventionally the predictors for coronary artery disease have been predominantly</p> <p>risk factors. Notwithstanding this, of recently a number of extra cardio vascular physical parameters like ear</p> <p>lobe crease have shown a reasonably promising trend in predicting the presence of coronary artery disease</p> <p>thereby enabling prompt intervention which in turn can reduce cardiac mortality in the long run. The present</p> <p>study focuses on this aspect of detecting an association between diagonal ear lobe crease and sudden death</p> <p>due to coronary artery disease. A total of 188 cases brought for medicolegal autopsy was studied. It has been</p> <p>revealed that diagonal ear lobe crease detected at autopsy has a statistically significant association with both</p> <p>the presence of coronary artery disease as well as the severity of atheromatous occlusion in sudden deaths.</p> <p>Hence diagonal ear lobe crease can have a reasonable predictive value in detecting coronary artery disease</p> <p>that could be used for the early detection of individuals with coronary artery disease and thus pave the way</p> <p>for early interventional strategies.</p> Anwar Abdul Rahman1 , Renju Raveendran2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 133 137 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10340 Peek (Polyether Ether Ketone) – A Review Article <p>This article is aimed to review the applications of Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) in dentistry. The evolving</p> <p>desire for functions and aesthetics, few drawbacks with existing materials and clinicians shifting their</p> <p>paradigms towards metal free restorations led space for the metal-free restorations in today’s restorative</p> <p>practice. PEEK is a polymer based innovative material, that can be used in either fixed or removable</p> <p>prosthetics. This literature review discusses various applications and uses of PEEK.</p> Arunmozhi Kannan1 , Praveen P2 , Sanjna Nayar3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 138 140 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10341 Effectiveness of Strengthening Vs Strengthening with Stretching in Individuals with Nonspecific Low Back Pain <p><strong>Objectives</strong>:- To assess and compare the effectiveness of strengthening and strengthening with stretching in</p> <p>patients with nonspecific low back pain</p> <p><strong>Methodology:- </strong>There were total 40 patients with low back pain in the study. This study was done to find</p> <p>and compare the effect of strengthening and strengthening with stretching in patients with nonspecific low</p> <p>back pain. The patients were assessed with Visual Analogue Scale for pain and Manual Muscle Testing for</p> <p>the strength before and after 12 weeks of treatment.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Strengthening and stretching of the muscles has effect on the pain reduction as well as strength of</p> <p>the muscles in patients with nonspecific low back pain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>On the basis of the result of this study, it was concluded that the strengthening and stretching</p> <p>of the muscles has effect on the pain reduction as well as strength of the muscles in patients with nonspecific</p> <p>low back pain</p> Brity Alex1, G Varadharajulu2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 141 145 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10342 Effectiveness of Guided Imagery on Stress and Coping among Wives of Alcoholics : A Systematic Review <p><strong>Background</strong>: Alcoholism is one of the major health as well as social problem all over the world today.</p> <p>Alcoholism is a family problem, it causes stress in the relationship and misuse affects couples’ relationship</p> <p>in a variety of negative ways. <strong>Purpose: </strong>To systematically review articles to evaluate the effectiveness of</p> <p>Guided Imagery on Stress and Coping among Wives of Alcoholics in selected De-addiction centre. <strong>Method</strong>:</p> <p>The search of significant articles including effectiveness of Guided Imagery on Stress and Coping among</p> <p>Wives of Alcoholics was carried out in PubMed/ Medline, and Google Scholar. The included studies both</p> <p>qualitative and quantitative were evaluated according to predefined quality criteria. Medline and PubMed</p> <p>were searched to identify peer-reviewed English-language studies published between 1985 and March 2018</p> <p>reporting on stress and coping among wives of alcoholics. Total 300 studies were selected for review, out</p> <p>of which only 32 were found appropriate to be included in the study. <strong>Results: </strong>Analysis was done 90 papers</p> <p>were retrieved by the search. Among them, 30 were evaluated to be of higher quality. Studies recruiting</p> <p>sample of wives of alcoholics and excluded wives of non-alcoholics. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the review it</p> <p>was concluded that Wives of alcoholics had more stress and social disabilities which were directly related</p> <p>to the severity of husband’s drinking pattern. Wives of alcoholics have highest rate of personality and</p> <p>emotional disturbance. Working women faced lesser stress as compared to non-working women. Wives of</p> <p>alcoholics had poor coping skills. They used maladaptive coping behavior to cope up with their husband’s</p> <p>drinking problem such as but not limited to discord, fearful withdrawal and avoidance were commonly</p> <p>used maladaptive coping behaviors. Relaxation therapies were found to be effective to reduce stress and</p> <p>in improving coping. Guided imagery was very effective in reducing stress and improving adaptive coping</p> <p>among wives of alcoholics.</p> Aarti1 , Srinivasan P2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 146 150 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10343 Assessment of Epidemiological Causes, Occurrence and Allocation Resulting to Fatality in Two Wheeler Fortuitous Accidents in Uttar Pradesh <p><strong>Introduction- </strong>This study is intended to construe epidemiological causes, occurrence and allocation resulting</p> <p>to fatality in two wheeler fortuitous deaths.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method- </strong>This observational and cross section study, among the medico-legal autopsies</p> <p>conducted in the study Centre, includes motorized and non-motorized two wheeler associated accidental</p> <p>deaths. It was too assessed to identify the individual, automobile and road issues originating accidents. All</p> <p>findings pertaining to the bodies including wounds were thoroughly observed at autopsy and well interrelated</p> <p>with pat instances.</p> <p><strong>Results- </strong>Two wheeler fatalities in males were found to be considerably much elevated (91.66%) than</p> <p>females The fatalities percentage in male were recorded as 91.66% whereas in females, it was only 8.33%.</p> <p>The entire victims were in the age group of 20 to 29 years (35%). The preponderance of the victims belonged</p> <p>to the city population which comprised of 48% of the total size. Working and business group individuals</p> <p>were 28%. National highways share maximum numbers of fatalities (37%) whereas roads in villages have</p> <p>comparatively less accidents (13%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion- </strong>Road traffic accidents are very frequent in the riders of young age group which is also a huge</p> <p>loss to the nation.</p> Abhishak Kumar Varshney1, Qaiser Rasool Panzoo2 , Anuj Gupta3 , Vinod Kumar4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 151 155 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10344 Effect of Core Strengthening and Conditioning Programme on Badminton Beginners <p><strong>Background :</strong> Badminton requires a specific physical conditioning in terms of motor and action controls;</p> <p>coordinative variables such as reaction time, foot stepping and static or dynamic balances, which are essential</p> <p>motor demands in this sport. Therefore, badminton players need enough core strength and a high level of</p> <p>dynamic balance during the rapid postural movements around the court.</p> <p><strong>Objectives :</strong> To study the effect of core strengthening and to study the effect of conditioning program on</p> <p>badminton beginners</p> <p><strong>Methodology :</strong> 25 players, aged between 12-19 years were given core strengthening and conditioning</p> <p>protocol for 4 weeks. Players were assessed at 0, 2nd and 4th week through 60 degree curl up test and</p> <p>modified Sorensen test.</p> <p><strong>Results :</strong> statistically significant difference was seen in pre and post treatment values of the 2 tests. In 60</p> <p>degree curl up test at 0 week p=, 2nd week p= and 4th week p= and in modified Sorensen test at 0 week p=,</p> <p>2nd week p= and 4th week p=</p> <p><strong>Conclusion : </strong>players showed improvement in their core strength after 4 weeks of core training.</p> Aditi B. Churi1 , G. Varadharajulu2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 156 161 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10345 Effect of Postural Ergonomics and Static Gluteus Exercise Along with Bridging on Quality of Life in Individual with Mechanical Low Back Pain <p><strong>Background: </strong>This study is to improve the posture of the patient to reduce the excessive stress on the</p> <p>joint and muscular structure It can reduce the mechanical low back pain in the patient .To enhance the</p> <p>performance and productivity of the job and prevent muscle fatigue .It can improve the posture and controls</p> <p>the health of the patient. So we need to study effect of static gluteus exercise along with bridging in patient</p> <p>with mechanical low back pain.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To find out the effect of static gluteus exercise along with bridging in patient with mechanical</p> <p>low back pain. To find out the effect postural ergonomic who have low back pain.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study was carried out in karad area. The subjects were selected according to inclusion</p> <p>and exclusion criteria. Total 26 subjects were participated in this study. Prior consent and assent form was</p> <p>taken. Aim and procedure were explained to the subjects in their preferred language before data collection.</p> <p>The subjects were given static gluteal exercise along with pelvic bridging and postural ergonomic advise</p> <p>also given. Pre and post assessment was done before treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment respectively</p> <p>with the help of Visual analogue scale and the data was analysed with help of appropriate stastical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: In conducted study, Visual analogue scale showed statistically significant difference between pre</p> <p>and post treatment values. Pain decreases in individuals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>On the basis of the result of the study, it can be concluded that postural ergonomics and static</p> <p>glutes exercise along with pelvic bridging helps in reducing mechanical low back pain and improving quality</p> <p>of life.</p> Aishwarya Vedpathak1 , Poonam H. Patil2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 162 165 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10346 Leukopenia, Hypomagnesemia in 2,4-D Poisoning-A Rare Presentation <p>2,4-D(2,4-Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid) is a common herbicide in agriculture field. It has moderately toxic</p> <p>effect on mammals.2,4-D is available either in salt or ester formulations for field level use .Although no</p> <p>specific antidote available for this herbicide, forced alkaline diuresis is one of the modalities of treatment</p> <p>to promote early excretion of toxin through kidney and minimize its complications .Other management are</p> <p>essentially supportive measure and prevention of possible complications like aspiration pneumonia .There</p> <p>are a numbers of complications that are reported in varying degree .It affects skeletal muscle ,cardiovascular</p> <p>,gastrointestinal , renal ,central and peripheral nervous system. Here we report a case who developed unusual</p> <p>complications like leukopenia, hypomagnesemia, proximal muscle weakness after consumption of 2,4-D</p> <p>after suicidal intent.</p> Ajita Kumar Bhoi1 , Prafulla Kumar Bariha2 , Khetra Mohan Tudu2 ,Manoj Kumar Mohapatra3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 166 167 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10347 Factors that Correlation to Occupational Contact Dermatitis Among Tobacco Farmers in Jember District, East Java Province, Indonesia <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. Contact dermatitis is positived by most agricultural sector workers. Tobacco farming is one of</p> <p>the places where chemicals are sourced from pesticides, fertilizers, and also nicotine derived from tobacco</p> <p>leaves. This study aims to analyze the factors associated with contact dermatitis in tobacco farmers in Jember,</p> <p>East Java Province, Indonesia. <strong>Method</strong>. The research design is case control with 155 tobacco farmers. The</p> <p>dependent variable of this study is Occuptional Contact Dermatitis (OCD) as measured through the results</p> <p>of a doctor’s examination. Independent variables are individual factors and occupational factors. Individual</p> <p>factors include age, sex, education, individual hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and complaints</p> <p>of GTS. Occupational factors consist of the main job, additional work, types of tobacco leaves, work at risk,</p> <p>work period, length of work, length of rest. Data analysis used Chi-Square test with a significance value</p> <p>of p &lt;0,05. <strong>Result and Discussion</strong>. The results revealed that factors related to OCD in tobacco farmers in</p> <p>Jember Regency were age (p = 0.037), education (0,013), GTS complaints (p = 0,030), type of tobacco leaf</p> <p>(p=0,005), working periode (p=0,042) and working hours (p=0,008). <strong>Conclusion</strong> Individual factors related</p> <p>to OCD in tobacco farmers are age, education, and GTS complaints. Occupational factors related to OCD</p> <p>are the type of tobacco leaves, working periode and length of work. This study revealed that OCD through</p> <p>promotion and integrated occupational health education.</p> Anita Dewi Prahastuti Sujoso1,2, Tri Martiana*3 , Santi Martini4 ,Firman Suryadi Rahman1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 168 173 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10348 Improve Awareness of the Forensic Odontology among Medical Graduates: Need of the Hour? <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Forensic odontology is a fastly growing field in both dental and forensic sciences. It involves</p> <p>the application of principles and expertise of dental sciences for criminal investigations. With increasing</p> <p>demand and use of dental evidence in forensic examinations, proper knowledge and awareness of the subject</p> <p>is more necessary than ever before.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method:</strong> A survey was conducted in Medical and Dental colleges in and around Mangalore,</p> <p>Dakshina Kannada after approval from institutional ethics committee. It included MBBS and BDS students</p> <p>(III year to internship)</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The analysis of the data showed two fold results. Knowledge of tooth as a source of DNA, evidence</p> <p>for natural disasters in personalle identification was equal among the graduates. Medical graduates had</p> <p>higher awarenes of certain aspects like barr bodies and anthropometry whereas; Dental graduates were</p> <p>aware of the odontology aspects in identification of cases of rapes, child abuse, techniques like forensic</p> <p>radiology, bite mark analysis and sexual dimorphism in teeth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study highlighted the difference in knowledge of forensic odontology between medical and</p> <p>dental students. It emphasized on the need of increasing awareness of the subject among medical graduates</p> <p>and to help them understand the role of their peers from the dental fraternity in forensic sciences. The study</p> <p>also stressed on the need of a forensic odontologist in the State Forensic Team.</p> Anushtha Jain1 , Nandita K.P2, Srikant N3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 174 181 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10349 Spectrum of Hepatic Pathologies in Medicolegal Autopsies <p><strong>Background:</strong> Silent liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the population due to its silent</p> <p>progression to end stage liver disease without significant symptoms. We aim to study pattern of pathological</p> <p>findings and latent forms of diseases in the 100 liver autopsy specimen and to find clinicopathological</p> <p>correlation between clinical diagnosis and pathological diagnosis wherever possible.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The present study was conducted on 100 liver autopsy specimens received in the department of</p> <p>Pathology, Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Sections from representative areas were submitted for processing,</p> <p>sectioned and stained with Hematoxylin &amp; Eosin stain.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of 100 specimens, 38 cases (38%) showed hepatic steatosis, followed by cirrhosis 14</p> <p>cases(14%), chronic venous congestion 13 (13%) cases, portal triaditis 12 (12%) cases, normal 12 (12%)</p> <p>cases , hepatitis 8 (8%) cases , granulomatous/ tuberculosis pathology 2 (2%) cases and 1(1%)metastatic</p> <p>deposits of carcinoid tumour. Maximum cases seen in age group of 41-50 years with mean age 39.92±12.68</p> <p>years. Liver disease predominated in males with male:female ratio of 6:1.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Silent liver diseases are not uncommon. Autopsy examination of liver is very helpful to identify</p> <p>silent liver diseases like hepatic steatosis, cirrhosis, venous congestion and malignant tumours.</p> Apoorva Nigam1 , Navneet Kaur2 , Ramesh Kumar Kundal3 , Akashdeep Aggrawal4 , Kanwardeep Kaur5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 182 187 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10350 Epidemiological Profile of Fatal Abdominal Injuries Secondary to Blunt Force Impact: Autopsy based Study Conducted At A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Mangaluru <p><strong>Background:</strong> Evaluating patients who have sustained blunt abdominal trauma remains one of the most challenging</p> <p>and resource-intensive aspects of acute trauma care.6,7 The objective of this dissertation is to analyse the pattern of</p> <p>fatal abdominal injuries secondary to blunt force impact.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this research is to analyze the pattern of fatal abdominal injuries secondary to blunt force impact</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>Detailed observations for 38 autopsies with evidence of fatal abdominal trauma during the</p> <p>period October 2014 to July 2016 were carried out. Routine information like age, sex, occupation brief facts of the</p> <p>cases collected from the inquest report. Clinical history like time of admission, and deaths and other relevant data</p> <p>was collected from the hospital case sheets and death summaries.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Analysis involves 38 autopsies with evidence of fatal abdominal trauma during the period October 2014</p> <p>to July 2016. The most common age group involved was between 21-30 years of age comprising 26% of total 38</p> <p>cases followed by the age group of 11-20 years comprising 21% of total cases. The most common cause of blunt</p> <p>fatal abdominal trauma was vehicular accident seen in 84% of cases. In 38 cases, it was found that 24 cases (63%)</p> <p>were dead on arrival. Amongst 32 vehicular accidents, a total of 21 pedestrians (66%) were killed in 38 fatal blunt</p> <p>abdominal trauma cases. Liver was the organ mainly affected in fatal blunt abdominal trauma followed by pelvic</p> <p>trauma and kidney. Haemorrhage accounted for the largest number of cases (94.74%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study emphasizes the need for adopting measures to prevent morbidity and mortality</p> <p>resulting from blunt abdominal trauma.</p> Arun Pinchu Xavier1 , Karen Prajwal Castelino 2 , Francis N.P. Monteiro3 , Bharath Shetty4 , M. Deepak5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 188 193 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10351 Antimicrobial and Biofilm Inhibitory Activity of Nanoparticles Against Clinical Isolates from Urinary Tract Infection <p>At these days nanoparticles (NPs) are used as antibacterial due to its have chemical-physical addition to</p> <p>biological effect. A big group of microbial cells adhering to a surface are called biofilm. Exposure to nano</p> <p>particles such as (Ag, Al2O3, Ni) may prevent colonization of new bacteria onto the biofilm. In the present</p> <p>research we have analyze whether the biofilm formation of some isolates of pathogenic bacteria could be</p> <p>influenced by NPs. Also we examined the susceptibility of the isolates to some antibiotics in combination</p> <p>with Ag, Al2O3 and Ni nanoparticles. (50) Strains of isolated <em>K. pneumonia</em> have been examine from patients</p> <p>with urinary tract infection were collected from Education of Baghdad hospitals in Iraq. Serial dilution of</p> <p>Tube method to determination of MIC and MBEC for Nanoparticles against isolates was done. Biofilm</p> <p>formation was evaluated by micro titer plates. Additionally. disc diffusion method was used to assay the</p> <p>various antibiotics and combinations for bactericidal activity against the isolates. The results showed that</p> <p>about 97% of the strains were capable to form of structure biofilms. More than 82% about of strains showed</p> <p>resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Antibiotics and antimicrobials from mixed nanoparticles were</p> <p>higher than compared to nanoparticles alone. Therefore, a synergistic effect was observed between silver -</p> <p>Nickel nanoparticles and silver - aluminum oxide nanoparticles in to inhibiting the growth of K. pneumonia</p> <p>strains. Furthermore, cytotoxicity activity of Ag NPs against Neuro-2a cells was higher than Al2O3 NPs. The</p> <p>results suggest that nanoparticles can be used as antimicrobial agents for therapeutic to treat urinary tract</p> <p>infections caused by <em>K. pneumoniae.</em></p> Ashwak Jasim Kzar Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 194 199 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10352 Ulnar length – A Tool for Stature Estimation <p>Stature is a important factor in identification of an unidentified dead body or any mutilated part of such</p> <p>body. In present study we made an attempt to estimate the stature from percutaneous length of ulna. Study</p> <p>consists of 94 adult males and 96 adult females between the age group of 18- 24 years, born and brought</p> <p>up in Maharashtra. The length of the of the right and left ulna was measured with a venier calliper from the</p> <p>apex of the olecranon to the styloid process and the height of the individual was measured with a calibrated</p> <p>standing meter rule. The measurements were noted in the proforma. The data was statistically analyzed and</p> <p>linear regression formulae were derived.</p> Atul S Keche1 , Harsha A Keche2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 200 204 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10353 Occlusal Morphology of Primary Molars in Anganwadi Children, Faridabad <p><strong>Introduction - </strong>Forensic odontology helps in identifying any suspect involved in crime, in accidental cases,</p> <p>in disaster victim identifications. Teeth shows variation in its anatomy as it has a very strong hereditary</p> <p>component. Variations in occlusal morphology of teeth include differences in the number of cusps and the</p> <p>fissure pattern. So, it is important to know the occlusal morphology of teeth in Forensic odontology.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method - </strong>A descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the cusp and groove pattern in</p> <p>primary second molar of 3-6 year old children from Anganwadis of Faridabad. Hellman and Gregory’s</p> <p>criteria for groove pattern were used to know the buccal groove pattern and cusps of primary molar. Data</p> <p>were analyzed with SPSS statistics software 23.0 version.</p> <p><strong>Result - </strong>The predominant groove pattern was “Y” (73.34%). Majority of the participants has 5 cusps in</p> <p>primary second molar. 67.45% of the study participants had 5Y occlusal morphology of primary mandibular</p> <p>second molar and it is mostly seen in male children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion - </strong>This occlusal configuration will further help in various genetic, anthropological and forensic</p> <p>investigations. Furthermore, knowing common variations in dental anatomy and morphology about each</p> <p>individual tooth can help in providing dental treatments such as restorative, endodontic and orthodontic</p> <p>treatments</p> Brinda Khanna1 , Archika Singh1 , Nisha Rani Yadav2, Meena Jain3 , Ankur Sharma4 , Vishal Jain5 , Akansha Monga3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 205 209 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10354 Health Status of Children in Assam <p>Children are the most valuable asset of a nation; their good health is the cornerstone for survival and</p> <p>development for current and succeeding generations which guarantee the sound and sustained economic</p> <p>development. Child health is a state of social, emotional, intellectual, mental and physical well- being which</p> <p>does not merely represent the absence of disease or infirmity. The term nutrition refers to a process of</p> <p>attaining necessary food for proper health and growth of human being. The nutritional status of children</p> <p>impacts their health, cognition and educational achievements. But underweight and malnutrition are most</p> <p>prominent health indicators in India and also in Assam (According to NFHS-3 &amp; NFHS-4). Assam is situated</p> <p>in the North-East of India, bearing a considerable percentage of its population under the poverty line. Assam</p> <p>does not have shown much improvement in its health and nutrition indicators. Almost 36.4 percent children</p> <p>under age 5 are stunted and Infant Mortality Rate as high as 48( NFHS-4). The health status of children in</p> <p>rural areas of Assam is very pathetic. 55 percent children are stunting in rural areas. Various reports states</p> <p>that though Assam has made progress in its health indicators, still there is a great need to strengthen its</p> <p>existing health care services especially in the rural areas. The present study has made an attempt to study</p> <p>the health status of children in Assam. This study may be able to provide a base line information and need</p> <p>for effective implementation of various schemes and programmes for the improvement of health status of</p> <p>children in future.</p> Chayanika Goswami Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 210 214 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10355 Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Undergraduate Dental Students towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Descriptive Study <p><strong>Context: </strong>Medical Emergencies can be encountered by any individual, and its occurrence is usually high</p> <p>in a Dental setting due to the procedures involved. Hence it is important that Dentists be equipped with the</p> <p>knowledge of Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The Study aims to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Dental Undergraduate students</p> <p>towards CPR training.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Materials: </strong>The present study was a Cross Sectional study conducted among 163 Final</p> <p>Year Undergraduate students and Interns of a Dental Institution in Mangalore. A validated Self Structured</p> <p>Questionnaire was distributed to the students.</p> <p><strong>Statistical Analysis: </strong>Descriptive and Inferential statistics like Student’s Unpaired T Test determined the</p> <p>difference in Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior among the participants.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The overall Knowledge of Students regarding CPR was Poor, with Interns possessing a Significantly</p> <p>higher Knowledge than Final Year BDS Students. Amidst the poor Knowledge, 75.5% students were trained</p> <p>in CPR and 65.6% students were ready to perform CPR in an emergency situation thus displaying a Positive</p> <p>Attitude.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study showed that despite a dearth in CPR Knowledge among the Students, they</p> <p>exhibited a Positive Attitude and Behavior towards Training and Practice of CPR. Thus the study highlights</p> <p>the need to strengthen CPR training among Dental Students, by Inculcating and Standardizing it in the</p> <p>Undergraduate and Postgraduate curriculum.</p> Deesha Kumari1 , Thara Chandran2 , Bless Annie Philip3 , Mithun K4 , ShilpaM5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 215 221 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10356 Effect of Therapeutic Shoulder Sling And Proximal Control Exercises on Shoulder Subluxation in Stroke Survivors <p><strong>Background:</strong> Shoulder subluxation is the common problem as it causes shoulder pain and hinders activity</p> <p>. In flaccid stage, propreoceptive impairment, lack of tone and muscle paralysis reduce the support and</p> <p>normal stirring action of rotator cuff muscles particularly supraspinatus. <strong>Methods: Ethical</strong> clearance was</p> <p>obtained from Institutional Ethical Comittee, KIMSDU, Karad. An Experimental study was conducted with</p> <p>50 subjects .Which were divided into two groups using consecutive sampling with random allocation with</p> <p>computer generated table. Group A was given conventional treatment for reducing shoulder subluxation in</p> <p>stroke survivors Group B was treated with the Therapeutic shoulder sling and proximal control exercises</p> <p>.The outcome measures were AP lat X-ray, VAS, Functional outcome measurement By Motor assessment</p> <p>scale :Upper arm function. <strong>Results:</strong> Within the group comparison for the X-ray was done with the pair t test</p> <p>which was very significant for group A with P value of 0.0301 and Extremely significant for group B with</p> <p>P value ?0.0001 . within the group comparison for visual analogue scale for both the groups is extremely</p> <p>significant with the p value of ?0.0001 .within the group comparison for motor assessment scale for both the</p> <p>groups is extremely significant with the p value of ?0.0001 <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Therapeutic shoulder sling with</p> <p>proximal control exercises shows significant reduction of subluxation in shoulder x-ray as well as it reduces</p> <p>the pain and improves ADL activity.</p> Devayani Mukund Moghe1 , Suraj Bhimrao Kanase2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 222 227 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10357 Assessment of the Prevalence of Refractive Error among School Children (6-16 Years) of Rural Field Practice Area of Kims, Malkapur, Karad <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Refractive errors are among vital causes of visual disability globally and second principal</p> <p>cause of preventable blindness. Refractive errors among school children remains unnoticed which have</p> <p>an impact on overall development of child. This study has been undertaken to estimate the prevalence of</p> <p>refractive errors among school going children (6- 16 years).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method</strong>: This cross-sectional study was conducted in schools of Karad from October 2017</p> <p>to May 2019. Sample size was determined to be 750. School Going Children of age 6-16 years of selected</p> <p>schools in the rural field practice area of KIMS, Karad fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were</p> <p>screened on school visit. All suspected students were called to Out Patient Department and subjected to</p> <p>Snellen’s chart, pin-hole test, torch light examination, slit lamp examination, manual refractrometry, direct</p> <p>and indirect ophthalmoscopy and cyclopegic refraction (retinoscopy followed by post mydriatic test) to</p> <p>detect refractive error in children. A questionnaire was structured to gather relevant information from the</p> <p>students.Data was collected from the students after informed consent.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Prevelance of Refractive Errors was 8.4%. Most frequent refractive error found was Myopia</p> <p>(60.3%) followed by Astigmatism (23.8%) and Hypermetropia (15.9%) . It shows that only 20.63% students</p> <p>were wearing spectacles whereas remaining 79.37% students were unaware of their problems.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Visual impairment due to refractive error should be addressed as early as possible, which is</p> <p>attainable only by screening at initial age and hence early recognition and management.</p> Ankitkumar Bhopalka1 , B.S. Joshi2 , V.H. Karambelkar3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 228 232 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10358 An Autopsy Study of Fatal Thermal Burns in Married Women: A Prospective Study <p>Death of a bride by immolation either self or by the in-laws and their family members is a well-known</p> <p>phenomenon since many centuries in India. Even though our country is developing in all respects, but still</p> <p>we are unable to prevent these deaths due to various reasons. In this study, we have made an attempt to</p> <p>highlight the statistics of fatal thermal deaths in married women in one year with relation to Incidence, Age,</p> <p>element of dowry and cause of death.</p> <p>Results showed that Incidence of thermal deaths in married females was 75.2% with maximum victims</p> <p>in the 18-22 years age group. Further it was noted that 39% of these victims were due to alleged dowry</p> <p>harassment and the cause of death in majority being septic shock.</p> Bandenawaz 1 , Viswakanth B2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 233 237 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10359 Analysis of Homicidal Deaths among Medicolegal Autopsies Conducted at a Tertiary care Hospital in Karnataka: A Prospective Study <p>A Prospective study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, JJM Medical</p> <p>College and Cigateri General Hospital, Davangere Karnataka, from 2010 to 2014 with regard to demographic,</p> <p>injury and mortality profiles among Medicolegal autopsies conducted in homicidal deaths and the same</p> <p>are presented in this paper. Results showed that male victims of the age group 31-40 years were more in</p> <p>number, with personal revenge being the usual motive of the perpetuators. Most of the deaths were due to</p> <p>combination of both blunt and sharp weapons with hemorrhagic shock as the most common cause of death.</p> Bandenawaz1, Viswakanth B2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 238 241 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10360 Effectiveness of Abdominal Drawing in Maneuver with Lumbar Pelvic Exercises on Swiss Ball for Spinal Flexibility Among Patients with Low Back Pain <p><strong>Background:</strong> Patients with nonspecific low back pain have difficulty in their activities of daily living. Spinal</p> <p>flexibility problems are neglected in the patients with low back pain. These problems hampers the activities</p> <p>of daily living. Hence this study will help in improving their flexibility and perform ADL easily. Numerous</p> <p>studies have been done on spinal muscle strengthening, muscle activation to improve muscle endurance and</p> <p>posture in patients with low back pain but less attention has been given to spinal flexibility, which will help</p> <p>them to perform their ADL with ease. Low back pain is a big burden, as it causes more global disability</p> <p>and it is increasing among young individuals. There is paucity of studies as far as abdominal exercises in</p> <p>improving spinal flexibility is concerned.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To find the effect of abdominal drawing in maneuver and lumbar pelvic exercises on swiss ball among</p> <p>patients with non-specific low back pain.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>There were 35 participants in the study. The type of study is experimental. The participants</p> <p>involved were assessed for strength, pain and functional mobility. The participants are treated for pain,</p> <p>strength and functional mobility.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>There is improvement seen in participants. The results of the participants are calculated by mean</p> <p>and standard deviation. The post mean value of lumbar flexion was 5.926 which was more than pre mean</p> <p>value of lumbar flexion that is 5.558. The post mean value of lumbar extension was 1.378 which was more</p> <p>than pre mean value of lumbar extension that is 1.243. The post mean value of right lumbar lateral flexion</p> <p>was 5.565 which was more than pre mean value of right lumbar lateral flexion that is 5.121. The post mean</p> <p>value of left lumbar lateral flexion was 5.578 which was more than pre mean value of left lumbar lateral</p> <p>flexion that is 5.578.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: : </strong>Abdominal drawing in maneuver and lumbar pelvic exercises on swiss ball are effective in</p> <p>improving spinal flexibility among patients with non-specific low back pain.</p> Faldu Liza Jitendra1 , S Anandh2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 242 246 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10361 Saliva in identification of ABO Blood Grouping & Rhesus Factor <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To assess the efficacy and reliability of saliva in identification of ABO blood grouping.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method</strong>: The study was conducted in the outpatient department of Oral Medicine and</p> <p>Radiology. The serum and saliva of 50 participants were collected and the blood group of the individual from</p> <p>serum was identified by the slide agglutination method and from saliva by the absoption elution method.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Paerson’s chi square test and it showed</p> <p>high significance (P = &lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The outcome of the present study showed that saliva can be used as an aid in forensics for</p> <p>identification of ABO blood grouping of an individual.</p> Harshada R Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 247 251 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10362 Pattern of Injuries in Road Traffic Accidents – An Autopsy Study <p>The present study is a retrospective study conducted in the department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology</p> <p>at East Point College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore, for a period of one year, from</p> <p>September 2018 to August 2019. During this period a total of 46 cases of road traffic accidents were reported</p> <p>amounting to 34.6% of total medico-legal autopsies conducted (133 cases).</p> <p>Among 46 cases of road traffic accident majority were males 39 (84.8%) and females account to 7 cases</p> <p>(15.2%). Majority of the victims belonged to age group of 31 - 50 years. According to the road user category</p> <p>involved in the accident the maximum were pedestrians (45.7 %) followed by the two wheeler (43.5 %) and</p> <p>the main offending vehicle involved in the accidents were two wheeler (43.5 %). High proportion of cases</p> <p>showed skull fractures (87 %), 52.2 % shows chest bone fractures, followed by lower limb (32.6 %) and</p> <p>upper limb (21.7 %) fractures. Most of the skull fractures were associated with brain injury (82.6%) in the</p> <p>form of laceration or contusions of brain or brain haemorrhages, followed by thoracic injuries leading to</p> <p>lung lacerations or contusions (30.4%). Following the road traffic accidents, most of the victims (80.4%)</p> <p>died at the scene before reaching the hospital.</p> K H Thippeswamy1 , Ravindra Kumar C N2 , H C Govinda Raju3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 252 257 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10363 Chromatographic Analysis of General Otc Anti-Allergic Drug: Cetirizine <p>Cetirizine as general OTC anti-allergic drug was evaluated through paper chromatography. Twelve cetirizine</p> <p>compositions were analysed wherein each tablet and syrups were six in number. Seven solvent systems</p> <p>were experimented from which chloroform and methanol in ratio 50:50 proved to be best solvent system</p> <p>for both cetirizine tablet and syrup compositions. Other solvent system that showed clear separation of</p> <p>spots were n-hexane, toluene and diethyl ether in ratio 65:25:10 and acetone and methanol in ratio 90:10 for</p> <p>tablet and syrup preparations respectively. Iodine fuming technique and UV radiations were also utilized for</p> <p>visualising some unidentified and invisible spots during the examination procedures.</p> Kaur Loveleen1 , Kaur Ridamjeet2 , Sharma Tina3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 258 263 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10364 Pattern of Injuries Observed in Drivers Involved in Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Tirupati <p>Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) constitute a significant health problem. They constitute the 8th leading cause</p> <p>of death. The aim of this study was to analyse road traffic accidents in Tirupati city and find out the pattern</p> <p>of injuries in drivers who were victims of fatal road traffic accidents.</p> <p>This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Forensic medicine, S.V Medical College,</p> <p>Tirupati during period 2016 to 2018. Specific findings regarding the injuries sustained to the drivers were</p> <p>noted.</p> <p>A total of 904 people were killed in RTA and were brought to the morgue for postmortem examination.</p> <p>Out of all victims 170 (18.80%) were drivers. Most common age group involved was 30 – 39 yrs. Most</p> <p>of the drivers were males. Polytrauma with lower limb injuries accounted for most common injury in</p> <p>drivers (40.35%) followed by head injury (19.29%) and thoracic injury (12.28%). This study has shown</p> <p>the vulnerability of the vehicle drivers to fatal injuries during RTA. Hence, there is a need for road safety</p> <p>awareness, usage of seat belts, strict enforcement of laws, maintaining vehicle fitness etc. to protect the</p> <p>vulnerable group of people, to decrease the associated morbidity, mortality and reduce the economic burden</p> <p>to the society/ country at large.</p> B. Venkatesulu1 , Vishnu Vardhan Poluru2 , M. Abdul Khalid3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 264 268 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10365 Profile of Medicolegal Autopsy Cases Conducted at Tertiary Care Centre, Kalaburagi, Karnataka <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The profile of medico legal autopsy cases is important in order to know the death statistics in a</p> <p>region due to unnatural causes. The main objectives of the study were: a) To ascertain the various aspects of</p> <p>unnatural deaths, b) To analyze the probable reasons for the same &amp; c) To find remedial measures to bring</p> <p>down the incidence.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method</strong>: The present study is a retrospective study of autopsies performed at GIMS, District</p> <p>Hospital, Kalaburagi, Karnataka from January 2018 to December 2018. During this period a total of 647</p> <p>autopsy cases were conducted. Relevant information and subjective data like age, sex, marital status &amp;</p> <p>manner of death have been collected from medicolegal autopsy register from January 2018 to December</p> <ol start="2018"> <li>&nbsp;</li> </ol> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of 647 cases analyzed, maximum number of autopsies were in the age group of 21-30 years with</p> <p>204 cases(31.5%). Majority of victims were males 437(67.5%). Hindus were majority in number with 540</p> <p>cases(83.4%), married were 432(66.8%) &amp; unmarried were 215 cases(33.2%). In our study 73% were rural</p> <p>residents &amp; only 27% were urban. Accident, Suicide and Homicide deaths were 282(43.6%), 331(51.2%)&amp;</p> <p>34(5.2%) cases respectively. Natural deaths were seen in 14% cases. Maximum number of deaths were due</p> <p>to road traffic accidents with 212 cases (32.8%) followed by poisoning with 85 cases (13.1%). Out of total</p> <p>647 cases maximum number of autopsy cases 317(49.1%) were conducted in the month of May to August.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In our present study it is observed that maximum cases were in 3rd decade of life, Males</p> <p>outnumbered females, rural residents were more in number. Hindus being majority formed bulk of cases.</p> <p>RTA, Poisoning &amp; burns were seen as leading cause of death &amp; maximum deaths were in the month of May</p> <p>to August.</p> Manish K1 , KhajaAzizuddin Junaidi2 , Deepak S3 , Umesh SR4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 269 274 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10366 Liver Pathology in Autopsy Cases: A Retrospective Study in A Tertiary Care Center <p><strong>Background:</strong> Liver is the site of many diseases, many become symptomatic while few are diagnosed</p> <p>only on autopsy. The cause of chronic liver disease varies in different geographic areas and influenced by</p> <p>socioeconomic status, diet, life style and regional diseases.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: This retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in the department of pathology</p> <p>over a period of one year. A total of 40 cases of liver specimens, received as part of liver, constituted the</p> <p>material for the study. All were autopsy cases and the organs were received in 10% formalin. Routine</p> <p>grossing and staining with H&amp;E stain were performed. Slides were analysed and the findings were noted in</p> <p>percentages.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 40 specimens were studied. Age ranges from new born to 70 years, with 92.5 % male</p> <p>cases. 32.5% of cases were autolysed. 25% were showing chronic venous congestion followed by fatty</p> <p>change (22.5%), hepatitis (12.5%). 2.5% each of cirrhosis, steatohepatitis and normal liver.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: 1. Autopsy has an important role in identifying the cause of death.</p> <ol start="2"> <li>To overcome the autolysis of the specimen, the medical practitioner performing the autopsies should be</li> </ol> <p>trained about how to carry post mortem and to preserve the viscera for histopathological examination so that</p> <p>cause of death could be noted.</p> Ekta Rani 1 , Sarita Nibhoria1 , Sanjay Kumar2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 275 278 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10367 Histopathological Study of the Freshwater Fish Ctenopharyngodon Idella Exposed to ?-Cyhalothrin 5% EC <p>Present study Lambda cyhalothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid widely used for pest management and public</p> <p>health applications to control insects. It is categorized as a restricted use pesticide in Extension Toxicology</p> <p>Network for its toxicity to fish. But its usage for the control of major pest in agriculture is being continued</p> <p>in developing countries like India. The freshwater fish <em>Ctenopharyngodon idella </em>were exposed in sub</p> <p>lethal concentrations (1/10 of lethal concentrations) of lambda cyhalothrin 5%EC for 1 and 12 days along</p> <p>with controls to study histopathological changes under light microscope in the selected tissues viz., liver,</p> <p>kidney and gill were examined. Swelling of the hepatocytes with diffuse necrosis and marked swelling of</p> <p>blood vessels were observed in the liver tissue. Tubules of the kidney were distended, with tubular cells of</p> <p>posterior kidney exhibiting marked necrotic changes. Pathology of the gill tissue showed shortened primary</p> <p>lamellae, loss of secondary lamellae and congestion of blood vessels and hyperplasia of branchial plates and</p> <p>the pathology increased with increasing exposure periods.</p> G. Rajeswari.1 , Lalitha Vinnakota1 , V.Venkata Rathnamma2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 279 284 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10368 Vocal Nodule and Polyp by Microlaryngoscopy and Cold Instruments <p><strong>Aim and Objective: </strong>To evaluate the usefulness of voice handicap index and seventy degree endoscopy for</p> <p>assessment of speech.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>The study was conducted in the department of Otorhinolaryngolgy,tertiary care</p> <p>hospital,between 2018 to 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Total of 42 cases underwent micro laryngeal surgerywithout any complications.voice Handicap</p> <p>index (VHI) and 70 degree scopy assessed after 10days, 1st month and 3rd month interval .All cases improved</p> <p>voice on 10th day and symptoms were gradually decreased. Before surgery mean was 82.43 changed to</p> <p>17.31 on 10th day to 1.45 on 3rd month follow up.p value &lt;0.005</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Early diagnosis is important to rule out malignant changes in cases with hoarseness of voice and</p> <p>early treatment with microlarynoscopy is very effective shows significant improvement on voice handicap</p> <p>index and endoscopy and with patients satisfaction.</p> Ganesh M. Vihapure1, Abhay D. Havle2 , Mannuru Khaleel Basha3 , Naman Pincha3 , Tripti3 , Sanket C Prabhune3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 285 288 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10369 Knowledge Among Parents about Importance of Primary Dentition <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Dental caries is very common in primary dentition because of improper oral hygiene and increased</p> <p>intake of sucrose. The parents are the one who take care of their children and make decision for them. Often</p> <p>parents are responsible for the oral care of their children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge</p> <p>among parents about importance of primary dentition.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To evaluate the attitude and knowledge of parents towards importance of maintaining primary</p> <p>dentition in their children.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>The study was conducted among parents visiting dental institution, Chennai. A</p> <p>total of 200 questionnaire containing 15 questions were prepared for data collection and were personally</p> <p>distributed to parents. A number of 100 fathers and 100 mothers were included in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study shows that literate parents had more knowledge about primary dentition when compared</p> <p>to illiterate parents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Knowledge about primary dentition can be increased in parents by conducting oral awareness</p> <p>program in schools. There is a need cultivate positive attitude among parents to raise their knowledge about</p> <p>dental awareness.</p> Gayathri.P.S1 , Krithika. C2 , D.M.Jenisha3 , S.Kalaivani3 , V.Jenifercharuprabha3 , R.Nithyaedeinton4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 289 292 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10370 Clinical Profile of Amblyopia in Young Adults <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To study clinical profile of amblyopic patients in relation to refractive status, socio economic status,</p> <p>use of glasses and social impact on society.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Myopes improving with spectacles are 45% and mixed astigmatism 69%. Most common age group</p> <p>for detection of amblyopia in young adults is 21-30 years(47.1%) with predominance of female(55.7%)</p> <p>belonging from middle class families (81.4%) having studied mostly from Government Marathi medium</p> <p>school(45.7%) with previously not using given glasses(57.1%) and with taken amblyopia of only (7.1%) and</p> <p>with spectacles maximum correction with mixed astigmatism (54.2%) between 6/36-6/9 in right eye (43%)</p> <p>and in left eye (30%) . Hypermetropies’ improving to 6/12 is only 13%. So there’s very few cases improving</p> <p>with the spectacles in hypermetropes in amblyopia.</p> <p><strong>Interpretation:</strong> Lack of school screening programs and awareness for health check-up delays the diagnosis</p> <p>of amblyopia leading to non-improvement of vision and due to lack of knowledge and social stigma girls</p> <p>especially avoid wearing glasses even after prescribing leading to amblyopia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> School health camps, proper health education, timely examination, and proper use of spectacles</p> <p>is must.</p> Girish Gadre1 , Surabhi Khandelwal2 , V.H. Karambelkar3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 293 298 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10372 Psychometric Properties of Hindi Version of Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The most widely used type of physical activity measure is the self-report survey. Of the available</p> <p>self-report physical activity measures, the vast majorities were developed for use in the general population</p> <p>and typically focus on measuring participation in recreational and sport activities. As a result, the existing</p> <p>self-report measures are insufficiently sensitive to measure very low intensity activities that might account</p> <p>for the bulk of daily energy expenditure among people with SCI. The content of these measures also fails to</p> <p>capture activities that are part of SCI lifestyle. ‘Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal</p> <p>Cord Injury’ [PARA-SCI] was published in August 2005. PARA-SCI is a measure of physical activity for</p> <p>individuals with SCI who use a wheelchair as their primary mode of mobility. It has been translated in</p> <p>various languages, thus the aim of the study is to study the psychometric properties of Hindi version of</p> <p>physical activity recall assessment-SCI.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> PARA SCI was translated in phase 1 of the study and the reliability and validity of the instrument</p> <p>was done</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There was significant correlation observed in test –retest reliability and Vo2 max calculated by 12</p> <p>minute wheelchair test correlated with the subcomponent of PARA SCI</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The Hindi version of PARA-SCI is a reliable and valid instrument</p> Heeral Joshi1 , Shambhovi Mitra2 , Rajeev Aggrawal3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 299 304 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10373 Comparative Study on Different Modified Techniques Used For DNA Isolation From Teeth Samples for Obtaining Optimized Output <p>DNA isolation is a process used for isolation of DNA from different types of samples using a combination</p> <p>of physical and chemical methods. A comparative study is made to isolate DNA from 30 teeth samples with</p> <p>some pre PCR and post PCR modifications in the organic Phenol: Chloroform: isoamyl alcohol, Automate</p> <p>ExpressTM prepfiler BTA kit and QIAamp® DNA Investigator Kit. Our result showed significant results</p> <p>which will be helpful in short listing the array of these techniques.</p> Indresh Kumar Mishra1 , Amarnath Mishra2 , Amit C Kharkwal3 , Braja Kishore Mohapatra4 , Chittaranjan Behera5 , Bhoopendra Singh6 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 305 310 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10374 Maternal age ? 35 years, Nulliparity, High Blood COHb Levels, and Low Serum Nitric Oxide Levels Increased Risk of Preeclampsia <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To find out the risk factors for preeclampsia.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>a case-control study was between March 2018 and December 2018. Pregnant</p> <p>women who with gestational age of at least 22 weeks live in residential areas, exposed to smoke from</p> <p>combustion of tile or brick were divided into two groups. Cases were those diagnosed with preeclampsia.</p> <p>Controls were normotensive pregnant women who had a history of preeclampsia in previous pregnancy. CO</p> <p>(carbon monoxide) exposure in pregnant women was determined by examining COHb levels in the blood.</p> <p>Serum Nitric Oxide levels were measured using the ELISA (<em>Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay</em>) method.</p> <p>Data were analyzed by Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test, Independent T-Test and regression analysis.</p> <p>Adjusted odds ratio (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of Blood COHb levels were significantly higher in preeclampsia (4.58±1.2) than the</p> <p>case of control group (2.85±0.4). Serum nitric oxide levels in preeclampsia were significantly lower in</p> <p>preeclampsia (18.28±4.1) than the case of control group (35.15±7.2). Maternal age ? 35 years, nulliparity,</p> <p>high blood COHb levels &gt; 3.5%, and low serum Nitric Oxide levels &lt; 25 ?mol/L were significantly associated</p> <p>with increased risk of preeclampsia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Low serum Nitric Oxide levels (&lt; 25 ?mol/L) due to exposure to CO from the smoke of</p> <p>combustion of tiles or brick carried an increased risk of developing preeclampsia (ORs 25.5;95% CI 4.3-</p> <p>29.7). These results can help health workers in pregnancy care counseling and prevention of preeclampsia</p> <p>in pregnant women located in areas exposed to carbon monoxide from the smoke of combustion of tiles or</p> <p>brick</p> Ita Rahmawati1 , Anies2 , Mateus Sakundarno Adi3 , Cahyono Hadi3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 311 317 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10375 Effect of Unilateral and Bilateral Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercise Protocol in Patients Secondary to Radical Mastectomy <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mastectomy is an operation which causes many changes in a woman’s body. Its consequence</p> <p>is, among other things, lymphatic edemas, limitation of movements and strength of the upper limb of the</p> <p>patient, experiences in the emotional sphere, difficulties related to the postoperative scar and the results of</p> <p>supplementing treatment such a radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Recent studies have shown the result of</p> <p>effective physiotherapy treatment postoperatively. There is a paucity of literature available showing the</p> <p>effect of bilateral approach rather than a unilateral one for the recovery</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Objective of the study was to find out the effect of effect of unilateral and bilateral shoulder</p> <p>rehabilitation exercise protocol in patients secondary to radical mastectomy</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A total of 20 females who underwent mastectomy procedure along with chemotherapy were</p> <p>included in the study. Demographic data and consent form were taken from the patients. Group A was</p> <p>received treatment for the unilateral i.e. the affected side and group B received treatment bilaterally for five</p> <p>days per week for eight weeks and pre and post assessment was done with shoulder pain and disability index</p> <p>(SPADI), range of motion (ROM) and manual muscle testing (MMT)</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Statistics results within the group values for Group A SPADI (p=0.6385) and mean difference</p> <p>(MD) was</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A proper knowledge regarding ergonomics is important to avoid the development of</p> <p>musculoskeletal disorders, taking stretch breaks in between long working hours can provide a healthier</p> <p>working environment for nursing staff and maximize human resource efficiency.</p> Jasleen Kaur Sohal1, Poonam H. Patil2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 318 324 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10376 Effectiveness of Oropharyngeal Exercises on Daytimesleepiness, Snoring and Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Amongadults: Review <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Sleep disorders are very frequent among general population. The prevalence of sleep</p> <p>disturbances varies between 25 and 45%. Types of sleep abnormalities in which snoring is the common</p> <p>among all the adults. Oropharyngeal exercises are new, non-invasive, cost effective treatment modality for</p> <p>individuals having risk of obstructive sleep apnea, daytime sleepiness and snoring.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study design was systematic review and it includes studies from databases of PUBMED,</p> <p>MEDLINE, Cochrane library, SCOPUS, Science direct, and Google scholar (2002-2017).</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Total 14 relevant articles were under taken. Studies included are related to prevalence, assessment<strong>, </strong></p> <p>effect of different modalities and oropharyngeal exercises on daytime sleepiness, snoring and risk of</p> <p>obstructive sleep apnea and excludes those studies that involve other sleep disorders like insomnia,</p> <p>narcolepsy and circadian rhythm disorder etc. Abstracted information is related to their design, population</p> <p>characteristics, intervention and outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Oropharyngeal exercises are effective in reducing the daytime sleepiness, snoring and risk</p> <p>of obstructive sleep apnea among adults having snoring. Several studies came out with the result that</p> <p>oropharyngeal exercises are beneficial in reducing sleep disorders.</p> Jaspreet Kaur1 , Kanika Rai2 , Vinay Kumari3 , Jyoti Sarin4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 325 329 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10377 Effects of Aerobic Exercises for General Anxiety Disorders in Adolscents <p><strong>Objective : </strong>The objective of the study were to determine the effect of aerobic exercises for the patients who</p> <p>were suffering from the general anxiety disorders such as depression, stress, and anxiety in adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Method </strong>: In this experimental study, 46 generally anxiety disorders patients were taken for the study, subjects</p> <p>were from the schools nearby with adolescents age group . Subjects were treated with aerobic exercises.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The total of 46 cases were taken for the study who underwent through aerobic exercises. With</p> <p>statistical analysis of pre and post treatment, the exercises were found extremely significant with a p value</p> <p>of &lt;0.0001.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concluded that aerobic exercises are effective in the management of generally</p> <p>anxiety disorders in adolescents.</p> Jhaveri Nikita H1 , Malawade Mandar2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 330 334 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10378 Gender Wise Difference in Presenting Signs and Symptoms of Stroke: Observational Study <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of this study was to find the various presenting signs and symptoms of stroke, in</p> <p>association of presenting signs and symptoms with age, sex and to establish the correlation in gender.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>All patients with first ever stroke and of both ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke with age group</p> <p>of 40 to 60 years, subjects were of Karad. Signs and symptoms were collected from the medical records,</p> <p>patient themselves and their relatives. Differences were calculated using standard deviation<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The total of 260 cases were taken for the study, 130 were male and 130 were female. The presenting</p> <p>signs and symptoms of stroke were differed in gender. Women were most commonly seen with generalised</p> <p>weakness (p=0.0076) and headache (p=0.0152). Men were most commonly seen with pain (p=0.0001),</p> <p>nausea (p=0.0060), fever (p=0.0081).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study concluded that, there were gender differences in signs and symptoms of stroke and</p> <p>due to lack of awareness many people ignored the signs and symptoms of stroke by making it less important.</p> Jhaveri Nikita H.1 , Kanase Suraj B.2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 335 339 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10379 Pattern and Distribution of Scalp Injuries in Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Rohtak Region of Haryana - An Autopsy based Study <p>Head injuries are one of the leading cause of death worldwide as head being the most vulnerable part of the</p> <p>body. The present study was performed on 100 cases of road traffic accidents in which head injuries were</p> <p>present. In this study, males clearly outnumbered females. The highest incidents were seen in the age group</p> <p>21 - 30 years (26%), followed by the age group 11 - 20 years (20%). In this study, special attention was given</p> <p>to the pattern and distribution of scalp injuries. Commonest scalp injury noticed in the present study was</p> <p>contusion, seen in 33% of cases, followed by lacerated wounds in 30% cases.</p> Jitender Kumar Jakhar1, Naveen Yadav2 , Taitiksh Jakhar3, Sunil Dahiya2 , Kunal Gaba2 , S.K. Dhattarwal4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 340 344 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10380 Comparative Analysis of Associated Risk Factors Amongst Young and Old Stroke Survivors <p><strong>Background: </strong>Stroke is an important health condition and is one of the leading cause of death worldwide.</p> <p>Disability and impairments following stroke makes the management challenging.</p> <p><strong>Aims and objectives : </strong>1.To analyze the associated risk factors in young and old stroke.2.To find the</p> <p>associated risk factors in young age patients having stroke.3.To find the associated risk factors in old age</p> <p>patients having stroke.4.To compare between the associated risk factors in young and old stroke.</p> <p><strong> Material and Method: </strong>Survey study was carried out in the department of medicine, neurosurgery and</p> <p>department of physiotherapy, KIMSDU, Karad. Sample size: 696 subjects with first ever stroke, both male</p> <p>and female above 18 years. Data was anonymously coded and entered into spreadsheet program before</p> <p>analyzed using statistical method. Statistical analysis was done using instat software. The chi square test was</p> <p>used. Percentage and frequency was calculated to summarize the response.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study included 434 were Male (62%) and 262 were Female (38%).The age distribution was,</p> <p>335 people were belonging to 20-50 years (48%) and 361 people to 50 to 96 years (52%). This is analyzed</p> <p>that association of these risk factors is increased in young age stroke survivors. Patients with older age had</p> <p>higher frequency of Hypertension (HTN) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM).There is more no. of smokers in</p> <p>young age group. There is a more no. of male stroke survivors than female.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The influence of risk factors at different ages is different. Risk factors like HTN and DM</p> <p>were frequent in older age while more smokers in young age group. Awareness of stroke risk factors and</p> <p>preventive measures can reduce the burden of stroke.</p> Joshi Madhura S.1, Kanase Suraj B.2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 345 349 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10381 Knowledge and Practice of Bio Medical Waste Management in a Mortuary and Casualty of Tertiary Care Hospital <p>Bio Medical Waste management has been receiving highest priority in hospitals after the act was introduced</p> <p>by the Ministry of Environment and Forest, titled Bio Medical Waste Management and Handling Rules 1998.</p> <p>About 0.33 million tons of waste is generate per annum in India. Hospital acquired infections are on the rise</p> <p>due to improper waste management practice. A cross sectional, longitudinal study on Bio Medical waste</p> <p>management practice in a mortuary and casualty was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital from 1st</p> <p>July 2018 to 31st December 2018. The study focused on knowledge and practice of waste management in</p> <p>the casualty and mortuary. Interestingly, the practice of Bio Medical waste management was excellent in</p> <p>casualty and mortuary. Awareness of the hazards of improper waste management was poor among sanitary</p> <p>workers whereas doctors, nurses and other paramedical staff were well aware of the hazards.</p> K Srinivasulu1 , T Leela Manasa2 , Dedipya2, Summaya begum2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 350 353 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10382 Profile of Fatal Cases of Organophosphosphorus Poisoning at a Tertiary Care Centre, Mandya <p>Organophosphorus Compound (OP) poisoning is the most common and the highest amongst fatal cases of</p> <p>poisoning consumption deal in MIMS hospital. It is the commonly abused poison amongst rural and urban</p> <p>population more so amongst our Farmers. Fatal cases of organophosphorus poisoning were analyzed during</p> <p>the study period from 01.01.2016 to 31.12.2018. The analysis was done on age, sex, occupation, socio</p> <p>economic status, motive of poison consumption and result.</p> <p>Mandya District being dominated by agriculturists and sugarcane being the cash crop, drought, insufficient</p> <p>rain fall, raising costs of living, high debts, Cauvery water non available for agricultural use due to water</p> <p>sharing between neighboring states like Tamilnadu, Pondichery etc., increasing number of bore wells and</p> <p>ground water depletion, leading to crop failures and thereby resulting in Farmers suicide.</p> <p>The major cause of death in these cases treated at MIMS were Respiratory failure.</p> K. Ashwini Narayan1 , K. Ashwini Narayan2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 354 356 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10383 Study of Pattern & Distribution of Injuries in Fatal Road Traffic Accident Cases Autopsied at MIMS, Mandya <p>Accidents are now one of the major causes of death. The present study was carried out between Jan 2016 to</p> <p>Dec 2017 at Department of Forensic Medicine, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya, to study the</p> <p>type of injury, pattern and distribution of injuries, body parts involved, fatal injuries and causes of deaths</p> <p>noted at the actual autopsy examination of the victim. During the period of study 1013 total autopsies were</p> <p>conducted, out of which 15 cases were of road traffic accidents.</p> K. Ashwini Narayan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 357 360 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10384 Variations of Dermatoglyphic Patterns among Smoking and Smokeless Forms of Tobacco in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders and Oral Cancer- A Review of Literature <p>Dermatoglyphics is a scientific study which involves the study of fingerprints.lines ,mounts and shapes of</p> <p>hands.This dermatoglyphics origin dates back to ancient India, were this ridge pattern study was known</p> <p>as “Samuda Sashtra.These dermatoglyphic patterns are usually genetically determined.In dentistry,</p> <p>dermatoglyphics have been applied for identifying syndromic cases and also been useful for determining</p> <p>caries susceptibility,identification of cleft lip and cleft palate. Here the variations of dermatoglyphic patterns</p> <p>among smoking and smokeless forms of tobacco in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral carcinoma</p> <p>has been reviewed.</p> K.V.Swathi1 , G.Maragathavalli2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 361 365 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10385 Polymorphism in Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase Genes and Their Role in Cervical Cancer Susceptibility among Rural Population of Maharashtra: Findings from A Hospital based Case Control Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present study was planned to investigate the possible association between polymorphisms</p> <p>of superoxide dismutase, SOD1 (Cu,Zn-SOD), SOD2(Mn-SOD), SOD3(EC-SOD) and catalase genes and</p> <p>the risk of cervical cancer in rural population of Maharashtra.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A case control study included 350 proven cervical cancer cases and 400 healthy age matched</p> <p>control women. Genotyping of isoforms of SOD and CAT were done by polymerase chain reaction</p> <p>restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> When we studied genotype frequencies of codon 326 and 262 region of promoter of <em>CAT</em> gene,</p> <p>there was no significant association between A to T transition at codon 326 (<em>p</em>=0.45) and <em>CAT </em>C262T</p> <p>polymorphism (<em>p</em>=0.30) with susceptibility to cervical cancer. The variant G allele of SOD1 at codon 251</p> <p>significantly increased in cervical cancer patients as compared with the control women (OR=3.02, 95% CI:</p> <p>1.72-5.31; <em>p</em>&lt;0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Findings from this investigation confirms conceivable association of A251G of SOD1 and</p> <p>G172A of SOD3 genes with risk of cervical cancer in women of Maharashtra.</p> Kailas D. Datkhile1 , Anand Gudur2 , Rashmi A. Gudur3 , Madhavi N. Patil4 , Pratik P. Durgawale5 , Vinit N. Deshmukh6 , Nilam J. Jagdale6 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 366 371 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10386 Prevalence of de Quervain’s Tenosynovitisin Buffalo Milkers <p><strong>Background: </strong>Buffalo milkers are more prone to de Quervain’s tenosynovitis due to their working process</p> <p>and repeated use of thumb, wrist and fingers. If there is any pain or problem in hand or wrist can have impact</p> <p>on milking ability which can lead to change in their economic status and quality of life. There are only few</p> <p>studies done on the population of buffalo milkers and problems regarding their occupation. Thus this study</p> <p>is designed to find prevalence of de quervain’s tenosynovitis in buffalo milkers.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of de Quervain’s tenosynovitis in buffalo milkers and</p> <p>aware them about this condition to avoid further damage.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method: </strong>Study was conducted with 92 subjects in and around Karad. Subjects were selected</p> <p>as per inclusion and exclusion criteria and consent was taken. Both males(43) and females(49) subjects were</p> <p>included for study. Then they were assessed with help of Finkelstein test and Visual analogue scale the data</p> <p>was collected and analysed accordingly.</p> <p><strong>Stastical Analysis: </strong>The simple random sampling is used to select the subjects for study and it is conducted</p> <p>in and around Karad Taluka. The sample size was calculated by de quervain’s tenosynovitis taken at 64%.</p> <p>Hence for calculation of sample size p=64% and q=100-p=36% sample size n=4pq/L2 therefore n=92.</p> <p>Statistical analysis of the recorded data was done by using the software instat. MS Excel was used for</p> <p>drawing various graphs with given frequencies and the various percentages that were calculated with the</p> <p>software.</p> <p><strong> Result: </strong>After analyzing the data, it was found that there is a prevalence of de Quervain’s tenosynovitis. In</p> <p>all participants 43% people have de Quervain’s tenosynovitis. It is found that prevalence of de Quervain’s</p> <p>tenosynovitis is more in females than males and pain distribution is more in age group of 41 to 45years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of de Quervain’s tenosynovitis is more in females and precautions should be</p> <p>taken by buffalo milkers by modifying their work strategies to avoid further damage.</p> Kajal vijay Kale1 , Pragati Salunkhe2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 372 375 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10387 Study of the Closure of Sagittal Suture in Relation with Age of the Individuals tn Native of Gujarat <p><strong>Background: </strong>Age estimation is an integral part of the biological profile employed by forensic anthropologists</p> <p>in order to assist in achieving an identification of an unknown deceased individual. Its estimation is of</p> <p>paramount importance and requires special attention in cases where bodies are found in decomposed,</p> <p>mutilated state or only fragmentary remains are discovered.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method: </strong>The present study has been done on post-mortem cases referred to GMERS Medical</p> <p>College, Himmatnagar which is referral center. Very few studies have been conducted on sagittal suture</p> <p>closure in Himmatnagar region . Total 150 post mortem cases were taken and data collected.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Present study reveal that Ectocranial obliteration of the various segments of the three main sutures</p> <p>of the skull is so inconclusive that neither does it help in estimating the age of the deceased nor does it</p> <p>provide any supportive evidence in determining the age of skeletal remain. Age was determined on the basis</p> <p>of endocranial suture fusion.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It was found that closure of Sagittal suture started in age of 20-29 yrs and closure completed</p> <p>at the age of 61 to 65 yrs.</p> Kamesh Modi1 , Uttamkumar Solanki2 , Kavita Banker3 , Rajni Bhagora4 , Jagdeep Jadav5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 376 382 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10388 Effect of Blended Learning on Academic Achievements and Attitude of Nursing Students: A Systematic Review <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Technological advances have revolutionized teaching and learning processes. With the</p> <p>emergence of technologies and need for cost-effective teaching methods have led to the molding of teaching</p> <p>learning practices.Considering these constant and rapid changes, it is crucial that learners in health care area</p> <p>should be taught with latest knowledge and keep pace with up to date information.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>The study design was systematic review and it includes studies from databases of PUBMED,</p> <p>MEDLINE, Cochrane library, SCOPUS, Science direct, and Google scholar (2008-2019). The included</p> <p>studies were focusing on the effectiveness of blended learning on nursing students’ knowledge, skills and</p> <p>attitude and the studies that discussed about other methods of teaching and conducted on other specialty</p> <p>students were excluded.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The data was grouped and analyzed in terms of meta-analysis. Total 21 relevant articles were</p> <p>undertaken. Abstracted information is related to study design, population characteristics, intervention and</p> <p>outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Blended learning as a teaching method is effective in improving the learning outcomes in</p> <p>terms of academic achievements and performance of nursing students regarding various topics/ procedures.</p> <p>Students also possess favorable attitude towards blended learning. Several studies came out with the</p> <p>conclusions that blended learning is beneficial in improving the learning outcomes.</p> Kanika1 , Harmeet Kaur2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 383 387 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10389 Development of Submerged Latent Fingerprints on NonPorous Substrates with Activated Charcoal based Small Partical Reagant <p>The practice of using small partial reagent (SPR) for the visual development of latent fingerprints is the</p> <p>preferred choice, particularly concerning wet surfaces. In the present study, non-porous surfaces impinged</p> <p>with latent prints submerged in the water simulating acidic basic and salty water bodies were developed</p> <p>with activated charcoal based small particle reagent method. As evident from the observations, the activated</p> <p>charcoal-based SPR method was able to develop latent fingerprint submerged on the glass surface for up</p> <p>to 11 days and on aluminium substrate, up to 12 days but the quality of fingerprint observed was better on</p> <p>the glass substrate. The shelf life of the activated charcoal-based SPR method was found to be 52 days. The</p> <p>results have shown that the time-lapse of submersion and quality of fingerprint developed are inversely</p> <p>prepositional to each other. Although pond water submerged substrates showed good quality developed</p> <p>fingerprints for a longer period than other mediums but with increasing period of submersion the quality</p> <p>degraded.</p> Kavleen Kaur1, Tina Sharma2 , Ridamjeet Kaur2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 388 394 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10390 GC-MS Analysis of Methanol Extracts of Five Toxic Plant Seed For Detection of Bioactive Compounds <p>The present work was carried out to explore the qualitative analysis of bioactive phyto-constituents present</p> <p>in methanolic extracts of five toxic plant seeds by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The</p> <p>analysis of extracts revealed the presence of the different biologically active compounds including alkaloids,</p> <p>glycosides, flflavonoids, phenols, fatty acid, ester, epoxide, steroids, and protein etc. Forensic toxicological</p> <p>chemistry deals with the chemistry and analysis of various types of poisons including plants. Diagnosing</p> <p>plant poisoning especially their seeds can be difficult and must be quickly done. In conclusion, the recovery</p> <p>of various toxic and therapeutically constituents could be helpful for forensic toxicologist.</p> Kiran Kumari1 , Saurabh Bhargava1 , Rajvinder Singh Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 395 401 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10391 Psycho Social Factors in Adolescent Suicides- A Psychological Autopsy based Study <p>BACKGROUND: Suicides among adolescents in India have become an alarming problem, especially among</p> <p>students. This study is to find out the recent and remote psychosocial and disease related stress and adverse</p> <p>life events that could have led these young people to commit suicide.MATERIAL AND METHODS<strong>:</strong> It is</p> <p>a Cross sectional study on adolescent suicides with history and postmortem findings being consistent with</p> <p>suicideconducted at Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala</p> <p>state .FINDINGS: Informants of 55 cases were interviewed with the help of questionnaire.Most of the</p> <p>suicide victims belonged to upper middle class category.Maximum number of suicidal deaths are seen in</p> <p>victims having 1 sibling, living in a nuclear family.History of suicidal deaths among the family members</p> <p>of the suicide victim is seen in 7 out of 55 cases.Mood of maximum number of cases before the suicide</p> <p>attempt in the recent past, say 2 weeks, was depressed. Maximum number of suicide attempts were seen in</p> <p>the evening, mostly after the school and college working hours.Academic performance of 40.0%cases was</p> <p>average.10.9% were socially isolated. 14.5% had a history of previous suicide attempt. 14.5% had shown</p> <p>anger, aggression and impulsivity in the recent past, say 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: The main purpose of this</p> <p>study is to find out the stressors that could have led these adolescents to commit suicide and to suggest a few</p> <p>strategies to prevent the suicides in the future.</p> Krishna Kumar Siva Sankara Narayanan1 , MuthukumarDuraiappa2, Prajith Thekke Madathil1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 402 406 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10392 Awareness of Most Commonly Used Drugs in Dentistry Inducing Teratogenic Effects among Dental Practitioners <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of most commonly used drugs in dentistry inducing</p> <p>teratogenic effects, among dental practitioners. Birth defects may be caused by many factors such as physical</p> <p>conditions, teratogens, environmental exposures, genetic defects, etc., Although prescription drug use is</p> <p>common during pregnancy, the human teratogenic risks are undetermined for more than 90% drug treatments</p> <p>approved in the USA during the past decades. A particular birth defect may have its origins through multiple</p> <p>mechanisms and possible exposures including medications. A specific chemical process may result in</p> <p>different outcomes depending upon factors such as embryonic age at which a drug is administered, duration</p> <p>and dose of exposure and genetic susceptibility. Estimating the risk of fetal malformations attribute to the</p> <p>use of medications is difficult and perception of risk by health professionals will impact their counseling and</p> <p>treatment of patients. Pregnancy is a unique physiologic condition and importantly specific drugs like folic</p> <p>acid use may have several benefits for pregnant mother. The patient should maintain a good gynecologist</p> <p>patient-Dentist communication. For example a woman with two spontaneous abortions would be expected</p> <p>to be skeptical of any drug therapy in her next pregnancy and by communicating this to physicians and</p> <p>respective clinician. She may influence the physician and dentist perception. The clinician should be aware</p> <p>of all the newer drugs and its teratogenic effects. For health professionals this includes awareness of specific</p> <p>drug information and sources that provide realistic descriptions of risk beyond product monographs. A</p> <p>greater focus on this aspect may act to balance Risk perceptions. Physicians and dentists need to weigh risks</p> <p>and benefits of drug prescribing to pregnant patients based on the available knowledge.</p> Ramani Priya1 , Krithika. C2 Gayathri.P.S 3 , Manju.J4 , Priyanka.p5 , Praveenkumar.S5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 407 410 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10393 Awareness of Oral Hygiene Aids among General Population <p><strong>Background:</strong> The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of oral hygiene aids among general</p> <p>population.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The study was conducted on general population in and around Chennai. A total of 100 members</p> <p>were selected and self-assessed questionnaire was formulated to assess the awareness on oral hygiene aids</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>About 72% of the population are aware of the commonly available oral hygiene aids; 42%</p> <p>population used tooth paste and brush as a method of cleaning their teeth; 50% brushed once daily; 51%</p> <p>used soft brushes to brush; 54% of the population change their bushes only after 6 months; 44% followed</p> <p>circular motion to brush their teeth; 43% don’t use mouthwash; 49% of population media is the source of</p> <p>information; to about 83% of population know the importance of oral hygiene.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study shows better knowledge and awareness of oral hygiene aids but the oral</p> <p>hygiene practice seemed to be non-satisfactory. The awareness regarding the usage of oral hygiene aids,</p> <p>indicates that a mass educative programme should be conducted among the general population.</p> J. Manju1, C. Krithika2 , P.R.Koteshwari 3 , G. Manoj Kumar3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 411 415 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10394 An Experimental Study to Assess the Effect of Disinfectants on the Shade Tab <p>Dentistry leaning towards esthetic restorations have made shade matching a crucial step in fabrication</p> <p>of restorations. It is important to ensure the restorations have the accurate shade, this warrants for a</p> <p>successful treatment. This study aims to evaluate the effect on the color of the shade tabs after disinfection.</p> <p>Shade tab guides from two different shade tabs were used and exposed to three different disinfectants. A</p> <p>Spectrophotometer analysis was done to check for the absorbance value after exposure to the disinfectants.</p> <p>The results showed maximum changes occurred after exposure to sodium hypochlorite. The changes</p> <p>observed increased with increase in the exposure time of the shade guides to the disinfectants. Thus, a</p> <p>standard protocol should be followed in clinics regarding disinfection of shade tabs and ensure a change in</p> <p>the shade guides after three to five years span.</p> Manoj Shetty, Isha Singh2 , Anmol Chandhok2 , Chethan Hegde3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 416 420 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10395 Radiological Study of Fusion of Tri-radiate Cartilage in hip bone in Bikaner Region in 14-22 Years Age Group <p>Correct age determination has of great importance in legal prosecution. The principle means, which enable</p> <p>one to form fairly accurate opinion about age of an individual, are general physical development, dentition,</p> <p>secondary sex characters and ossification of bones. Among them Radiological examination of ossification</p> <p>process is most accurate than any other method up to 25 years of age.</p> <p>This study involves radiological examination of Pelvis (AP view) of 169 individuals for the study of age</p> <p>related appearance and fusion of ossification center of Tri-radiate cartilage in hip in the individuals of age</p> <p>group of 14-22 years of both male and female in S P Medical college, Bikaner, Rajasthan.</p> Mathur Indubala1 , Sajjad Hussain2 , Agrawal Anjali3 , Sharma Yogesh4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 421 425 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10396 Effects of Circuit Training Program on Quality of Life of Children with Hemophilia <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Circuit trainingaddresses both the components of exercise i.e. strength and aerobic which can be</p> <p>administered to participants in a playful manner. As the large number of children will have to gather at one place for</p> <p>the intervention, so it will be beneficial for the therapist also to conduct the session by incorporating them into small</p> <p>groups. Very few have shown the effects of circuit training in hemophilia Therefore it becomes necessary to provide</p> <p>an exercise regimen to children which will be interesting to perform in order to improve their general fitness level.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Forty nine participants were selected and screened and were allocated into 7 groups. The</p> <p>intervention was given for 4 weeks period, once a day for 7min with 50 sec for exercise and 10 sec to move from one</p> <p>station to the next. Pre and Post parameters were assessed forVAS for fatigue and Subjective Exercise Experience</p> <p>Scale.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Data was analyzed using Graph-Pad InStat software version-trial version 3.03. The statistical measures</p> <p>utilized were mean, standard deviation and test of significance such as Paired‘t’ test to analyze the data. The results</p> <p>were concluded to be statistically significant with p &lt;0.05 and highly significant with p &lt; 0.01.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study concludes that the circuit training is effective in hemophilic children as its</p> <p>multipronged approach improves various body systems</p> Mandar Malawade1, Amrutkuvar Rayjade1, G. Varadharajulu2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 426 431 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10397 Study of Pedestrian Injuries and Fatalities in Maharashtra Population <p><strong>Background</strong>- Pedestrians are the common road users India, with increasing traffic on road has lead to</p> <p>injuries and fatalities. The incidences of fatalities are higher than drivers of four wheelers or motor cyclist.</p> <p><strong>Method-</strong> Out of 734 Injuries and 213 fatalities were recorded in medico-legal records. The causes, types of</p> <p>injuries age group, causes of fatalities were also studied.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>- The major age group was between 10-20 had 210(28.6%) followed by age group 61-70 had</p> <p>142(19.3%). The major history of pedestrian were 210(28.6%) alcoholic, followed by 173(23.5%) were</p> <p>busy in mobile speaking. The major fractures were 69(9.40%) fractions of sternum, 176(23.9%) fracture</p> <p>of skull. 185(25.2%) intra-cranial hemorrhage. The major causes of fatalities were hemorrhage and shock</p> <p>138(64.7%), followed by head injuries57(26.7%).</p> Mohammed Abdul Mateen Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 432 437 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10398 Stress, Anger and Coping among Dental Students <p><strong>Background </strong>: Medical course and dentistry have always been considered to be stressful to the students</p> <p>because of its depth, diversity and competitiveness. These are very extensive course spread 4 to 5 years in</p> <p>India. Stress sometimes can lead to anger, which cause even more stress. Prolonged stress and anger can</p> <p>take a toll on the students, both physically and emotionally. It is important to eliminate them by attempting</p> <p>control management and implication of positive coping strategies</p> <p><strong>Aim </strong>: This study aims to investigate level and source of stress, anger, anxiety, depression and associated</p> <p>coping mechanisms among dental students</p> <p><strong>Material and method </strong>: A link to an online questionnaires conducted through Surveymonkey was distributed</p> <p>among all third-year, fourth-year and final-year students.</p> <p><strong>Result </strong>: The first major stressor for the dental students was clinical requirements (61.3%) followed by</p> <p>patient’s behavior, peer pressure/competitiveness, education program and language barrier. Taking some</p> <p>time off to rest (20.3%), talking to a friend (%23.9) and listening to music (19%) were the most commonly</p> <p>reported coping mechanisms (Table 3).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>: The primary sources of stress as perceived by the dental students were peer pressure/</p> <p>competitiveness, patient’s behavior and clinical requirements. In the present study, female dental students</p> <p>reported higher stress levels and a wider range of coping than male students, hence a stress management</p> <p>program should be implemented that focusing towards dental students. The preventive and intervention</p> <p>must be sought and directed as this need early in the student years.</p> Nor Masitah Mohamed Shukri1 , Dhanraj2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 438 443 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10399 Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate in Edentulous Patient <p><strong>Background: </strong>Complete denture help to re-establish the occlusion and aesthetic to such extent it mimic the</p> <p>previously missing teeth and other features which may be lose over the time. In a complete denture wearer,</p> <p>saliva is responsible for the retention of the prosthesis due to its lubricating function. It also aid in integrity,</p> <p>adhesion and stabilisation of dentures in position after the placement. It act as interposed salivary film which</p> <p>allowed the prosthesis to lie on the film rather than on the bare mucosa. This would help to protect the tissues</p> <p>from the hydration and forces of the denture base that acting on it. Therefore, maintaining normal pH and</p> <p>salivary flow rate is required, in order to achieve a better retention of denture as well as good oral health.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To investigate the relationship between the salivary flow rate before and after the placement of</p> <p>complete denture.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method:</strong> There were 15 participants in the age group of 55 to 70 years old, which required</p> <p>complete denture prosthesis for the first time. The unstimulated or resting whole saliva and stimulated</p> <p>whole saliva was collected by using spitting method. Saliva production was stimulated by chewing paraffin</p> <p>wax. The time taken for saliva collection of 5 mL was recorded by using stopwatch. The data obtained was</p> <p>analysed by using paired t-test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was significant difference between the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate and stimulated</p> <p>whole salivary flow rate before the placement of the denture, which was by 0.20 mL/min. Whereas, the</p> <p>difference between the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate and stimulated whole salivary flow rate after</p> <p>the placement also show significant changes which was about 0.14 mL/min. Chewing of paraffin wax as</p> <p>well as placement of denture act as stimulatory agents in production of saliva.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Stimulated salivary flow rate were higher than the unstimulated salivary flow rate which</p> <p>obtained before and immediately after the placement of complete denture. There was significant differences</p> <p>of the salivary flow rate before and after the placement of denture.</p> Nurul Afiqah Amani Binti Zaaba1 , Dhanraj2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 444 448 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10400 Assessment of Pattern of Suicidal, Accidental and Homicidal Cases Along with the Sort of Poisoning in North Indian Population <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> This study aims at determining the mode of suicidal, accidental and homicidal cases along</p> <p>with the sort of poisoning in north Indian population in relation to age, gender, profession, marital status,</p> <p>upshot of diverse cases of poisons and prerequisite of ventilatory support in dissimilar kind of poisonings.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The study includes patients who had been earlier exposed to the to poison either</p> <p>by domestic or farming pesticide, snakebite, toxic plants, stings, manufacturing pollutant, drugs or varied</p> <p>stuffs. The status of patients undergone through poisoning regardless of age, gender, sort as well as method</p> <p>of poisoning, constituent of poisons were recorded in a proforma as prescribed by WHO guidelines .<strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>Poisoning was more during summer season was found to be having the majority of cases which comprised</p> <p>35.0% of the total recorded incidents. Household and agricultural agents comprising of the 55.2% of the</p> <p>total were followed by bites and stings comprising 26.2% were allied with a large amount of poisoning<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prototype of poisoning in the current study is no exception with the patterns observed</p> <p>in most of the other associated studies, preponderance of fatalities comprised male and toxins used for</p> <p>agriculture affairs.</p> Qaiser Rasool Panzoo1 , Abhishak Kumar Varshney2 , Anuj Gupta3 , R.N. Tandon4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 449 453 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10401 Importance of Forensic Odontology <p>Forensic dentistry is the connection between the dental professions and forensic professions. In fact, the teeth</p> <p>and jaws are highly resistant to degradation and decomposition by postmortem. For a number of different</p> <p>reasons and situations such as mass disasters, in criminal investigations and in the case of disfigured bodies</p> <p>due to fire and vehicle accidents, dental identification of humans happens. The different methods include</p> <p>x-rays, antemortem &amp; post-mortem photographs, tooth prints, palatal rugae, lip printing, bite marking and</p> <p>molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction for pulp DNA analysis.</p> Mutum Sangeeta Devi1 , Manju J2 , Rahul Rajpurohit1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 454 458 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10402 Study of Otoacoustic Emissions and Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry in Infants <p><strong>Aim and objective: </strong>To evaluate the usefulness of otoacoustic emissions and brainstem evoked response</p> <p>audiometry for assessment of hearing loss in newborn.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>Total of 370 healthy newborns were subjected to ENT examination, otoacoustic</p> <p>emissions (OAE) within 3 days to 30 days of birth. All newborn with normal hearing at OAE were not</p> <p>studied further, and for refer cases OAE testing was carried out again at 3rd month of age. The infants who</p> <p>failed the second OAE were subjected to brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA). All newborn with</p> <p>abnormal BERA were subjected to repeat BERA at 6th month of age.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All 370 healthy enrolled babies underwent OAE testing. Of which 200 (54.05%) passed the test</p> <p>and 170 (45.95 %) were referred. All 170 referred babies underwent repeat OAE at age of 3 months. Of</p> <p>which 50 passed the test and 120 were referred again. All these 120 referred cases were subjected to further</p> <p>testing using BERA between the ages 3-4 months. 2 were found to be having profound hearing loss during</p> <p>BERA testing at 3-4 months as well as at 6 months.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Profound hearing loss was found in 2 out of 370 enrolled normal newborn. This also means that</p> <p>if only ‘at risk’ babies were screened there is likely chance of missing impaired hearing in newborn without</p> <p>any risk factor. Hence, during hearing assessment it is mandatory to include all newborns irrespective of</p> <p>their status normal or ‘at risk’.</p> Naman Pincha1 , Vikas S Kulkarni2 , Abhay D. Havle3, Disha Jain4, Ganesh M. Vihapure5 , Swapna A Shedge6 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 459 462 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10403 Role of Hand and Foot Print Dimensions in Stature Identification among Indian Population <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The four essential factors in Forensic Anthropology, representing in determining personal identification</p> <p>are age, sex, stature and ethnicity. Among this ‘big fours’ of the biological profile, determination of stature is</p> <p>considered as one of the main parameter of personal identification in forensic examinations. Thus, this study will aim</p> <p>to correlate relation between hand and foot measurements with stature of individual.</p> <p><strong>Aim of the study: </strong>The study aimed to estimate the relationship between statures of an individual on the basis of hand</p> <p>and foot prints, in Indian populations.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>The study group comprised of 100 subjects (age group above 18 years) with normal growth</p> <p>and development.</p> <p><strong><em>Measurement of height</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong> The measurements of height was made using standard anthropometer by making the subject</p> <p>stand erect on the horizontal plane. The distance of the subject from the ground to the highest point of the vertex in</p> <p>the median sagittal plane was recorded.</p> <ol> <li><strong><em>a) Hand length and Hand breadth</em></strong><strong>: </strong>Hand length (HL) was measured from mid-point below radial and ulnar</li> </ol> <p>tuberosity to tip of middle finger. Hand breadth (HB) was measured from base of 5th to 2nd metacarpus by drawing</p> <p>the outline of hand on paper.</p> <ol> <li><strong><em>b) Foot length and breadth</em></strong><strong>:</strong> The foot length was measured as a direct distance from the most posterior point</li> </ol> <p>of back to tip of the Hallux or to tip of the second toe .The foot breadth was measured as the direct distance between</p> <p>the most prominent point on medial side and the most prominent on lateral side.</p> <ol> <li><strong><em>d) Heel Ball Index Measurement </em></strong></li> </ol> <p>The breadth of the foot at ball and at heel (BBAL, BHEL) were measured. The HB Index of the foot was calculated</p> <p>as (BHEL+ BBAL) x 100.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Correlation of the various hand and foot parameters showed a regression coefficient range of 0.331-0.377.</p> <p>Among all variables measured, hand length exhibited the highest correlation with stature (r value of 0.377 p-value &lt;</p> <p>0.003). Further forward stepwise linear regression analysis [Height = 115.426+2.615* Hand length (Left)] established</p> <p>hand length to be the single best predictor of height (r value of 0.377 and standard error of 7.35cms).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Thus, the foot length provides highest reliability and accuracy in estimating stature of unknown males</p> <p>and females. Also this study will help to generate population-specific equations using a simple linear regression</p> <p>statistical method.</p> Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 463 468 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10404 A Profile Study of Sudden Natural Death Cases in Vadodara Region of Central Gujarat <p>Sudden death is said to be sudden or unexpected when the victim not known to have been suffering from</p> <p>any dangerous disease, injury or poisoning is found dead or dies within 24 hours after the onset of terminal</p> <p>illness (WHO). Incidences of sudden natural deaths are increasing now a days and specifically in healthy</p> <p>young individuals can arise suspicion of foul play. Our study may help to provide epidemiological data</p> <p>regarding the sudden death that can be used to control disease outbreaks, identifying emerging causes or</p> <p>changes in disease pattern so that appropriate action can be taken to reduce the morbidity and mortality. The</p> <p>present study undertaken to find the socio-demographic profile (age, sex and religion etc.) of the deceased</p> <p>of sudden death. This prospective study had been conducted on autopsy cases brought to tertiary health</p> <p>center of Vadodara, Central Gujarat for the period of one year. During study period total 2240 autopsies were</p> <p>conducted, of which 224 cases (10%) were sudden deaths. Most of the cases were from the 41 - 50 years</p> <p>age group. Of the 224 cases, 149 were due to diseases of cardiovascular system and 63 due to diseases of</p> <p>respiratory system. We observed that sudden death cases were higher in young age group and cardiovascular</p> <p>system was most commonly involved.</p> Neerav M. Rana1 , Anil R. Pandey1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 469 474 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10405 Effectiveness of Progressive Resistance Drills and Dynamic Balance Training on Functional Performance among the Patients with Osteoarthritis of Knee <p>Osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease in which the wearing down of the protective tissue at the ends</p> <p>of bones (cartilage) occurs gradually and worsens over time. The majority of people aged 40 years have</p> <p>radiographic evidence of knee osteoarthritis, is more common in women than in men.(1) Exercise has a wide</p> <p>range of health benefits in every individual. Mostly for middle aged population there is a clear evidence to</p> <p>support exercise in improving health and functional performance with well evidenced exercise programs.(2,</p> <p>3) These programs have shown to improve the mobility of joints and strength of muscles around the joints by</p> <p>performing specific exercises for the specific muscles. This population people are often unable to undertake</p> <p>high intensity exercise programs. Therefore progressive resistance exercises are been used as an alternative.</p> <p>Many research studies have reported the benefits of resistance exercises as a physical activity for middle</p> <p>aged adults and individuals with limited movement.</p> <p>Method: The subjects in the KIMSDU campus were screened and 41 subjects fulfilling the criteria were</p> <p>involved. Prior consent was taken. Treatment protocol consists of progressive resistance exercises for 4 days</p> <p>per week for 6 weeks The interpretation of the study was done on the basis of comparing pre-test and post</p> <p>test assessment of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index(WOMAC) and BERG</p> <p>BALANCE TEST.</p> <p>Result: Intra group comparison results showed that progressive resistance exercises are effective and</p> <p>WOMAC and Berg Balance Test were statistically extremely significant (p&lt;0.0001) and (p&lt;0.0001)</p> <p>respectively.</p> <p>Conclusion: Progressive resistance exercises were significantly effective in improving the mobility and</p> <p>function and reducing the pain among the patients with osteoarthritis of knee.</p> Nikhil Jitendra Desale1 , Shrinivasan Anandh2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 475 479 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10406 Evaluate the Effectiveness of Calisthenics on self-esteem among Elderly Residing in Selected Old Age Homes of Haryana, India <p>The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Calisthenics on self-esteem among elderly.</p> <p>Quantitative research approach, quasi experimental nonequivalent control group pretest posttest design was</p> <p>used to collect the data from 70 elderlies (35 in experimental group and 35 in comparison group) by using</p> <p>convenience sampling technique. The tools used were Sample characteristics performa and Rosenberg’s Self</p> <p>Esteem Scale. For both the groups pre-test, post-test-1and2 were taken on day 1st, 30th and 45th respectively.</p> <p>Calisthenics was given to experimental group thrice a week for four weeks. A significant difference was</p> <p>found in terms of self-esteem between the experimental and comparison group after intervention (t= 17.47</p> <p>and p=0.001) at 0.05 level of significance. Hence, Calisthenics was found effective in increasing self-esteem</p> <p>among elderly.</p> Nilu Moirangthem1 , Srinivasan.P2 , Dhanesh Garg3 , Jyoti Sarin4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 480 486 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10407 Observational Study on Sexual Dimorphism of Carrying Angle among Natives of Ajmer region <p><strong>Introduction: - </strong>The carrying angle is the angle placed between the median axis of arm and median axis of</p> <p>forearm in full extension and supination position. This angle provides the forearms a clear movement with</p> <p>respect to the hips while walking and is important when carrying objects. Carrying angle is examined in</p> <p>various pre-placement</p> <p>medical examination. Carrying angle can be used to differentiate between male and female upper limb. This</p> <p>can be used in partial identification if rich regional data is systemically and statistically collected.</p> <p><strong>Objective:-</strong>To collect the statistical data values of carrying angle in both the sexes of Ajmer region.</p> <p>Observing any difference between the caring angle of dominant and non-dominant hand of same individual</p> <p><strong>Method: - </strong>A cross-sectional study was carried out with right handed 100 males and right handed 100</p> <p>females and variations in carrying angle between males and females were calculated using Goniometer. The</p> <p>value is analyzed by mean, standard deviation</p> <p><strong>Results: -</strong> In males, mean carrying angle of both upper limbs is 10.720 where as in females mean carrying</p> <p>angle of both upper limbs is found 13.420.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study showed that the carrying angle was greater in females than in males and it was</p> <p>greater in non-dominant arm than in dominant arm.</p> Nirjhar Mathur1 , Anupam Johry2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 487 489 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10408 Quasi Experimental Study to Evaluate the Impact of Psychoeducational Intervention on Level of Anxiety among Hospitalized Children <p><strong>Background of the study</strong>: There are various way to provide Psycho-education(PI) to the patient</p> <p>admitted in the hospital. It is broadly steered by four main goals: transfer of information, medication</p> <p>and treatment support, training and support in self-help and self-care, and the provision of a safe place</p> <p>to vent emotional frustrations.</p> <p>An excessive or persistent state of anxiety leads devastating effect on children’s physical as well as mental</p> <p>health. Psych education is scientifically proved therapeutic intervention which helps to the client along with</p> <p>family members to cope with illness and give the information as well as support to understand in better way</p> <p>.Psych education is helps to children and their family to minimize the emotional trauma during the hospital</p> <p>stay.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>:</p> <p>1) To determine the impact of psycho educational intervention on anxiety level among children with</p> <p>hospitalization.</p> <p>2) To find out the association between socio demographic variable with the pre intervention anxiety level</p> <p>among hospitalized children.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The study was executed by using quantitative research approach with quasi experimental</p> <p>design. The study was conducted at selected three hospitals of Anand district, two hospital of Vadodara</p> <p>district and one Hospital of Ahmedabad District, Gujarat. 33 Hospitalized 6 – 12 year old children were</p> <p>selected for each experimental group and control group using convenient sampling technique. For both</p> <p>groups, Pre-intervention anxiety level assessment was done using Performa of demographic variables,</p> <p>Modified Hamilton Rating Scale. Psycho educational intervention included play book and guided imagery</p> <p>administered to the 6-12 year old hospitalized children of experimental group for duration of 30 minutes</p> <p>for 3 consecutive days. On third day anxiety level have been level done on third day after 5 hours from last</p> <p>intervention.</p> Niyati R. Patel1 , Vipin Vageriya2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 490 496 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10409 A Study on Sociodemographic Profile and Pattern of Injuries in Road Traffic Accidents amongst Pillion Riders in Chennai <p>One of the widespread preventable cause of unnatural death is Road Traffic Accidents. A</p> <p>Retrospective cross sectional study of the sociodemographic profile of pillion riders being</p> <p>victims of Road traffic accidents, the circumstances leading to road traffic accidents, the pattern</p> <p>and severity of injuries of occurring in Chennai was conducted in Saveetha Medical College</p> <p>and Hospital, Thandalam, Chennai, Tamilnadu. A total of 2438 cases of Road traffic accidents</p> <p>were recorded for a year (JAN2018-DEC2018).Out of which 62 cases (2.5%) of Road traffic</p> <p>accidents deals with the injuries of pillion riders. Among the pillion riders, Male outnumbered</p> <p>the Females(1.11 : 1). The most vulnerable age group was 21-30 years(50%). Most frequent</p> <p>of all is Head and Neck injuries and Injuries on the Upper limb. The information obtained can</p> <p>serve as a guide for better management of victims of Road traffic accidents and to establish</p> <p>Road safety measures.</p> P. Shruthi1 , S. Varsha2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 497 501 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10410 A Retrospective study on Non Fatal Motor Vehicle Accident cases in the Emergency Department, Saveetha Medical College, Chennai <p><strong>Aim &amp; Objectives:</strong> To retrospectively study non fatal RTAs in the emergency department of SMCH with</p> <p>help of AR registers while studying various factors involving like pattern, site and time of injuries and age</p> <p>of the person involved.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methodology:</strong> Data was collected for complete one year and all the cases in the year were</p> <p>included in the study, which thus constitute sample for the study. The retrospective study group consisted of</p> <p>all the RTA victims reporting to Emergency Department of SMCH in the study period from 1st January 2018</p> <p>to 31st December 2018. These collected data were compiled with help of Excel.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this study a total of 911 cases were included who were admitted in the emergency department</p> <p>of SMCH. Males were the most commonly involved. Around 95% of the cases involved 2 wheelers. 65%</p> <p>of the accidents took place in the 6pm to 9pm range. Commonly involved age group is 18-30. 20% showed</p> <p>head injuries but the majority had injured their limbs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This suggests that there has to be more awareness created amongst the youth population</p> <p>encouraging them to wear helmets and seat belts. More advancement is required in the field of automotive</p> <p>safety. Road safety must be embedded in the children’s curriculum from lower grade itself. More involvement</p> <p>of Traffic police, NGOs and other public awareness groups are required to enforce this.</p> P. Tejesh Thanigavel1 , Magendran. J2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 502 506 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10411 Comparative Evaluation of Cention with Glass Ionomer Cement, Composite Resins and Silver Amalgam with Respect to Mechanical Strength: An in-Vitro Study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Numerous direct filling materials are available to the modern dental practice from amalgams,</p> <p>GIC to modern bulk fill composites. Cention is an <strong>“alkasite” </strong>restorative. Alkasite refers to a new category</p> <p>of filling material, which like compomer or ormocer materials is essentially a subgroup of the composite</p> <p>material class. This new category utilizes an alkaline filler, capable of releasing acid-neutralizing ions. It is</p> <p>a tooth-colored, basic filling material for direct restorations. It is self-curing with optional additional light</p> <p>curing. It is radiopaque, and releases fluoride, calcium and hydroxide ions. As a dual-cured material it can be</p> <p>used as a full volume (bulk) replacement material. Hence the Aim of the study was to compare the Alkasite</p> <p>(Cention N) with Silver amalgam, GIC and Composite to evaluate the Compressive strength &amp; diametral</p> <p>tensile strength.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>Split molds of dimension 6 [height] x4 [diameter] was used to fabricate 15 samples</p> <p>of each material for testing the compressive strength and for tensile strength. And subjected under Universal</p> <p>Instron testing machine connected to a load measuring cell, to recorded load applied to the samples at a</p> <p>crosshead speed of 0.75 ± 0.25 mm/min till the samples fracture.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Composite and Cention N showed significantly higher strength than Silver Amalgam and Glass</p> <p>ionomer cement.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that Cention N can be used as a superior</p> <p>alternative when compared with Silver Amalgam and Glass ionomer cement.</p> P.Laxmish Mallya1 , Ravindra Kotian2 , Prashanthi M3 , Srikant N4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 507 510 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10412 Correlation between Stature and Length of Clavicle in Female Population of Central India <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Anthropology plays an important role in various medicolegal aspects; apart from determination</p> <p>of Age, Sex and Race of individual, stature is also one of the important parameter of identification various</p> <p>civil and criminal cases. Therefore efforts have been made to determine association between stature and</p> <p>length of clavicle if any.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method:</strong> The present research was carried out in department of Anatomy JNMC Sawangi</p> <p>(M) Wardha; was conducted on total 50 Female individual of age 17–24. The length was calculated with</p> <p>the help of osteometric callipers for clavicles from anatomical landmarks and stature was calculated in</p> <p>centimetres.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion. </strong>From present research it was concluded that the length of clavicle and stature reveals positive</p> <p>correlation and the linear relationship between the living stature and length of clavicle of each side was</p> <p>carried out in the form of regression equation.</p> Pande Varsha1, Patond Swapnil 2 Patil Bharat3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 511 514 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10414 Forensic Investigation and Comparison of Blood Sample Referring to Thalassemia <p>Identification of an individual is one of the significant features of forensic investigation. The present study</p> <p>was conducted to study the difference between normal and thalassemic blood. The study was conducted</p> <p>on 40 blood samples aim to compare control and disease wet blood samples by using different methods of</p> <p>microscopy. The comparison was done based on the morphology of the RBCs and red blood cell count. A</p> <p>(monolayer) thin blood film is prepared on a slide with a wet blood sample and observed under a compound</p> <p>microscope. Red blood cell count is performed with the help of Neubauer’s chamber. Observation shows</p> <p>the changes in the morphology of red blood cells in the thalassemic population as compared to the control</p> <p>population, moreover based on total RBCs count the number red blood cell count found higher in the</p> <p>thalassemic population as compared to the control. Both morphology and Count significantly differed from</p> <p>the control population. Thus, the present method can be used in the daily routine at forensic science casework.</p> Pankila Khanna1 , Surender Sehrawat2 , KS Rana3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 515 521 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10415 Perspective of Maternal Deaths: A Retrospective Autopsy Study <p>Reducing maternal mortality has been a constant struggle globally. The major causes of maternal mortality</p> <p>remain to be ante and post-partum haemorrhage, anaemia, obstructed labour, hypertensive disorders and</p> <p>post-partum infections, liver disorders as observed in various studies. The present study was carried out</p> <p>with view to determine factors causing maternal deaths, and utility of autopsy with autopsy record as a</p> <p>useful and adjunct data source for ascertainment of maternal deaths. In this study we have retrospectively</p> <p>considered the autopsy of maternal cases during 2015 to 2019 referred to RCSM GMC Kolhapur, Kolhapur,</p> <p>Maharashtra. Of the total 66 cases of maternal deaths, maximum number of cases were seen in age group</p> <p>of 20 to 29 years comprising 42 out of 66 (63.63%), Maximum cases 53 (81.30%) were resident of rural</p> <p>areas. Maximum causes of death on autopsy were direct causes, of which hemorrhage was the predominant</p> <p>cause. Most of the cases (42 out of 66 ) died within 24 hours of admission to the hospital. The determinants</p> <p>of maternal mortality need to be studied through the lens of autopsy.</p> Patekar M B.1 , Jagtap N.S.1 , Pawale D.A.2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 522 528 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10417 Effect of Nordic and Normal walking on coronary risk factors among middle aged obese population: Comparative Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>In recent years, obesity significantly increased in all the age groups due to sedentary lifestyle.</p> <p>It can result into chronic heart disease. So walking is very beneficial for every individual therefore this study</p> <p>is aimed to compare the effect of Nordic and Normal walking on coronary risk factor in middle aged obese</p> <p>population. 32 middle aged obese individuals were participated in this study they were divided into 2 group.</p> <p>One group performed Nordic walking and other Normal walking and evaluate the efficiency of Nordic and</p> <p>Normal walking for the coronary risk factor.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the W-H Ratio BMI, HDL and LDL level</p> <p>To find out the pre and post effect of Nordic and normal walking on the coronary risk factors.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study subjects were 32 middle aged obese individuals. They were divided into 2</p> <p>groups. The primary intervention to Group A consist of a Nordic Walking and Normal walking for group B.</p> <p>Individuals were selected according to inclusion criteria age between 45-65 years, Body Mass Index ?30</p> <p>kg/m2 , Waist – Hip Ratio &gt; 0.9 cm for men and 0.8 cm in female, HDL &lt; 40mg/dL, LDL &gt; 130 mg/dL and</p> <p>exclusion criteria was individuals taking medication which influence the variable measured, any orthopedic</p> <p>condition that limit the exercise, unstable angina, uncontrolled hypertension – SBP ? 200 mmHg and DBP</p> <p>?110 mmHg.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Statistical analysis for BMI, Waist – Hip ratio, LDL and LDL level was significant (P value =</p> <p>0.0001) in individuals performed Nordic walking. In normal walking P value is changes in BMI, W-H ratio,</p> <p>HDL and LDL level which was not significant.</p> <p><strong> Conclusion: </strong>From this study, it can be concluded that the Nordic walking reduces the coronary risk factor</p> <p>in middle aged obese population than the normal walking.</p> Pradnya P. Ghadage1 , T. Poovishanu Devi2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 529 533 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10418 Awareness among Intern Doctors Regarding Privacy and Confidentiality in Medical Practice <p><strong>Background: </strong>Privacy and confidentiality in medical care are deeply rooted in core professional ethical</p> <p>standards across a variety of health professions. Present project aimed to study perceptions of intern doctors</p> <p>regarding privacy and confidentiality in medical practice.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Total 100 intern doctors of GMERS Medical College, Valsad, Gujarat were</p> <p>subjected to pre-tested and pre-validated Likert scale type questionnaire regarding knowledge and awareness</p> <p>of privacy and confidentiality in medical practice after obtaining their informed written consent. Data</p> <p>obtained were analyzed via median score and tabulated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 100 respondents, 58 were male and 42 were female. Knowledge and awareness regarding</p> <p>many of the facts related to privacy and confidentiality of medical practice found to be satisfactorily with</p> <p>median score of more than 3. Professional secrecy is implied term of contract between doctor and patient,</p> <p>patient can sue the doctor for damages if disclosure is done without his consent and harm him and not in</p> <p>the interest of public, etc. showed median score of 3. Disclosure to parents without consent in case of major</p> <p>and breach of professional secrecy is professional misconduct of doctor showed median score less than 3.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Intern doctors had little knowledge regarding disclosure to parents without consent in case</p> <p>of major and breach of professional secrecy is professional misconduct of doctor. Intern doctors were not</p> <p>sure about Professional secrecy is implied term of contract between doctor and patient and patient can sue</p> <p>the doctor for damages if disclosure is done without his consent and harm him and not in the interest of</p> <p>public. Knowledge and awareness regarding rest of the facts related to privacy and confidentiality of medical</p> <p>practice found to be satisfactorily among intern doctors.</p> Pragnesh Parmar1 , Swapnil Patond2 , Gunvanti Rathod3 , Sudhir Ninave4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 534 539 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10420 Awareness among Intern Doctors about Medical Records and Duty of Doctors in Tertiary Care Hospital, Valsad <p><strong>Background:</strong>Optimum knowledge of medical records and duty of doctor is must for every doctor to enhance</p> <p>safe health care delivery in an unbiased standardized way. Present study was undertaken with aim to assess</p> <p>awareness of intern doctors towards medical records and duty of doctors.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong>Present study was undertaken at Gujarat Medical Education and Research Society</p> <p>(GMERS) Medical College, Valsad, Gujarat after obtaining ethical approval from the Institutional Ethical</p> <p>Committee of Valsad. Total 10 questions were prepared and validated on Likert scale (1 to 5, 1 – Strongly</p> <p>Disagree, 5 – Strongly Agree) regarding medical records and duty of doctors. Total 100 intern doctors of</p> <p>GMERS Medical College, Valsad, Gujarat were subjected to pre-tested and pre-validated Likert scale type</p> <p>questionnaire regarding medical records and duty of doctors after obtaining their informed written consent.</p> <p>Data obtained were analyzed via median score and tabulated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>Students were well aware about following facts like Maintenance of patients’ record is legal duty</p> <p>of hospital, Every operation required informed written consent of patient, Fail to attend patient during</p> <p>emergency is punishable, Patient has right to refuse treatment, and Carelessly leaving object into patient</p> <p>body during operation is negligent act. Students were not sure of facts like Patients’ records are property of</p> <p>patients, Refusing patient on religious ground is punishable, Not to treat patient due to HIV is punishable,</p> <p>and doctor has right to choose patient. Students were not aware regarding either doctor can refuse to attend</p> <p>medico-legal case or not.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Intern doctors had no awareness regarding duration of preservation of hospital records.</p> <p>Students were not sure of various aspects of medical records and duty of doctors. Compulsory internship in</p> <p>Forensic Medicine subject as well as sensitization workshop regarding medical records and duty of doctors</p> <p>for interns at beginning of their internship may build confidence among them to be aware with various duties</p> <p>of doctors.</p> Pragnesh Parmar1 , Swapnil Patond2 , Gunvanti Rathod3 , Sudhir Ninave4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 540 543 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10421 Effect of Tactile Stimulation and Joint Integrity Exercises on Hemineglect in Stroke Survivors <p><strong>Background:</strong> Unilateral spatial neglect is likely to be associated with poor functional outcome in sub</p> <p>acute phase. During this period, intensive rehabilitation is needed to obtain higher ADL scores. If greater</p> <p>efficacy of rehabilitation can be brought about by early intervention for unilateral spatial neglect, patients</p> <p>with unilateral neglect might achieve higher ADL goals.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method: </strong>In this pre-post intervention study 25 neglect patients were included with less than</p> <p>six month of stroke.Tactile stimulations and joint integrity exercise protocol was set for four weeks. After</p> <p>pre-post assessment, data was analysed with help of appropriate statistical methods.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>According to this study, there is increase in tactile stimulation (p=0.0023), kinaesthetic stimulation</p> <p>(p&lt;0.0001),stereognosis (p&lt;0.0001) and motor outcome (p=0.0001). This indicates an overall increase in</p> <p>sensory and motor outcome.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Tactile stimulation and joint integrity exercises appears to be beneficial for improving motor</p> <p>outcome in hemineglect patients after stroke.</p> Prajakta S.Kadam1 , Suraj B.Kanase2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 544 549 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10422 Clinical Evaluation of Ocular Foreign Bodies <p><strong>Background : </strong>Ocular foreign body can affect at any age as well as in both genders. Foreign body introduction</p> <p>in eye leads to various disturbances which can create significant health related problem. The study of the</p> <p>ocular foreign body gives unparalleled opportunities in reducing morbidity as well as for realizing significant</p> <p>savings for both financial as well as human terms.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method:</strong> This prospective study was conducted in ophthalmology department at of Krishna</p> <p>hospital, Karad, Hundred patients with ocular foreign bodies were included in study with consideration of</p> <p>inclusion and exclusion criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results : </strong>A study of 100 subjects showed that incidence of extraocular foreign bodies is very common</p> <p>compared to intraocular foreign bodies. Amongst that, corneal foreign bodies found to be have highest</p> <p>incidence. Commonest foreign body observed -iron particle (43%) and thorn/vegetative material (38%).</p> <p>Average age-40 years. Males are having higher incidence than females. Average interval between incident</p> <p>and intervention – 2.6 days (day 0 to day 10). Amongst the affected population, farmers and welders are</p> <p>maximum in number.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion : </strong>Though incidence of intraocular foreign body is very less, it has bad prognosis in relation with</p> <p>vision as well as progresses to endophthalmitis. Early visit to ophthalmologist showed better prognosis and</p> <p>thus visual outcome specially in cases of vegetative foreign body in which delayed treatment lead to further</p> <p>complications.</p> Pranali Shah1 , V.H.Karambelkar2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 550 556 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10423 Correlation of Perkins Hand-Held Applanation Tonometer with Non-Contact Tonometer <p><strong><em>Aim:</em></strong> To correlate the IOP by the use of Perkins hand-held applanation tonometer (PAT) with Non-contact</p> <p>tonometer (NCT). <strong><em>Materials &amp; Methods:</em></strong> Prospective cross-sectional study done on 148 eyes &amp; 3 readings</p> <p>were taken for each method &amp; mean calculated. <strong><em>Statistical analysis:</em></strong> Unpaired-T test &amp; Correlation-co</p> <p>efficient, Sensitivity &amp; Specificity were calculated for the NCT. <strong><em>Results: </em></strong>Mean age of subjects was 56.01±</p> <p>9.73 yrs. Mean IOP with PAT &amp; NCT 15.43 mmHg (95% CI 15.14–15.76) &amp; 15.13 mmHg (95% CI 14.81–</p> <p>15.46) respectively. NCT shows excellent agreement with PAT. Correlation coefficient(r) of IOP measured</p> <p>by NCT &amp; PAT is 0.97 &amp; 0.91 for RE &amp; LE respectively with p value &lt;0.05, showed strong positive</p> <p>correlation between the IOP measured by NCT &amp; PAT. The NCT showed high sensitivity 86% &amp; high</p> <p>specificity 97.9 % respectively, coming across an excellent agreement with PAT. <strong><em>Interpretation:</em></strong> NCT is</p> <p>easy to operate (non medical &amp; Paramedical staff), minimum risk of infection &amp; without any observer bias.</p> <p>Only drawback is the cost. <strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> The current study shows that the NCT compares well with the PAT.</p> <p>The NCT can be used as a reliable screening tool.</p> Prashant Bulchandani1 , Girish A. Gadre2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 557 563 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10424 Theatrical Prosthesis – Widening Horizons of Prosthetic Dentistry – A Case Report <p>A movie or a play is said to be great if it can imprint an image in our mind forever. To accomplish this, even</p> <p>the unnatural looking characters should look real. This case report describes a temporary prosthesis which</p> <p>alters the look of a theatre artist suited as a Dracula. Mock wax-up was done on the stone cast and an index</p> <p>of same was made using putty material. After dewaxingof the cast, tooth colored self-cure acrylic resin was</p> <p>mixed and poured into the index and stone cast with separating medium applied over it was pressed into the</p> <p>index. Prosthesis was retrieved, trimmed, polished and then delivered to patient.</p> Prashant Kothari1 , Veena Hegde2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 564 566 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10425 Study of Unnatural Deaths of Women Brought to Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences for Medico-Legal Autopsy <p>Discrimination against women in our society is deeply embedded within family context of the women.</p> <p>Women are subjected to violence from husbands and from their relatives in their natal as well as marital</p> <p>homes. This study was designed to determine unnatural deaths of females in Raichur during the year 2017.</p> <p>total 362 cases were autopsied where as 77 women of unnatural deaths were autopsied. Third and fourth</p> <p>decade were common age group. Most of the unnatural deaths were suicidal and road traffic accidents.</p> <p>This study reflects the susceptibility of women to unnatural deaths, thus needs to enhance the multipronged</p> <p>protective system, to curb these potentially preventable unnatural deaths of females</p> Praveen Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 567 569 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10426 Profile of Brought in Dead Cases in a Tertiary Care Centre of South India <p>Most of the times it is noticed that incidence of Brought in dead (BID) cases in a tertiary care hospital is very</p> <p>high. But there are limited data of the statistics of such cases due to lack of records or audit. These cases</p> <p>can be due to natural cause or unnatural. The doctor attending such cases should be aware of all procedures</p> <p>and formalities associated with BID cases. Diagnosis of death should be ascertained clinically and hospitals</p> <p>should be aware of the legal responsibilities of these cases.</p> <p>This study was conducted in a tertiary care institution where BID cases were profiled with the available</p> <p>data and records. The study throws light in to not only the demographic profile like age, sex, month wise</p> <p>distribution but also to time of reporting to Emergency department (ED) as well as the probable cause based</p> <p>on history of the informant. Males dominated in the total number of 307 cases compiled in 4 years, i.e, 2015</p> <p>to 2018. Age of above 60 years cases made the major share with sudden death as well as road traffic accident</p> <p>(RTA) being the major culprits. Maximum number of BID were reported during early morning hours (12am</p> <p>to 6 am) followed by late evening hours (6pm to 12am).</p> Prince.M.Paul1 , Stelin Agnes Michael2 , Roney Thomas3 , P.Babu4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 570 573 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10428 Analysis of Medicolegal Cases in a Tertiary Care Hospital of South Kerala <p>Medicolegal cases (MLC) are presented to Emergency department (ED) of almost all hospitals in our nation</p> <p>after the Supreme Court guidelines stating that ‘the paramount duty of a doctor is to save the life of a</p> <p>person’. Hospitals should be equipped with infrastructure as well as treating doctors in combating such cases</p> <p>where documentation and treatment should be meticulously done.</p> <p>This study is conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South Kerala where profile of MLC was analysed during</p> <p>the years 2016 -17. A total of 10,001 cases were studied which is unique compared to previous studies.</p> <p>Males dominated in the MLC with road traffic accident (RTA), fall from height and work place injuries</p> <p>formed the major share in the pattern of cases. Most of these cases were presented to ED between first and</p> <p>sixth hour of occurrence</p> Prince.M.Paul1 , Stelin Agnes Michael2 , Roney Thomas3 , P.Babu4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 574 578 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10429 Comparison of Stress Patterns in Edentulous Mandibular Bone around Two Implant Retained, Four Implant Retained Overdenture and All-On-Four Concept. - A 3 Dimensional Finite Element Analysis <p>Recently the use of tilted implants has been considered as a preferable option in case of atrophic edentulous</p> <p>arches. The tilted longer implants can be of use to ward off the important anatomical structures while also</p> <p>permitting cantilever reduction.</p> <p>Since the load transfer mechanism of an implant can be altered significantly by the number of implants</p> <p>and its location in the edentulous ridge, the present study evaluates and compares the stress patterns in the</p> <p>edentulous mandibular bone around two implant retained, four implant retained over denture and all on four</p> <p>concepts under different loading conditions using finite element analysis.</p> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The biomechanical behaviour of the ‘All-On-Four’ system was compared with that of the two</p> <p>implant-supported and four-implant supported mandibular overdenture using the three dimensional finite</p> <p>element method (FEM). Thereby evaluating the von Misses stresses induced on the implants under different</p> <p>loading simulations.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method:</strong> Three dimensional models representing mandible restored with ‘All-On-Four’, two</p> <p>implant-supported and four-implant-supported prosthesis were developed in the three dimensional design</p> <p>software and then transferred into FEM software. The models were then subjected to four different loading</p> <p>simulations (full mouth biting, canine disclusion, load on cantilever, load in the absence of cantilever). The</p> <p>maximum von Mises stresses were localized and quantified for comparison.1</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the three models, under all loading simulations, the maximum stress concentrations werealong the neck of the</p> <p>implant. The stress levels for full mouth loading simulation was highest for twoimplant supported overdenture design and the</p> <p>least for All-On-Four overdenture design. In all three designs,the least stress was when the implants were loaded in a lateral</p> <p>direction. The stress levels for cantilever andnon-cantilevered designs were nearly the samefor all the simulated designs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>When tested under differentloading simulations, the three modelsshowed similar location and distribution ofstress</p> <p>patterns. Thus from the study it can beconcluded that the All-On-Four Concept is a&nbsp;clinically applicable treatment option for the</p> <p>atrophic edentulous ridges and induces least amount of stresseson the edentulous ridges. Therefore the overall longevity of the</p> <p>prosthesis is greatly enhanced.</p> Puneeth Hegde1 , Shobha Rodrigues2 , Satish Shenoy3 , Tilak Shetty4 , Umesh Pai5 , Sharon Saldhana5 , Mahesh. M5. Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 579 585 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10431 Exploring Thoughts of Victims of School Bullying Through Drawings <p>This study explored the underlying thoughts of victims of school bullying through analysis of their drawings.</p> <p>Eighty senior secondary students (studying in classes 9 to 11) identified as victims based on the Illinois</p> <p>Victimization Scale participated in the study. Participants drew their victimization experiences and provided</p> <p>elaborations of their drawings. Analysis of participants’ responses involved the framework method. Results</p> <p>showed that thoughts of bullied participants were related to the (1) outcomes of being victimized (2) dealing</p> <p>with the bullies, and (3) the reason for bullying. The participants evinced various thoughts related to direct or</p> <p>indirect coping, victim-related reasons, and bully related reasons as gauged by their drawings. The findings</p> <p>of this study were interpreted in the light of developmental-ecological framework and research. The article</p> <p>indicates implications for future research and professionals to help the victims of school bullying.</p> Rekha Negi Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 586 595 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10432 Analysis of Factors Affecting the Implementation of “Remaja Sehat” Application <p>This study aims to determine the effect of relative profitability, compatibility, complexity, trialability,</p> <p>and observability about knowledge regarding adolescent reproductive health in the use of the “Remaja</p> <p>Sehat” application. Implementation of the use of the media “Aplikasi Remaja Sehat” was carried out by</p> <p>302 students of SMAN 19 Surabaya and SMA Muhammadiyah 7 Surabaya. Effectiveness measurement</p> <p>used pre-experiment methods with post-only design. The results of this study showed that there are relative</p> <p>advantages (0.013) and trialability (0.000) have an effect while compatibility (0.666), complexity (0.464)</p> <p>and observability (0.281) have no effect on the implementation of the use of “Remaja Sehat” application.</p> Riris Diana R1, Pulung Siswantara1, Muthmainnah1 , Astri Meidah Setiawati1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 596 600 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10433 Clinical Study of Optic Neuropathies <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Optic neuropathy is a frequent cause of vision loss encountered by ophthalmologist. The</p> <p>diagnosis is made on clinical grounds. The history often points to the possible etiology of the optic neuropathy.</p> <p>A rapid onset is typical of demyelinating, inflammatory, ischemic and traumatic causes. A gradual course</p> <p>points to compressive, toxic/nutritional and hereditary causes. The classic clinical signs of optic neuropathy</p> <p>are visual field defect, dyschromatopsia, and abnormal papillary response. Study objectives were to study</p> <p>etiological factors causing optic neuropathies.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method</strong>: This analytical study was performed in Krishna Medical College Hospital, Karad</p> <p>for a period of months. The initial examination was started with anterior segment examination on slit lamp</p> <p>and fundus examination with direct ophthalmoscope. The material for the present study consists of 65 optic</p> <p>neuropathy patients during the 18 months period from November 2017 to May 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: During this study, in Krishna Hospital karad we noticed that glaucomatous optic neuropathy is the</p> <p>most common type of optic neuropathy and traumatic optic neuropathy is the second most type.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Glaucoma being frequent cause of vision loss , is unfortunately not diagnosed at early stage</p> <p>and as age advances the risk of glaucoma increases also hypertension is one of the risk factors, so routinely</p> <p>every patient &gt;40 years of age is to be assessed for glaucoma by noting optic disc changes and intra ocular</p> <p>pressure. If necessary Dynamic Perimetry is to be done for further evaluation.</p> Rohini Sangoram1 , V.H.Karambelkar2 , B.S.Joshi3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 601 607 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10434 Effect of Gross Motor and Fine Motor Exercises on Trunk Control in Subjects with Spastic Cerebral Palsy <p><strong>Background: </strong>Gross motor and fine motor activities are important to achieve as it is important aspect for</p> <p>ADL activities. It is widely known that when trunk control is affected, gross and fine motor activity is</p> <p>also affected. For efficient distal movements, proximal stability should be sufficient i.e for hand usage,</p> <p>development of trunk stability and central axis control is one of the important prerequisites. Recent studies</p> <p>have showed that there is positive correlation between trunk control and upper extremity functions. There</p> <p>is paucity of literature available showing effect of gross motor and fine motor activities on trunk control in</p> <p>cerebral palsy children, hence this study would be helpful to analyse the same.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Objective of this study was to to find out the effect of gross motor and fine motor activities on</p> <p>trunk control, on hand function and also to find out the correlation between trunk control and hand function.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> There were total 35 subjects, out of which 21 subjects were participants of this study. This</p> <p>is a study of effect of gross motor and fine motor activities on trunk control in cerebral palsy children.</p> <p>Demographic data, assent and consent was taken from the child and his/her parents, respectively. Pre and</p> <p>post assessment was taken on the basis of Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy,</p> <p>Manual Ability Classification System and Trunk Control Assesment before and after 6 weeks (total 16</p> <p>sessions) of the treatment respectively. Each session was of 45 mins. Later evaluation and interpretation of</p> <p>data was done.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The 9.1% improvement is seen in pre and post treatment GMFCS, 18% improvement is seen in pre</p> <p>and post treatment MACS and 16.2% improvement is seen in pre and post treatment TCMS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is significant effect of gross motor and fine motor exercises on trunk control in subjects</p> <p>with spastic cerebral palsy.</p> Romita R Shah1 , Poonam H. Patil2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 608 613 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10435 Effect of Different Shoe Lacing Pattern on Different Types of Foot in Recreational Runners <p><strong>Background:</strong> There has been an increase in the overall prevalence of obesity in India. There has been a</p> <p>26% rise in the obesity among the young adults of India. At the same time, an awareness about fitness and</p> <p>health has also been on a rise in our country.Jogging and running have been on a rise in popularity among</p> <p>the youth of India. Heel-to-toe drop, styles of running, brand, fit and shoe lacing are some other factors that</p> <p>affect running. Out of these shoe lacing is one of the simplest factors to modify. It can be done by anybody</p> <p>and is an extremely cost effective measure.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> An experimental study is being conducted with a sample size of 33 subject in karad. The</p> <p>population under study is Recreational runners age group of 20-40 years both male and female subjects. VAS</p> <p>and Foot Posture Index were the outcome measures used.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> There was a significant effect of modifying shoe lacing patterns on FFI scores. (p=&lt;0.001) There was</p> <p>also a significant effect on FPS (p &lt;0.001) and FDS (p &lt;0.001) subscales whereas there was no significant</p> <p>effect on ALS subscale (p &gt;0.05). A significant decrease in pain was also noted. (p &lt;0.05)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>On the basis of the results of the study, it was concluded that there was a significant effect of</p> <p>modifying shoe lacing patterns on amateur runners.</p> Rushikesh Rajendra Mangale, Amrutkuvar Rayjade Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 614 619 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10436 Effectiveness of Gluteus Maximus Strengthening on Gait in Patients with Hemiparesis <p><strong>Background: </strong>Seventy five per cent of patients who outlive stroke have inadequacies whilst walking and</p> <p>the hemiparetic gait is the most prevalent form of walking. The asymmetric pattern of walking is most</p> <p>commonly seen in hemiparetic gait.</p> <p><strong>Aim and Objectives:</strong> To find the effectiveness of gluteus maximus strengthening on gait in patients with</p> <p>hemiparesis.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>The hemiparetic patients were assessed for the MMT and gait, prior to the treatment.</p> <p>The muscle strength and gait was assessed by Manual Muscle Testing and objective method respectively.</p> <p>Subjects signed the consent form then total number of three exercises were given-i)Standing leg lifts with</p> <p>trunk supported, ii) Quadruped leg lifts, iii) Standing extension.Statistical analysis was done once the data</p> <p>was collected</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In this study the gluteus maximus strengthening had effect on the gait of the hemiparetic individuals.</p> <p>The gait parameters taken in this study step length, step width, stride length, cadence and speed significantly</p> <p>increase after the treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> On the basis of the result of this study, it was concluded that the strengthening of gluteus</p> <p>maximus muscle has effect on gait in patients with hemiparesis. The gait parameters taken in this study such</p> <p>as step length, step width, stride length, cadence and speed has increase in the averaged values before and</p> <p>after treatment.</p> Rutuja Bhosale1 , G.Varadharajulu2 , Dhirajkumar Mane3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 620 625 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10437 Role of Rigor Mortis in Assessment of Time Since Death <p><strong>Background: </strong>Evaluating time since death is an fundamental part of medico-legal investigations. Rigor</p> <p>Mortis is determined by routine convential method of corpus examination and detecting development of</p> <p>postmortem changes which are affected by many internal and external factors.</p> <p>The study was done on 100 medico-legal autopsies. Presence of Rigor Mortis in the cadavers was observed</p> <p>both in voluntary and involuntary muscles. Voluntary muscles were tested by gently moving the parts</p> <p>(eyelids, jaw) or by gently flexing the joints. Involuntary muscles like heart by slightly compressing it.</p> <p>Most of the cases belonged to 21-40 years of age group ( 45%) followed by 41-60 years (32%). 78% of the</p> <p>victims were males while only 22% were females .66% of the cases were reported to be the Road traffic</p> <p>accidents, 13% were poisoning cases, 7% natural death and 4% hanging. Majority of the cases seen were</p> <p>those of brought dead cases i.e; 57% and the hospital deaths recorded were 43%. 99% of victims were</p> <p>clothed. Mean maximum temperature was 33.86±6.6hrs and minimum temperature noted was 24.31±6.5hrs</p> <p>&amp;percentage humidity recorded was 33.51±20.2 . In this study 95% Rigor Mortis was recorded in eyelids,</p> <p>95% of Rigor Mortis was seen in jaw, 95% in the neck, 96% in the right upper limb, 94% in the left upper</p> <p>limb,80% cases in right lower limb and 80% in the left lower limb. Minimum Postmortem interval recorded</p> <p>was 4 hrs and maximum postmortem interval reported was 36 hrs. Mean PMI reported was 14.80±5.87 hrs.</p> <p>Majority of the cases were reported from two police stations Mullana, which were 46 in number and from</p> <p>Barara ,24 in number.</p> Sabina Bashir1 , Deepak Walia2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 626 631 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10438 An analysis of Socio-Demographic Profile of Asphyxial Deaths in Western Mumbai Region <p><strong>Background</strong>: the study is conducted to determine epidemiology of violent asphyxia deaths in the western</p> <p>Mumbai region and variation in types of asphyxia deaths in relation to age and gender.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Study was conducted in department of forensic medicine of H. B. T. Medical College &amp; cooper</p> <p>Hospital, Mumbai for period (2 years) of January 2015 to December 2016. Total 3114 of autopsies were</p> <p>conducted during the period of which 187(6%) were asphyxial death which are included in this study.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>187 out of 3114 medicolegal autopsies were of asphyxial death making incidence rate 5.87% of</p> <p>asphyxial death. Age group most commonly involved in asphyxial death was 21-30 years constitutes 28.8%</p> <p>cases. Male victims constitute of 60.42% cases and female victims were 39.58% cases. Drowning is common</p> <p>in age group 1-20 years constitutes 94.4% of all drowning deaths. Age group 1-10 years all the asphyxial</p> <p>deaths were due to drowning. Hanging is commonest in age group 21-30 years and it constitutes 41.22% of</p> <p>hanging case.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Males and young age group population between 11–40 years are more susceptible victims of</p> <p>violent asphyxial deaths. Hanging and drowning was most common cause in this age group. Both types of</p> <p>asphyxial deaths in young population are preventable and needs to be rectified.</p> Sachin s. Sonawane1 , Rajesh B. Sukhdeve2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 632 637 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10439 Effect of Posture Correction and Moderate Intensity Exercises on Respiratory Systemin Teenagers <p><strong>Background: </strong>Teenage is the time of shaping health behaviour and preventing postural defects and improving</p> <p>respiratory fitness. The teenagers possess insufficient knowledge about their respiratory system. Postural</p> <p>defects are commonly seen among teenagers due to lack of physical activity and poor postural habits which</p> <p>can lead to non harmonious development of organs and affect respiratory system as well. For efficient</p> <p>respiratory function, moderate intensity exercises with posture correction would be useful. There is paucity</p> <p>of literature showing effect of posture correction and moderate intensity exercises on respiratory system in</p> <p>teenagers, hence this study would be helpful to analyse the same.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To find out effect of posture correction exercise on respiratory system in teenagers. To find out</p> <p>effect of moderate intensity exercises on respiratory system in teenagers.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study was carried out in karad area. The subjects were selected according to inclusion</p> <p>and exclusion criteria. Total 35 subjects were participated in this study. Prior consent and assent form was</p> <p>taken. Aim and procedure were explained to the subjects in their preferred language before data collection.</p> <p>Pre and post assessment was done by 6 minute walk test for respiratory function and flexicurve was measured</p> <p>using flexible ruler to recognize spinal postural defect. Peak flow meter was used to measure lung function</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: In conducted study, 6minute walk test, peak flow meter and flexicurve showed statistically significant</p> <p>difference between pre and post treatment values.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>On the basis of the result of the study, it can be concluded that posture correction and moderate</p> <p>intensity exercises helps in improving respiratory function in teenagers.</p> Sakshi Shah1 , Poonam H. Patil2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 638 644 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10440 Mandibular Canine Index as A Tool in Gender Identification - A Study in Malwa Population <p>Teeth are the hardest tissue in the body. Mandibular canines are important tooth in the human body which</p> <p>shows significant sexual dimorphism. Mandibular canine index can be used for gender identification during</p> <p>mass disasters and crime scenes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy with which gender</p> <p>can be differentiated in Malwa population by using the Mandibular Canine Index and sexual dimorphism.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method:</strong> The study sample includes 300 Mandibular casts of people residing in Malwa. It</p> <p>included 137 males and 163 female participants. Mesio distal diameter of mandibular canines were measured</p> <p>from mesial contact point to distal contact point of right and left mandibular canines. Inter canine distance</p> <p>was measured between tips of both canines. These were used for deriving MCI and determining sexual</p> <p>dimorphism exhibited by mandibular canines.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mesiodistal width of mandibular canine were larger in males than in females. The mean</p> <p>difference of MCI between males and females were more on the left canine, thus making it highly significant</p> <p>(P Value&lt;0.001). The standard mandibular canine index for Malwa population was obtained as 0.262.</p> <p>Sexual dimorphism of right mandibular canine was estimated as 4.30% and for left mandibular canine was</p> <p>5.58%. Sexual dimorphism of mandibular canine is more on left side. The overall percentage accuracy</p> <p>of sex prediction using standard mandibular canine was found to be 65.52%. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Tooth remains</p> <p>obtained from crime scenes or disasters can be used for gender identification as this method is very simple,</p> <p>accurate and useful.</p> Sandhya Jain1 , Merin Kuriakose2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 645 652 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10441 Effectiveness of Short Foot Exercises Versus Towel Curl Exercises to Improve Balance and Foot Posture in Individuals with Flexible Flat Foot <p><strong>Background:</strong> Flexible flat foot is a condition of foot in which the medial longitudinal arch is lowered</p> <p>which is visible in weight bearing foot. This condition may be asymptomatic and needs to be treated to</p> <p>prevent further overuse injuries. Many of the literature suggest that individuals with flexible flat foot shows</p> <p>imbalances in the strength of IFM like abductor hallucis, flexor hallucis brevis, flexor digitorum brevis and</p> <p>interosseous muscles which plays major role in maintaining stability. The dynamic balance is found to be</p> <p>more affected in flexible flat foot which needs to be treated by strengthening the IFM. Strengthening IFM</p> <p>with greater efficacy can improve the dynamic balance and also have impact on foot posture of individuals</p> <p>with flexible flat foot.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>to find the effect of 2 different types of IFM strengthening on dynamic balance</p> <p><strong>Material and Method: </strong>In this pre-post intervention study 40 individuals with flexible flat foot were included.</p> <p>They were randomly divided into 2 groups with 20 individuals in each group. Group A was instructed to</p> <p>perform short foot exercises and Group B was instructed to perform towel curl exercise for four weeks. After</p> <p>pre-post assessment, data was analysed with help of appropriate statistical methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> According to result the in Group A and Group B there is significant increase in both right and left</p> <p>anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions with p value &lt; 0.0001.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Both short foot exercise and towel curl exercise are found to be equally effective in improving</p> <p>the dynamic balance in individuals with flexible flat foot. The impact of these exercises on foot posture</p> <p>needs to be taken into consideration.</p> Sayali N. Pisal1 , Khushboo Chotai2 , Smita Patil2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 653 658 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10442 Morphometric Study of External Nose for Sex Determination and Ethnic Group Differentiation <p><strong>Background: </strong>External nose is one of the anatomical structures that give a look in an individual’s face. The</p> <p>size and shape of the nose vary from one individual to another individual.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To determine the sex based on morphometry of external nose.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was done on 100 Malaysians and 100 South Indians of</p> <p>age group (20 to 30 years). The morphometric measurements of the external nose such as nasal length (NL),</p> <p>nasal breadth (NB), nasal height (NH), nasal depth (ND), width of columella (WC), nostril breadth (NB),</p> <p>alar length (AL) and alar width (AW) were measured using digital caliper by standard procedure.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The nasal width was found to be larger in Malaysian females as compared to that of Indian females.</p> <p>The nasal height was found to be larger in Indian males followed by Indian females and vice versa in</p> <p>Malaysian population. When compared among the population the nasal length was lengthier in Indian</p> <p>population and in Malaysian males when compared to Malaysian females. Alar length slight difference was</p> <p>found between male and female of both the population when compared on both the sides. The alar width</p> <p>was found to be more in Indian population when compared to Malaysian population. The nostril breadth was</p> <p>found to be wider in Malaysian population when compared to the Indian population.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study shows that their do exist gender difference in nasal morphometry and nasal</p> <p>index of both males and females.</p> Senthil Kumar B Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 659 665 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10443 Pattern of Poisoning Cases and Poisoning Deaths A Retrospective Studiy Conducted at Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences, Raichur <p>The present study is a retrospective study conducted in Raichur institute of Medical sciences, Raichur</p> <p>Karnataka. During the study period that is from January 2017 to March 2017, out of 547 medico-legal</p> <p>cases which came to casualty, 164 cases were poisoning. Among 164 poisoning cases, 13 cases died in</p> <p>hospital and postmortem examination is done in mortuary RIMS Raichur hospital. The most common type</p> <p>of poisoning case in and around the Raichur district was organo-phosphorus poisoning (58.53%) followed</p> <p>by kerosene poisoning (13.41%). Males (55.48%) were the more common victims of the poisoning. Age</p> <p>group between 11-20 years (32.92%) was most commonly affected. Majority of poisoning cases was suicidal</p> <p>(84.14%) in manner. In 26.56% the motive for suicidal poisoning was financial crisis leading to depression</p> <p>and consumption of poisonous substance.</p> Sharanabasavappa Karaddi1 , Praveen Kumar2, Ravi Shankar MG3 , Mounika Ragini4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 666 672 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10444 An examination of Some Commonly Utilized Techniques for Perception of Secret Writing <p>Secret writing is the art of covered or hidden writing. The art of secret writing is meant to create a message</p> <p>unreadable by a third party however doesn’t hide the existence of the secret communication. This paper is</p> <p>meant as a technical introduction to secret writing for those unacquainted with the field. Invisible inks are</p> <p>generally used for secret writing. These are fluids used to write hidden messages that do not appear unless</p> <p>exposed by a revealing process. Invisible inks can be classified into three main categories: those that are</p> <p>revealed by heat, those revealed by chemical reactions and those that are visible under ultraviolet light.</p> <p>Some common household invisible inks are diluted fruit juices, vinegar and laundry detergent, all which can</p> <p>be applied by a paintbrush, special invisible ink pen or even a toothpick, Historically, used in times of war</p> <p>by governments and insurgents alike. The chemical processes of invisible inks are well known, so a variety</p> <p>of detection methods exist. The simplest invisible ink experiment consists of dipping a brush in vegetable</p> <p>juice, biological fluids and different chemicals and writing on a piece of blank varieties of paper. When the</p> <p>“ink” dries, it will be invisible to the naked eye, but if the paper is held up to a moderate heat source such as</p> <p>a light bulb, a radiator or an iron using UV lamp to deciphering invisible writing. Many other mild chemicals</p> <p>also used for restoration of secret writing.</p> Shipra Rohatgi1 , Shruti Gupta2 , Madhulika Sharma3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 673 680 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10445 Immediate Effect of Stretching Versus Strengthening Excercises on Blood Glucose Level in Chronic Diabetes Mellitus <p><strong> Background</strong> : Diabetes mellitus affects the muscles as muscle play notable role in the regulation of blood</p> <p>sugar level. The lack of glucose can lead to muscle cells atrophying and therefore loss of muscle mass.</p> <p>Stretching can increase cellular glucose uptake. Strengthening may improve strength , enlarged muscle mass</p> <p>and to improve insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control. Their paucity of literature on immediate effect of</p> <p>stretching versus strengthening exercises on blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus .</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To find out immediate effect of stretching on blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus individuals.</p> <p>To find out immediate effect of strengthening exercises on blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus individuals.</p> <p>To compare the immediate effectiveness of stretching and strengthening exercises on blood glucose level in</p> <p>diabetes mellitus individuals.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: the study was conducted in Krishna hospital, in physiotherapy department. 44 subjects were</p> <p>selected with simple random sampling method. Chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals were divided</p> <p>in to two groups. Group A (stretching) and group B (strengthening exercises)was given. The pre- and post</p> <p>–treatment postprandial Blood glucose values was measured by glucometer.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: In conducted study, postprandial BGL showed statistically significant difference between pre and</p> <p>post treatment values in both group A and B.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>from the above conducted study it concludes that both stretching and strengthening exercises are</p> <p>effective in decreasing postprandial blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes mellitus, as there is no significant</p> <p>difference between both the groups . Strengthening exercises increased more flexibility in females than</p> <p>passive stretching and males were benefited with both stretching and strengthening exercises.</p> Shweta M Mehta1 , Smita Patil2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 681 686 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10446 Origin of Parisian Laws and Regulations in India: “Fons et origo of Zoroastrianism” <p>The present article is elucidation of Parsi’s and their personal laws to make it a less confused and more</p> <p>comprehensible study matter. The title “Fons et origo of Zoroastrianism” means the source or the origin of</p> <p>Zoroastrianism. Those who believed that there’s only one Supreme God namely “Ahura Mazda” are known</p> <p>as Zoroastrians. The researcher has discussed the status of Parsis from its inception till date. This piece of</p> <p>work starts with a detailed study of their origin, simplifying their upbringing and tracing their movements and</p> <p>further stressing on the enactment &amp; application of their laws in India. This piece of literature, emphasizing</p> <p>on the origin of the Zoroastrians further focuses on the legal provisions relating to Parsi marriages, divorce</p> <p>and maintenance as well. In Toto it’s a compilation of the most needed information and majorly required</p> <p>provisos relating to Parsis.</p> Shyamantak Misra1 , Prafulla Chandra Mishra2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 687 691 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10447 Cheiloscopy – A Tool of Identification <p>lip prints are a constant anatomical structure and are absolutely unique to an individual and thus are an</p> <p>infallible means of personal identification. The present study was conducted in the Department of Forensic</p> <p>Medicine &amp; Toxicology, on Undergraduate students (2015 batch) of Osmania. Medical College, Hyderabad,</p> <p>Telangana. Sample size comprised of 196 students (78 males &amp;118 females) and aged between 17 and 20</p> <p>years.In the present study, it was found that, Type I’ lip pattern was most commonly seen among males i.e.</p> <p>70 out of 78 individuals studied (90%) and among females also type I’ lip print pattern was seen predominant</p> <p>i.e. 99 out of 118 individuals studied (84%).It was recorded that Type I’ lip print pattern was found to be</p> <p>more frequent among both the genders followed by type I lip print patterns.The analysis of presence of lip</p> <p>print in each quadrant among 196 individuals shows that the most common lip print pattern is in Upper right</p> <p>quadrant (URQ) of male lip was Type I’ 71 (91%), while among females these patterns are found to be 103</p> <p>(87%).In upper left quadrant (ULQ) Type I’ was found among 71 (91%) males, same as that of 1st quadrant,</p> <p>while in females it is 98 (83%).In lower left quadrant (LLQ) among the male lip Type I’ [72 (92%)] was</p> <p>mostly seen, while in females it is same with type I’ pattern of 99 (84%).In lower right quadrant (URQ) of</p> <p>male showed Type I’ [68 (87%)], while among females type I’ pattern [98 (83%)] was found.</p> Sravani Yandava1 , V. Jayasurya Prasad Babu2, Jakkam Surendar3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 692 698 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10448 Assessment of Mandibular Condylar Morphology Using Digital Orthopantomogram in Chennai Population <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The present study was performed to evaluate the variation in shapes of mandibular condyle,</p> <p>determine the predominant shape and to assess any peculiarities in either gender in an Orthopantamogram(OPG).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method:</strong> Radiographic evaluation of 3200 condylar heads after analyzing 1600 digitalized</p> <p>OPG’s were done. On analyzing, there were four different morphology of condyles observed. Variations</p> <p>occurring in the shapes were assessed, and combinations of the condylar shapes present in the population</p> <p>were established.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Of 1600 pairs of condylar heads evaluated, 78% were oval in shape, followed by diamond (12%),</p> <p>crooked finger (6%) and least being bird beak (3%). Oval-oval was commonly occurring combination</p> <p>(60.5%) whereas crooked finger-bird beak combination was found to be very rare.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong><em>: </em></strong>Dental professionals must have thorough knowledge in differentiating between normal and</p> <p>abnormal condyle morphology in an OPG as it possess a diagnostic challenge for them. Asymmetries that</p> <p>occur in condyle morphologies radiographically in absence of clinical signs and symptoms of TMDs are</p> <p>considered to be normal.</p> Sridhar M1 , Sreedevi Dharman2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 699 705 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10449 Awareness of Medical Negligence among Practitioners <p><strong>Introduction </strong>The cases of medical negligence in the recent years have been gradually increasing. Unless</p> <p>knowledge about medical negligence is strictly implicated in the medical practice the rate of medical</p> <p>negligence will increase. Nearly 50lakh Indians die due to medical negligence every year.</p> <p><strong>Ain &amp; Objective </strong>The present study was aimed to assess the level knowledge and awareness regarding</p> <p>medical negligence among medical practitioners .</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method </strong>The present cross sectional study was conducted in saveetha medical college and</p> <p>hospitals , Chennai. A total of 100 practitioners were studied . The study period was from 24th February to</p> <p>12th march 2019.</p> <p><strong>Result ;</strong> In total , 100 medical practitioners were studied, of which almost all had knowledge about medico</p> <p>legal cases , only 88 of them take precautions during handling medico legal cases . only 47% were aware of</p> <p>the punishments given for medical negligence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>The awareness among the practitioners is satisfactory. But 37% of the practitioners couldn’t</p> <p>differentiate medical negligence from medical errors. The knowledge about the punishments given for an</p> <p>act of medical negligence is not satisfactory only ,40% had knowledge inn that area. The attitude of taking</p> <p>precautions during handling a medical legal case was satisfactory, only 12% of them don’t take precautions .</p> Sudharshan S1 , Magendrann. J2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 706 712 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10450 Spinal Cord Belt (MSB) as a Method of Reducing the Level of Low Back Pain in Cashier Pos Ticket Worker at Panakkukang Mall in Makassar <p><strong>Background</strong>. PT.Centerpark in collaboration with Panakkukang Makassar Mall is a formal company</p> <p>engaged in providing parking services. Worker in this company wrork every day with an average of 8 hours</p> <p>a day, in a day worker is able to sit for 7 hours. So the risk of complaints pos ticket workers is very high.</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using MSB on decrasing complaints of low back</p> <p>pain in the cash register cashiers at Panakkukang Mall Makassar in 2019. This study used pre and post tests</p> <p>to assess the level of low back pain in workers. <strong>Material and Method</strong>. The type of research used was an</p> <p>experimental quasi. The sampling method uses simple purposive sampling. The study was conducted in</p> <p>November - February 2020. The number of sampling was 30 people. The data analysis technique used in</p> <p>this study is Chi-square and Mann Whitney test. <strong>Results</strong>. The results showed that as The average level of</p> <p>low back pain before and after the use of MSB in the intervention group before using MSB the mean value</p> <p>is 4.93 mg/dl (SD = 1.03) after using MSB the mean value is 2.53 mg/dl (SD = 0.91). The use of MSB on the</p> <p>level of low back pain after treatment in the intervention group p (0,000) &lt; p (0.05). The use of MSB on the</p> <p>level of low back pain after treatment in the control group was p (0,317) &gt; p (0.05). There was a difference</p> <p>in changes in the scale of low back pain before and after using MSB in the intervention and control groups p</p> <p>(0,000) &lt;p (0.05). <strong>Conclusion.</strong> There is a difference in the average level of the lower back before and after</p> <p>the use of MSB on the basis of the time before the use of MSB the average value of the worker level is 4.93</p> <p>mg/dl (SD = 1.03) after using MSB 53 mg/dl (SD = 0.91). It is recommended for workers to use MSB tools</p> <p>every time they work.</p> Suharni A. Fachrin1 , Masriadi2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 713 718 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10451 Comparative Study of Heavy Metals Accumulation in the Nails of Drinkers and Non-Drinkers of River Water <p>Heavy metals can incorporate into humans by contaminated drinking water and can then be distributed</p> <p>into different tissues, which leads to an internal accumulation that can induce different alterations, adverse</p> <p>effects and acute/chronic metal poisoning. Nails can be used as bio-indicator for biological monitoring for</p> <p>the purpose of forensic examination in poisoning cases, assessment of metal exposures, as occupational</p> <p>marker and for health risk assessment. This paper deals with the comparative quantitative study of iron,</p> <p>lead, zinc, cadmium, copper and nickel concentration in nails of male subjects drinking and not drinking</p> <p>water from river. The levels of these metals were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS).</p> <p>The result of this study showed Fe and Cu were significantly higher in concentration in the nail samples of</p> <p>people consuming river water whereas Zn concentration was slightly higher in the nail sample of people not</p> <p>consuming river water and Cd, Ni and Pb showed negative result in the both type of subjects. The present</p> <p>comparative study showed significant difference in heavy metal concentration in both the type of subjects.</p> <p>So it can be stated that people consuming river water are more affected, due to continuous exposure from</p> <p>these metal through the river. This study can prove that nail samples can be used as biological indicator and</p> <p>biological monitoring tool for assessment of heavy metal.</p> Sukriti Agrawal1 , Tarence Thomas2 , Munish Kumar Mishra3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 719 724 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10452 Open Court Principle in the Implementation of Courtroom Television in Indonesia and the Psychologycal Mind of Defendant <p>This research aims to analyze and carry out theoretical criticism related to the open court principle, in</p> <p>the implementation of courtroom television in Indonesia. There are differences in the implementation of</p> <p>courtroom television in several cases in Indonesia. As in the case of Jessica Kumalawongso, the entire</p> <p>trial process, including the verification process, was broadcasted live. The research method is the social</p> <p>juridical method. In such events, the presumption of innocence principle and the principle of witnesses being</p> <p>prohibited from communicating with each other were also damaged. The implementation of courtroom</p> <p>television affected the defendant’s psychological condition. Thus,s this research will conduct a theoretical</p> <p>study related to the open court principle in the implementation of courtroom television in Indonesia and its</p> <p>consequences.</p> Suprapti1 , Hartiwiningsih2 , Widodo Trisno Novianto2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 725 729 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10453 Effect of Ankle Dorsiflexors Facilitation on Gait in Cerebral Palsy <p><strong>Background-</strong> Cerebral palsy is a permanent and non-progressive group of disorders in the development</p> <p>of movement and posture causing functional and activity limitations. Children with cerebral palsy have</p> <p>dorsiflexor weakness and ankle deformity, which negatively affect their gait. This study mainly focuses on</p> <p>facilitation of dorsiflexors to improve gait. Facilitatory technigues are useful for facilitation and enhancement</p> <p>of muscle activity to achieve improved motor control.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To find effect of ankle dorsiflexors facilitation on gait in cerebral palsy.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methodology- </strong>In this pre-post interventional study 25 cerebral palsy children with gait</p> <p>abnormalities were included. Treatment protocol including facilitatory techniques was set for 6 weeks. After</p> <p>pre-post assessment data was analysed by using appropriate statistical techniques.</p> <p><strong>Result- </strong>According to this study there is an improvement in gait parameters and ankle joint range of motion</p> <p>with P value &lt;0.0001, which considered extremely significant. This indicates an overall improvement in gait</p> <p>of children with cerebral palsy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion-</strong> This study concludes that facilitation of dorsiflexors is beneficial for improving gait in cerebral</p> <p>palsy children.</p> Supriya S. Jadhav1 , Mandar Malawade2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 730 734 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10454 A Study of Histochemical Characteristics of Mucosubstances in Normal Endocervical Glands <p><strong>Background: </strong>The apical epithelial surfaces of mammalian respiratory, gastrointestinal, and reproductive</p> <p>tracts are coated by mucus, a mixture of water, ions, glycoproteins, proteins, and lipids. Mucins are mainly</p> <p>of two types- Neutral and Acidic. Mucus plays an important role in reproductive function and defence of</p> <p>the female reproductive tract. <strong>Objectives: </strong>To know the mucin distribution in normal endocervical glands.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This is a retrospective, observational , analytical, case control study aimed to evaluate mucin</p> <p>histochemical pattern in normal endocervical glands. Ten histologically proven blocks of normal endocervical</p> <p>glands were taken. Tissue sections were stained by, PAS, PAS-diastase, Phenylhydrazine-PAS, Alcian blue</p> <p>pH 2.5, Alcian Blue pH 1, combined Alcian blue-PAS, Aldehyde fuschin and combined Aldehyde fuchsin</p> <p>Alcian blue techniques. <strong>Results: </strong>Results were tabulated according to colour intensity into different grades</p> <p>ranging from + to ++++. Regarding mucin histochemistry of normal endocervical glands; the epithelium</p> <p>and glands show mixture of both neutral and acidic mucins. Acidic mucins are more in amount than neutral.</p> <p>In acidic mucins, sialomucins are predominantly seen. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Mucin histochemical patterns serve as</p> <p>valuable, cost-effective tool for diagnosis in histopathology and for the researchers in histology, where a</p> <p>slight change in the mucin pattern may help in the early diagnosis of the disease process<strong>.</strong></p> Swapna Shedge A1 , Padmaja. A Havle2 , Megha A. Doshi3, Priya Roy4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 735 740 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10455 Significance of Cheiloscopy and Dermatoglyphics in Sex Determination <p><strong>Background:</strong> Personal identification has an important role in forensic sciences. Lip print and thumb print</p> <p>can be used for personal identification since they are unique for individuals and do not change during the</p> <p>life of a person.</p> <p><strong> Objective</strong>: To analyse predominant patterns of lip print in females and males, To analyse predominant</p> <p>patterns of finger print in females and males, To identify if there exists any correlation between lip prints</p> <p>and finger prints.</p> <p><strong> Material and Method:</strong> A cross sectional study was conducted in Sathyabama Dental College among 500</p> <p>individuals (250 females and 250 males) between age group of 18-40 years. Fingerprint and lip print of</p> <p>all the subjects were collected and compared, and the results were analyzed based on Micheal Kucken</p> <p>classification system for fingerprints and Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification for lip prints. Descriptive and</p> <p>inferential statistics were carried out. Level of significance was set as 0.05.</p> <p><strong> Result:</strong> Reticular lip print pattern was found in majority (36.4%) of the males, whereas vertical grooves</p> <p>(29.6%) and branched grooves (29.6%) are common in females. Finger prints showed that loop pattern is</p> <p>more common in both males and females. This study showed a significant correlation between lip prints and</p> <p>thumb pattern in males while females showed no significance.</p> V.Anu1 , P.Lokeswari2, S.Madhumitra2 , S.Lavanya2 , C.Lavanya2 , K.Madhumitha2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 741 744 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10456 Effectiveness of a Dynamic Ergonomic Chair in Individuals with Postural Dysfunction <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Low back pain in postnatal women is a major issue. So, lumbar curvature is a key feature to</p> <p>maintain core strength for which it has to be assessed. The individual variations in spinal curvature and</p> <p>lordotic pattern signifies the bio mechanics of the spine and it responds according to the load / activities.</p> <p>To find out the pre-test measures of flexibility, functional capacity and discomfort level related to lumbar</p> <p>spine in the subjects with postural dysfunctions. To find out the post-test flexibility, functional capacity and</p> <p>discomfort level in the subjects with postural dysfunctions. To analyze the difference between the pre-test</p> <p>and post-test values. People should also have awareness about the posture maintenance. So, early assessment</p> <p>is necessary. Also secondary factors like the type of shoes wear, Occupation and Lifestyle can influence the</p> <p>spinal curvatures which can be dealt with easier with the outcome of the research.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>In this experimental study, 29 people with age group of 25 to 60 years who have chronic low</p> <p>back pain. Their lumbar spine flexibility, functional capacity, and discomfort level was measured pre-test</p> <p>and post-test. Results were obtained and compared.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The average mean value of lumbar spine flexibility pre-test measured with schober test was 1.81</p> <p>while post-test was 2.08. Average mean value of VAS for lumbar spine was 6.06 while post-test was 3.24.</p> <p>Average mean value for pre-test functional capacity measured with 6 min walk test was647.58 while post</p> <p>test was 665.17.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> On comparing summary score of lumbar spine flexibility, VAS, and functional capacity, the</p> <p>differences showed were 0.27 cms, 2.82, 17.59 metres respectively.</p> <p>So, we can conclude that there was a signicant difference in the improvement of lumbar spine flexibility,</p> <p>functional capacity and also decrease in pain after the treatment.</p> Vaishnavi J Chavan1 , S. Anand2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 745 748 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10457 Prevalence of Piriformis Tightness with Relevance of Sitting Duration in Bankers <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Piriformis tightness is one of the potential cause of pain, discomfort and dysfunction in</p> <p>community. However the ergonomic risk factors, pain (type, intensity, precipitating factors), physical</p> <p>anthropometrics specific to piriformis tightness were unclear. Hence the attempt was made to find the data</p> <p>and trends in piriformis tightness and it prevalence in bankers.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Study was conducted by approaching 36 banks in Karad taluka. Total 260 subjects</p> <p>(M:162;F:98) were included in the study who were assessed for there piriformis tightness by piriformis</p> <p>stretch test. There demographic data, no. of working years, pain (type, intensity, precipitating factor), chair</p> <p>height, chair width, cushion support were also documented.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Prevalence of piriformis tightness in bankers was 51.92%. Out of 135(M:93; F:42) bankers having</p> <p>tightness, 44 were having only right side involved, 22 were having left side involved and 69 were having</p> <p>bilateral tightness. Prevalence was more in people with BMI between 25-29kg/m2 (pre-obese) and in fourth</p> <p>decade of life</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Out of 260 subjects 135(51.92%) bankers were having piriformis tightness. There is increasing</p> <p>risk of getting piriformis tightness with increasing BMI, Age. There is not significant relation between</p> <p>the chair height Chair weight and Cushion support on the chair and the piriformis tightness. There was</p> <p>increasing pain in sitting position(after maintaining for long time) and is relieved by rest.</p> Vaishnavi S Desai1 , S. Anand2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 749 754 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10458 Assessment of Effective Oral Health Status among Diabetic population by Modified Special Tooth Brush with Beat SoundAn observational study <p><strong>Background of the study: </strong>Proper guided brushing technique improves the oral health status especially</p> <p>among diabetic individuals who are more susceptible for periodontal disease. <strong>Aim and objective: </strong>To find</p> <p>the outcome efficacy of modified design special tooth brush with beat sound by evaluating oral hygiene</p> <p>status among diabetic individuals.<strong>Material and methods:</strong>The present observational study included 25</p> <p>study participants irrespective of age and gender divided and categorized as 13 non-diabetic (control) group</p> <p>and 12 belong to diabetic (study) group. All the study participants were educated to use modified special</p> <p>tooth brush with beat sound regularly for a period of 1 week and their oral hygiene status were evaluated</p> <p>by using Oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S), periodontal index (PI) and Gingival index (GI) at regular</p> <p>intervals on 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day. <strong>Results: </strong>It was observed that all the study participants showed significant</p> <p>improvement in oral health status at the end of 7th day. It was also observed that diabetic individuals showed</p> <p>superior OHI-S (P=0.002), PI (P=0.0001) and GI (P=0.0004) scores with greater significance (p&lt;.05) than</p> <p>non-diabetic individuals. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>From the above results it can be concluded that the modified special</p> <p>tooth brush with beat sound used in the present study can reduce the burden of periodontal disease status by</p> <p>improving oral health among diabetic individuals.</p> Vijay Anand. M1 , Keerthi Narayan. V2 , Kalaivani. S3 , Safa Thabassum. S3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 755 760 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10459 Age Estimation by Dental Eruption in Schoolchildren of 14-16 Years Age Group <p>The estimation of age is an important and is commonly carried in medico legal area. Assessment of age is</p> <p>often required while administering justice to an individual involved in the civil and the criminal litigation.</p> <p>Teeth are known to aid in personal identification and age estimation as they are highly durable and resist</p> <p>putrefaction, fire, chemicals etc. Objective: To study the status of dental eruption in schoolchildren of age</p> <p>group between 14- 16 years. The study was carried out involving 100 students of age group of 14-16 years</p> <p>from BGS High School, B G Nagara, Mandya District. Out of 100 subjects, 50 males and 50 females</p> <p>constituted the study population. In the present study, Upper jaw, on both right and left sides, there was no</p> <p>space behind 2nd molar tooth in 14 years males while space was present in one female of same age group.</p> <p>Only 1 male and 1 female of 15 years age group had developed space behind 2nd molar tooth. Considering</p> <p>the Lower jaw, space behind 2nd molar tooth was developed in 7 cases right side and 8 cases left side in</p> <p>case of 14 years boys. In case of girls of 14 years age it was present in 12 cases on right side and 9 cases</p> <p>on left side. In case of boys of 15 years, it was present in 18 cases on right side and 19 cases on left side. In</p> <p>case of girls of 15 years, it was present in 18 cases on right side and 20 cases on left side. The dental system</p> <p>is an integral part of the human body, its growth and development can be studied in parallel with other</p> <p>physiological maturity indicators such as bone age, menarche and height.</p> Vijay Kumar AG1 , Suresh J2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 761 763 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10460 A Retrospective Study of Fatal Road Traffic Accidents on Autopsies done at Madurai Medical College and Hospital <p><strong>Aims</strong>: To study the demographic and injury profile in autopsy cases with an alleged history of RTA.</p> <p><strong>Design: </strong>It is a retrospective observational study.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong>: Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Madurai Medical College, Madurai.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and Method: </strong>All autopsies of RTA victims which were performed between January 2018 to June</p> <p>2018, were analysed for sex, age, time of RTA, type of vehicle, position of victim during RTA, nature of</p> <p>injury, and cause of death.</p> <p><strong>Exclusion Criteria: </strong>None</p> <p><strong>Statistical Analysis </strong>: All parameters were expressed in percentage.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 568 RTA victims were referred for autopsy during the period of January 2018 to June</p> <ol start="2018"> <li>301 (53%) victims were between 21-30 years of age, males constituted 71% of the total victims.</li> </ol> <p>Injuries involving limbs constituted 31% of the total injuries, followed by injuries involving head, thorax,</p> <p>abdomen, pelvis and spine. Among head injuries, fractured skulls occurred in 67%, Subdural Haemorrhage</p> <p>in 78%, Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in 62%, Extradural Haemorrhage in 49% and Intra-cranial injuries in</p> <p>22%. Head injury accounted for 67% of deaths, and haemorrhagic shock for 27% of deaths.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Various preventive measures like speed control, helmet use, no driving under alcohol influence</p> <p>etc., enforcing road safety regulations, and improving emergency medical services could be used to control</p> <p>the increasing toll of deaths due to RTA.</p> T. Selvaraj1 , R. Uthayakumar2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 764 767 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10461 Identification of Sex from Facial Index in Western Maharashtra Population <p><strong>Background</strong>: Facial Index anthropometry has well known, implications in health-related fields,</p> <p>identification of person in Forensic Medicine, Plastic Surgery, Orthodontics, Archaeology, hair style design</p> <p>and examination of differences between races and ethnicities.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong>120 (60 Male and 60 female) adults aged between 25 to 45 were studied. Facial height is divided by</p> <p>Breadth of Zygomatic arch and multiplied by 100. The Measurement were taken from Nasion to Gnathion</p> <p>and distance between two zygoma by asking the volunteers to sit in upright position, spreading calliper used</p> <p>for measurement of two zygoma and sliding calliper for Nasion to Gnathion.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The man value of Male Facial Index was 92.1 (SD±0.40) female was 89.2 (SD±0.19),t test value</p> <p>was 1.97 and p value was highly significant (P&lt;0.01) and anthropologically obtained values belong to</p> <p>Leptoproscopic Index.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study of western Maharashtra will be useful for medico legal expert, anthropologist</p> <p>to differentiate from other parts of country and abroad as well. Moreover, it would be useful to orthodontics</p> <p>plastic surgeons for reconstruction of face.</p> Umang P. Patel1 , Makandar UK2 , Karkhyle Md layeeque3 , Kailash Balkund2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 768 771 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10462 A Cross Sectional Study of Correlation of ATD Angle with Body Fat Distribution in North Indian Population <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Obesity is associated with significant global morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of</p> <p>obesity is on the rise, especially in low- and middle-income countries and there is a need for a tool for the</p> <p>prevention of this disease As per the available pieces of evidence, dermatoglyphics can be utilized for this</p> <p>purpose to some extent.<strong> Dermatoglyphics </strong>is a study of configurations of epidermal ridges on certain body</p> <p>parts, namely, palms, fingers, soles, and toes.. The term is derived from ancient Greek: derma = skin, glyph</p> <p>= carving. <strong>Dermatoglyphic </strong>patterns begin to develop in the 10th week of gestation and are complete by the</p> <p>24th week.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The primary objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of the “atd angle”(a dermatoglyphic</p> <p>parameter) with the body fat distribution (or obesity).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of anatomy, Maharishi Markandeshwar</p> <p>Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana (Ambala). It included 400 participants (200 males and</p> <p>200 females) from students and employees of the college. All demographic and anthropometric parameters</p> <p>along with the hand imprints were obtained using standard procedures. For determining statistical</p> <p>significance of difference among various variables qualitative data was analyzed by Pearson’s Chi square</p> <p>test and quantitative data by student’s independent t-test and one way ANOVA .P-value of &lt; 0.05 was</p> <p>considered significant. All analysis was done using SPSS version-20.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Overall 24% of subjects (32% of males and 16% of females) were found to be obese (BMI?25kg/</p> <p>m2).A statistically significant difference was observed in the values of both right and left hand“atd angle”for</p> <p>the comparison of obese and non-obese subjects(p=0.009 and</p> <p>&lt;0.001,respectively). A statistically significant positive correlation of left hand “atd angle” was observed</p> <p>with BMI.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Dermatoglyphics can potentially be used as a tool for the prediction of obesity.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong>: A large-scale study with a well-defined protocol is required for establishing</p> <p>dermatoglyphics as a screening tool for obesity.</p> Zeenat Akhtar1, Vishal Verma2 , Farida Khanam3 , Bhamini Sharma4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 772 778 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10463 A Vignette on the Trend of Medicolegal Cases in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Profiling of medico-legal cases is an important aspect for the prevention of preventable</p> <p>casualties in future and to study the genuine crime in the area which contributes a substantial workload in</p> <p>casualty department.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim of the study is to measure the incidence of medicolegal cases recorded in a tertiary care</p> <p>hospital in South India in one year.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A retrospective analytical content based analysis was made on 776 medicolegal cases recorded in</p> <p>a tertiary care hospital in South India in one year from June 1st 2017 to May 31st 2018 and the results were</p> <p>tabulated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 776 cases, 545 were men and 231 were women with RTA constituting 70.74% (549 cases)</p> <p>of the cases and poisoning with 10.69% (83 cases) of the cases forming the majority of the case profile.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concludes that road traffic accidents are the major causes of medicolegal cases</p> <p>recorded in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Preventive measures of better traffic control and road</p> <p>safety are to be instituted at the earliest. More number of medicolegal profiling should be conducted in every</p> <p>region for further measures.</p> Yogesh C1 , Amirthvarshan2 , Paranthaman2 , Priyanka2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 779 783 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10464 An Exploration into the Biography of Road Traffic Accident Cases in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> RTA is the public health issue and cost a lot to individuals, families, communities and nations</p> <p>as injuries and deaths due to road traffic accidents (RTA) are a major public health problem in developing</p> <p>countries.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The present study was carried out with the objective to find out the profile of RTA cases in a</p> <p>tertiary care hospital in South India in one year.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective analytical content based analysis was made on 549 RTA cases recorded in a</p> <p>tertiary care hospital in South India in one year from June 1st 2017 to May 31st 2018 and the results were</p> <p>tabulated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the 549 cases, 409 cases were males and 140 were females of which head injury with 182 cases</p> <p>(29.50%) forms the majority of the injury followed by orthopaedic injuries with163 cases (26.04%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study thus analyses various aspects of RTA with head injury being the most common</p> <p>and and its various confounding factors which shows that there is clearly a need for road safety education</p> <p>particularly targeting student community.</p> Yogesh C1 , Paranthaman2 , Amirthvarshan2 , Priyanka2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 784 789 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10465 Prevalence of Non-Strabismic Binocular Vision Dysfunction in A Hospital based Population <p>This study was aimed towards finding the prevalence of non strabismic binocular vision dysfunctions</p> <p>(NSBVD) in the Indian population presenting with different symptoms pertaining to binocular vision</p> <p>disorders. <strong>Method: </strong>This retrospective study included one hundred and sixty one patients who presented</p> <p>to the out- patient department with symptoms of binocular vision dysfunction, during a period of one</p> <p>year. Patients were in the age group of 18 ±6.93, with 71 males and 90 females. Their binocular vision</p> <p>dysfunction was assessed via several diagnostic modules/tools designed for binocular vision assessment.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Results indicate that the most common binocular vision anomalies in this studied population are</p> <p>fusional vergence dysfunction with accommodative infacility (40.38%), convergence insufficiency with</p> <p>accommodative infacility (24.36%), Fusional vergence dysfunction (7.05%). Convergence Insufficiency</p> <p>and Accommodative infacility showed the same prevalence of 7.7%. <strong>Discussion</strong>: Accommodative and non</p> <p>strabismic binocular vision dysfunctions are commonly underdiagnosed/undiagnosed in clinical practice.</p> <p>These disorders affect academic performance, sports activities and general quality of life. An appropriate</p> <p>detailed orthoptic examination and accurate diagnosis is necessary to manage these binocular vision</p> <p>dysfunctions.</p> Rajib Mandal1 , Rajesh Kamath2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 790 794 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10466 Determination of Stature From Index and Ring Finger Lengths in South Indian Population <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Personal identification is an important role of forensic experts during mass disasters like</p> <p>earth quakes, tsunamis, and plane crash etc. Stature determination is an important factor in establishing</p> <p>identity in forensic practice. Forensic anthropometrists use various anthropometric techniques to determine</p> <p>stature from such dismembered body parts. These techniques aim to derive equations from various body</p> <p>measurements that could estimate stature in males and females.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of present study is to correlate index and ring finger lengths and stature in both sexes and to</p> <p>derive linear regression equations to estimate stature.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>The study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology,</p> <p>M.S. Ramaiah Medical College Bangalore in the year 2019. The material consisted of 150 young and</p> <p>healthy students (66 males and 84 females) in the age group of 20-21 years after taking informed consent to</p> <p>participate in the study. Subjects of south Indian origin were selected based on their mother tongue. The data</p> <p>obtained were computed and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 25.0)</p> <p>computer software.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In the present study, mean stature, index finger length and ring finger length were significantly</p> <p>higher in males than females. Statistically significant correlation was observed between stature, index</p> <p>finger length and ring finger length in right and left hands. Correlation coefficient was higher among males</p> <p>than females. Among males left ring finger length and in females right index finger length showed more</p> <p>correlation with the stature.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Sex specific linear regression formulae were derived for estimating stature from index finger</p> <p>length and ring finger length. Study concludes that stature can be estimated from the index finger length and</p> <p>ring finger lengthwith a reasonable accuracy among South Indians.</p> Jayanth SH1 , Basappa S Hugar2 , S Praveen3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 795 799 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10468 Determination of Sex From Adult Clavicle – An Autopsy based Regional Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Studies on “identification of the sex from clavicle bone alone” are carried out by various</p> <p>workers all over the world.But, it is well known fact that the racial and geographical differences exist in</p> <p>the metrical measurement of all the bones including clavicles, as the determination of sex is a population</p> <p>specific phenomenon. <strong>Matrials and Methode </strong>: This study was conducted on100 male clavicles and 100</p> <p>female clavicles collected from identified corpses brought for medicolegal autopsy at Department of Forensic</p> <p>Medicine Govt. Medical College Calicut. Measured the various parameters and compared with previous</p> <p>studies. RESULTS :In the present study, the length , midclavicular circumference and weight of male</p> <p>clavicles weres more than female clavicles. The female clavicle has its length around 86% of male clavicle</p> <p>and mean MCC around 83% of the male clavicles.. Robustness index also calculated, mean robustness</p> <p>index was 23.11, and could identify only 76 % males and 64% females by this. CONCLUSION:In order to</p> <p>establish the anthropometric standards, and for the evaluation of the same from time to time, the continuance</p> <p>of such studies in defined geographical areas over a particular period of time is needed.</p> Levis Vaseem Moorkhan1 , Prajith Thekke Madathil2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 800 804 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10467 Profile of Medico-legal Cases at JSS Hospital, Mysuru – a Two Year Prospective Study <p>This Prospective study was conducted to do profiling and analysis of Medico-legal cases attending the JSS</p> <p>Medical College and Hospital, Mysuru for a period of two years. Total 2033 Medical-legal cases which</p> <p>were registered during the time period were analysed. Analysing the pattern of such unnatural events, would</p> <p>provide a vital data for healthcare professionals, civil administrators, investigating agencies of state and</p> <p>judiciary to devise and implement appropriate and adequate strategies so as to reduce such incidences from</p> <p>happening. Majority of the cases were RTA, followed by poisoning. Among all the admitted cases, majority</p> <p>of the cases recovered and discharged. The mortality rate is low among the admitted cases, only 9.9% of</p> <p>cases were hospital deaths.</p> <p>Most of the cases occurred during the time period of 12.01pm to 6pm followed by 6.01pm to 12am.</p> <p>The age group of 21-30 years are the most frequently affected. Majority of the victims were males.</p> <p>Suicide by hanging is more frequent among females compared to males, despite of predominant male</p> <p>population among the MLCs.</p> S.Prasanth Kumaran1 , H.V.Chandrakanth2 , Arun.M3 , Smitha Rani4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 805 812 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10469 A Qualitative Exploration of Substance Abuse among the Nursing Students of Coastal Karnataka <p><strong>Background:</strong> To explore the various perceived causes and solutions for substance abuse among the nursing</p> <p>students in Mangalore, Karnataka, India.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Group of nursing students belonging to the second year participated in the study. A method of free</p> <p>listing and pile sorting was employed to discover the causes and solutions for substance abuse.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The primary cause of substance abuse was found to be peer pressure with a salience value of</p> <p>(0.945) followed by enjoyment (0.614), family problems (0.486). Cognitive mapping revealed the causes</p> <p>of being grouped under three major headings: psychological imbalance, adaptation to modern lifestyle, and</p> <p>unhealthy family environment. The solutions suggested by the students were counseling and rehabilitation</p> <p>with the highest salience value (0.751), awareness about the adverse effects at an early age (0.637). Cognitive</p> <p>mapping portrayed the solutions grouped into headings like therapies and treatment, external sources, family</p> <p>care, and support. Factors such as peer pressure, academic pressure, and easy availability of drugs can be</p> <p>looked into by external institutions to root out the evils of substance abuse</p> Dharnappa Poojary1 , Madhumitha Muruganandam2 , Avinash Kumar3 , Ganaraja B,4 Sneha Shetty Bhoja5 , Trupti Bodhare6, Rashmi K S7 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 813 819 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10470 Assessment of Oral Health Related Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction after Complete Denture Therapy- An Observational Study <p><strong>Objective :</strong> To assess the oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and patient satisfaction after complete</p> <p>denture therapy.</p> <p><strong>Methodology : </strong>Participants in the study included 60 first time complete denture wearers. OHRQoL was</p> <p>assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile-Edentulous(OHIP-EDENT) questionnaire; denture quality and</p> <p>patient satisfaction was assessed using denture quality evaluation parameters and patient satisfaction</p> <p>questionnaire respectively. Paired t test was used to analyse pre and post change in OHRQoL and Pearson</p> <p>Correlation coefficient was used to assess the co-relation between various parameters.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There was a statistically significant change in the mean OHIP score of patients before and after</p> <p>rehabilitation (p&lt;0.001). Across the seven domains used for measuring the denture quality, stability and</p> <p>retention of mandibular denture showed statistically significant reduction after one month. Significant</p> <p>correlations were observed between the patient satisfaction parameters and the denture quality as well as</p> <p>OHRQoL (p= 0.001, p=0.001 and p= 0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: OHRQoL improved significantly in first time denture wearers.</p> MR Athira1 , Shenoy VK 2 , Mehendale A3 , Kamath M4 , Zaheer A5 , Rodrigues S6 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 820 826 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10471 Study of Death among Children Below Five Yearsof Age and Its Correlation with Health Care Utilization and Place of Residence. Using Verbal Autopsy as a Tool in Deharadun <p>Children, one of the most vulnerable part of the population, face unusually high health risks as they grow.</p> <p>Children are the promise and future of every nation and the core of development. But it has been observed</p> <p>that even after so many efforts by governments of developing countries we are far behind to achieve</p> <p>hundred percent health care utilization by under-five population. Keeping this in view, this study was</p> <p>conducted to find out any correlation in-between child mortality of under-five years of age with health care</p> <p>utilization and place of residence. using verbal autopsy as a tool in Dehradun.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The survey was done on all the houses of the deceased children residing in our field practice</p> <p>areas by visiting their houses.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Among the 83 deaths reported, 38 received no treatment, 10 were treated by quakes, 19 and 16</p> <p>under five – children were treated in government and private hospital respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study shows that by utilization of health care facilities we can remarkably reduce under</p> <p>five mortality.</p> Sushil Dalal1 , Kiran Pande2 , Neetu Pippet3 , Vishal Modgil4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 827 831 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10472 Study of Death among Children below five Years of Age and Its Relationship with Person Conducting Delivery and Place of Residence. Using Verbal Autopsy as a Tool in Deharadun <p>Substantial reduction in child mortality has occurred in low income and middle income countries in the</p> <p>late 20th century but more than ten million children younger than five years still die every year , one of the</p> <p>important factor which has been observed in under five mortality is the person conducting the delivery .</p> <p>Keeping this in view, this study was conducted to find out relation in-between child mortality of under-five</p> <p>years of age and its relation with person conducting delivery and place of residence. using verbal autopsy</p> <p>as a tool in Deharadun.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The survey was done on all the houses of the deceased children residing in our field practice</p> <p>areas by visiting their houses.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the 83 deaths reported<strong> m</strong>ost of the deaths were conducted by daies and relatives.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study shows that delivery conducted by qualified personnel greatly help in reducing</p> <p>the under-five mortality rate</p> Sushil Dalal1 , Kiran Pande2 , Neetu Pippet3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 832 835 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10473 Profile of Pediatric Deaths in Bellary District <p>Study was conducted in VIMS bellary on cases brought for autopsy. The data was collected from the</p> <p>postmortem report of the body brought for autopsy.The study done on 607 pediatric deaths in retrospective</p> <p>manner. In this study it was found out that male mortality was higher in comparison to females. The</p> <p>vulnerable or susceptible age group among the studied sample was 12 to 18 years. Road traffic accident was</p> <p>found to be one of the major killers</p> Gururaj Biradar1 , Pavanchand Shetty H2 , B Suresh Kumar Shetty3 , Haneil Larson Dsouza2, V Yogiraj4 ,Charan Kishor Shetty5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 836 838 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10474 Prevalence of Knee Dysfunction in Mallakhamb Players in Karad <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mallakhamb is combination of Yoga, Gymnastics and Martial Arts. There is various types</p> <p>of mallakhamb such as pole, rope, hanging, niradhar(without support), on cane, on floating platform,</p> <p>mallakhamb with weapons etc. but at competitive level only pole, rope and hanging mallakhamb are being</p> <p>performed by mallakhamb player.In the sport , knee is common injury site. Knee dysfunction leads to</p> <p>long absence from sports and are one of the main causes of permanent sports disability. Common cause of</p> <p>musculoskeletal pain is hypermobility. In mallakhamb players knee dysfunction is diagnosed with the help</p> <p>of KOOS scale. Conservative management is important to correct knee dysfunctions in mallakhamb players.</p> <p>This study has been undertaken to check the prevalence of knee dysfunction in mallakhamb players.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To find out the prevalence of knee dysfunction in mallakhamb players.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> An observational study was carried out using a cross sectional study design. The study</p> <p>conducted in and around karad, Maharashtra. The samples were chosen using the simple random sampling method.</p> <p>The participants in this study were both males and females who were played state and national level mallakhamb</p> <p>game more than 6years. Subjects who played only national level mallakhamb game and subjects who were not</p> <p>willing to participate in mallakhamb were excluded from this study. Study was conducted using a sample size of 84</p> <p>mallakhamb players (n= 4pq/L2 ) for a period of 6 months. The materials was used in this study includes paper, pen,</p> <p>data collection sheet, consent form.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>On the basis of statistical analysis there was significant knee dysfunction in mallakhamb players.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion; </strong>After analyzing the data, it was concluded that there is a prevalence of knee dysfunction in</p> <p>mallakhamb players.</p> Arundhati V. Nimbalkar1 , S. Anandh2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 839 843 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10475 Bipolar Disorder: A Major Setback in Substance Abuse <p>Substance abuse refers to harmful or precarious use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, cannabis</p> <p>and illicit drugs. It is directly and indirectly responsible for millions of morbidities each year. It is a</p> <p>crucial snag of present generation. Illegitimate use of psychoactive drugs can lead to lunatic illnesses. The</p> <p>prevalence of psychotic disorders among patients with substance abuse has attended noticeable magnitude.</p> <p>This study indicates that bipolar disorder is more likely to occur in patients with substance abuse. Chronic</p> <p>substance abuse can lead to down-regulation of concerned receptors as well as erosion of gray matter in the</p> <p>prefrontal cortex of brain. Hence, it would be imperative to address bipolar disorder from the perspective of</p> <p>potential and progressive adverse effect of substance abuse. The observation of study indicates that bipolar</p> <p>disorder is more prevalent in cannabis, alcohol and cocaine abuse cases. Drug abuse disorders are associated</p> <p>with impaired outcome of manic depression maladies that brings severe high or low moods, thinking and</p> <p>behavior.</p> Jeetendra Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 844 848 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10476 Tunica Vaginalis Flap Versus Inner Preputial Dartos Flap as Waterproof Layer for Proximal Staged Hypospadias Repair: A Comparative Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hypospadias is an abnormality of anterior urethral and penile development in which the</p> <p>urethral opening is ectopically located on the ventral aspect of the penis proximal to the tip of the glans</p> <p>penis, which, in this condition, is splayed open. [1] The urethral opening may be located as far down as in the</p> <p>scrotum or perineum. The penis is more likely to have associated ventral shortening and curvature, called</p> <p>chordee, with more proximal urethral defects.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To compare the outcome of using tunica vaginalis flap to dartos flap in proximal two stage hypospadias</p> <p>repair in reducing post-operative complication (dehiscence and fistula).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: In the defined period of January 2015 to June 2018, 47 male patients with clinical</p> <p>diagnosis of penoscrotal hypospadias, The age of the patients range from 2 years to 10 years, All these</p> <p>cases were managed in 2 stages repair with buccal mucosal graft, with either tunica vginalis flap (group A)</p> <p>(25 cases) , or preputial dartos flap (group B)(22 cases) as a second cover over new tubularized urethra. We</p> <p>compared between these two groups regarding complications rate.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: we observed that tunica vaginalis flap was better than dartos flap (although it was statistically non</p> <p>significant p value 0.214 &gt; 0.05) specifically in fistula formation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: we observed that tunica vaginalis flap had excellent outcome when used as a second layer over</p> <p>the neourethral suture line in term of decrease the fistula rate and wound dehiscence because of its good</p> <p>vascular features</p> Zakaryia Yahya Moosa1 , Yousuf Mohammed AL-hallak2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 849 854 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10477 Association of HLA-DRB1 Gene Polymorphism in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients in Babylon Province, Iraq <p><strong>Background: </strong>The heritability of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is approximately 40% to 65% for seropositive RA</p> <p>and 20% for seronegative RA. The risk of developing RA has been associated with human leukocyte antigen</p> <p>HLA-DRB1 alleles: HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*01, and HLA-DRB1*010 in deferent ethnocentrism.</p> <p>These HLA-DRB1 alleles contain a stretch of conserved five amino acid sequence, the shared epitope (SE),</p> <p>in the third hypervariable region of their DRB1 chain, which has been associated with the risk of developing</p> <ol> <li>&nbsp;</li> </ol> <p><strong>Aim of the study: </strong>to study the possible association of HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism of Arabic</p> <p>ethnocentrism PA patients in Babylon Province, Iraq.</p> <p><strong>Patients and methods: </strong>The present case control study was conducted on sixty one patients (18 males and</p> <p>43 females) of Arabic ethnocentrism RA patients admitted to Rheumatoid Unit in Merjan Teaching Medical</p> <p>City, Babylon Province, Iraq, as well as 127 apparently healthy control subjects (41 males, 86 females) as</p> <p>control group.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The risk of HLAD-RB1*01 allele was assessed through calculation of odds ratio (OR) which</p> <p>was estimated to be 1.95 (95 % confidence interval of 1.03 to 3.70). The risk of HLAD-RB1*04 allele was</p> <p>assessed through calculation of odds ratio (OR) which was estimated to be 4.46 (95 % confidence interval of</p> <p>2.32 to 8.55). The risk of HLAD-RB1*010 allele was assessed through calculation of odds ratio (OR) which</p> <p>was estimated to be 3.12 (95 % confidence interval of 1.39 -7.00).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The current study documented that RA is significantly associated with the locus HLA-DRB1*</p> <p>and allelic groups HLA-DRB1*01, HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DRB1*010 in Iraqi patients with RA</p> Bariaa A. Aljoboury1 , Abdulsamie H. Alta’ee2 , Sabah J. Alrubaie3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 855 860 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10478 Parents’ Perception of Rehabilitation Services for their Children with Special Healthcare Needs in Helena Center in Erbil City <p><strong>Objective:</strong> First, to determine the socio-demographic characteristics; second, to identify parents’ perception</p> <p>of rehabilitation services; and third, to find out the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics</p> <p>and parents’ perception of rehabilitation services.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out. The data were collected from May 2019 to</p> <p>September 2019. A non-probability convenience sampling was used, and sample size of 335 parents who</p> <p>attending to Helena center for rehabilitation and operation children with special needs in Erbil city was</p> <p>calculated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The majority (around 80% or more) of the parents had positive attitudes toward the rehabilitation</p> <p>services provided in the center.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Parents of children with special health care needs in Helena Center perceived services provided</p> <p>to their children as family-centered.</p> Zainab Abdulrahman Abdullah1 , Kareem Fatah Aziz2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 861 867 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10479 Assessment of Patient’s Knowledge Regarding Hemodialysis Therapy at Imam Hussein Medical City in Holly Karbala Governorate <p><strong>Background</strong>: Descriptive and analytical study in which evaluation approach applied in order to achieve</p> <p>the objectives of the study mentioned at the beginning of the search. The study began in 2 April 2016 to</p> <p>21 June 2017,The research was conducted in order to identify hemodialysis patients knowledge regarding</p> <p>hemodialysis therapy at Imam Hussein medical city in holly Karbala Governorate</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: to assess hemodialysis patients knowledge about hemodialysis therapy, To find out the</p> <p>relationship between hemodialysis knowledge and some variables such as: age, gender, level of education.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This Descriptive and analytical study was conducted at Imam Hussein medical city in the province</p> <p>of Karbala, Iraq, from 1 October 2017 to 1 April 2018, use to to identify hemodialysis patients knowledge</p> <p>regarding hemodialysis therapy. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: shown on Results of the study that Highest percent of the study samples was samples age (50 or</p> <p>more) years old, According to the gender, the study sample were male and female, equal percent and number</p> <p>was (50-50%), Most of the study sample low educational levels, Most of them had married, Finally the</p> <p>general knowledge level of Imam Hussein medical city regarding hemodialysis therapy is High.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Highest percent of the study samples was samples age (50 or more) years old, According to</p> <p>the gender, the study sample were male and female, equal percent and number was (50-50%), Finally the</p> <p>general knowledge level of Imam Hussein medical city regarding hemodialysis therapy is High.</p> Hussam Abbas Dawood Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 868 875 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10480 Nurses Competence with Regard Congenital Heart Diseases in Cardiac Care Unit of Pediatric Hospital in Sulaimani City <p>The activities of the nurse performing duties at a haemodynamic facility is characterized by the need to be</p> <p>able to field a high degree of specialisation. It is absolutely essential that he/she has bases of knowledge and</p> <p>skills also in the field of intensive care and cardiac resuscitation that are adequate for the high complexity of</p> <p>the diseases and procedures that are treated .</p> <p><strong>Method :</strong> Quantitative design with descriptive study was carried out with assessment approach and it was</p> <p>conducted on nurses in cardiac care unit of pediatric hospital in Sulaimani city/Kurdistan region from 1st July</p> <p>2017-1st May 2018. Non-probability sampling was performed, a purposive sample of (35) nurses, all males</p> <p>and females . Data were shown and tabled in frequencies and percentage, and mean of scores was calculated</p> <p>from ordinal data in five level ( 5, 4 , 3, 2, 1 ) . In the present study the highest mean of score indicates the</p> <p>highest level of practice regarding nursing management. The P-value at 0.05 level indicates the degree of</p> <p>significance. Independent T- test and ANOVA have been utilized to find out the significant relationship of</p> <p>nursing care management with socio-demographic characteristics, and nurse’s skill and experiences.</p> <p><strong>Result :</strong> socio-demographic profile of participants presented. Out of 35 participants studied 21 (60%) were</p> <p>from age group 20 – 30 years, with mean age of 30.4 years. Majority of participants studied 77.1 % were</p> <p>female . Majority of the nurses were graduated for institute 16 (45.7%) and 10 (28.6%) were hold university</p> <p>certificate . According to working experience and skills. Out of 35 participants studied, only 19 (54.29%)</p> <p>attended training session regarding Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Around 74.29% of participants</p> <p>were not familiar with PICU drugs . Around 74.29% of participants were not familiar with PICU drugs</p> <p>however, 88.6% of participants were familiar to PICU doses. 80% of the total participants did not attend</p> <p>the periodic educational program and conference/symposium. 97.14% of the participants did not study the</p> <p>books regarding CHD. The right to practice in manner that is suitable for fulfilling the obligations was</p> <p>reported as never by 48.6% of nurses . Regarding perception of ethical practice in work environment major</p> <p>participants 88.6% reported sometime</p> Banw Azad mohammed 1 , Aso Faeq Salih2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 876 883 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10481 Assessment of Mother’s Practice among Using Oral Rehydration Solution for their Children with Diarrhea in Babylon City <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>A descriptive study that aimed to find out demographic characteristics of mothers like age ,</p> <p>level of education , occupation and resident area, to find out demographic characteristics of child regarding</p> <p>age , sex and birth order of the child and kind of feeding breast feeding and to assess the mother practices</p> <p>among using oral rehydration solution.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was carried out at Child and Maternal Babylon Hospital, study period extended</p> <p>from December(2016) to end of the February(2017). Anon-probability sample was selected from Child and</p> <p>Maternal Babylon Hospital and al-Hashemia Hospital, the sample consisted (100) mothers.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong> : showed that (64% ) of mothers their age between ( 20-30 ) years . also results reveal that ( 56% )</p> <p>of mothers graduate from primary school ,and show that ( 93% ) of mothers were unemployed.</p> Abdulmahdi A. Hasan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 884 888 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10482 Isolation and Identification Bacteria Species and Study Epidemiological Features to Burns Patients in Al- Yarmook Teaching Hospital <p>The present study was conducted to identify the correlation between some epidemiological and bacterial</p> <p>characteristics of burn patients and their complications for the period from October to March 2018 for</p> <p>patients who were visiting or staying at AL- Yarmook hospital. One hundred patients were randomly selected</p> <p>after being examined and diagnosed by a specialist. The pre-prepared questionnaire for the epidemiological</p> <p>features of each patients, which included sex, age, marital or economic status, location of residence and the</p> <p>nature of the work of the patients was filled. While the bacterial side included the collection of skin swabs</p> <p>from areas exposed to burns (skin) and to all patients under sterile conditions and under the supervisions of</p> <p>the doctor supervisor the treatment of infected cases. Samples were transferred to the laboratory to complete</p> <p>bacterial laboratory test. Samples were planted on the special and general culture, and bacterial growth was</p> <p>observed followed by final diagnosis of isolates. The results showed that the rate of infection was high in</p> <p>females compare males (63% to 37%) respectively. While the incidence of burns was high in patients aged</p> <p>(16-30) 52%. The rate of infections was also high in patients with poor families (54%) while those living in</p> <p>rural areas had high rates of infection (41%).</p> <p>The results of primary bacterial transplantation gave a high positive result (78%). The total isolates obtained</p> <p>from all initial transplant samples were 92% isolates and a percentage (117.9%), a high and satisfactory</p> <p>rate. Gram negative bacteria isolates showed a higher frequency than gram positive (73.9) and (26.06%)</p> <p>respectively.</p> <p>It was noted that Pseudomonas spp was very high (48.9%) compared with rest of the positive or negative</p> <p>bacteria isolates, where the frequency presence of Klebsiella spp, Staphylococcus spp , Streptococcus</p> <p>SPP (25%), (18.4%), (7.6%) respectively. The results of the present study include the importance of</p> <p>epidemiological aspects in the cases of burns, whether as factors that assist or are ready to be injured or</p> <p>accelerated in the healing of the infected cases, in addition to the importance of early bacterial diagnosis</p> <p>of infection to control the complications of secondary infection of bacteria in cases of burns and thus easy</p> <p>medical treatment</p> Faraj, H. Johni 1 , Abdulla L. Jiad2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 889 894 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10483 Critical Care Nurses’ Knowledge about Pulmonary embolism in Respiratory Care Unit in Baghdad Teaching Hospitals <p><strong>Aim of the study:</strong> To asses the nurses’ knowledge about pulmonary embolism</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A descriptive design study was carried out for the period of November18th 2018 up to the 20th</p> <p>of April 2019. Anon-probability (purposive) samples of (60) a nurse work at respiratory care unit in Baghdad</p> <p>Teaching Hospitals from different educational levels, both sexes ( males and females), were selected. The</p> <p>instrument questionnaire tool consist of two parts, First part consist of (6) items included, age, gender, level</p> <p>of education, number of years of employment in hospital, number of experience in the respiratory care unit</p> <p>and training course about pulmonary embolism.&amp; second part consist of (4) domains which included Nurses</p> <p>knowledge concerning definition and causes of disease, signs and symptoms, diagnostic test ,treatment of</p> <p>pulmonary embolism. The data have been analyzed through the application of: descriptive and the inferential</p> <p>analysis, and the researcher used the SPSS version 20 to analysis of data.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study recommend that the<strong> critical care nurse have</strong> moderate level of knowledge and</p> <p>there were significant association between level of education and the nurse knowledge at p &gt; 0.05 level.</p> Massara Abdullah Najm1 , Aqeel H. Jassim2 , Tahseen R. Mohammed2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 895 901 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10484 Assessment of Calprotectin Protein in H. Pylori Positive Persons <p><strong>Background: </strong>Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is amongst the most infectious and almost half of the country’s</p> <p>population is affected by a chronic bacterial infection. H. pylori evoke an inflammatory reaction of the host</p> <p>epithelium, leading to induction of immune cells which exhibit as gastritis. There is little knowledge of how</p> <ol> <li>pylori remain in the host’s antimicrobial agents, such as calprotectin (CP), which is found through an</li> </ol> <p>immune response. <strong>Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate</strong> the role of fecal calprotectin <strong>(</strong>FC)</p> <p>in subjects with gastric ulcer and correlation of it with H. pylori<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methods: 25 patients with gastric ulcer and 25 healthy controls were included in a prospective study. </strong></p> <p>Samples of blood are taken IgG antibody H pylori and stool specimen for measured of calprotectin level.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All gastric ulcer patients infected with H pylori. From a total of 25 patients participating in this study</p> <p>8 were man and 17 women with the mean age 40.6±15.8. There was a statistically meaningful difference</p> <p>between the groups analyzed (p=0.0001) dependent on the calprotectin level. Also found significant</p> <p>association between sex and calprotectin level according to the positivity of H pylori.<strong>Conclusion:</strong> There’s a</p> <p>significant statistical between fecal calprotectin level and H. pylori infection in gastric ulcer patients.</p> Salim Hussein Hassan1 , Balqees Sadoon Jasim 2, Maytham Salim AL-Nasrawii 2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 902 905 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10485 Knowledge and Awareness among Mothers Regarding Exclusive Breastfeeding in Holy Karbala City / Iraq <p><strong>Background:</strong> World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)</p> <p>“Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF)” is explained as “the infant receives only breast milk, no other liquids or</p> <p>solids. Its recommended for the first 6 months of life, and then complementary feeding should be started.</p> <p>EBF helps to reduce child morbidity and mortality from several diseases such as diarrhea, respiratory and /</p> <p>or ear infections and other infectious diseases, shielding lactation women from breast and ovarian cancer. In</p> <p>addition to offers societal economic and environmental benefits, The objective of this study was to assess the</p> <p>knowledge and awareness of exclusive breast feeding among mothers with a child &lt; 2 years of age.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Health Directorate of Holy Karbala city.</p> <p>The study consist of (487) mothers how attendant to six Primary Health Care center (PHC). The collected</p> <p>data was done by direct interview with mothers and using a questionnaire form that designed based on the</p> <p>study objectives according to WHO criteria. Data were analyzed by SPSS “ Statistical Package for the Social</p> <p>Sciences”, the descriptive statistics included numbers (N) and percentage (%), and the inferential statistical</p> <p>test was done by using Chi-Square test (<strong>?</strong><strong>2</strong>), P-value (Probability of chance ) was equal or less than 0.05</p> <p>considered as statistically significant to find for any association between the results variables.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: A total of 487 participants were included in the study and the rate of response was 92.7%. The</p> <p>highest percentage (66.3%) of study sample were full in the age group (21-30) years, and more than three</p> <p>quarters were lived in urban area. Nearly half of the study sample 47% had primary education and 60% those</p> <p>housewives, and the main source of information being family and friends (84.4%). As an overall assessment,</p> <p>61.8% of the study sample had good knowledge and awareness about exclusive breastfeeding, with highly</p> <p>significant differences to education level ,occupation residence of the mother.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Over half of the subjects had good knowledge and awareness of exclusive Breastfeeding. And,</p> <p>on the other hand, there was a very significant difference between education level, occupation and mother’s</p> <p>residence with a level of knowledge.</p> Maytham Salim Al-Nasrawii 1 , Ali Neamah Hasan Al-Aaragi 2, Ali Abd Al-Latif G. Mohammed 2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 906 912 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10486 Effectiveness of an educational program on Nurses’ Knowledge towards Nursing Management of Patients with Transurethral Resection of the Bladder Tumor at Hilla Teaching Hospitals <p>Bladder cancer is the fourth most prevalent tumor in men and eighth in women. Approximately 50,000 new</p> <p>cases are diagnosed annually in the around the world. The study aims at: assess nurse’s knowledge regarding</p> <p>management of patients who undergo the transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. A descriptive study</p> <p>is conducted during the periods of July 29th 2018 to December 25th 2019.The study conducted in Hilla</p> <p>Teaching Hospital and Al’imam Alsadiq Teaching Hospital were the designated site for data collection.</p> <p>By non-probability “purposive sample” of (51) nurses, data were collected for pre-post test and analyzed</p> <p>a descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis approach. Results of the study depicts that age of the</p> <p>nurses ranged from 20- 43 years, (60%) of nurses in the control group, there were somewhat less female</p> <p>nurses (45.2%) than male nurses (54.8%) in the study group and (32%) were female and (68%) nurses male</p> <p>in the control group, (80.6%were married in the study group and 22 (88%) were married in the control</p> <p>group, education was from a secondary nursing school and institute degree (35.5%) for each degree in the</p> <p>study group, and (48%) institute degree in the control group, (1-5) years was (67.7%) in the study group and</p> <p>(68%) in the control group. Nurses knowledge in the study group has increased from (M.S. 1.3026) in the</p> <p>pretest time to (M.S. 1.6787) in post test time for the control group, this score has slightly increase from pre</p> <p>test (M.S. 1.2985) to post tests (M.S. 1.3343). There were concluded improving in nurses’ knowledge after</p> <p>post-test for study group for educational program concerning management of patients with transurethral</p> <p>resection of the bladder tumor. While control group did not present any improvement in their knowledge</p> <p>concerning management of patients with transurethral resection of the bladder tumor at pre and post-test. It</p> <p>is need to be encouraging nurses to be enrolled in training sessions to improve their knowledge to keep them</p> <p>up to date toward management of patients with transurethral resection of the bladder tumor.</p> Basim Hasson Hussein1 , Halima Yusuf Al-Rubaiyee 2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 913 918 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10487 The Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) More Likely Creates to Irritable Bowel Syndrome <p>The research aimed study the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) more likely</p> <p>Creates to irritable bowel syndrome at Ibn-Rushd Psychiatric Teaching Hospital in Baghdad city, find</p> <p>out the relationship between demographic characteristic, irritable bowel syndrome and Attention-Deficit/</p> <p>Hyperactivity disorder patients. A purposive (non-probability), the sample included (100) patients, from</p> <p>(3-11) years old. A descriptive study carried out from December 10th 2018 to the February 25th 2019, from</p> <p>family Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder outpatients of Ibn-Rushd Psychiatric Teaching Hospital</p> <p>in Baghdad city. A questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of the study, which was a consisted of</p> <p>(2) part. The 1st part included the demographic characteristics and the 2nd part included the items related</p> <p>with irritable bowel syndrome. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistical approach (frequency</p> <p>and percentage) and inferential statistical approach (correlation coefficient). Scores, Perpson, lycart scale</p> <p>analysis that include, t-test, and stepwise multiple regression. The result of the study confirmed that the</p> <p>mean of score for the age of sample was (7.1) year, most of them male urban, low score for socio-economic</p> <p>status, strong positive to irritable bowel syndrome.</p> Abdul AL-Kareem Hamza Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 919 924 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10488 Estimation of Parameters (Serum Glucose, Urea, Creatinine And C-Peptide) in Diabetic Nephropathy <p>Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology. Destruction of pancreatic beta cells,</p> <p>hyperglycaemia, and insulin deficiency cause type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic nephropathy is the damage</p> <p>to kidneys because of diabetes. It is predominantly seen in patients with type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent</p> <p>type) and type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent type). An active peptide hormone, C-peptide has the</p> <p>likelihood of causing major physiological effects. C-peptide is the best indication of endogenous insulin</p> <p>secretion occurring in patients with diabetes. In this regard, the current study undertakes a comprehensive</p> <p>study of C-peptide and kidney (renal) failure in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 , in order to assess their</p> <p>association . The subjects for this study were (70) patients with type 1 DM and ( 65) patients with diabetic</p> <p>nephropathy in different age and both sex , Laboratory tests such as (serum creatinine, urea, glucose, albumin</p> <p>, total protein and fasting serum C-peptide, are conducted. Data was compare the values between different</p> <p>category patients.</p> Rukia A. Jassim1 , Zeena A. Alsaady2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 925 929 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10489 A Chronic Toxicity Study of Oral Administration of Collagen-?® Supplement using Pregnant Rabbits <p>Since collagen derived products are highly used in food supplements due to its bioactive properties by</p> <p>influencing cellular and tissue health, flexibility with high effect of repairing and adaptation. It is necessary</p> <p>to carry out safety requirement of an oral chronic toxicity assessment. This study investigated the adverse</p> <p>effect of long term oral administration of collagen-® in pregnant rabbits. We have conducted a thirty</p> <p>days randomized controlled trial in pregnant rabbits. Rabbits were randomized into two groups; Group 1</p> <p>(control group) were administrated with 1 ml of normal saline PO, SID while Group 2 (collagen-? group)</p> <p>were administered with 1 ml of collagen-?® PO, SID for one month. Bodyweight gain, viscera weight</p> <p>and histopathological evaluation of the individual rabbit were recorded. The results revealed that the body</p> <p>weight gain and visceral tissues weight in the collagen-? group were significantly lower than the control</p> <p>group. Moreover, various histopathological changes were recorded in heart, lungs, liver and kidneys of the</p> <p>collagen-? group when compared with the non-significant changes that noticed in the control group. Under</p> <p>the conditions of the current study, a high risk of chronic toxic effect was observed in pregnant rabbits</p> <p>inoculated with 1 ml of oral dose of collagen alpha supplement. This result suggests that the adverse effect</p> <p>of collagen derived supplements is overbalancing the benefits.</p> Alia M. Kudayer1, Nawras A. Alwan2 , Alaa A. Sawad1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 930 935 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10490 Nurses’ Knowledge Concerning the Management of Bleeding in Patients with Leukemia <p>To achieve the objectives of the study, a non –probability (purposive) sample of (50) nurses were selected</p> <p>those were working at the oncology wards at the above listed hospitals. The data selected according to the</p> <p>criteria of the study sample. The validity of the questionnaire was determined through an expert panel consists</p> <p>of (11) specialist expert and its reliability was determined through a pilot study by test – retest which was</p> <p>estimated as averages (R=0.89). Data was collected by direct interview technique using the questionnaire</p> <p>formal and data was analyzed by application of descriptive &amp; inferential statistical methods (frequency,</p> <p>percentage, mean of score and Chi-Square). The results of the study indicated that most of the study sample</p> <p>were male (60%), (78%) within age group (20-29 years), (70%) were nursing college graduates and (62 %)</p> <p>has 1-3 years of experience at oncology wards. The results of the study indicated that the majority of the</p> <p>study sample had a low significance in items concerning nurses’ knowledge about managements taken by</p> <p>nurse to avoid bleeding, and the majority of them had a moderate significant relationship between nurses’</p> <p>knowledge and the years of experience and training sessions inside and outside Iraq.</p> Safad R. Isam Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 936 941 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10492 The Histological Alteration of Proximal Part of Aorta Exposed to (MSG) and Protective Effect of an a Lipoic Acid (ALA) in Male Rabbits <p>Background. Monosodium Glutamate is one of the most world’s most widely used food additives. Its toxic</p> <p>effect have been shown in numerous animal studies, in which study MSG effects on cardiovascular system,</p> <p>therefore, This study was aimed to investigate the effect of alpha lipoic acid(ALA) on the damage in the</p> <p>large blood vessels induce by Mono sodium glutamate. Thirty two male rabbits was divided equally and</p> <p>randomly into four groups as following. Control group in which rabbits where fed with normal diet without</p> <p>supplementation, second group was gived MSG orally (8mg/kg.BW), While animals of third group were</p> <p>given ALA orally (60mg/kg.BW) while animal in fourth group were given orally (MSG 8mg/ and</p> <p>ALA 60mg/, all treatment are extended to 8 weeks. The outcomes of research revealed a significant</p> <p>increased (p&lt;0.05) in aortic medial layer thickness in animals administration of MSG in a comparesion</p> <p>with control and groups treated and distortion structure of laminar fibers, endothelial cells lost normal</p> <p>squamous. In addition, there is a significant decreased (p&lt;0.05) in medial tunica thicken in animals used</p> <p>ALA combination with MSG, so we noted return the disarranged of architecture tissue near.</p> Eman.M.Heil 1 , Wefak Al-Bazi 2 , Muna .Hussain AL-Aameli3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 942 948 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10493 Effect of Pioneer Aeromedical Evacuation Program on Flight Medics’ Practices toward Emergency Casualties at Army Aviation Bases in Iraq <p><strong>Objective(s):</strong> The study aims to determination the effect of aeromedical evacuation program on flight</p> <p>medics’ practices.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A pre-experimental design is carried in army aviation bases in Iraq, for the period of February 1st</p> <p>2019 to September 25th 2019. Non-probability “purposive” sample of (30) flight medics are selected from</p> <p>army aviation bases. Non-probability “purposive” sample of (30) flight medics are selected from army</p> <p>aviation bases. The questionnaire is composed of two main parts (demographic characteristics of the flight</p> <p>medics, and the second part involves five domains which as (67) items concerning flight medics’ practices</p> <p>regarding first aid of emergency casualties format, the researcher used SPSS version 20 to analyze the data.</p> <p>The reliability of the participant responses was estimated by alpha correlation (r) practice test was (r= 0.94),</p> <p>and content validity of the instrument was determined through a panel of (twenty-five) experts. Data was</p> <p>analyzed through the use of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results of the pretest for flight medics revealed that flight medics’ practices about five domains</p> <p>of aeromedical evacuation program toward emergency casualties was moderate, while the posttest I and II</p> <p>results shows that flight medics’ practices was improved to high level because of the positive impact of the</p> <p>instruction program, and there were significant association between the effectiveness of present program on</p> <p>flight medics’ practices and there level of education at P?0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that the present program was effective on flight medics’ practices.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation</strong>: The study recommended to increase the training courses for flight medics inside and</p> <p>outside Iraq, and included the present program on their plan of training.</p> Ammar Kadhum Gaeed1 , Huda Baker Hassan2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 949 956 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10494 Anatomical, Histological and Histochemical Investigation of Soft Palate in Cat (Felis Catus Domesticus.L) <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The aim of this study was to evaluate the normal structure and provide distribution for palatine</p> <p>glands in cranial and caudal part of soft palate. Also, afford information to be useful for both surgical</p> <p>interventions and pathological disease. <strong>Method/: </strong>Sixth healthy cats were caught in Iraq farms. All experimental</p> <p>animals euthanized by intramuscular injection of ketamine (0.5 cc) and xylazine (0.5 cc), Sections were</p> <p>stained by H&amp;E and combined AB+PAS stain 2.5 pH. <strong>Results: </strong>The soft palate was triangular in shape, the</p> <p>dimensions was (2.8, 2) cm in length and width respectively. Also, had two surface; nasopharyngeal surface</p> <p>lined by psuedostratified columnar epithelial ciliated and <strong>o</strong>ropharyngeal surface lined by stratified squamous</p> <p>epithelia. The palatine glands appeared magenta in color during staining by AB+PAS combined stain due</p> <p>to neutral secretion. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The palatine glands variance in distribution between dorsal and ventral</p> <p>surface of soft palate, most of these glands constricted in oropharyngeal surface.</p> Abbas Lafi Batah 1, Hussein Bashar Mahmood 2 , Walaa F Obead3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 957 961 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10495 Molecular Detection blaOXA50 gene of P.aerginosae Isolated from Otitis Media <p><em>Pseudomonas aerugenosa</em> is a gram negative rod shape bacterium belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae</p> <p>. <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major uropathogen in a hospital. It can tolerate a wide kind of physical </em></p> <p><em>conditions and many antibiotics via several mechanisms resistance . </em>The study included genetic study</p> <p>bla<em>OXA50 gene </em>utilizer technique PCR by specific forward and reverse primers to common bacteria that</p> <p>causes otitis media, 40 isolated from otitis media patients (ear swab). Primary identification was depended</p> <p>on Gram stain ,biochemical tests and vitek 2 system was done . The results demonstrate 30 isolate of them</p> <p>were <em>P.aerginosae</em>. The result appear <em>P.aerginosae </em>contain on 25(19%)<em> blaOXA50 </em>gene.</p> Ahmed Maki N. Al-Muaala1 , Noor A.Neama2 , Thulfikar H. al-kefaei1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 962 965 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10496 Effects of Alcoholic Extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum Majorana on Expression of Hly Gene in Escherichia coli <p><em>Escherichia coli</em> isolates isolated from urinary tract infection identified by biochemical test and confirmed</p> <p>by vitek 2 compact system. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of <em>Cinnamomum zeylanicum</em> and <em>Origanum </em></p> <p><em>majorana</em> alcoholic extracts determined by broth macrodilutionassay ,it range (12.5-25)mg/ml for <em>C. </em></p> <p><em>zeylanicum</em> and 100mg/ml for <em>O.majorana</em> leaves. The expression of <em>hly</em> gene studied in presence of</p> <p>16srRNA as reference gene, four isolates of <em>E.coli</em> (A1 ,A2,A5 and A6)used to detect the expression of <em>hly </em></p> <p>gene by using Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR(1-StepqRT-PCR) before and after tereatment with</p> <p>plants extracts calibrated with 16srRNA. There was inhibition in <em>hly</em> gene expression with <em>O.majorana</em>,the</p> <p>fold changes were 1.23 and 2 in isolates A5 and A6respectively while there were induction in <em>hly</em> gene</p> <p>expression with <em>C. zeylanicum</em>,the fold changes were 137 and 73.5 for isolates A1 and A2 respectively.</p> Luma Saeed Mohammed1 , Enass Ghassan Sweedan1, May Talib Flayyih2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 966 971 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10497 Assessment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Term of Serum Anti-nucleosome and Interleukin 12 Markers in Relation to Epstein–Barr virus and Cytomegalovirus <p><strong>Background:</strong> Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease, more dominant in</p> <p>female, associated with high risk of life threating complication and increase morbidity and mortality. the</p> <p>exact cause of SLE is not yet known with many suggestions about a possible role of viral infection in the</p> <p>development of the disease. Epstein –Barr virus is the most commonly studied virus in an attempt to prove</p> <p>its presumed association with development of SLE.The objectives of this study are the measurement of the</p> <p>effect of CMV and EBV seropositivity in the auto immune status and severity of disease SLE measured by</p> <p>estimating the level of immunological markers anti-nucleosome and IL-12 with viral marker.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>Forty newly diagnosed female with SLE were randomly selected from patient</p> <p>attended rheumatology clinic at medical city in Baghdad during the period between December 2018 to May</p> <ol start="2019"> <li>In addition, with 40 apparently healthy females, as, a control groups. Both group were investigated for</li> </ol> <p>IL12, anti-nucleosome, EA, VCA, EBNA and CMV by ELISA and the results were statistically evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The studied viral markers in the current study which included EBV markers EA, VCA, EBNA,</p> <p>have shown significantly higher level compared to the control group. Similarly, anti-nucleosome and IL12</p> <p>have shown significantly higher level compared to the control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The possible defect in controlling viral infection and increased number of latent infected cell</p> <p>in SLE may enhance production of auto-antibodies</p> Saif S. Ibrahem1 , Ahmed Sahib Abdulamir2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 672 676 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10498 Study of Immunological Parameters, Hematologic Outcomes And Epidemiology Features of Renal Dysfunction Frequently in Karbala Province, Iraq <p>Renal failure or dysfunction: A disease occurs by a severe weakness in one kidney or both, they lose ability</p> <p>to do their functions effectively, resulting in the body’s inability to remove waste and fluids, Leading to a</p> <p>significant changes in chemistry of blood and body fluid.</p> <p>The study occurred in Karbala province where study samples were collected, which included (124). Samples</p> <p>divided in (64) patients and (60) control, patients had another division according to sex (44) male and (20)</p> <p>female. Immunologic parameters include (kidney injury molecules (KIM-1), pro-inflammatory TNF-?, IgG</p> <p>antibodies) Elabscience Kit, concentration in serum was massacred by (ELISA) Technique and hematologic</p> <p>test measured automatically by (Humlate plus-1 Device).</p> <p>The results showed increase in kidney injury in age groups beyond the age of 40 years. A significantly higher</p> <p>incidence of disease among males more than females. Results show significant statically variations in serum</p> <p>levels:</p> <p>1- kidney injury molecules (KIM-1) levels was increased in serum in patients significantly compare with</p> <p>control.</p> <p>2- (TNF-?) levels was increased in patients than control.</p> <p>3- IgG levels decreased in patients than control.</p> <p>Another routine tests occurs to patients to know the effects of disease on blood variations, the test was</p> <p>included CBC count the results show CBC tests: (WBC, MHC, MCHC, RDWS, RDWC, PLT, PCT, PDWS,</p> <p>PDWC, P-LCC and P-LCR) have no significant differentials while CBC tests: (LYM., MON., GRA., RBC.,</p> <p>HGB., HCT., MCV, MPV) which decrease in patient compare with control significantly.</p> <p>Increase kidney injury and inflammatory in serum patients with disease, by measured some parameters levels</p> <p>in sera as indicators for disease progression and decrease in some antibodies such as IgG concentration of in</p> <p>sera, as well as the hematologic tests referrer to disease may associated with anemia.</p> Alyaa Aziz Gubiar Al-Nasrallah Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 977 983 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10499 Study on Correlation between IL-33 serum level, IL-33 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To discuss the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of rs1929992 in IL-</p> <p>33gene and IL-33 serum level in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility among Iraq population. <strong>Methods: </strong></p> <p>A total of 50 samples were collected from 35 RA patients from November 2018 untill end of January</p> <p>2019 together with 15 healthy physical examines in the same period were chosen as the subjects. The</p> <p>serum IL-33 levels measured by commercial ELISA kits . Erythrocyte sedimentation rate ,white blood cell</p> <p>were measured by standard laboratory techniques The RFLP-PCR reaction technique was used to detect</p> <p>the genotype distributions for rs1929992 in IL-33gene was carried out by using restriction enzyme. The</p> <p>frequency of each allele and genotypes distribution was calculated so as to evaluate the association between</p> <p>genotype distribution and RA susceptibility. <strong>Results:</strong> Serum IL-33concentration was significantly higher in</p> <p>patients with RA than in control groups. The homozygous genotype AA recorded higher frequency in RA</p> <p>patients (42.9%) than controls (6.7%) with a significant difference (P-value 0.001). Homozygote genotype</p> <p>GG frequency (45.7%) was a significant in patients compared to controls subject (33.3%) with a significant</p> <p>difference (P-value 0.016), and the genotype heterozygous GA frequency (11.4%) were non-significant in</p> <p>patients compared to controls (60.6%). The allele frequency for allele G was (51.4%)in patients compared</p> <p>with controls ( 63.3%) with a significant difference (P-value 0.022)while for the allele A was (48.6%)</p> <p>in patients compared with controls( 36.7% )with a significant difference (P- value 0.001). <strong>Conclusions: </strong></p> <p>significant correlation between RA patients susceptibility and genotype AA and alleles at rs1929992in IL-33</p> <p>gene is observed. From this study showed that the IL-33 levels were influenced by genetic variation at SNPs</p> <p>rs5743708and rs1929992, respectively.</p> Hind Fouaad alhammami1 , Mahdi H. AL-Ammar2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 984 989 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10500 Association between IL12A Gene of G/A genotype Polymorphism and Pulmonary Tuberculosis Risk in Baghdad Population <p>The study included eighty samples. This cases-controlled study was performed including fifty Pulmonary</p> <p>tuberculosis patients, their ages ranged from 12 to 77 year (27 female and 23 male) and thirty controls</p> <p>(healthy), their ages ranged from 19 to 58 year (15 female and 15 male). We confined the frequency of</p> <p>IL12A gene (G/A rs568408 genotype) polymorphism by Tetra-ARMS PCR (Tetra amplification refractory</p> <p>mutation system-polymerase chain reaction) technology. Also, we determined the association of IL12A</p> <p>Gene (G/A rs568408 genotype) polymorphism with Pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Baghdad. Statistical</p> <p>results showed significant difference in genotype frequency of IL12A Gene (G/A rs568408 genotype)</p> <p>polymorphism between Pulmonary tuberculosis patients and control (healthy). The G allele shows high</p> <p>frequency in Pulmonary tuberculosis patients comparison with control (healthy) and present related with</p> <p>etiological fraction risk of Pulmonary tuberculosis patients and its ratio 62% in patients and 51.67% in</p> <p>control (healthy), While A allele shows high frequency in control (healthy) comparison with Pulmonary</p> <p>tuberculosis patients and present related with protective fraction of Pulmonary tuberculosis patients and</p> <p>its ratio 48.33% in control and 38% in Pulmonary tuberculosis patients. The genotypes of GG and AA</p> <p>homozygotes shows high frequency in Pulmonary tuberculosis patients comparison with control (healthy),</p> <p>and its ratio 42% and 18% respectively in Pulmonary tuberculosis patients, while its ratio 3.33% and 0%</p> <p>respectively in control (healthy), also GG and AA genotypes appear related with etiological fraction risk of</p> <p>Pulmonary tuberculosis patients, while the GA heterozygote show high frequency in control (healthy) and its</p> <p>ratio 96%, GA genotypes related with preventive fraction of Pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Our findings</p> <p>demonstrate that the IL12A Gene (G/A rs568408 genotype) polymorphism may represent a significant risk</p> <p>factor for pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Baghdad population.</p> Anwar Abed Nasser Dhabaan1 and Mayes Abdul-Hadi Mahdi2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 990 995 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10501 Evaluation of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Iraqi Patients with Hydatid Disease <p>Antioxidants and oxidative stress status are clinically important in the detection of many diseases. In order</p> <p>to estimate the role of oxidative stress in hydatid disease pathogenesis, the antioxidant levels and oxidative</p> <p>stress status were examined in the patients of hydatid cysts. Thirty patients having active hydatid cyst of</p> <p><em>Echinococcus granulosus</em>, previously diagnosed by X-ray, were adopted as patients’ group. Additionally, 25</p> <p>healthy individuals who did not have hydatid infection or any other parasitic infection constituted the control</p> <p>group. Antioxidant status and oxidative stress levels were determined using biochemical tests including</p> <p>plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and erythrocyte Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH</p> <p>Px), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) activity, in addition to erythrocyte</p> <p>Glutathione concentration GSH-conc. The statistical evaluation of plasma MDA levels showed significantly</p> <p>higher levels in hydatid patients than in healthy controls, while erythrocyte SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, GST and</p> <p>GSH levels were significantly declined in hydatid patients compared to the control which can be used as</p> <p>diagnostic markers in the laboratory diagnosis of the disease. To conclude, hydatid patients show elevated</p> <p>oxidative stress status, and therefore, the antioxidant therapy should be considered in addition to the routine</p> <p>medicines in this group of patients.</p> Ahmed A. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 996 1001 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10502 Pharmacological Effects of Dexamethasone in Rats <p>Dexamethasone is one of the most widely used glucocorticoids which has a prominent glucocorticoid with</p> <p>slight mineralocorticoid property. This study was performed on twenty four adult Sprague Dawley rats</p> <p>to evaluate the proposed effects of dexamethasone offering as intraperitoneal injection. The animals were</p> <p>allocated randomly into three groups of eight rats to each. The protocol of experiment was: the control group;</p> <p>animals are injected intraperitoneally with 2ml of distilled water, the dexamethasone 1 group; animals are</p> <p>injected intraperitoneally with dexamethasone 2mg/kg, and the dexamethasone 2 group; animals are injected</p> <p>intraperitoneally with dexamethasone 4mg/kg. The injection period extended for one month. The results</p> <p>illustrate that dexamethasone cause significant declination in RBC, PCV, Hb, HDL, and neutrophils besides</p> <p>significant elevations in WBC, eosinophils, monocytes, LDL, TC, TG, VLDL, AST, ALT, and creatinine</p> <p>on a direct positive proportion with the increase in dexamethasone dose comparing with control group at</p> <p>(P?0.05).</p> Safa Azhar Razzaq1 , Israa Jawad Jaber2 , Shahd Abdulamer Kadhim3 , Ahmed Adnan Abbas4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1002 1006 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10503 Association of soluble HLA-G and HLA-G 14bp ins /del Polymorphism in some Iraqi patients with Breast Cancer <p>Human leukocyte antigen-G is known to be implicated in a tumor-driven immune escape mechanism in</p> <p>malignancies. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the HLA-G 14-bp polymorphism in the 3?-</p> <p>untranslated region of the HLA-G gene in that associated with the susceptibility to breast cancer patients.</p> <p>This study has been done on 60 BC patients &amp; 30 Benign tumor and30 control groups. Estimation of</p> <p>sHLA-G markers was assayed by using ELISA technique. Thus, polymorphism of HLAG HLA-G 14-bp</p> <p>were detected by PCR methods. The plasma levels of HLA-G shows a significant elevation in BC patients</p> <p>compared to benign breast tumour and controls (32.79±0.9<em>vs.</em> 13.84 ±0.30 and 12.72 ±0.45 ng/ml,<em> P</em>?0.05).</p> <p>There was a significant difference between newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and healthy control groups</p> <p>in homozygous genotype HLA-G 14-bp del/del genotyping (66.7% vs. 36.7%; OR=3.45; P?0.01). While,</p> <p>no significant differences in the homozygous genotypes Ins/ins frequency were observed between patients</p> <p>with breast cancer (6.6%) and the healthy control group (0.0%) (OR=3.45, P?0.001). There was a significant</p> <p>increase frequency of heterozygous genotype Ins/del in controls compared to patients (63.3%vs.26.7%).</p> <p>No significant difference was found between the patients and control groups at HLA-G 14bp insertion and</p> <p>deletion allelic frequency<strong>.</strong></p> Hanaa N. Abdullah1 , Alia Gh. Abdulwahid2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1007 1012 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10504 Detection of Acute Childhood Meningitis using PCR in a group of Children at Childs Central Teaching Hospital/Baghdad <p>Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of death in both developed and developing world.</p> <p>The study was done on 116 patients admitted to child central teaching hospital in Baghdad ,and diagnosed</p> <p>with meningitis depending on CSF findings and PCR results while determination of type of microorganism</p> <p>depend on PCR result . In this study we aimed to assess the patients regarding their numbers ,clinical</p> <p>manifestations , complications and type of bacteria causing the disease .Regarding the results of PCR,</p> <p>streptococcus meningitis at the top of the list for the bacterial causes while no any reported cases with</p> <p>Hemophillus influenza and this could be referred to the program of vaccination applied in Iraq which included</p> <p>the vaccines against both types of bacteria. Results :of 116 patient involved in this study, majority (44%)</p> <p>were below 1 year ,with male predominance (57.8 %).most of the patients symptoms between 1-3 days</p> <p>(56%).all patients presented with fever. The diagnosis depend on the PCR results (57.8%) were negative and</p> <p>(37.9%) showed streptococcal infection .All blood culture were surprisingly negative because majority of</p> <p>included patients received antibiotics in outpatient visits before admission and diagnosis.</p> <p>Patients admitted and followed up to one year for development of complications. Sixteen cases developed</p> <p>complications, (3.4%) of them with subdural effusion and most of complication occur in streptococcal</p> <p>positive PCR results .</p> Rana Fahmi Shitran,1 Warqaa Y. Khudur 1, Mohammed E. Atallah2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1013 1017 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10505 Molecular Physical Properties of Cryogloblin in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus in Al-Najaf Province <p>Cryoglobulins (CGs) are a cold precipitating abnormal immunoglobulins. The incidence of hepatitis B was</p> <p>discovered to be greater in age groups (46-55 years) relative to othe age groups. CGs were detected in</p> <p>50 (33.3%) out of 150 patients with Hepatitis B. Three types of CGs precipitation nature were identified.</p> <p>Gelatinous (76%), flocculate (20%), and crystallineous (4%). No relation was found between patient’s age</p> <p>and CGs molecular physical properties.</p> <p>The cryocrit test of 50 serum samples revealed that CGs are characterized by their reversible precipitation at</p> <p>4ºC between 12 hours to five days and solubility time at 37ºC ranged between half an hour and three hours.</p> Ahmed Aleiwi Al Hassani1 , Adil Ibadi AL-Luhaiby2, Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1018 1022 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10506 Hospital Door Knobs as a Source of Bacterial Contamination: A Study in Iraqi Hospitals <p>In this study, 20 swabs were collected from three hospitals in the holy city of Karbala (Al Hussein General</p> <p>Hospital, Al Abbas Private Hospital and Maternity Hospital). Nutrient agar was grown on solid feed medium</p> <p>and incubated at 37 ° C for 24-48 hours for isolation and diagnosis. Bacterial isolates obtained underwent</p> <p>biochemical and bacteriological tests for diagnosis. I prepared different doses of isolated bacteria according</p> <p>to the McFarland model. Then take 0.1 ml of 1/10000 IV dilution and add to Muller Hinton agar medium.</p> <p>The results of the preliminary diagnosis of the isolated bacteria showed that the positive bacteria of Cram</p> <p>stain were higher than those of Cram negative bacteria. The largest number of <em>S.aureus</em> bacteria was in the</p> <p>hospital environment from which swabs were taken and in all locations, especially bathrooms. By calculating</p> <p>the percentage of the total number of samples diagnosed for each hospital separately, the results showed that</p> <p>Hussein General Hospital had the highest contamination rate of 90%, while Al-Ahli Hospital had the lowest</p> <p>contamination rate of 40%. With regard to the effect of antiseptics, the concentration gave 75% Dettol the</p> <p>highest amount of inhibition of bacterial growth compared with other concentrations.</p> <p>On the other hand, the synergistic effect of both antiseptics (Dettol and chlorine) 75% -25% had an effect</p> <p>on inhibition of bacterial growth and its total elimination in the medium compared to other concentrations.</p> Zainab Salim Jaafar Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1023 1028 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10507 Estimation the Level of Metals (Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc) In Multiple Sclerosis Patients in Basra\ Iraq <p>Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating inflammatory disease of the central nervous system white</p> <p>matter that displays a triad of pathogenic symptoms. The toxicity of heavy metals can disrupt or damage</p> <p>central nervous systems. Long-term exposure of human population to heavy metals has shown neurological</p> <p>impairments. The degenerative processes are similar to Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease.This study</p> <p>compared the serum level of Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in MS patients with their levels in a control</p> <p>group. <strong>Methods:</strong> prospective study of cohort includes fifty Iraqi people selected from the Southern area</p> <p>of Multiple Sclerosis Clinic Center divided into two groups, in which the first group contains twenty five</p> <p>patients with MS and twenty five people without MS. Serum level of Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc have</p> <p>been measured. <strong>Results:</strong>In the present study, there was a significant increase in the concentration of (cupper</p> <p>- lead –cadmium) in patients with multiple sclerosis as compared with normal people <em>(p&lt;0.05)</em>. There is a</p> <p>significant decrease in the concentration of zinc in patients with multiple sclerosis as compared with normal</p> <p>people <em>(p&lt;0.05)</em>.<strong>Conclusion:</strong> Lead, copper, cadmium and zinc could affect on the susceptibility of patients</p> <p>to induce MS attack.</p> Ali Diame Nashmi 1 , Ali Faris Hassan2 , Mazin Mohamed Hammady3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1029 1035 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10508 The Differences of Individual Characteristics and Working Environment That Influence Job Stress on Female and Male Workers at Pt. X Sidoarjo (Using Gender Prespective) <p>Job stress can be defined as a dangerous physical and emotional response that occurs when work requirements</p> <p>are not matched with our own ability, resources, or needs of the workers. Job stress needs special attention</p> <p>by the company because it relates a worker individual’s health and affects operational continuity of the</p> <p>company’s production. The risk factors as the cause of job stress on female and male workers in PT. X are</p> <p>related to the characteristics and the perceptions of a work environment. The purpose of this research is to</p> <p>examine the individual characteristics and perceptions of the working environment that affects the incidence</p> <p>of job stress on female and male workers.</p> <p>This type of research is observational by designing cross-sectional research with the number of respondents</p> <p>as many as 50 people. The independent variables in this study included age, education, employment, marital</p> <p>status, noise, lighting as well as temperature. Dependent variable was job stress on female and male workers</p> <p>in PT. X.</p> <p>Female workers at PT. X experienced 32% of job stress and 20% of male workers. The results of logistic</p> <p>regression analysis obtains a significant influence of working time with job stress (P=0.027) as well as</p> <p>noise with job stress (P=0.017) on female workers. Male workers are significant to the job stress namely</p> <p>age (P=0.011), working period (P=0.030) as well as lighting (P=0.005). Advice for job-stress workers to</p> <p>take a leave, using personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of working environment. The company</p> <p>provides leave permits for workers and periodically performs work rotation.</p> Adli Prasetyo1, Tri Martiana2, Rr. Soenarnatalina Melaniani2 , Firman Suryadi Rahman3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1036 1041 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10509 Estimation of Pitch and Fundamental Frequency Variation Between Normal Males, Females and Intersex Population <p>Human beings have certain uniqueness in their voices that helps determine their individuality. The most</p> <p>important characteristic of voice is the Pitch. The average vocal range for masculine voice ranges from 90-</p> <p>150 Hz and for feminine voice, it ranges from 190-240 Hz. This pitch is decided by the development of the</p> <p>vocal tract during puberty by the effect of testosterone hormone i.e. Longer the tract, lower the pitch and</p> <p>vice versa. However, for people belonging to the intersex community, the low production of testosterone</p> <p>causes the vocal tract to develop differently than males and females. Because of this reason, their pitch</p> <p>has its own individual range and hoarseness of quality. This study was aimed to evaluate the difference in</p> <p>intersex population voice characteristics as compared to normal adult males and females. It was found that</p> <p>intersex voice has a distinctive Pitch range of 150-190 Hz with the mean frequency being 167 Hz. It was</p> <p>also discovered that due the peculiar dialect practiced by the intersex community, especially in the western</p> <p>part of the Indian subcontinent, there is a noticeable difference in the time duration for pronouncing various</p> <p>vowels from the time duration taken by males and females to pronounce the same vowels.</p> Akashlina Basu1 , Pooja Ahuja1, M. S. Dahiya3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1042 1047 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10510 Dating of Long Bone Fracture Healing among Egyptian Pediatrics by Radiography (X-Ray) <p><strong>Background: </strong>Estimating the timing of skeletal injury accurately is of great importance in forensic cases</p> <p>and has a significant bearing on the judicial process (related to abused children). This work aimed to assess</p> <p>dating of long bone healing in fractures occurring to children aged from 1 to 18 years through using plain</p> <p>radiography (X-Ray) which can determine 6 features of fracture healing process that are especially important</p> <p>in alleged cases of child abuse. The most commonly affected ages were “1-6” years presenting 68%. Males</p> <p>were the majority of cases (56%). The illustrated data of each feature of healing (6 features of fracture</p> <p>healing) form a prototype timetable of fracture healing. These data suggest that fractures with soft-tissue</p> <p>swelling alone are<strong> acute fracture</strong> (&lt; 1 week old). Fractures with periosteal reaction alone are likely to be</p> <p><strong>recent fracture </strong>(between 8 days and 3 weeks old). Once Remodelling, bridging &amp; hard callus fractures</p> <p>detected then <strong>old fracture </strong>is expected (more than 6 weeks old).</p> Amal Salama Mahmoud1 , Amany Mohamed Fahmy1 , Alaa Mohamed Mahmoud1, Amani Abdelfattah Bayomi1 , Ahmed Yosri El- Amir2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1048 1052 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10511 Risk of Nutritional Status and Blood Sugar on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Sawahan Subdistrict, Surabaya, Indonesia <p>The diabetics have risk of pulmonary tuberculosis It caused by lacking of immune system and malnutrition,</p> <p>eventhough the diabetics’ nutritional status commonly is normal or overweight. This research aimed</p> <p>to analyze risk of nutritional status and blood sugar to patients of diabetes mellitus with pulmonary</p> <p>tuberculosis. The study was observational analytic with case control design. There were 20 samples in</p> <p>each case and control located in Sawahan Sub-district, Surabaya. The data collection used questionnaire</p> <p>and medical record of participants from the community health care. The data was analysed using Pearson</p> <p>test correlation and odd ratio. The result showed no correlation between body mass index and blood sugar</p> <p>of both random (p=0.138) and fasting (p=0.166). The oberweight diabetics are much more likely to get</p> <p>pulmonary tuberculosis 1.3 times compared to normal diabetics (95% CI= 0.313&lt;OR&lt;5.393), while the odd</p> <p>ratio of pulmonary tuberculosis in underweight diabetics is estimated to be 1.2 times compared to diabetics</p> <p>who are normal (95% CI= 0,121&lt;OR&lt;11,865). The diabetics who have random blood sugar level of ?200</p> <p>mg/dL are 0.46 times to have pulmonary tuberculosis compared to blood sugar level of &lt;200 mg/dL (95%</p> <p>CI=0.111&lt;OR&lt;1.94). The diabetics who have fasting blood sugar level of ?126 mg/dL showed effect 2.43</p> <p>times to be likely get pulmonary tuberculosis either they have &lt;126 mg/dL 95% CI= 0.51&lt;OR&lt;11.51).</p> <p>There was no relationship between blood sugar level, nutritional status, and pulmonary tuberculosis on</p> <p>patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.</p> Ana Mala Fitri1 , Muhammad Atoillah Isfandiari1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1053 1057 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10512 Risk Factors of Green Tobacco Sickness on Tobacco Farmers in Jember Indonesia <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS) is a disease in the working population that is still not widely</p> <p>disclosed. GTS characterized by the main symptoms of nausea, vomiting, dizziness, excessive sweating,</p> <p>and occurs when in contact with wet tobacco. This research purpose is to assess the factors associated</p> <p>with the incidence of GTS in tobacco farmers in Jember, Indonesia. <strong>Methods</strong>. The research design is case</p> <p>control. Research variables are occupational factors and individual factors. Data analysis using binner</p> <p>logistic regression. <strong>Result and Discussion.</strong> The results stated that the variable influencing the case of GTS</p> <p>in tobacco farmers was the work period OR = 2,944, (CI 1,127-7,693) smoking status OR = 18,083 (CI</p> <p>6.815-47,984) dermatosis complaints OR = 3,876 (CI = 1,238-12,138) and nutritional status was assessed</p> <p>with a BMI, OR = 2.643 (CI = 1.038-6.733). Farmers with a working period of working 18 years have a risk</p> <p>of 2,944 times GTS compared to farmers with a work period of &lt;18 years. Farmers with smoking status have</p> <p>a risk of 18,083 times GTS compared to non-smoking farmers. Farmers who have dermatoses have a risk of</p> <p>1,355 times GTS compared to farmers who do not have complaints of dermatosis. Farmers with an abnormal</p> <p>(overweight) BMI have a risk of 2,643 times GTS compared to farmers with a normal BMI. <strong>Conclusion</strong>.</p> <p>Factors that influence the GTS are age, sex, smoking status, complaints of dermatosis, nutritional status, and</p> <p>years of service. The findings of this study suggest that integrated promotive and preventive measures from</p> <p>both agricultural owners and first-rate health care providers need in the form of providing self-help to reduce</p> <p>direct contact with wet tobacco, healthy living behavior without smoking and maintaining nutritional status.</p> Anita Dewi Prahastuti Sujoso1,2, Tri Martiana3 , Santi Martini4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1058 1063 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10513 Identification of the Direction and Strength of Relationship between Complaints of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) to Smoking Habits and Repetitive Movements of Informal Workers in Surabaya, Indonesia Using Spearman Correlation Test Methods <p>The right statistical test to find out the relationship between variables that have ordinal data scale is a</p> <p>spearman correlation test. Spearman correlation shows how strong the relationship and the direction of the</p> <p>relationship between variables. The increasing muscle complaints have a close relationship with smoking</p> <p>habits. The longer and the higher the frequency of people smoke, the smaller the lung capacity. It then</p> <p>results in a decrease in the lung ability to consume oxygen. It also causes one more easily tired when</p> <p>carrying out tasks that require exertion. In addition, complaints due to repetitive movements occur because</p> <p>the muscles continuously receive workload pressure without a chance for relaxation. This condition triggers</p> <p>the occurrence of nerve swelling which will cause pain in the musculoskeletal area. This is an observational</p> <p>study with a cross sectional design. The study used a total sampling population of 12 workers. Spearman</p> <p>correlation is used to examine the strength and direction of the relationship between the dependent variable,</p> <p>MSDs complaints, an ordinal data scale, with independent variables, smoking habits and repetitive</p> <p>movements. This study found that smoking habits and the level of complaints of MSDs in the shelf frame</p> <p>bending workers have fairly strong, positive and unidirectional relationship with correlation coefficient</p> <p>value of 0.357. It also found that repetitive movements and complaint levels MSDs have a positive and</p> <p>perfect relationship with the correlation coefficient value of 1,000.</p> Annisa Dwinda Shafira1, Genduk Lintang Rusmawarda2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1064 1069 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10514 Influence of Vitafort and Lactobifadol Probiotics on Excremental Microbiocenoses of Turkey Poults <p>The article presents the results of research on the use of probiotics “Vitafort” at a dose of 0.5 ml (107 CFU /</p> <ol> <li>g) and “Laktobifadol” at a dose of 0.2 g per 1 kg of live weight in the turkeypoults breeding, which ensured</li> </ol> <p>the development of beneficial intestinal microflora, increased preservation turkey poults, an increase in the</p> <p>digestibility of raw protein and nitrogen-free extractive substances, nitrogen absorption, improvement of</p> <p>hematological and biochemical blood parameters and, ultimately, an increase in live weight and intensity of</p> <p>turkey poults by 9.2 and 12.5%.</p> Ayrat Khabirov1 , Fail Khaziakhmetov1 , Yaroslav Rebezov2,4, Olga Gorelik2 , Marina Derkho3 , Valeriy Kozlov4 , Anna Vasyukova4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1070 1075 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10515 Analysis Of Work Climate And The Increase Of Blood Pressure Of Construction Workers In Pamekasan Regency <p>The excessive exposure of work climate can cause health problems to workers. One of the problems is a</p> <p>change in physiological response in the form of increased blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to</p> <p>determine the relationship between the work climate and the increase of blood pressure in construction</p> <p>workers in Pamekasan Regency. This study is a descriptive observational study with a cross sectional</p> <p>design. The contingency coefficient correlation test was used to analyze and determine the relationship of</p> <p>the variables. The subjects were 19 construction workers in Pamekasan Regency, East Java, Indonesia drawn</p> <p>from the population according to the specified criteria. To collect the data, several different instruments</p> <p>were used. <em>Questtemp 36</em> was used to measure the workclimate, direct observation with the standard of</p> <p>SNI 7269-2009 was carried out to assess the physical workload and sphygmomanometer was used to</p> <p>measure the blood pressure. The blood pressure measurement was carried out the someone with the medical</p> <p>competence. The result of work climate exposure showed that most of workers (84.3%) were exposed to</p> <p>beyond-threshold-value work climate. The results of blood pressure measurement showed that (36.8%)</p> <p>workers showed abnormal blood pressure. The statistical analysis for the correlation of work climate and the</p> <p>increase in blood pressure showed a moderate correlation with the contingency coefficient value of 0.314.</p> <p>It is recommended for companies in this construction project to add blower fan to the working areas where</p> <p>the work climate exceeds the threshold limit value (TLV) as well as at workers’ resting places. In addition,</p> <p>companies are suggested to hold periodic health checks, especially routine blood pressure checks.</p> Dzul Fahmi Afriyanto1 , Noeroel Widajati1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1076 1080 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10516 Relationship between Temperature and Behavior with Pulmonary TB Incidence in Women in the Banyu Urip Health Center Surabaya, Indonesia <p>Tuberculosis was a one of infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The transmission of</p> <p>this disease was influenced by environmental factors and poor behaviour. Based on observation result, the</p> <p>working area of Banyu Urip Health Center was a densely populated area. The purpose of this research was</p> <p>to analyze the house physical quality and behaviour with pulmonary TB incidence in women at the working</p> <p>area of Banyu urip health center.</p> <p>This research was observational analytic research with case control study design. The data analysis was</p> <p>using chi square test. The sample was taken by simple random sampling of 30 houses with pulmonary TB</p> <p>patients and 30 house with no pulmonary TB patients. The data collection was using questionnaire, house</p> <p>physical quality measurement was using observation sheets. The result of the study indicate that temperature</p> <p>and behavior have a significant relationship with the existence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in house air</p> <p>(p&lt;0,05).</p> <p>The conclusion based on chi square test was bedroom temperature and behavior have a relationship with</p> <p>pulmonary TB incidence in women at the working area of Banyu urip health center 2018. The communities</p> <p>were expected to maintain their house physical quality by maintaining the cleanliness of the house and</p> <p>increasing ventilation to facilitate air circulation in the house.</p> Fenti Nur Aini Amallia1 , Retno Adriyani1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1081 1086 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10517 Correlation of Standing Work Position and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) Complaints on Rack Frame Bending Section Workers in Informal Industry of Rack Making in Surabaya, Indonesia <p>This research was conducted to analyze the correlation between standing work position and complaints</p> <p>of musculoskeletal disorders on rack frame bending workers in the informal industry of rack making in</p> <p>Surabaya, Indonesia. When doing rack bending, standing work position was affected by work position. The</p> <p>jobs forced workers to work with non-ergonomic standing work position. This caused workers to experience</p> <p>complaints on the skeletal system (MSDs) faster. This research was an observational research with cross</p> <p>sectional design. The sample used a total population of 5 workers. Data obtained by interview, measurement</p> <p>of height and weight and observation of work position. The data analysis method used was descriptive</p> <p>statistics. It was known that due to non-ergonomic standing work position, 40% of rack frame bending</p> <p>workers had a moderate and high MSDs risk category while 20% of other workers were in the low category.</p> <p>In addition, it was known that 40% of workers had low and moderate MSDs complaints category and 20%</p> <p>of other workers had high MSDs complaints category. Based on the results, the standing work position on</p> <p>the rack frame bending workers had a strong and positive correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.655.</p> <p>In addition to the work position, there was a strong correlation between age, working period, and BMI with</p> <p>MSDs complaints of rack frame bending workers. It was recommended that the employer adjust the frame</p> <p>size on each bending machine and provide seat for workers to rest.</p> Genduk Lintang Rusmawarda1 , Endang Dwiyanti1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1087 1093 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10518 Genetic variation analysis and kinship relationship between Dayak Ngaju tribe and Dayak Bukit tribe through examination of core DNA of Bukit CODIS STR Locus (combine DNA index system) 13 for the purpose of Forensic Identification <p>Dayak Ngaju tribe lived scattered along the Kapuas and Kahayan river. Meanwhile, the Dayak Bukit tribe</p> <p>lived scattered the mountain and valley area. Kinship between Dayak Bukit and Dayak Ngaju tribe is still</p> <p>under debate. DNA examination is one of the most reliable methods in determining personal identity,</p> <p>community, and kinship relationship. FBI has recommended DNA analysis using 13 short tandem repeat</p> <p>loci, known as CODIS 13 for DNA test. We used the system to identify the difference between Dayak Ngaju</p> <p>and Dayak Bukit tribe and analyze the kinship between these two tribes. There are loci and alleles that</p> <p>always owned by each individual of Dayak Ngaju tribe. The Dayak Ngaju characteristic which cannot be</p> <p>discovered in Dayak Bukit tribe are TPOX allele 6 locus, FGA allele 25.2 locus, CSF allele 8, 10.3, 11 locus,</p> <p>VWA allele 13, 15.1 locus, D18S51 allele 9, 13, 18, 20 locus, D21S11 allele 34 locus, D7S870 allele 12.1</p> <p>locus. Dayak Bukit tribe has locus and allele that owned by each individual of Dayak Bukit tribe. The Dayak</p> <p>Bukit tribe characteristic which cannot be discovered in Dayak Ngaju tribe are FGA alleles 18.3, 19.3, 21.2,</p> <p>23, 23.1 locus, CSF allele 28.2 locus, D7S870 allele 7.3 and allele 8 locus. The similarity of Dayak Ngaju</p> <p>tribe and Dayak Bukit tribe lied on 5 dominant loci named THO1 allele 9.3 locus, D5S818 allele 11, VWA</p> <p>allele 16, D3S1358 allele 16, D13S317 allele 8, but these loci are also found in Banjar Hulu tribe. The</p> <p>similarity that only discovered in Dayak Ngaju and Dayak Bukit tribe are located in TPOX allele 7 locus,</p> <p>FGA allele 20.2, 20.3, and D3S1358 allele 15.2. According to the research results above, it can conclude that</p> <p>Dayak Ngaju tribe doesn’t have a close kinship to the Dayak Bukit tribe.</p> Iwan Aflanie1 , Wening Prastowo2 , Roselina Panghiyangani3 , Ahmad Yudianto4 , Toetik Koesbardiati5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1094 1097 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10519 Occurrence of Emerging Pollutants in Skudai River in Johor Bahru Region of Malaysia <p>Increase in landuse development and human activities have significant influence on the occurrence of</p> <p>emerging pollutants (EPs) in water bodies such as rivers. As rivers are the main source of water supply in</p> <p>Malaysia, a study was conducted to determine the occurrence of EPs in one of the drinking water sources,</p> <p>namely Skudai River. Samples were collected five times at eight sampling points from the upstream up to</p> <p>the water intake of the river. Sample pre-treatment was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE), whereas</p> <p>the analyses of the EPs were performed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS-MS</p> <p>QTOF). Results showed that about 50 compounds were detected and fall into categorise as pharmaceuticals,</p> <p>Personal Care Products (PCPs), and Endocrine Disrupting Chemical (EDC). The most prevalent (75-100%)</p> <p>compounds detected were of these categories, whereas the least (less than 40%) were mainly pharmaceuticals.</p> <p>The concentration of styrene, a health-hazards EPs ranged from 45.11 to 203.48 µg/L with increasing trend</p> <p>towards downstream of the river. Based on the landuse data of Skudai River Basin, the study concluded that</p> <p>human activity, landuse, and environmental factors could possibly contribute to the presence of the EPs in</p> <p>the river.</p> Juhaizah Talib1,2, Azmi Aris1,2, Jafariah Jaafar3 , Zaiton Abd Majid3 , Ainul Syarmimi1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1098 1103 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10520 Relationship of Individual Factors, and Social Factors with Mother’s Intention to Continue Early Marriage Tradition in Indonesia <p>Early marriage is a marriage conducted by teenagers under the age of 20 who are not ready to carry out</p> <p>a marriage. Indonesia ranks 37th in the world and 2nd in ASEAN as a country with high rates of young</p> <p>marriage. Marriage at a young age affects physical, psychological and social health. The tradition of getting</p> <p>married at a young age is still high in Sumenep Regency. Sumenep Regency occupies the first position on</p> <p>the island of Madura with 2692 married women &lt;20 years old. This happens because the tradition of young</p> <p>marriage still continues as a result of low individual understanding and supported by social factors. The</p> <p>purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of individual factors and social factors to the mother’s</p> <p>intention to continue early marriage tradition in Sumenep Regency.</p> <p>This is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach. The method of data collection was performed</p> <p>qualitatively using in-depth interview and observation methods. The research instruments in this study were</p> <p>observation sheets and interview guidelines with a total of 32 main and key informants. Data analysis was</p> <p>performed using qualitative analysis including content analysis, analytical procedure, and translations.</p> <p>This study shows that in Sumenep, mothers with history of experiencing young age marriage had the</p> <p>intention to continue the tradition of early marriage. The mothers’ intention to continue the ealy marriage</p> <p>tradition is formed due to the existence of individual factors of past behavior and social factors including</p> <p>education, employment, culture, first marriage and religion.</p> <p>The conclusion of this study is that early marriage will continue. Therefore, cross-sector collaboration</p> <p>between central and regional governments, community leaders and related agencies (KUA and Health</p> <p>center) to reduce and prevent the occurrence of marriage of young children is required.</p> Nurma Fuji Astutik1 , Ira Nurmala1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1104 1108 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10521 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Menstrual Hygiene among Primary School Adolescents in Surabaya, Indonesia <p><strong>Background:</strong> Menstruation is a normal physiological process of an adolescent female. Adolescence is a</p> <p>very important transition period that requires special attention to ensure progress for all girls. Some studies</p> <p>found that menstruation is taboo to be discussed and many girls just known about menstruation when</p> <p>they have menarche. The genitourinary becomes more sensitive and susceptible to infection during the</p> <p>menstruation period. So the appropriate menstrual hygiene practice is very important to maintain the health</p> <p>of reproductive organs. This study objective is to asses the current knowledge, attitude, and practice of</p> <p>primary school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management in Surabaya, Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that was carried out from May to June 2019 in a primary</p> <p>school in Surabaya. This study was done among 78 students selected through total population sampling from</p> <p>a primary school in the urban area of Surabaya.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings showed that 66,7% of participants have good knowledge, 60,3% have a good attitude</p> <p>and 79,5% have good practice regarding menstrual hygiene.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The majority of the participants have good knowledge, attitude and practice regarding</p> <p>menstrual hygiene. Nevertheless, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of all the participants still need to</p> <p>improve. The school along with the parents and health provider are expected to reinforce the health education</p> <p>program about menstrual hygiene management.</p> Pinesa Rachma Andani Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1109 1114 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10522 The Effect of Chromium Exposure on Creatinine and Bun Level of Tanners in Leather Industry in Magetan <p>Chromium in the leather tanning industry can have an impact on workers’ health. Kidney disease is often referred</p> <p>to as a side effect from exposure to chromium. Measurement of creatinine and BUN level is a method of examining</p> <p>kidney function.</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of chromium exposure on creatinine and BUN level in leather</p> <p>tanning workers in small leather industry in Magetan. This type of research is observational with cross sectional</p> <p>design. The sample of the study was 13 exposed worker groups namely chromium operators and 13 unexposed</p> <p>groups namely administrative workers.</p> <p>The results showed that there were differences in the average levels of urine chromium in chromium operators</p> <p>and administrative workers (p-value = 0,000), there were differences in the average creatinine levels in chromium</p> <p>operators and administrative workers (p-value = 0,031), and there were no difference in the average level of BUN</p> <p>in chromium operators and administrative workers (p-value = 0,644). There were no influence of chromium levels</p> <p>in urine on the increase in creatinine levels (p-value = 0,189) and BUN (p-value = 0,854) in tanning workers, with a</p> <p>significance value of p-value&gt; 0,05.</p> <p>The conclusion of this study had that chromium was no effect on creatinine and BUN levels. High levels</p> <p>of urine chromium in tanning workers indicate a health risk that requires control effort. Suggestion given is</p> <p>that the tanners need periodic health examination, keep personal hygiene before and after working as well</p> <p>as using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).</p> Siti Asiah1 , Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 , Y. Denny Ardyanto W1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1115 1121 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10523 The Relationship Between Husband Support and Health Workers Support with Exclusive Breastfeeding Behavior in Sidotopo Village, Surabaya, Indonesia <p>Exclusive breastfeeding is breast milk given to babies from birth to 6 months without added food or drinks</p> <p>except drugs for medical indications. Many factors can affect mothers in giving exclusive breastfeeding.</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between husband’s support and the support of</p> <p>health workers with exclusive breastfeeding. The research used observational analytic method with cross</p> <p>sectional research design. The sample in this study were 65 mothers who have baby aged 7-12 months in</p> <p>Sidotopo Surabaya. The research used simple random sampling technique with Chi-square test with 95%</p> <p>confidence level. The results showed there was no correlation between husband support (p = 0.426) and</p> <p>health workers support (p = 0.166) with the behavior of mothers in exclusive breastfeeding. The conclusion</p> <p>of the study is that there is no significant correaltion between husband support and health workers support</p> <p>with the behavior of mothers in exclusive breastfeeding. So it is necessary to increase counseling about the</p> <p>importance of exclusive breastfeeding, family planning counseling and lactation management.</p> Yurike Dian Pangesti1 , Shrimarti Rukmini Devy1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1122 1126 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10524 Human Rights Based Law Protection Model for the Mental, Spiritual and the Healing Victims of Child Trafficking In Indonesia <p>Abstract: The protection needed by children to face the reality of being the victims of child trafficking is</p> <p>not only physical protection, but mental, spiritual, and social healing as well. The punishment system still</p> <p>focuses on criminals instead of the victims. The law protection model for the victims of child trafficking</p> <p>in Indonesia is not comprehensive, so there is little chance that the victims get their rights. Although Act</p> <p>Number 21 Year 2007 has guaranteed the victims’ rights, the chance to get their rights is relatively minimal.</p> 1 Sulistya Eviningrum, 2 Hartiwiningsih Hartiwiningsih, 3 Mohamad Jamin Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1127 1131 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10526 Potential of Hospital Fraud in the Indonesia National Health Insurance Era (A Descriptive Phenomenological Research) <p>Results of the Public Research Anti Corruption Clearing House The Corruption Eradication Commission</p> <p>submitted on December 2, 2016 that until mid-2015 there was a potential of 175,774 hospital claims of fraud</p> <p>that had been detected with a value of Rp. 440 M. In 2016 found an indication of 1 million fictitious claims</p> <p>from the hospital with a value of Rp. 2 trillion. The potential for fraud in hospitals in the era of National</p> <p>Health Insurance (NHI) in Indonesia will have an impact on health financing inefficiencies and at the same</p> <p>time a threat to the sustainability of the NHI program which is expected to reach Universal Health Coverage</p> <p>in 2019. This phenomenological study aims to explore understanding and meaning of the concept of fraud</p> <p>for parties who has had the potential to commit fraud at the hospital. The research method used qualitative</p> <p>research with a Descriptive Phenomenology Research approach. The informants were officers who served</p> <p>patients in administrative and medical matters and the hospital management was selected by purposive</p> <p>sampling. The focus of the study was the experience felt by informants in running the NHI program and</p> <p>how knowledge and attitudes of informants towards the phenomenon of fraud in hospitals. The results</p> <p>achieved in this phenomenological research were in the form of a reflection of the implementation of NHI in</p> <p>hospitals, especially relating to the phenomenon of potential fraud reflected in the knowledge and attitudes</p> <p>of the hospital about fraud and a description of the occurrence of fraud in the hospital. This is the basis for</p> <p>researchers to formulate indicators of potential fraud that still needs to be tested in a larger population.</p> Abu Khoiri1,2 , Widi Hidayat3 , Djazuly Chalidyanto4, Fendy Suhariadi5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1132 1136 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10527 Breast Feeding Practice Prevention for Nutritional Stunting of Children In Buginese Ethnicity <p><strong>Background.</strong> The practice of breastfeeding is very important to determine the quality of nutrient intake</p> <p>in children under two years. In ethnic Bugis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of</p> <p>breastfeeding on stunting prevention in ethnic Bugis.</p> <p>There is a cross-sectional study in this study. The sample size in this research is 300 mothers and children.</p> <p>The enumerators in this study were applied to undergraduate students of nutrition &amp; dietetic programs in</p> <p>the Makassar Department of Nutrition Health Polytechnic, Indonesia. Research ethics was obtained at the</p> <p>Makassar Health Polytechnic Ethics Commission. Stunting risk factor data analysis with logistic regression</p> <p>test.</p> <p>The results showed that 32% of children were breastfed, with a frequency of 5-8 times / 24 hours breastfeeding.</p> <p>The reason for not breastfeeding a child is over 2 years old, the child refuses to breastfeed (10%), has 17.3%</p> <p>formula milk. Statistical analysis showed that breastfeeding (frequency of breastfeeding), p = 0.013, or 1.99</p> <p>(1,148-3,173) was significant as stunting prevention. The conclusion is breastfeeding habits in ethnic Bugis</p> <p>can prevent stunting.</p> Agustian Ipa1,4 , Rudy Hartono 1,4, Sirajuddin 1, 2,4, Aswita Amir1,4, Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1137 1141 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10529 Assessment of Undergraduate Critical Care Nursing Students’ ‘ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Caring of Dying Patients In Colleges of Nursing at Baghdad University <p>Nurses have played various roles in the development of palliative care, offering leadership, support and</p> <p>focus for the movement. Experiences of death on a clinical placement by nursing students were a major</p> <p>cause of anxiety and sadness.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To asses of students’ knowledge toward care of dying patient and to find out the relationship</p> <p>between students’ knowledge and their demographical characteristic such as age, gender, post level of</p> <p>education.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive study was conducted in the period of December 10th 2018 up to the end of 5th</p> <p>May 2019. A non-probability (purposive) sample of (100) student at college of nursing from different post</p> <p>educational levels, both sexes (males and females), were selected .The data collected was analyzed using</p> <p>SPSS version 17.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> the majority of the study were male who accounted for (58%) of the total participants while female</p> <p>constituted (42%). Most of the study participants (98%) were ages (21-30) years old. (90%) of the student</p> <p>were secondary school graduate. Nanty three percent of the student were married and sixty nine percent</p> <p>were sufficient.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The undergraduate critical cares nursing students were adequately prepared to care for</p> <p>terminally ill and dying patients as they had deficiency in some knowledge about palliative care but their</p> <p>knowledge towards palliative care was good.</p> Ahmed F. Hassan1 ,Haider M. Majeed1 , Aqeel H. Jasim2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1142 1146 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10530 Toxopathological and Cytogenetic Effects of Commercial Sweetener Aspartame after Chronic Oral Administration in Rat Pups <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study was done to evaluate the potential toxic effect of aspartame (APS) artificial sweetener</p> <p>after chronic oral administration in rat pups as a model for children that consumption high quantities of</p> <p>different types of sweets and juices from the peddler, regularly and daily.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty-four rat pups were divided equally into three groups. Therapeutic dose group (T1) and</p> <p>double dose group(T2) received 0.08, 0.16 g/kg. body weight(BW), respectively, while control group (C)</p> <p>received distilled water orally for 90 (d)days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result of present study revealed that there was an increased consumption of food, water and</p> <p>arising nervous signs(aggressive) in T1 and T2 groups comparing with control. The cytogenetic study</p> <p>includes the mitotic index and blast index showing a substantial decline relative to the control one in</p> <p>both treated groups. While the blast index showed a significant reduction(P&lt;0.05) in T2 relative to T1</p> <p>and the control group. No chromosomal aberration observed in all groups exposed to aspartame. Different</p> <p>histopathological lesions were recorded in the liver of T1 group represented by inflammatory cell (neutrophil</p> <p>&amp; mononuclear cell) aggregation around the blood vessels. While noted in a double dose group (0.16g/</p> <p>, a granulomatous lesion with mild change in fat is shown.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Used daily for lengthy periods ASP has cytogenetic and pathological risks.</p> Ali, I. Al-ameedi1 , Zahraa M. Ayad, Falah Mousa Kadhim AL-Rekabi3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1147 1153 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10531 Examining The Forensic Toxicity of Ricin Using Lc/Ms Techniques <p>As one the naturally occurring toxins, Ricin is classified among the deadliest poisons available. Ricin and</p> <p><em>Ricinus communis</em> agglutinin (RCA120) are derived from the castor bean plant. Ricin and its related activities</p> <p>can be detected using either mass spectrometric (MS) assay or Liquid Chromatography (LC). Further, the</p> <p>two methods can be to differentiate ricin from RCA120 because it is less toxic of the two. The sequence of</p> <p>Amino acid is identified by monitoring the active ricin using mass spectrometric. This study discusses how</p> <p>LC and MS methods can be applied to quantify, detect, and differentiate ricin from RCA120 in test samples.</p> <p>On the overall, the two methods were applied to tell aside ricin samples from RCA120. The study concluded</p> <p>that mass spectrometry is the most efficient approach in identifying ricin from RCA120.</p> Bandr Siraj Fakiha Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1154 1158 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10532 Nurses knowledge about Management Extravasation Intravenous Cytotoxic Medication At Amal National Hospital in Baghdad City <p><strong>Background: </strong>Extravasation, the unintentional leak of an anticancer agent from a vessel into the close</p> <p>tissues, is an uninvited and difficult problem that can lead to permanent local harms and severe disability.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To assess nurse’s knowledge about management extravasation vesicant intravenous cytotoxic</p> <p>medication.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Descriptive design using a self-administered questionnaire was employed. At al-Amal</p> <p>national hospital for tumor treatment in Baghdad city from 2nd December 2018 to 10th February 2019).</p> <p>Random sampling method. The sample size was 45 nurses completed a questionnaire about management</p> <p>extravasation vesicant intravenous chemotherapy. Instruments<strong>:</strong> developed by the researcher consist of three</p> <p>sections the first section to assess the demographic data. And the second section questionnaire consists of 20</p> <p>items divided into two parts to measure the information of team nurses on vesicant drug and management</p> <p>extravasation Vesicant intravenous chemotherapy. Data analysis by using the Statistical Package for Social</p> <p>Sciences version (SPSS) 23.0 included. (Frequency, percentage, Kruskal Wallis H test, Chi-square test, and</p> <p>Mann-Whitney U test). The level of significance was the threshold at p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> shows that the high percentage (42.2%) of oncology nurses ages (30-39 years old). Most of</p> <p>them (57.8 %) were female. The education level represents (42.2%) of nurses were from nursing institute</p> <p>graduates, the high percentage (46.7%) of them their experience in oncology unite were (5-9) years. Mostly</p> <p>no training session. Inferential there are statistically significant between education levels groups the nursing</p> <p>college showed a higher mean knowledge score than other levels. also, a higher significantly difference was</p> <p>observed between mean knowledge and participate with Training courses by mean (36.40) The researcher</p> <p>decide that nurse’s knowledge is the poor component about vesicant cytotoxic and management extravasation</p> <p>according to of assessment result</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> there is a need for structuring a permanent education program due to the poor scientific</p> <p>of nurse’s knowledge about the vesicant and management of extravasation by chemotherapeutic drugs.</p> <p>Therefore, the issue of training courses should be highlighted for it is an effective role in improving the</p> <p>performance of nurses.</p> Batool Kadham Hussin1 , Wrood Abdul Razaq Ahmed2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1159 1164 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10533 Correlation between BMI and Thyroid Hormones in Infertile Groups <p>Infertility is the failure to become pregnant after 12 months of copulation without contraception . Thyroid</p> <p>defeat in function can caused to the: menstrual disorder, an ovulatory phase and lower fertility. This search</p> <p>formed to assess the importance of thyroid syndromes in infertility women and importance the autoimmunity</p> <p>by assessing value of TSH, T3, T4, &amp; anti Thyroid peroxidase antibody in infertile woman comparison the</p> <p>consequences with women controls. The direction in this search started from March 2015 to September</p> <p>2015 at Karbala Maternity Hospital, infertility unit, and some private clinics. Showed significant relation</p> <p>between TPO and BMI in controls and patients p –value (&lt;0.002 ,&lt;0.0001) respectively, and significant</p> <p>relation between BMI and T4 in patients and controls p-value (&lt;0.0001) , and shows significant relation</p> <p>between , the relation between BMI and sex hormones shows no significant relation with LH in patients but</p> <p>significant in controls p-value (&lt;0.0001) and relation with FSH was not significant in patients and controls ,</p> <p>and relation with E2 shows significant relation in patients p-value (&lt;0.01) but no significant in controls. This</p> <p>search directed to estimation the relationship between thyroid function and sex hormones with BMI. Where</p> <p>the height of BMI affects the body to increase TPO and T4 and affect estradiol , we recommend that women</p> <p>maintain the body weight within normal</p> Etab Abdul-Ameer Al-ogla1 ,Manar Saad Hussain2, Suad Torki Abd-AL abbas3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1165 1168 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10534 Effectiveness of an Educational Program on Primary School Teachers’ Knowledge about Attention -Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders <p>The child is one of the most important assets of the nation, the future of mankind, the source of its true</p> <p>power, the promotion and enhancement of the child’s life and welfare is also anchored on the moral</p> <p>supervision and support given by his parents or guardians in order for a child to succeed, parents exert a</p> <p>lot of influence on their child’s cognitive development in the early years, the investigator made an insight</p> <p>into the aim of the study as follows: To determine the effectiveness of the teaching program on teachers</p> <p>knowledge. The study was conducted on at governmental primary schools in Al-Najaf City/ Iraq. A total of</p> <p>the (10) governmental primary schools selected randomly from total (253) governmental primary schools</p> <p>in Al-Najaf City. A purposive (non- probability) sample of (70) primary school teachers’ were selected</p> <p>from the candidate schools were included in the present study. During the period of 1st September 2018 to</p> <p>20th February 2020. The data was collected by questionnaire which consisted of two main parts, first part</p> <p>consists socio demographic sheet. Second part is about knowledge which consist of (31) items scale of</p> <p>teachers’ knowledge about children with ADHD . Findings revealed confirmed that the teachers who not</p> <p>attended for program about ADHD have poor level of knowledge pupils with attention -deficit/hyperactivity</p> <p>disorder among elementary school teachers. While the teachers who attended for program about ADHD</p> <p>have improve and increase knowledge about ADHD in phase two, and three. Thus, it is recommended for</p> <p>responsible parties to notes the need for greater efforts to teachers should trained to recognize students with</p> <p>behaviors problems / disorders in their classes to provide them with proper and timely education as well as</p> <p>necessary referral for their assessment<strong>. </strong></p> Hassam M. Al-Amarei1 , Saja H. Mohamed2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1169 1173 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10535 Anatomical and Immunohistochemical Variations Regarding the Epidermal Stem Cell among Different Traumatic Fingers of Hands in Iraqi Male Workers <p><strong>Background:</strong> The role of stem cell during the whole life of human constricted into two stages. First stage</p> <p>occurred during prenatal life when stem cell take part in formation of organ in process called embryogenesis.</p> <p>Second stage occurred in postnatal life when these cells contribute in regeneration of damaged or old tissue</p> <p>as repairing or substituting cell in adults.</p> <p><strong>Patient and Method:</strong> 150 male volunteers who work in different industries with traumatic finger of the right</p> <p>or left hand (33 right thumb,25 right middle finger ,22 right little finger,28 left thumb,26 left middle fingers</p> <p>16 left little finger) were taken on from the Department of surgery, Baghdad Hospital, Baghdad; Iraq from</p> <p>February 2019 to October 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Anatomical results showing that The grip was affected only in case of traumatic thumb. Vimentin</p> <p>rich-stem cells were highly positive in the proximal epidermal areas of traumatic fingers more than the stem</p> <p>cells in the distal areas of the same fingers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> there is a little hope in the near future that the injured or even amputated finger or any part of</p> <p>the body could be replaced by new one made by culturing stem cells in laboratories.</p> Hatem A Hatem1 , Ahmed S. Mazyon2 , Hala Mohammed Majeed3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1174 1179 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10536 Gene Expression and Levels of Plasma Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-Receptor Type 22 (PTPN22) in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients and Their Household Contacts in Makassar, Indonesia <p><strong>Background</strong>: The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gen,has been involved in</p> <p>the immune response to tuberculosis infection by affecting the inflammatory response and subsequent anti</p> <p>microbial immunity. This study aims to determine the PTPN22 expression and differences in the levels of</p> <p>PTPN22 in pulmonary TB patients (PTB) with household contacts and healthy control.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: We analyzed PTPN22 expression and the level of plasma PTPN22 from pulmonary tuberculosis</p> <p>patients (PTB), household contacts and healthy control using real time PCR and ELISA method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> ThirtyPTB, 30 household contacts and 30 control were involved in this study. Analysis of the</p> <p>assocation of PTPN22 gene expression against TB showed that PTPN22 gene expression was 7.3 times</p> <p>upregulated compared to household contact and 12.1 times upregulated compared to healthy controls.Levels</p> <p>of plasma PTPN22 in PTB: 10.0620 ng/ml, in Household contact: 6.7923 ng/ml and in control: 4.4293 ng/</p> <ol> <li>These values did not differ significantly between the patients, household contact and control.</li> </ol> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study results found that PTPN22 gene expression is significantly increased in PTB than</p> <p>household contact and control.Levels of plasma PTPN22 in PTB patientsdid not differ significantly than in</p> <p>household contact and control.</p> Ibrahim A1,3, Djaharuddin I2 , Hidayah N1 , Subair1 , Handayani I1 , Tenriola A1 , Massi MN4,5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1180 1185 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10537 Quantitative and Histological Study of the Effect of Cadmium Oxide on Both Body and Kidney of Mice <p>The present study was conducted using 24 normal male of Swiss white mice weighing (36-40 gm), 70 days</p> <p>old .The mice were divided into four groups of six mice each. The mice of control group were fed pellet</p> <p>and given tap water during the entire period of the experiment (30 days).The other three groups of mice</p> <p>were given cadmium oxide orally at doses of (7.0 mg / kg body wt., 14.1 mg / kg body wt., and 22.3 mg /</p> <p>kg body wt.) consecutively every day for 30 days and weight in gm was taken once a week. With standard</p> <p>histological techniques, samples were obtained from kidney of the mice. The body weights along with</p> <p>kidney weights were decreased with increase of doses. Also it has been concluded that cadmium oxide</p> <p>caused damages in renal corpuscle (Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus) and renal cortical tubules as well as</p> <p>decrease in body weight and kidney weight (wt.).</p> Khalid H. Gathwan1 , Ahmed Anwar Albir1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1186 1189 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10538 Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) Effect on Growth Malassezia Furfur and Aspergillus sp on Media <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malassezia furfur and Aspergillus sp are fungi associated with infection in humans. One of</p> <p>the plants that can use as anti fungi is clove (Syzygium aromaticum).</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this study was to determine the growth barriers of Malassezia furfur and Aspergillus</p> <p>sp on media with the addition of Clove Powder (Syzygium aromaticum).</p> <p><strong>Material and Method:</strong> The equipment used by cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) is a part of the reddish</p> <p>green flower. The samples used in this study were Malassezia furfur and Aspergillus sp. Specimens planted</p> <p>on Saboraud Dextrose Agar media with the addition of clove powder (Syzygium aromaticum) in various</p> <p>concentrations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Malassezia furfur in media with clove powder concentration of 0%; 0.05%; 0.1% shows the</p> <p>number of colonies 1330; 1135; 765. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus on media</p> <p>with clove powder concentration of 0%; 0.05%; 0.2% indicates colony diameter of 6.8 cm; 5 cm; 3.7 cm</p> <p>(Aspergillus niger), 6.7 cm; 5 cm; 4.3 cm (Aspergillus flavus), 7 cm; 5 cm; 2.3 cm (Aspergillus fumigatus).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Media with Addition of Clove Powder (Syzygium aromaticum) can inhibit the growth of</p> <p>Malassezia furfur and Aspergillus sp.</p> Leka Lutpiatina1 , Pebri Fitria Lestari2 , Dwi Intan Purnama Sari2 , Haitami1 , Rifqoh1 , Nurlailah1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1190 1195 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10539 Assessment of Aggression among High Schools Students <p><strong>Background:</strong> Aggression is a behavioral characteristic that refers to forceful actions or procedures (such a</p> <p>deliberate attack) with intentions to dominate or master. It tends to be hostile, injurious, or destructive, and</p> <p>is often motivated by frustration for an individual, aggressive behavior is considered understandable and</p> <p>normal under appropriate circumstances, but when it is frequent, intense, lasting, and pervasive, it is more</p> <p>likely to be a symptom of a mental disorder. Likewise, aggression between groups, can be in the form of</p> <p>healthy competition, but can become harmful when unfair or unjust disadvantage or frustration is perceived,</p> <p>leading to hostility.<strong> Objectives:</strong> assessment aggression among high school students.<strong> Methodology:</strong> A</p> <p>descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in order to achieve the stated objectives. The study has</p> <p>begun from 1st September 2018. Settings of the Study: The settings of the study include (41) High secondary</p> <p>schools which are distributed in (3) Districts of Al-Najaf Governorate, urban (23) schools and rural (18)</p> <p>schools, these schools are systematic randomly selected. <strong>Results:</strong> most majority was moderate aggressive</p> <p>by 52.7%. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> this study show which included an overall assessment of Aggressive, where the</p> <p>study showed that the most majority was moderate aggressive.<strong> Recommendations: </strong>Supporting educational</p> <p>methods by the Educational Committee that limits aggressive behavior of adolescents in schools, such as</p> <p>(moving away from scenes of an aggressive nature, beating, violence, fighting, quarrels, and blood scenes).</p> <p>And The teacher devotes part of the lesson time to clarifying issues and harms of aggression, and to show the</p> <p>benefits of tolerance and contentment. and The school administration cooperated with the teenager’s family</p> <p>to identify the causes of his aggression. Finally, The Ministry of Education is working to create posters that</p> <p>reject aggression and suspend it throughout the school.</p> Mansour Abdullah Falah Al-Zorfi1 , Hussein Jassim Muhammad Al-Ibrahimi.2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1196 1198 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10540 Correlation of Anthropometry Characteristics and Six-Minute Walking Test Distance In Children Aged 7-8 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a useful test for measuring functional capacity and</p> <p>predicting morbidity and mortality. The 6MWT is not widely used in children because the exact reference</p> <p>data are often not known, and the test requires concentration and co-operation from the participants, which</p> <p>is harder to manage in children. The anthropometry characteristic influences the 6MWT distance.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between anthropometry characteristic and 6MWT</p> <p>distance in children aged 7-9 years old.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This research was an observational analytic study using cross-sectional design that was conducted</p> <p>on August 2013. Weight, height and body mass index were measured according to the Decree of Ministry of</p> <p>Health Republic of Indonesia. The 6MWT was performed according to American Thoracic Society (ATS) in</p> <p>a 15m indoor walkway. The data were analyzed using several tests, including Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for</p> <p>data normality test and Pearson’s correlation test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The average 6 MWT distance in all subjects was 390.45±50.05 meters, with the average 6 MWT</p> <p>distance in subjects aged 7 and 8 were 370.15±45.64 and 410.75±46.47 meters, respectively. Pearson’s</p> <p>correlation test showed a positive correlation between height and 6 MWT in allsubjects, but there was no</p> <p>correlation between height, weight and body mass index with 6 MWT distance in each age group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The anthropometry characteristic was not correlated with the 6MWT distance in children aged</p> <p>7 and 8 years old.</p> Martha Kurnia Kusumawardani1 , Ratna Darjanti Haryadi1 , Andriati1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1199 1204 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10542 Ultrasound Characterization of Abdominal Wall Endometriosis <p><strong>Background:</strong>Aim: Our aim in this study is to define the ultrasound finding in the patients have abdominal</p> <p>wall mass proven by postoperative histopathology as abdominal wall endometriosis.</p> <p><strong>Patients &amp; Methods</strong>: A cross sectional study was done from first of August 2016- first of September 2019 in</p> <p>Baghdad governorate. The study included 32 patients. Diagnosis done by superficial ultrasound examination.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>32 female have done at least 1 Cesarean section the commenst presenting symptom was pain in 90%</p> <p>of patients , all the lesions were hypoechoic in texture , with heterogeneity and small foci of echogenisity in</p> <p>75% of our population , the consistency of the lesions was purely sold in 93.8% of lesions ,on color Doppler</p> <p>only 18.7% was avascular , the resistive index of the arterial flow was below 0.70 in 31 % of patients ,on</p> <p>elastography 78.5% of lesions was hard , the accuracy of assessment of muscle infiltration was 71% ,the</p> <p>ultrasound was the only imaging required preoperatively in 85% of our patients , the ultrasound was able to</p> <p>discriminate between endometrioma and collection or hernias in all patients and was the in the differential</p> <p>diagnosis list in about 90% of our population</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>the ultrasound characteristics of abdominal wall endometriosis if combined with clinical</p> <p>features and symptoms of the patients is excellent preoperative imaging modality to reach the diagnosis and</p> <p>exclude other lesions and accurately assessing muscle invasion in most of cases for proper surgical planning</p> Mohammed Bader Hassan, Omar Muayad Sultan2 , Adnan Mohammed Brayyich3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1205 1211 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10543 Gene Polymorphism Vitamin D receptor BsmI in Thalassemia Children in Al-Muthanna Province <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Vitamin D is crucial for calcium, phosphate homeostasis and mineralization of the skeleton,</p> <p>particularly through growth time developments. Vitamin D deficiency lead to rickets in children and</p> <p>osteoporosis in adult. The activity of vitamin D receptors (VDR) are responsible for the vitamin D so</p> <p>that the single nucleotide polymorphism was detected using BsmI. <strong>Material and methods</strong>: In this study,</p> <p>the vitamin D3 level were measured using enzyme-linked sorbent assay (ELISA) technique, followed by</p> <p>detection of the polymorphism VDR- BsmI gene using PCR and BsmI restriction enzyme assay (PCR</p> <p>RFLP). <strong>Results</strong>: Vitamin D, alkaline phosphate and others biochemical were performed in 50 patients beta</p> <p>thalassemia were divided into 25 males and same number females. The biochemical results demonstrated no</p> <p>significant difference p&lt;0.05 between males and females according gender, whereas showed high significant</p> <p>serum calcium p value 0.048 according body mass index. We using RFLP-PCR technique to amplify VDR</p> <p>gene BsmI, DNA ladder molecular weight was 1000-2500 base pair and BsmI digestion showing predicted</p> <p>product in 823 to 175 pb in all lane. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: BsmI digestion was showing heterozygous mutant (Bb)</p> <p>and homozygous (BB). These result gene polymorphism VDR BsmI effected on vitamin D levels and related</p> <p>with bone diseases and process metabolism.</p> Mohammed Qasim Waheeb1 , Yasir Adil Jabbar Alabdali2 , Hanaa Ali Azez2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1212 1218 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10544 Role of Interleukin-36 in Response to Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection <p><strong>Background:</strong> One of the causative agents of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) is <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em></p> <p>which can lead to severe infection associated with a lung infection. Many cytokines are secreted in response</p> <p>to bacterial infection, in particular, interleukin IL-36 cytokine in response to <em>P. aeruginosa</em> infection. IL36</p> <p>promotes primary immune response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Indeed, an over activity of</p> <p>IL-36 might be an initiating factor for many immunopathologic sceneries in pneumonia.</p> <p><strong>The aims of Study:</strong> the involvement of IL-36 in the <em>P. aeruginosa</em> infection could be a clue to find a specific</p> <p>way for treatments of different inflammatory and degenerative lung diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methodology and Results:</strong> we used manual and VITEK2 system to isolate and purify all the species, also</p> <p>using qPCR real-time to demonstrate that the involvement of IL-36 cytokine in response <em>P. aeruginosa </em></p> <p>infection which is isolated from (LRT). We found that one of the most common pathogens is <em>P. aeruginosa </em></p> <p>after <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>, and more resistance bacterium against antibiotics is <em>P. aeruginosa</em> (P4).</p> <p>Furthermore, we found that IL-36 cytokine increased in response to <em>P. aeruginosa</em> infection.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>P. aeruginosa</em> is one of the main causative agents in LRT in many hospitals in Iraq, and the</p> <p>contamination and antibiotics resistance for these nosocomial pathogens is increased. Also, IL-36 expression</p> <p>significantly upregulated in human lung epithelial (A549 cells) after infected by <em>P. aeruginosa</em> at the mRNA</p> <p>level.</p> Muslim Idan Mohsin1 , Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti1 , Rusul Idan Mohsin3 , Sarmad Al-Sahaf2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1219 1224 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10545 Study of Mean Platelet Volum When Exposed to Ultrasound Waves for Hypertension Patients <p>Platelets are one of the most important cells in human blood, and help control bleeding. Mean platelet</p> <p>volume (MPV) play a vital role to indicate the activation of platelets. any significant changes of mean</p> <p>platelet volume will effect on platelet activity. Vibration-stimulats changes in the platelets activity as a type</p> <p>of stress upon MPV. This study aimed to investigate the impact of ultrasound waves on MPV of healthy and</p> <p>hypertension subjects in vitro model study. Venous blood samples obtained from healthy subjects (n=43 )</p> <p>and hypertensive patients (n=61 ) have been exposed to ultrasound waves for two periods (5-10) minutes.</p> <p>The MPV was measured using the Coulter electronic count (Complete blood Count). The results have been</p> <p>showen that ultrasound waves caused a significant changes MPV in healthy subjects and hypertensive</p> <p>patients. The changes in the MPV are dependently related to the exposure time. In healthy subjects, the MPVs</p> <p>have been significantly increased by 12.6% for 10-min exposure while in hypertensive are significantly</p> <p>decreased by 9.1% for 10-min. It concludes that ultrasound induced an increase of the MPV, and this effect is</p> <p>tended to be less in patients with hypertension indicated that the responses of platelets are reduced in chronic</p> <p>diseases. It is clearly indication that the cellular response of MPVs in hypertension patients were very weak</p> <p>may because of hypertension. Whereas, MPVs response of healthy subject remained normal and effective.</p> Mustafa Abdulkareem Salman1 , Asmaa Najm Abd2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1225 1229 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10546 Oral Candidiasis in Chronic Kidney Disease <p><strong>Objective :</strong> The study aims to : 1.Identification and isolation of candida spp in Patients with renal dialysis.</p> <p>2.To identify the relationship between some important parameters(age , gender ,other disease) associated</p> <p>with chronic kidney disease and oral candidiasis. 3.Study of antifungal susceptibility profile for <em>C. albicans </em></p> <p>in oral candidiasis. This study was performed in AL- Zahraa Teaching Hospital (Kidney Center) Wasit</p> <p>Governorate during the period from the first of December 2018 to the end of July 2019.The samples were</p> <p>collected from oral swabs ,then cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) , examined under microscope to</p> <p>show hypha and pseudohypha of Candida spp and cultured on chrom agar for identifying the <em>Candida</em> spp.</p> <p>The molecular methods that used in this study were vitek 2 system and Polymerase chain reaction(PCR). The</p> <p>results showed that from 50 oral sample from Patients with renal dialysis 24 (48%) infected with Candidiasis</p> <p>20 (83.3%)was <em>C.albicans </em>and 4 (16.7%)other <em>Candida</em> Spp (<em>C.Famata</em>, <em>C.Prosabilosis</em> and <em>C.Tropicalis</em>) ,</p> <p>while 26 (52%) non infected. There is not relationship between the age ,gender and other disease in chronic</p> <p>kidney disease and the infections with oral candidiasis.</p> Mustafa Naeem N.AL- Sarray1 , Abdul Basit A. Sammed Abdulla2, Muhamed Ali Al Kabe3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1230 1234 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10550 The Effect of Boiling Time on the Concentration of Nitrite in Sausages <p><strong>Background : </strong>Nitrite is often used as a preservative as well as curing to brighten foods made from raw</p> <p>meat such as sausages. Excessive use of nitrite can cause symptomatic methemoglobin, tumors to cancer in</p> <p>humans. One method that can be used to reduce nitrate levels in sausages is by boiling.</p> <p><strong>Aim :</strong> The study aimed to determine the effect of boiling time on the nitrite content of sausages.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method : </strong>This type of research is an experiment with a one group</p> <p>pretest-posttest design. The research material is sausages obtained from distributors, Banjarbaru. The</p> <p>research material treatment was carried out by boiling sausages with distilled water for 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25</p> <p>minutes at 80-90o C.</p> <p><strong>Results : </strong>There was a decrease in the level of nitrite in sausage after boiling, which is consecutive at 1.44</p> <p>ppm (5 min); 1.17 ppm (10 minutes); 0.98 ppm (15 minutes); 0.83 ppm (20 minutes) and 0.7 ppm (25 min).</p> <p>The linear regression test found that R square was 0.574 or 57.4%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion : </strong>Meat sausage boiling process can lower nitrite levels in sausages, the longer the boiling process</p> <p>is increasing the amount of nitrite being eliminated from the sausage with the highest number of boiling for</p> <p>25 minutes there is a decrease of 70%.</p> Nurlailah1 , Dinna Rakhmina1 , Badar Ruddin2 , Anny Thuraidah1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1235 1240 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10554 Platelet Counts Analysis of Platelet-Poor Plasma (PPP) Produced by Several Centrifugation Techniques <p>Platelet-poor plasma (PPP) can be obtained by various centrifugation techniques. This study aims to analyze</p> <p>platelet count in PPP produced by three different centrifugation techniques. Samples came from a healthy</p> <p>adult who underwent medical check-up and had been given informed consent. A total of 2.7 mL of blood</p> <p>samples were collected using three citrated tubes. Samples were centrifuged by three different techniques</p> <p>to obtain PPP: 1,500 g for 15 minutes twice, 3,000 g for 15 minutes, and 3,260 g for 10 minutes. The</p> <p>platelet count of each PPP was examined using a hematology analyzer. All three centrifugation techniques</p> <p>produced &lt;10,000/µL platelets in all PPP from 31 samples. The twice centrifugation of 1,500 g for 15</p> <p>minutes produced a median number of platelets which was 1×103 /µL (0-3). The 3,000 g centrifugation for 15</p> <p>minutes produced a median number of platelets which was 1×103 /µL (0-5). The 3,260 g centrifugation for 10</p> <p>minutes produced a median number of platelets which was 2×103 /µL (0-5). A comparison of platelet count</p> <p>showed a significant difference (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) among the three centrifugation techniques. The three centrifugation</p> <p>techniques in this study were able to produce PPP. The centrifugation technique of 1,500 g for 15 minutes</p> <p>twice produced the lowest number of platelets.</p> Pande Putu Rangga Raditya1 , Yetti Hernaningsih2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1241 1245 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10559 Feeding Style for Children Aged 0-59 Months of Buginese Ethnicity <p>Background. The study of Feeding Style of children in ethnic Buginese was focused on caregiver styles to</p> <p>feeding practices that influences nutritional stunting. The purpose of this study was to determine feeding style</p> <p>of Bugis ethnicity. Method. The cross sectional study and the sample size is 300 subjects, selected by random</p> <p>sampling. Located in in Makassar City, South Sulawesi Provice Indonesia (st<em>arting January-December </em></p> <p><em>2019). </em>Enumerators in this study were students of the Applied Nutrition &amp; Dietetic in Nutrition Department</p> <p>of the Health Polytechnic Makassar. Research ethics was obtained at the Makassar Health Polytechnic Ethics</p> <p>Commission. The results showed that stunting prevalence for children in Bugineses ethnicity was 22,7%</p> <p>and Feeding Style consists of four groups namely caring ( <em>indulgent </em>), compromise ( <em>authoritative </em>), free</p> <p>( <em>uninvolved </em>) and completely regulating ( <em>authoritarian </em>). The conclusion is that the style of Bugis ethnic</p> <p>child feeding style consists of four groups namely <em>indulgent, authoritative</em>, <em>uninvolved,</em> and <em>authoritarian</em>.</p> Rudy Hartono1,4, Agustian Ipa1,4, Sirajuddin1,3,4, Aswita Amir1,4, Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1246 1250 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10560 Renal Protective Effects of Gamma-Mangostin in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice <p>This study was aimed to investigate the ability of gamma-mangostin to reduce plasma blood urea nitrogen</p> <p>(BUN) and creatinine and ameliorates the impaired renal proximal tubular cells in diabetic mice. Antioxidant</p> <p>assay was conducted by using male BALB/c mice. Mice were divided into two groups, they were normal</p> <p>control (KN) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Streptozotocin (STZ) induction was performed</p> <p>using multiple low-dose of 30 mg/kg body weight injected for five consecutive days. Diabetic mice have</p> <p>divided into three subgroups; diabetic control (KD), diabetic mice treated with acarbose (KA), and diabetic</p> <p>mice treated with gamma-mangostin. The gamma-mangostin treatment group was categorized based on the</p> <p>dose given; P1 (1 mg/kg BW), P2 (2 mg/kg BW), and P3 (4 mg/kg BW). Interestingly, gamma-mangostin</p> <p>administration was found to be able to lower plasma BUN and creatinine and ameliorate the impaired renal</p> <p>proximal tubular cells in diabetic mice significantly. Therefore, gamma-mangostin has demonstrated high</p> <p>antioxidant activity. The proof suggests that gamma-mangostin is a lead compound candidate for clinical</p> <p>management or prevent diabetes mellitus.</p> Saikhu Akhmad Husen1,2, Salamun1 , Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori3 , Suhailah Hayaza4 , Raden Joko Kuncoroningrat Susilo4 , Dwi Winarni1,2, Win Darmanto5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1251 1256 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10562 Complemetary Feeding Practices Influences of Stunting Children in Buginese Ethnicity <p><strong>Backgroun</strong>d. Breast milk and complementary foods are very influential variables in the nutritional status of</p> <p>children. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for stunting in the Bugis ethnic group</p> <p>in Makassar based on breastfeeding factors, complementary foods for breast milk</p> <p><strong>Method. </strong>There is a cross-sectional study in this study. The sample size in this research was 300 subjects</p> <p>in Makassar City. Enumerators in this study were students of the Applied Nutrition &amp; Dietetic Bachelor</p> <p>Program in the Nutrition Department of the Health Polytechnic Makassar, Indonesia, and the Nutrition</p> <p>Department Students at Science University Management. Research ethics was obtained at the Makassar</p> <p>Health Polytechnic Ethics Commission. Stunting risk factor data analysis with logistic regression test.</p> <p>Reliability and validity analysis of Bugis ethnic feeding style care with explanatory factor analysis, and</p> <p>Content Validity. Confirmatory factor analysis with Bartlett’s and The KMO Coefficient.</p> <p>The results of the study note that the risk factor for stunting is a child factor that is good appetite being a</p> <p>protective variable with a significance value of p = 0,000, OR 0.289 (0.185-0.480). Factors for breastfeeding</p> <p>(frequency of breastfeeding), p = 0.013, OR 1.99 (1.148-3.173). The conclusion is that the risk factor for</p> <p>stunting is breastfeeding. The suggestion is that education about good breastfeeding practices among ethnic</p> <p>Bugis caregivers needs to be done at the family level.</p> Sirajuddin1,2,6, Saifuddin Sirajuddin3 , Veny Hadju3 , Toto Sudargo4 , Rudy Hartono1,6, Agustian Ipa1,6, Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1257 1263 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10563 Effect of Purified prodigiosin from Serratia Marcescens on the Inhibition of Breast Cancer (MCF-7 and CAL-51 Cell Line) <p>The prodigiosin pigment was extracted from <em>Serratia marcescens</em> bacteria by using different methods</p> <p>such as by using ethyl acetate and acetone and purified by using column cahromatography , Detection and</p> <p>characterization of the pigment was done by using Thin layer chromatography and ? max, The purified</p> <p>Prodigiosin was dissolved in DMSO solvent and prepared in four concentration (1000, 500, 250, 125) µg/</p> <p>ml at exposure time 24 hrs so it was used in treating MCF7 and CAL-51 cell line, the result showed that</p> <p>the inhibition ratio against MCF-7 was significant (p &lt; 0.001) and maximum ratio of inhibition was 83% at</p> <p>conc. of 1000 µg/ml , 78% at 500 µg/ml , 73% at 250 µg/ml and 72% at 125 µg/ml while inhibition ratio</p> <p>against CAL-51 was also significant (p &lt; 0.001) and 78% inhibition ratio was seen at conc. of 1000 µg/ml</p> <p>, 61% at 500 µg/ml , 27% at 250 µg/ml and 14% at 125 µg/ml , effect of the solvent DMSO on tumor cells</p> <p>also was studied and compared to the effect of prodigiosin and result showed that there was no effect or</p> <p>slightly effect of the solvent DMSO on MCF-7 tumor cells.(Inhibition was 6% ,13% ,16% , 22% for conc.</p> <p>125 , 250 , 500 , 1000 µg/ml respectively) also there was no effect or slightly effect of the solvent DMSO on</p> <p>tumor CAL-51 cells.(Inhibition was 2% , 8% , 21% , 26% for conc. 125 ,250,500, 1000 µg/ml respectively) .</p> Taif H. Hassan1 , Sawsan H. Authaman1 , Khawlah J. Khalaf1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1264 1269 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10564 The Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus Infections among People Screened in Governmental Health Care Facilities in 2018 in Iraq <p><strong>Background</strong>: The HCV the objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of HCV infection</p> <p>(anti-HCV antibodies) in Iraq. <strong>Methodology: </strong>The criteria for diagnosis of HCV infection included new</p> <p>seroconversion manifested by the presence of positive HCV antibodies by screening tests and ascertained</p> <p>this result by confirmatory assays in the year 2018. The patients with HCV positive seroconversion recorded</p> <p>before 2018 are excluded from HCV incidence in 2018. The primarily positive cases were tested by anti-HCV</p> <p>antibodies confirmatory test prior to recording as new HCV infected cases. A sample size of 97,290 persons</p> <p>from the all 18 Iraqi governorates was enrolled in this study. <strong>Results</strong>: Among 97,290 persons screened for</p> <p>HCV antibodies, 576 new HCV infections were recorded as newly infected with incidence rate of 5.9:1000</p> <p>among all Iraqi governorates in 2018. The highest incidence was reported in Baghdad-Resafa, Diwaniya,</p> <p>and Sulaymaniyah, and they were 15.2:1000, 13.7:1000, and 13.2:1000 respectively; the lowest incidence</p> <p>rates were registered in Erbil, Diyala, and Najaf and the results were zero, 0.32, and 0.53 respectively. In all</p> <p>Iraqi governorates, the highest incidence of HCV infection was at the age group 15–45 years and the lowest</p> <p>was in age group 1-4 years. For the total 576 new HCV recorded infections, 296 were males and 280 were</p> <p>females, with male to female ratio of 1:1.1.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The incidence rate of HCV infection is high among people screened for anti-HCV Abs in Iraq</p> <p>in the year 2018 especially in Baghdad-Resafa, nearly both genders are equally affected and HCV infection</p> <p>is mostly recorded in age group 15-45 years. The HCV screening program should be achieved in all regions</p> <p>of Iraq and for all the required population groups, and it should be a compulsory measure.</p> Yasmeen J.Al-Bayaa1 , Zainab A. Hamid 1 , Ali H. Bayati2 , Sarmad M. Zeiny1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1270 1276 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10565 Study of Gastroesophageal Reflex Disease in adult Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms <p>Gastrointestinal symptoms are relatively common in clinical practice in patients with type II diabetes</p> <p>mellitus. type II DM has been described as possible risk factor for the development of gastroesophageal</p> <p>reflux disease, in this study we aim to detect the prevalence of GRED in symptomatic patients with type</p> <p>II DM , also to see the accuracy of reflex disease questionnaire ( RDQ) in the diagnosis of GERD in</p> <p>patients with type II DM in relation to the esophagogastroduodenoscopy finding and to study the relation of</p> <p>autonomic neuropathy to the prevalence and stages of GERD in diabetic patients .</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A ninety patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms was divided in to tow groups according</p> <p>to whether had type II DM or not and then each group involved in a two stage process (a ) – a RDQ , ( b) –</p> <p>OGD .</p> <p>And patients in the DM group underwent another step to detect diabetic neuropathy by a bed side clinical</p> <p>test .</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The prevalence of esophagitis in this study was higher in the DM group .</p> <p>RDQ had a statistical significance in detecting esophagitis in the DM group .</p> <p>There is no relation of autonomic neuropathy to the prevalence of GERD in diabetic patients . .</p> <p>Conclusion: The prevalence of GERD was high in patients with type II DM , RDQ is a sensitive tool for the</p> <p>diagnosis of GERD in diabetic pateints , Autonomic neuropathy did not increase prevalence of esophagitis</p> <p>in diabetic patients .</p> Maysam Riyadh Mohammed Hussein1 , Sadiq Jabar Almohana2 , Hayder Nadhum Muhsen3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1277 1282 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10566 Molecular and Phylogenetic Study of Sarcocystis Gigantia from Different Slaughterhouse Regions in Karbala province <p>Sarcocystis diseases caused a serious illness in sheep flock which inducing decrease of growth conversion</p> <p>rates and complete or partial loss of carcasses at the abattoirs, This article which described an prevalence of</p> <p>parasites <em>Sarcocystis gigantea</em> in sheep slaughtered in a farm in kerbala governerate, Iraq, and performed a</p> <p>phylogenetic analysis by using the Euclidean distances calculation from the <em>Sarcosystis gigntea</em> nucleotide</p> <p>frequencies around the world sarcosystis genomes. Fifty sheep showed multiple nodules in the esophagus</p> <p>that were microscopically characterized as encapsulated cysts filled with elongated, nucleated structures</p> <p>morphologically consistent with <em>S. gigantea</em> bradyzoites. The preverlance and species of <em>Sarcocystis gigantia </em></p> <p>were revealed as 10% (5 out f 50) for the macroscopic sarcosystis , the shape of these cysts were resembled</p> <p>to oval and pear shape, the sensitivity of Polymerase chain reaction was 75% with 95% of confidence</p> <p>intervals 19.41% to 99.37% and the specificity was 95.65% with 95% of confidence intervals 85.16% to</p> <p>99.47%. Our results suggest that oligonucleotide sequences were useful for estimation of <em>Sarcocystis gigntea </em></p> <p>phylogenetic relationships for closely related species.</p> Kawther A.M. Al-Mussawi 1, Hayder A. Muhammed 2 , Saja A. M. Al-Saadi 3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1283 1288 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10567 An in Vitro Study to Evaluate Antibacterial Effect Thymus Vulgaris Essential Oil Against Porphyromonas Gingivalis in Kurdistan– Iraq <p>Purpose: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone among perio-pathogengenic bacteria to initiate</p> <p>periodontitis and treatment is better when the periodontal pathogens including Porphyromonas gingivalis</p> <p>are totally eliminated. The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris has many bioactive constituents having</p> <p>antimicrobial activity against many bacteria. This study investigates the antibacterial effect of this extracts</p> <p>against Porphyromonas gingivalis. Methods: Sub gingival plaque samples were collected from individuals</p> <p>having periodontitis with the probing pocket depth of at least 6mm; Conventional microbiological tests and</p> <p>molecular technique used for confirmation of Porphyromonas gingivalis, hydrodistillation method was used</p> <p>for extraction of essential oil. Antibacterial activity of the extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis has been</p> <p>determined by using two fold serial dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)</p> <p>and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Result: the essential oil extracted from Thymus vulgaris</p> <p>demonstrated antimicrobial effect against Porphyromonas gingivalis growth. Conclusion:The extract was</p> <p>able to demonstrate inhibitory and bactericidal activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis. Further studies</p> <p>should focus on the use of Thymus vulgaris essential oil in the treatment of periodontitis.</p> Hama Rash A1 , Kareem S2 , Hamaamin H 3 , Qadr K3 , Salih S4, Azeez S2 , Sha A5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1289 1293 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10568 Salivary and Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase and Alanine Aminotransferase in An Uncontrolled Diabetic Patients <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by a higher level of blood</p> <p>glucose resulted from either abnormality in insulin production (type1 DM) or resistance to insulin action</p> <p>(type 2 DM) or both. Long lasting elevated blood glucose is responsible for chronic damage, defect in</p> <p>function and impairment of various organs including salivary glands. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and</p> <p>alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are cellular enzymes found in all animal tissues.</p> <p><strong>Aims of the Study:</strong> to estimate and compare the levels of salivary and serum AST and ALT between un</p> <p>controlled diabetic patients and normal control people.</p> <p><strong>Subjects, Materials and Method: </strong>The study comprised 90 adults of both gender. The patients were</p> <p>divided into 3 groups: 30 patients with type 1 diabetics (D1), 30 patients with type 2 diabetics (D2) and</p> <p>30 healthy persons as a control group (C). Serum and un stimulated salivary samples were taking for the</p> <p>AST, ALT evaluating using standard spectrophotometer kits. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)</p> <p>was measured using NycoCard kit to exclude the controlled diabetic patients. Data were analyzed using</p> <p>statistical analysis SPSS version 24.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed a significant increase of salivary enzymes in D1 and D2 compared to salivary</p> <p>enzymes of control group, while there was no significant difference in serum enzymes value among all</p> <p>studied groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> An elevation in salivary AST and ALT in both types of diabetes compared to healthy group,</p> <p>with higher salivary level of AST and ALT in D1 compared to D2 and to healthy control group. This may</p> <p>suggest that autoimmunological activity in D1 responsible for more salivary gland injury in D1 group.</p> Dunya malhan henweet1, Amina Ryhan Diajal2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1294 1299 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10570 Effectiveness of an Educational Program Regarding Postpartum Care on Women’s Practices in Primary Health Care Centers at Amara City /Iraq <p><strong>Objective</strong>: determined the effectiveness of educational program on women’s practices for Mothers’ Care in</p> <p>Postpartum Period in Primary Health Care Centers at Amara City.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Quasi-experimental design is accomplish on non-probability (Purposive sample) used to</p> <p>collect the data from 172 multigravida women, ( 86) study group and( 86) control group who were selected</p> <p>from the eight primary health care centers (AL-Uroba Primary Health Care Center, AL Zahraa Primary</p> <p>Health Care Center ,AL Hasen AL-Askerry Primary Health Care Center , AL-Qudis primary health care</p> <p>center, AL-Ameer primary health care center, AL-Jawideen primary health care center, AL- Amam AL</p> <p>Husaan. Primary health care center and Ali AL-Ridha Primary Health Care Center.) These centers are</p> <p>choose randomly from 16 primary health care centers in the first sector. The study was conducted from (1st</p> <p>December, 2018 to 1stDecember, 2019.).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings of the study indicated that (48%), (45%) respectively were in the age group (24-31)</p> <p>years for both study and control groups, a quarter of the both study and control group were primary school</p> <p>graduates, more than three quarter were housewives for both study and control groups , The majority of the</p> <p>women were living in urban area specifically for the study and control group, the majority of women in the</p> <p>study and control group were live equally of nuclear and extended families. Regarding to the reproductive</p> <p>characteristics more than a fifth women had five-six pregnancies for study group and quarter of the control</p> <p>group were had three pregnancies, and around a quarter of the study group were have three deliveries and</p> <p>more than fifth for control group were had two deliveries, as well as, three quarter of women in the both</p> <p>study and control group reported that they do not have abortion 64(74.4%), 62 (72.1%) respectively.</p> Rasha Leteef Neamah1 , Ezedeen F. Bahaaldeen2 , Iqbal Majeed Abbas3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1300 1306 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10571 The changes in Blood Pressure in Patients Undergoing Spinal Anesthesia According to the Size of Spinal Needle (G22 versus G24): Case Reference Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Previous studies of patients with spinal anesthesia prior to sympathectomy revealed that</p> <p>vasodilatation and hypotension, with subsequent reduction in arterial pressure, were the most common side</p> <p>effects (observed in more than 30% of patients). Hypotension in epidural anesthesia was stated to be more</p> <p>gradual and less extreme than in spinal anesthesia when a comparable amount of anesthesia was given.</p> <p><strong>Aim of the study: </strong>In the current study, we are aiming to evaluate the effect of different size of spinal needle</p> <p>on development of possible blood pressure changes throughout the spinal anesthesia procedure.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods: </strong>The current observational case reference study was carried out at Al-Diwaniyah</p> <p>Teaching Hospital in Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. The beginning of the study is dated back to the 3rd of</p> <p>April 2018 and the study continued till September the 15th 2019. It included 60 patients undergoing spinal</p> <p>anesthesia for various surgical operations. In 30 patients a spinal needle of 22 gauge was used whereas in</p> <p>the second group (n = 30), a spinal needle of gauge 24 was used. All patients were instructed to be nil by</p> <p>mouth overnight.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In group 1 (22G), mean systolic blood pressure showed gradual reduction, 139.00 ±8.35 mmHG,</p> <p>120.67 ±11.43 mmHg, 106.00 ±11.02 mmHG and 97.33 ±10.15 mmHg; similarly, in group 2 (24G) mean</p> <p>systolic blood pressure showed gradual reduction, 144.00 ±10.37 mmHG, 138.00 ± 7.61 mmHg, 131.33</p> <p>±9.00 mmHG and 131.67 ±11.40 mmHg<strong>; </strong>however, the rate of reduction in group 2 (G24) was less than that</p> <p>seen in case of group 1 (G22). In group 1 (22G), mean diastolic blood pressure showed gradual reduction,</p> <p>84.00 ±7.24 mmHG, 72.00 ±6.64 mmHg, 61.33 ±9.73 mmHG and 54.00 ±8.94 mmHg; similarly, in group</p> <p>2 (24G) mean diastolic blood pressure showed gradual reduction, 87.33 ±7.85 mmHG, 81.33 ±7.30 mmHg,</p> <p>77.33 ±10.15 mmHG and 78.00 ±5.51 mmHg<strong>; </strong>however, the rate of reduction in group 2 (G24) was less than</p> <p>that seen in case of group 1 (G22).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It appears that the use of narrower spinal needle is recommended as it is associated with</p> <p>significantly less drop in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, thus less hemodynamic disturbances in</p> <p>patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for various indications</p> Ahmed Matrood Kadhim1 , Salman Abbas Badi 1, Watheq Maeh Naji1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1307 1313 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10572 Nurses’ Knowledge based on Evidence Based Practice toward Eye Care for Intensive Care Units Patients <p><strong>Background:</strong> Eye care in intensive care units is crucial to avoid eye problems associated with infections, use</p> <p>of medications, effect of mechanical ventilators, and patient position. Indeed, there is no specific guideline</p> <p>or protocols use in eye care in Iraqi intensive care units, so the study focused on nurses to assess their</p> <p>knowledge regarding evidence-based practice toward eye care.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The objective of this study was to assess nurses’ knowledge regarding evidence-based practice</p> <p>toward eye care in intensive care units, and to find out relationships between their demographics and total</p> <p>knowledge.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A descriptive study using a purposive sample (non-probability) was used to survey 30 nurses who</p> <p>met the sampling criteria in two teaching hospitals in the south of Iraq to assess their knowledge regarding</p> <p>eye care. A valid and reliable tool was used after getting the permission from the copyright holder.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>More than one-third of study sample were (22-26) years old they account (40%). Majority of them</p> <p>were male (56.7%), and (53.3%) of the study sample had bachelor’s degree in nursing. Regarding years of</p> <p>experience half of the study sample had more than five years of experience in intensive care units. Majority</p> <p>of the study sample (63.3%) has no participation in training courses about eye care and (83.3%) was day</p> <p>shift of work. The total mean of score of nurses’ knowledge was poor (0.33).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is a need to conduct training courses for nurses who work in intensive care units about</p> <p>eye care based on standard as the results in this study indicated that there is a significance association</p> <p>between, nurses’ knowledge and participation in training course, about eye care.</p> Sabah Abdullah Jaafr1 , Mohammed Baqer Al-Jubouri2 , Dergham Majeed Alfatlawee3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1314 1318 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10573 Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain among Iraqi Dentists <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) very high among dentists world wide.</p> <p>Among these MSDs, neck pain &amp; Low back pain are most common. <strong>Objective:</strong> After extensive search on</p> <p>prevalence of MSDs pain among dentists in different countries, we planned a study to examine prevalence</p> <p>among Iraqi dentists. <strong>Methodology:</strong> this study was cross sectional survey study conducted at Medical</p> <p>institute of Baghdad, Al-Falah dental center and Prosthetic and orthodontic dental center. Dentists were</p> <p>selected using simple randomized methods and using certain exclusion and inclusion criteria. <strong>Results</strong>: All</p> <p>participants filled the questionnaire forum . 44.4% were male, 66.6% female. Prevalence of back pain was</p> <p>18.9% , Neck pain was 13.3%, 2.2% had hand pain, 30% had no pain. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> High prevalence of</p> <p>MSDs in general reach to about 70% and the most affected area were as fellow :Neck&amp; shoulder , back and</p> <p>hand .Male and young age were more prone to different MSDs.</p> Alia Tabour Thijeel Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1319 1322 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10574 The Evaluation of Ochratoxin A in Patients Suffer from Renal Failure <p>The study is conducted on 94 patients (54 male and 40 female) and 15 healthy people (10 male and 5</p> <p>female) as the control group. All these cases were suffers from renal failure ,when attended to AL-Sader</p> <p>hospital in AL-Najaf province from February till May 2019. we make qualitative diagnosis by using TLC</p> <p>(thin layer chromatography) 29 cases have an ochratoxin A in serum and 65 cases without ochratoxin A</p> <p>and quantitative diagnosis by using HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography ) for 25 cases from</p> <p>positive results (15 male and 10 female)and detects of WBCs count for 29 cases with ochratoxin A and 15</p> <p>with out ochratoxin A .</p> Haider Abbas Hadi Al-Mhanaa1 , Atheer B. Al-Obaidi 2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1323 1327 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10575 Estimation of Radiation Exposure to Some Iraqi Patients with Hyperthyroidism treated with Radioactive Iodine-131 as an Outpatient Basis <p>A broadly established therapy is radioactive iodine-131 for patients with hyperthyroidism (1). The</p> <p>radioactive iodine-131 dose is given to the patient as a single dose, which leads to a high radiation exposure</p> <p>surrounding the patient’s location for several days, depending on the amount of the received radiation</p> <p>dose, patient’s isolation in a special room is necessary for a period of time until the amount of radiation</p> <p>exposure decreases to an acceptable limits according to the National regulations. This study aimed to obtain</p> <p>a measurable estimation to the amount of radiation exposure resulting from patients treated with iodine-131</p> <p>and assessment of compliance of patients and their family members to radiation safety instructions (RSI).</p> <p>In this study, (35) Iraqi patients with hyperthyroidism (15 male and 20 female) divided in to three groups</p> <p>according to 131I doses received that ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq (100-200 mCi), the radiation dose rate</p> <p>was measured at different levels of the patient’s body as well as at different periods after receiving the I-131</p> <p>treatment dose.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong>shows that the external dose rates decrease rapidly and as a result, the greater amount of radioactive</p> <p>iodine is disposed of in the urine in the first two days after therapy. Also there is no observed differences</p> <p>appears in the average radiation dose rate (µSv/hr) resulting from patients after giving the dose of iodine-131</p> <p>between males and females within the same group, while a significant difference was observed in the average</p> <p>dose rate between the divided groups, especially after an hour of giving the dose.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> this study provide an estimation to the amount of radiation exposure resulting from patients for</p> <p>three days post 131I therapy on outpatient basis, also these results enables us to obtain a database that can be</p> <p>used in determining the amount of radiation reflected from patient to family members and contacts. Oral and</p> <p>written radiation safety instructions (RSI) are given in an appropriate way to patients and family members</p> <p>before patient’s discharge.</p> Nafal NazarBahjat1 , Zahraa Neamah Abbas2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1328 1333 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10576 Evaluation of Some Minerals Content of Drinking and River Water in Iraq by AAS Method <p>The experiment was conducted during 2018 to evaluate to the presence of certain elements (Lead, Copper,</p> <p>Chromium, Zinc, Nickel, Cadmium, Arsine and mercury) in Tab and Bottled water in addition to riverbed</p> <p>and cliff water. The obtained data were compared with the corresponding international and national guideline</p> <p>values. The concentration of Tap and Bottled water samples for Cr and As were higher than the permitted</p> <p>concentration established by FAO/WHO scoring (0.0623, 0.3120)and (0.0680, 0.448) respectively. Whilst</p> <p>Zn, Ni, Pb, Hg, Cd, and Cu were lower than the permitted concentration established by FAO/WHO for both</p> <p>samples Tab and Bottled water which scored (0.0608, 0.0550, 0.0075, 0.00589, 0.0013 and nil) and (0.0420,</p> <p>0.0152, 0.0105, 0.00581, 0.0003 and nil) respectively. Thus, the concentrations of As in both River bed</p> <p>and cliff water samples were higher than the permitted concentration established by the Iraqi (C.O.S.Q.C)</p> <p>Central Organization for Standardization and Quality Control which scored (0.754 and 0.245) respectively.</p> <p>Regarding the rest of the element which Seem to be lower than the permitted concentration established by</p> <p>Central Organization for Standardization and Quality Control in Iraq for Riverbed and cliff.</p> Mustafa A. Kadhim1, Abd-alussain Sh. Naji1 , Luay S. Khaleefah1 , Hayder N. Salman1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1334 1339 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10577 Impact of Social Media upon Juvenile Delinquency in Basra Central Prison and AL- Maqal Police Station <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to determine the impact of social media domains. And find out the know which</p> <p>among social media sites were mostly used by the juveniles.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Quantitative design (a descriptive study) of one hundred juveniles were selected. All the</p> <p>juveniles for both sexes as delinquent who were temporarily detained in police station convicted of felony,</p> <p>crime or misdemeanor who is awaiting trial; and delinquent convicted of crime or felonies for rehabilitation</p> <p>or punishment convicted of misdemeanors and major offenses in central prison; juveniles who were at 14-17</p> <p>years, for the period from 3rd February 2019 until 4th April 2019 in AL-Maqal Police Station and 14th April</p> <p>2019 until 14th May 2019 in Basra Central Prison. The collection of data is performed out of the utilization</p> <p>of developed questionnaire and by means of structured interview technique with the subjects who were</p> <p>individually interviewed by the using of Arabic version of the questionnaire in Basra Central Prison and</p> <p>AL- Maqal Police Station.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the study indicate more than half 59% of age 16-17 year; more than three-quarters</p> <p>82% were male; also more than three-quarters 77% living in urban and in slum area 51%. The results</p> <p>revealed that the samples of social media were (100%) watch movies; (96.5%) used chat; (86%) play game;</p> <p>while (100%) use the you tube; (97.7%) use face book; while (98.8%) browse the violence program. The</p> <p>more types of offenses and misdemeanor committed by the Juveniles were (18%) theft; and (16%) drug</p> <p>abuse.</p> Haider Falih Jabbar1 , Ali Kareem Al-Juboori2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1340 1346 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10578 Assessment of Referral System Quality from Clients’ Perspectives at Outpatient Consultancy Clinics in Al-Hilla City Hospitals <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of the study is to assess the referral system quality from clients’ perspectives at outpatient</p> <p>consultancy clinics in al-Hilla city hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>A descriptive analytic study design was carried out at outpatient consultancy</p> <p>clinics of Al- Hilla city hospital (Al-Hilla and Al-Imam Al-Sadiq general teaching hospital) from March</p> <p>14 th to December 12 th 2019. Non – probability (purposive) sample of 200 clients who were coming to the</p> <p>Outpatient Consultancy Clinics were selected. Data is collected through used of an assessment tools and</p> <p>interview technique with (19) items of questionnaire. Reliability of instrument was determined through the</p> <p>use of Alpha Cronbach approach and the instrument validity was determined through a panel of experts. The</p> <p>analysis of the data was used descriptive statistics frequencies, percentages, mean, mean of score, cut off</p> <p>point, Chi square. In order to assess the referral system quality from clients’ perspectives.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The findings of the present study reveal that overall assessment of the referral system quality is poor,</p> <p>grand mean of referral system services from clients’ perspectives are fair, majority reason for referring is</p> <p>lack of specialty(51%), and finally; medical diseases unit is most referred clients to it(24%). .</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concluded that poor referral system quality for clients at outpatient consultancy</p> <p>clinics in Al-Hilla city hospitals.</p> Mahdi Hamzah Manthoor Al-Taee1 , Mahasin Talib Al-Harbawi2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1347 1352 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10580 The Effect of Adding Different Concentration of Vitamin E to Frying Oil on the Peroxide Value <p>The aim of this research is to reduce the number of peroxide in two frying oil samples (Aldura and altusan)</p> <p>by using one of the natural antioxidants which is vitamin E. one of the chemical specifications that assess the</p> <p>oil is the peroxide number, which is the amount of free radicals formed in the oil and the number of peroxides</p> <p>increases during exposure to heat, moisture, oxygen, bad storage conditions, light or other conditions. These</p> <p>peroxides have a harmful effect on the consumer health (initiation cancer). The vitamin E had a clear impact</p> <p>on the peroxide value, as when conducting the experiment and using oil to fry potato slices, the number of</p> <p>peroxide was high before adding vitamin E which score (Peroxide number is 5.6 for 15 minutes, 9.8 for</p> <p>30 minutes, and 11.6 for 45 minutes). After using vitamin E in amount of 10 microgram per 100 ml of oil,</p> <p>the effect was clear of vitamin E on the number of peroxide as it decreased significantly. Which scored (5</p> <p>for 15 minutes, 8.1 for 30 minutes, 8.9 for 45 minutes). When vitamin E added by 20 microgram the result</p> <p>was (4.8 for 15 minutes, 5.5 for 30 minutes, 6.5 for 45 minutes). 50 microgram per 100 oil shown to have</p> <p>no significant effect on the peroxide value. it was found that the best concentration is 20 microgram for a</p> <p>sample of 100 ml of oil.</p> Abd-alussain Sh. Naji1 , Luay S. Khaleefah1 , Hayder N. Salman1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1353 1357 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10581 Correlation between Hormonal and Biochemical Changes with Kidney Function in Newly and Previously Diagnosed Women Diseased with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome <p>The objectives of our work was to identify the effects of insulin resistance and other hormonal changes on</p> <p>kidney function in newly and previously diagnosed women diseased with PCOS.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: This prospective study was done by collect serum samples and urine from three group (Control</p> <p>60), (previously 50), (newly 50) patients. The withdrawal led samples were subsequently assay for hormonal</p> <p>and biochemical changes.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The data of tests were available for both groups. We found significant differences in level of</p> <p>insulin, Homeostatic model assessment Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostatic model assessment</p> <p>Beta function (HOMA-B), Progesterone among newly and previous women, also the data indicated a</p> <p>significant correlation between urea and testosterone in newly while direct significant correlation between</p> <p>urea and progesterone. There was significant correlation between Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and</p> <p>creatinine in previously diagnosed PCOS, also direct correlation between uric acid and Body mass index</p> <p>(BMI), Fasting blood glucose (FBS), HOMA IR and inverse correlation with Triiodothyronine (T3) in new</p> <p>PCOS while in previously diagnosed PCOS there is inverse correlation between uric acid and T3. Finally,</p> <p>significant correlation between FBS, insulin, HOMA B and HOMA IR in previously diagnosed patients</p> <p>while correlation is seen between FBS, insulin and HOMA IR in newly patients.</p> Zahraa Abed al-kareem 1 , Jinan Hussein Multag 2 , Ban Hoshi Khalaf 3, Amal Umran Mosa4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1358 1366 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10583 The Effect of the use of E-Learning Teaching Physiology in the Academic Achievement of Students of the Technical Medical Institute <p>Physiology is an important science that is taught at the Technical Medical Institute, where it is taught in</p> <p>most sections and branches, and to know the extent of the student’s understanding and mental abilities by</p> <p>the use of modern technology, and learning may be an immediate or simultaneous learning in the classroom</p> <p>or outside. E-learning is characterized by ease and modification of information provided and increases</p> <p>the possibility of communication to exchange views, experiences and perspectives between students and</p> <p>teachers and overcome the problem of the number of students with narrow classrooms. It is also successful</p> <p>for the “traditional education” that exists at the institute, where it constitutes the collective presence of</p> <p>students and promotes joint work among them. The present research aims to identify the effect of using an</p> <p>e-learning by teaching physiology in the academic achievement of the students of the Technical Medical</p> <p>Institute. They were divided into two groups, the first experimental and the second by twenty students for</p> <p>each group, one of the experimental group that studied e-learning method and the second control, which</p> <p>studied by lecture method.</p> Mayad Nazim Rashid Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1367 1373 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10584 Impact of Quality of Primary Health Care Centers Upon Adolescents’ Health Status With Chronic Diseases in Kirkuk City <p><strong>Background:</strong> The primary health care centers initiatives are designed to improve patient care and health</p> <p>outcomes. A process failed to address the impact on health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and costly of</p> <p>chronic diseases expected to adolescents. This study aimed to determine the role of quality of primary health</p> <p>care centers (PHCCs) on adolescents’ health status with chronic diseases in kirkuk city.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive (quantitative design ) was conducted through (18) PHCCs in Kirkuk city.</p> <p>Two questionnaires were designed for the purpose of the study. A simple random sample of (180) health</p> <p>professional (manager) were selected through the use of probability sampling approach. The sample of study</p> <p>was divided into two groups which include organization structure (PHC )centers (18) and (162) adolesents</p> <p>with chronic diseases. .Data analysis is performed through the use of descriptive statistical data analysis</p> <p>approach.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> the overall evaluation for the quality of PHCCs is adequate on (59% ; N=11), and fair on (41% ;</p> <p>N=7) respectively. The quality of PHCCs is adequate relative to all of its dimensions of general health status,</p> <p>tangibles, accreditation, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The experienced good level for the general,</p> <p>physical, mental, relationships and emotional dimensions of health status with chronic diseases Inadequate</p> <p>on Adequate on (44.%: n=71 ) ,Fair on (34.% :n= 55 ) ,and Inadequate (23. % :n=36 ) , level of evaluation .</p> <p>except that of the quality of life dimension of health status Adequate on Fair on (37.%: n = 60 ), Inadequate</p> <p>(n 30 %: =49 ),and Adequate (33.% n=53 ) does not impose any effect on adolescents’ general health status.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study findings depict that the quality of PHCCs is adequate relative to all of its dimensions</p> <p>of general health status, tangibles, accreditation, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. Adolescents’</p> <p>health status is good regardless of their age groups as being early, middle and late age adolescents except</p> <p>that of the quality of life dimension of health status which has a fair level of evaluation. The study confirms</p> <p>that the Impact of quality of PHCCs does not execute an impact on adolescents’ health status.</p> Burhan A. Hama Hussein1 , Mohammed F. Khalifa2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1374 1379 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10585 Study of Some Immunological Aspects in Scabietic Patients <p>Scabies is an important parasitic skin disease that continues to persist all over the world. The current study</p> <p>was designed to asses some immunological parameters that may be related with scabies disease Blood</p> <p>samples were collected from 60 patients (30 first infestation,30 re-infestation) with ordinary scabies and 30</p> <p>healthy individuals as a control group to determine the total and differential WBCs count , in addition sera</p> <p>levels of some immunological parameters including, C3,IgE and Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). The</p> <p>results revealed that a significant increase (P?0.05) in total and differential WBCs count of patients groups</p> <p>compared with healthy group , also the levels of immunoglobulin IgE and IDO showed a significant increase</p> <p>(P?0.05) in patients groups in comparison with healthy group . Concerning with complement components</p> <p>(C3) its levels observed a significant differences (P?0.05) between patients groups(first infestation and re</p> <p>infestation) , also between patients and healthy group .</p> Amerah Abdel Hadi1 , Alaa Jawad Hassan2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1380 1384 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10586 Evaluation of Aspects of Continuing Nursing Education Programs in Kirkuk Health Directorate Hospitals <p><strong>Objective(s):</strong> To evaluate the aspects of the Continuing Nursing Education Programs in Kirkuk Health</p> <p>Directorate Hospitals</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive design, using self-evaluation approach, is employed throughout the present</p> <p>study. A non-probability sample of (251) staff nurse are recruited from Kirkuk Health Directorate Hospitals;</p> <p>Kirkuk General Hospital and Azady Hospital. A questionnaire is constructed for the purpose of the study</p> <p>which comprised of (1) part, (6) aspects and (52) item. Content validity and internal consistency reliability are</p> <p>determined for the questionnaire through a pilot study. Data are collected through the use of the questionnaire</p> <p>and structured interview a means of data collection. Data are analyzed through the application of descriptive</p> <p>statistical data analysis approach of frequency, percentage, mean of scores, total scores and range.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study indicates that the majority of nurses have evaluated the aspects of the continuing nursing</p> <p>education program as poor at Kirkuk Health Directorate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concludes that the evaluation of aspects of the continuing nursing education programs</p> <p>is appraised as poor for the majority of nurses’ self-evaluation.</p> <p>Recommendations: The study recommends that mandatory, periodic, systematic and effective evaluation of</p> <p>continuing nursing education program can be carried out for the benefit of both staff nurses, these programs</p> <p>and the quality of nursing care. Further research can be carried out on a large sample size, varied range scale</p> <p>of variables, large sample size and nation-wide continuing nursing education programs.</p> Hussein M. Abdulfatah1 , Salma K. Geehad2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1385 1390 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10587 Epidemiology and Seasonal Variation of Ixodid Ticks and Piroplasmida Detection in Cattle of Basrah Province, Iraq <p>Four hundred and twenty cattle belonging to different breed and age groups were investigated for infestation</p> <p>by ticks during the period from October 2018 to September 2019 in Basrah governorate, Iraq . Investigated</p> <p>cattle were found to be infested by four species of hard ticks namely (<em>Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, </em></p> <p><em>Hyalomma marginatum turanicum Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Rhipicephalu sturanicus) .</em>No</p> <p>significant difference in infestation rate was observed according to the method of cattle raising (X²=0.455,</p> <p>p=0.500),however, seasonal variation in infestation with significant difference was found , higher infestation</p> <p>rate reported in June ( 63.3%) and the lowest was in January (20%) (X² =76.740 ,p = 0.05). In the meantime</p> <p>blood smears samples from the same cattle were also examined by microscopy for hemoprotozoan pathogens</p> <p>.The examination revealed that those cattle are infected by <em>Babesia spp</em>. (27.14%) and <em>Theileria spp</em>.(19.52%).</p> <p>No, significant difference in infection rate was found between male and females, but a significant variation</p> <p>was seen among age groups, however, age group 1-3 years revealed a high rate of infection .Seasonal</p> <p>variation in the infection rates were observed in infected cattle. Higher infection rates of Babesiosis and</p> <p>Theileriosis reported in June (50%) and (36.7%) respectively.</p> Sabeeh H.AL-Mayah1 , Ashwaq T. Abdul-Karim2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1391 1398 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10588 Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of Children with Measles during the Year 2019 <p><strong> Background</strong>: Measles remains a major public health problem in many developing countries including Iraq,</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe the epidemiological and clinical profiles of measles among children admitted to</p> <p>Babylon Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Children .</p> <p><strong>Methodology :</strong> A descriptive observational cross sectional epidemiologic study was conducted on children</p> <p>diagnosed and admitted to Babylon teaching hospital for Maternity and Children . using the (person, place,</p> <p>time epidemiological model ) during the period from 1st of January 2019 to the 1st of September 2019. The</p> <p>total number patients was 157. The independent variables studied include; age, gender, residence, time of</p> <p>admission, nutritional status, vaccination status, any co morbidities, clinical presentations and complications.</p> <p><strong>Results :</strong> One hundred fifty seven clinically and serologically diagnosed measles cases who were admitted</p> <p>to Babylon Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Children . . The male to female ratio was 1.4: 1 the mean</p> <p>age of the patients 35.15±38.5 months(ranging between one month to 11 years). In this study Children</p> <p>under years were most affected. Seventy four percent patients were from rural districts and sub districts.</p> <p>The disease took the profile of epidemic and was seen most often during the hot season, with a peak in July.</p> <p>Majority of cases stayed in the hospital for three days and more. Only one death was reported with a a case</p> <p>fatality rate ( 0.63%).The most common complications in this study was pneumonia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Measles remains a common, endemic illness mostly due to inadequate vaccination coverage,</p> <p>further analytic studies are strongly requested in Iraq to identify the real potential risk factors of the</p> <p>occurrence of this serious endemic diseases.</p> Adnan H. Aljothery 1 , Hasan Alwan Baiee 2 , Kassim Fakhir Hussein3 , Ameer Hasan Baiee 4 , Taif Salam Abdulameer4 , Ammar Abdulkareem Hadi 4 , Noor Adnan Abbas4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1399 1404 Bacterial Infection and Seminal Fluid Parameters in Iraqi Sub Fertile Men <p>Semen samples of 60 sub fertile men that aged from 25 and 45 years that attending an Al-Sammrai infertility</p> <p>hospital from10-10-2017 to 5-12-2018 and were examined for bacteriological culture. The patients divide</p> <p>to negative group (A) the second as positive group (B). Semen were chaked from the groups and analyzed</p> <p>for viscosity, sperm morphology, semen volume, sperm concentration, and motility percent. The results for</p> <p>cultures was negative in 15% and positive in 85% of patients. The isolated organisms were as the following</p> <p>percentage ( Escherichia coli 11%, Staph. aureus (16%), B-hemolytic streptococcus 30%, Staphylococcus</p> <p>epidermidis 43 %). The semen characteristics in infected samples showed that the motility and viability of</p> <p>spermatozoa were lower when compared to noninfected semen sample. That are means, the infections have</p> <p>a direct effect on seminal fluid quality and subsequently negative effects on human fertility. The results</p> <p>showed that there are a highly significant difference (p?0.001) between fertility power in noninfected men</p> <p>and infected cases.</p> Mamdooh A. Al_ Nasrawi1 , Loqman J. Tawfiq2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1405 1410 Daily Living Activities of School Age Children with Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia at Welfare Pediatric Teaching Hospital <p><strong>Objective(s):</strong> The study aims to assess daily living activities domain of school age children with acute</p> <p>lymphocytic.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive study, conducted in Baghdad City from 13 of February to 20 of May 2016. A</p> <p>purposive sample of 50 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia at welfare pediatric teaching hospital and</p> <p>child central pediatric hospital. The study instrument was consists of three parts, the first was demographic</p> <p>data demographic characteristics of the child, the second part is related to the symptoms and clinical signs</p> <p>and complications phenomenon on the child, and the third part related to the daily activities for school age</p> <p>children.. Data was analyzed using (SPSS) version 25. The data analysis for this study included descriptive</p> <p>and inferential statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results of our study showed that (50%) within age groups (6-7)years , (60%) were males,</p> <p>(66%) of them were continuing school attendance, (56%) within class level (1-2) , the highest percentage</p> <p>(58%) of the study sample are not miss school. there is significant association between participants DLA</p> <p>and their demographic characteristics such as age, gender, school situation and education level, at p-value</p> <p>of (0.007, 0.004, 0.013,and 0.001) respectively, (96%) of them complain from yellowing and pale skin</p> <p>,(70%) complain from anemia, vast majority of them have moderate daily activities. that there is significant</p> <p>association between participants’ DAL and their Symptoms and Clinical Signs and Complications of the</p> <p>Child with Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of, breathing difficulties , Yellowing and pale skin, bleeding and</p> <p>bruising and Anemia, at p-value of (0.003, 0.002, 0.001,and 0.005) respectively</p> Khatam M. Al-Musawi1 , Nuhad Aldoori1 , Zaid W. Ajil 2 , Russell Qasem3 , Hadeer Ali3 ,Sahar Ammar3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1411 1417 Assessment of Primary School Teachers’ Knowledge about Stuttering of School-Age Children at First Al-Karkh Education Directorate in Baghdad City <p><strong>Objective(s)</strong>: To assess knowledge of primary school teachers’ about the stuttering of school-age children</p> <p>at first al-karkh education directorate in Baghdad city, and find out the relationships between primary school</p> <p>teachers’ knowledge and their demographic characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study started from the period of 20th September 2018 to the 1st of March 2020. Probability</p> <p>samples of 370 primary school teachers were chosen randomly. The questionnaire was designed and</p> <p>composed of two parts: the first part deals with the teachers’ demographic data; the second part includes a</p> <p>stuttering knowledge scale. Determined reliability of the questionnaire through a pilot study and determined</p> <p>validity through a panel of (31) experts. The data was collected through the self-administration method</p> <p>was used by asking the participants to complete the format of the questionnaire and fulfill the questions,</p> <p>and it described statistically and analyzed through the use of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis</p> <p>procedures<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings of the present study indicate that (53.5%) of the study sample have poor knowledge</p> <p>about stuttering of school-age children, and the no-significant relationship between teachers’ demographical</p> <p>characteristics and their knowledge about stuttering.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study concludes that most of the teachers’ had poor knowledge about the stuttering of</p> <p>school-age children, and there are no effects of socio-demographic characteristics of teachers’ on their</p> <p>knowledge about stuttering.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong> The study recommended an education program for primary school teachers about</p> <p>stuttering to improving their knowledge about stuttering in the school environment.</p> Rafea Qadri Meteab Al-Qaisi1 , Eqbal Ghanim Ali2 , Ali Kareem Khudhair3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1418 1422 Effect of Preheating on Micro-hardness of different Composite Resins <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preheating on the surface microhardness of different</p> <p>commercially available composite resins (G-aenial, Filtek Z350 and Tetric-N-Ceram).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Tubes of the composite resins were either kept at room temperature (24 ±10 C) or</p> <p>preheated for 40 min in a commercially preheating device to 40 0 C, 50 0 C and 60 0C, respectively. From</p> <p>composite resin tubes, a total of 120 disk-shaped specimens (40 specimens of each composite resin, 10</p> <p>disks from each temperature setting) were prepared by inserting uncured preheated composite resin into</p> <p>cylindrical nylon moulds (5 mm diameter × 2 mm height); before light polymerized for 40s with a light</p> <p>emitting diode curing unit. The Vicker’s microhardness number (VHN) of each specimen was measured.</p> <p>Two-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used to analyze the collected data at a significance level of 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In comparison to the room temperature, there was a significant increase in the mean VHNs of each</p> <p>composite resin by preheating to 40 0C, 50 0 C and 60 0 C, respectively (p&lt;0.05). For G-aenial posterior, Filtek</p> <p>Z350XT and Tetric-N-Ceram, at room temperature, the mean VHNs were 51± 4.3, 60.6± 3.7 and 76.6±1.4,</p> <p>respectively with significant difference between G-aenial posterior and Tetric-N-Ceram (p&lt;0.05), while</p> <p>at 400C, the mean VHNs were 65.7±2.5, 86.8±2.3 and 88.4±1.8, respectively with significant differences</p> <p>(p&lt;0.05) between G-aenial posterior and the other two composites. At 500C, the mean VHNs were 109.4±0.9,</p> <p>104.4±3.4 and 114±0.71, respectively with no significant difference between composite resins. At 600C, the</p> <p>mean VHNs were 122±3.2, 129±3.4 and 136±2, respectively with significant difference between G-aenial</p> <p>posterior and Tetric-N-Ceram (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Preheating significantly increased the surface microhardness of all tested composite resins</p> <p>with the highest value observed for Tetric N-Ceram at 600C preheating temperature.</p> Thyab, Samer, A.1 , Al-Maroof, Ahmed, S.2 , Ali, Ahmed, H.2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1423 1427 Antibiotic Effect on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated From Patient In Hila City <p>In this study, a total of 400 clinical samples were collected from patients different hospitals in hilla</p> <p>city((13.51%) Margin teaching hospital, (27.03%)Al-Hilla teaching hospital,( 43.24%) Babylon hospital for</p> <p>maternity and pediatric and (16.22%)Chest Disease Center) , ( 37 ) isolates were identified as to P. aeroginosa,</p> <p>from 9 (18%) isolates from burn specimen, 7 (14%) isolates from otitis , 5 (10%)isolates from UTI , 4 (8%)</p> <p>isolates from wound , 3(7.5%) was isolated from blood specimen where as 6 (6%)was isolated sputum and</p> <p>only 3 (5%)isolates were detected from skin. The period of collection was extended from January 2019 to</p> <p>June 2019. Also antibiotic susceptibility were preformed using disk employed diffusion and agar utilizing</p> <p>dilution processes. Furthermore , the resistance of isolate to a variety of antibiotics has been investigated and</p> <p>found that these isolate have been resistance to more than one antibiotic : 37(100%) resistance to Cloxacilin</p> <p>, 37(100%) to Amoxicillin /Clavulanic acid, 37(100%) to cefotaxime, 36(97%) to ceftizoxone, 34(92%)</p> <p>to Ceftazidime, 14(37%) to Levofloxacin, 18(49%) to Gentamicin, , 3(8%) to Norfloxacin and 1(3%) to</p> <p>Azetronam.</p> Murtadha Hamza AjeeL1 , Fatma Moeen Abbas2, Amer Jassim Al-Khafaji3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1428 1433 Genetic Survey of Enteroaggregative E.coli in Diarrheic Children under 5 years in Thi-qar governorate <p>The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enteroaggregative E.coli obtained from children of Thi-qar</p> <p>suffered from diarrhea through PCR detection of virulence factors (aggR, astA, pic) antibiotic resistance and</p> <p>extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) production. The investigation included collection 430 stool samples</p> <p>from diarrheic children under five years involved both gender and 40 samples as a control from healthy</p> <p>children , were consulted in (Bint al- Huda Hospital for Gynecology obstetrics and pediatrics , Al-Mousawi</p> <p>hospital and private clinics laboratory ) at a period extended from 10th December 2018 -21th July 2019. A</p> <p>total of the isolates were diagnosed by different laboratory and molecular method. PCR diagnosis confirmed</p> <p>the distribution of genes (aggR and astA) within EAEC were (66% and 53%), respectively. The highest</p> <p>resistance to antibiotics was (100%) to ceftazidime and cefpodoxime , (97% ) to ceftriaxone, followed by</p> <p>(96%) for Ampicillin, Sulfa-Trimethoprim and cefuroxime, respectively, and cefixime, amoxiclav, Cefotaxim</p> <p>and Tetracycline (94.8%), (92.3%), (85%) and (78.2%), respectively. While the medium resistance was</p> <p>(55.13%) for each of ciprofloxacin , piperacillin-tazobactam, respectively, and Amikacin (51%). While</p> <p>the lowest resistance was to Gentamicin (30.7%) and Imipenem (26.9%). EAEC isolates were multidrug</p> <p>resistance in average 64/66 (96.97%).</p> Sanaa Ghali Jabur1 , Murtada Hasan Abed2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1434 1439 Prothrombotic Changes in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease and its Relation to Thrombotic Cardiovascular Complication <p><strong>Background: </strong>There is a great risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and vascular thrombosis in patients</p> <p>with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). These patients exhibit numerous abnormalities in coagulation,</p> <p>fibrinolytic, inhibitory protein abnormalities in multiple levels.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To assess hypercoagulable changes by measuring the levels of Antithrombin, plasma fibrinogen</p> <p>and FXII activity in patients with ESRD, and to found correlation between and hematological parameters</p> <p>including: Hb level, WBC count, reticulocyte percentage and platelet count.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: A case control study conducted at Al-Hayat center, Al Karama teaching hospital during the period</p> <p>from the 1 of February to the 30 of October 2014 and <strong>50</strong> patients aged &lt; 60 years of both genders with</p> <p>(ESRD) in addition to <strong>20</strong> apparently healthy controls were included in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Patients and controls were matched for age and gender. The mean hemoglobin level, total WBC</p> <p>count, absolute neutrophil count, reticulocyte percentage and platelets count were significantly lower in</p> <p>ESRD patients than controls, P&lt;0.05. The mean values of the coagulation parameters, ProthrombinTtime</p> <p>(PT), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Plasma Fibrinogen and Factor XII activity were</p> <p>significantly higher in patients than controls. Anti-thrombin activity was significantly lower in patients</p> <p>group than controls, (P&lt;0.001). Cardiovascular complications and vascular thrombosis included Deep</p> <p>Venous Thrombosis( DVT), Cerebro-Vascular-Accident (CVA), Myocardial Infarction (MI), angina or heart</p> <p>failure reported in 62% of the patients. Patients with cardiovascular complication and vascular thrombosis</p> <p>had significantly higher PT, APTT, and factor XII activity, lower anti-thrombin activity as compared to those</p> <p>without cardiovascular complication and vascular thrombosis.</p> <p><strong> Conclusion: (</strong>ESRD) patients had coagulation abnormalities render them more liable to have cardiovascular</p> <p>complications and vascular thrombosis.</p> Enass Abdul Kareem Al-saadi,1 Haithem A Al-Rubaie2 , Raid A Al-Rubaye3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1440 1446 Relationship of Sex Hormon Binding Globulin, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Testosterone and Prolactine with Body Mass Index (BMI) Value among Iraqi Females in Reproductive Age <p><strong>Background: </strong>The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between increasing in the body mass</p> <p>index (BMI) value and sex hormones level represented by sex hormon binding globulin (SHBG), Thyroid</p> <p>stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone and prolactine in 51 women in reproductive age aiming following</p> <p>the life quality of these females.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Participants were 51 women from center of Baghdad city. Every female full a questionnaire and</p> <p>sex hormone concentration from each female were measured. Level of FBS and HbA1c test was estimated</p> <p>and designed as exclusion criteria for diabetic mellitus and other metabolic disorders. Body mass index</p> <p>value was compared by demographic properties, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and A stepwise method in</p> <p>linear regression statistic test was applied to detect the association of BMI (kg/m2) with serum sex hormon</p> <p>binding globulin (SHBG), Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone and prolactine and predict the</p> <p>most affected factor.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean and standard deviation level of most studied parameter were not differences between</p> <p>case study and control females group (obese vs non-obese) in compared with normal value of each test. BMI</p> <p>value were negatively correlated with age and SHBG (nmol/l) level (r = 0.156; P= 0.274) and (r = 0.578; P</p> <p>= 0.00) respectively. While BMI were moderately positive correlated with testosterone (nmol/l), TSH (?IU/</p> <p>mL) and prolactin (ng/ml) (r = 0.388; <strong>P = </strong>0.005), (0.354;<strong> P = 0.011</strong>) and (0.37;<strong> P =</strong> 0.006) respectively.</p> <p>Depending on the stepwise method in linear regression analyses, the SHBG (nmol/l) and testosterone</p> <p>(nmol/l) were the most independent predictor factors for BMI in the studied groups (? = 0,484; P = 0.001)</p> <p>and (? = 0.348; P = 0.001) respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The most factors affecting obesity identified in the study were SHBG, Testosterone. However,</p> <p>other variables such as age, did not impact the BMI value of participants.</p> Abbas Mehsen Gata1 , Jaleel Samanje2 , Ammer Abd. Mohammed1, Saman Jumaah3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1447 1453 Impact of Juvenile Diabetes Long-Term Treatment upon Adolescents Physical Activities at Al Nasiriya Diabetic and Endocrinology Center <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Exercise has a positive effect on health, strength gain, weight control, social activity and self</p> <p>development, contribute to the development of healthy habits in adults, but can also cause hypoglycemia. The</p> <p>variety, weight and duration of administration can cause various hormones (insulin, glucagon, catecholamine</p> <p>glucocorticoid), mediated metabolism. when the administration of insulin derived from insulin and / or</p> <p>an increase in anti-regulatory hormones increase glucose production in the liver and damage glucose in</p> <p>skeletal muscles. Although potential hyperglycemia can scare patients and their families, recipient fear of</p> <p>hypoglycemia can be a serious problem for clinical attention.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To determine impact of juvenile diabetes long-term treatment upon adolescents’ physical</p> <p>activity and to discovery out the relationship between impact of long-term treatment with adolescents</p> <p>specific demographic data.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A descriptive study design was performed to determine the impact of juvenile diabetes</p> <p>long-treatment upon adolescent’s physical activity in Al Nasiriya diabetic and endocrinology center. The</p> <p>study had started from February 6th, 2019 to June 7th, 2019. Non – probability (accidental) sample of (100)</p> <p>adolescents were selected.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study concludes that the greatest impact of long-term treatment of diabetes on</p> <p>the adolescents lifestyle was on physical activity; in addition the statistical test shows that the significant</p> <p>association between the adolescents’ physical activity and their age, socio-economic status.</p> Adil Ali Hussein1 , Khetam Mutasher Hatab2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1454 1458 Evaluation of Nurses’ Burnout among Nurses at Hospitals in Nasiriyah City Iraq <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate burnout among Nurses at Hospitals in Nasiriyah City,</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The sample of the study was purposeful and included (216) nurses, who were selected from</p> <p>hospitals from October 2, 2016, to June 28, 2017 CE.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study’s results have showed (63.9%) of the sample were (19 - 28) years, (74.1%) of the sample</p> <p>have experience of year (&lt;10), (41.7%) were preparatory, (95.8%) of the sample were Urban, (47.2%) of</p> <p>the sample were Sometime enough of Economic status, the results have revealed that there is a moderate</p> <p>assessment in for an overall satisfied related to job satisfaction (128, 59.3%).</p> <p><strong> Recommendations:</strong> The study recommends an Establish laws that protect nurses from abuse and stress at</p> <p>work. Commitment by the ethics of the profession and work according to the policy of the institution</p> Alaa M. Tuama1 , Mohammed Fadhil Ali2 , Gossoon Juma Elywy2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1459 1463 Prevalence of Toxoplasmosis and Relationships With Estradiol Hormone and Vascular Cells Adhesion Molecular-1(VCAM-1) <p>Sero-epidemiological study were conducted for pregnant and aborted women to investigate the infection</p> <p>person with toxoplasmosis in Babylon province during the period from December 2018 till March 2019</p> <p>,ELISA technique for 53 serum samples for pregnant and 67 serum sample for aborted women , according to</p> <p>epidemiological criteria (Residence area , age group , existence of cats in houses , times number of abortion</p> <p>status , number of children , collection samples monthly, trimesters period of pregnancy). Concerning</p> <p>biochemical parameters, the present included determination of estradiol hormone and vascular cell adhesion</p> <p>molecule -1(VCAM-1) in aborted and healthy women that their ages ranged between 20 to 49 years old. it</p> <p>has been found a significant increase (P&lt;0.05) in the levels of estradiol hormone in women affected with</p> <p>toxoplasmosis compared to healthy women .VCAM-1 results indicated a significant increase(P&lt;0.05) in</p> <p>a comparison with those of healthy women it can be concluded that infection with <em>Toxoplasma</em> gondii is</p> <p>associated with estradiol hormone and vascular cell adhesion molecules.</p> Zahraa Ismail Abdul Al-Ameer1 , Ahmed Khudhair Al-Hamairy2, Dakel Ghani Omran2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1464 1469 Antibacterial applications and Comparative Study for Adsorption Phenol Red Dye Using Spinel Co1-xMxFe2O4 Nano Composites (M= Cd, Ag) <p>This work concerned with the study of adsorption of phenol red dye by using spinel Co1-xMxFe2O4 was prepare</p> <p>by Co-precipitation method at different ratios of (0.2:0.8, 0.5:0.5, 0.8:0.2) and calcinations at temperature</p> <p>600 C0 for three hours. The conclusion showed that (0.5:0.5) percentage has high activity than other ratio</p> <p>at different temperature. The prepared powder was differentiated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform</p> <p>Technique (FT-IR), UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive</p> <p>Spectroscopy (EDS), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)</p> <p>were also studied for all spinel. X-ray and Electron Microscopy studies showed the average size of the</p> <p>granules prepared for the composite in this manner (17.44 for Cd and 37.55 for Ag)</p> Waleed Abbas Jawad1 , Nada Y Fairooz2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1470 1476 Preparation of Polymer Nano-composite Materials for Microwave Sensor Application <p>In this study, prepared nanocomposite materials made of polyester were prepared with a fixation hardener</p> <p>ratio of 0.1 g per 10 ml of polyester. This percentage was constant in all samples and addition of both</p> <p>chlorophyll(Cll) and lead oxide (PbO&lt;100nm) as well as lead oxide with chlorophyll by weight percentage</p> <p>(0.2 ,0.5, 0.2 (Cll) with 0.5(PbO)wt.% receptivity, then study coefficient of loss of reflectivity of all samples</p> <p>where the results indicated that most prepared materials correct for use attenuation materials of microwaves</p> <p>where is reflection coefficient of all samples larger than (10dB) this show that absorption of composite</p> <p>materials consistence larger than 90%, then study reflection coefficient and also definition complex</p> <p>permittivity in the range frequencies (3-5)GHz where observed that value of the complex permittivity larger</p> <p>than one</p> <p>.</p> Ammar Yahya Al-Mamoori1 , Najlaa Mohamed Awad2 , Sameer Hassan Al-Nesraway3 , Jassim Mohammed Al-Issawe 1, Ebtsam Rathy Hamza2 , Mohammed Hamza Al-Maamori4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1477 1484 Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and the Factors that Influence Breastfeeding among Mothers attending a Primary Health Center in Sulaimani City <p>This study was performed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards breastfeeding and identify</p> <p>factors impacting this practice among mothers. A descriptive case-series study was carried out among 220</p> <p>mothers who had a child less than 2 years, in Ibrahim Pasha Health Center in Sulaimani city, between the</p> <p>9th of August 2018 and 20th of November 2018. The convenience sampling method was used to select the</p> <p>subjects. Mean age of the mothers was 29.37 years. More than half (56.8%) of the mothers were encouraged for</p> <p>breastfeeding, the main encouragement factors were husbands, medical staff, and other families (45%, 22%,</p> <p>and 15% respectively). More than one third (37.7%) of the mothers ceased breastfeeding, the main motives</p> <p>were producing insufficient milk, child refusal and child’s disease (31%, 25%, and 17% respectively). The</p> <p>association between mode of delivery and types of feeding was statistically significant (P=0.028); exclusive</p> <p>breastfeeding was high in the normal delivery group. Overall, the mothers had a good knowledge and a</p> <p>positive attitude toward breastfeeding. Only 30.5% of the mothers started breastfeeding within the first hour</p> <p>after labour. An extreme number (95%) of the mothers fed colostrum to their baby. Merely 30.5% of the</p> <p>participants fed their babies exclusively.</p> Bestun Ibrahim Hama Rahim1 , Niaz Mustafa Kamal2 , Bekhal Abdalwahid Amin3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1485 1493 Molecular Typing of Malassezia and Histoplasma in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Patients with Pulmonary Respiratory Infections <p>Pulmonary infections caused by fungal infection is one of the generality serious lung disease. Its symptoms</p> <p>and risk vary from controlled to fatal if not treated early. The aim study isolation and identification of</p> <p><em>Histoplasma</em> and <em>Malassezia</em> inhabitant lung of patients pulmonary respiratory infections. A total of 103</p> <p>clinical samples were collected from the patients who attenuated the Thoracic and Respiratory Diseases</p> <p>Center, Tebba National Hospital and Morjan Educational Hospital in Babylon province . The samples were</p> <p>taken under the supervision of the physician after diagnosis of pulmonary diseases such as Tuberculosis ,</p> <p>Pulmonary fibrosis , lung cancer , asthma , Thoracic Allergy. Lop full of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL)</p> <p>were Direct cultured on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA), microscopically and molecular identification</p> <p>was performed based on used specific primer pairs for <em>Histoplasma</em> and <em>Malassezia</em>. The results shown</p> <p>identification many yeast and molds based on cultural and molecular assay shown: A 438 out of 500 isolates</p> <p>of yeast were identified as <em>Candida</em> spp<em>. ,</em> 27 isolates of <em>Malassezia</em> spp<em>.</em> and other filamentous fungi such</p> <p>as <em>Zasmidium cellare, Aspergillus </em>spp<em>.</em> , <em>Penicillium </em>spp<em>.</em> , <em>Fusarium</em> spp. , <em>Mucor </em>sp<em>.</em>, <em>Alternaria </em>spp<em>.</em>,</p> <p><em>Acremonium</em> sp. and <em>Cochliobolus kusanoi</em> .</p> Zahraa Muhyi Al Shareefy1 , Zaidan Khlaif Imran2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1494 1500 Genotyping Tinea Capitis Fungi and Evaluate the Antifungal Activity of Plant Extract in Vitro <p>Tinea capitis is a prevalent superficial fungal infection seen in developing nations predominantly in child, the</p> <p>aim of this study included isolating and identification of Tinea capitis fungi isolated from clinical samples</p> <p>who attenuate the outpatient clinics and other samples were collected from soils of barber shops, homes and</p> <p>mosques in Babylon / Hilla Province. 120 hairs, scales and soil were 80 clinical samples (hairs and scales),</p> <p>30 soil samples, and 10 hair samples as control group. The results showed that: numbers of dermatophytes</p> <p>fungi were identified based on microscopic and Molecular criteria. <em>T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, M. </em></p> <p><em>audounii, M. canis. </em>Also non dermatophytes fungus was <em>Chaetomium globosum. </em>Also three yeast species</p> <p>were identified: <em>Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis</em>, <em>Malassezia </em>spp. based on molecular assays.</p> <p>The antimicrobial activity of plant extract antifungal shown, <em>Capparis spinosa </em>plant has highly antifungal</p> <p>activity shown inhibition on dermatophytes, followed by <em>Furcraea foetida </em>shown inhibition compare with</p> <p>activity of Fluconazole in vitro</p> Hiba Jabur Sallal1 , Zaidan Khlaif Imran2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1501 1507 Nurse’s Practices toward Nursing Intervention of Diagnostic Procedures at Neuro Surgical Hospitals in Baghdad City <p>The study aims to evaluate nurses’ practices toward nursing intervention of diagnostic procedures at Neuro</p> <p>Surgical Hospitals, and to find-out the relationship between Nurses’ practices with their Socio-demographic</p> <p>characteristic of age, gender, and education level. A quantitative research approach has been used for this</p> <p>study design starting from December 7th, 2017 to September 2nd, 2019. A purposive sample was adopted</p> <p>including (50) male and female nurses as participants. They were working at Neuro surgical Hospitals.</p> <p>The study Instrument was composed of two Parts: The First Part is concerned with the socio-demographic</p> <p>characteristics, and the second Part includes Nurses’ Practices. Content validity of the instrument was</p> <p>established through a penal of (11) experts. Results have been analyzed through the use of SPSS “Statistical</p> <p>Package for Social Sciences” model 24.0 by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings of</p> <p>the present study revealed that most of the samples were within the age of (35-44) years who were accounted</p> <p>(34%). The age group of (25-34 years) represent (32%). 24 percent of the study sample were (45-54) years</p> <p>old, and only five nurses were within the age group of (18-24) years old.</p> Wafaa Abd Ali1 , Widad K. Mohammod2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1508 1514 Antimicrobial Study against Seven Cycles Compounds Derivatives from Pyrimidine <p>The current study involves preparing newly pyrimidine derivative compound with seven membrane rings</p> <p>and used it to explain the antimicrobial activity of it against four isolates of four types of G+ &amp; G– pathogenic</p> <p>bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia)</p> <p>respectively, with two types of fungi (Aspergilus niger &amp; Penicillium chrysogenum) by using four different</p> <p>concentrations (5, 10 , 15 &amp; 20 mg/ml-1). The characterizations and properties of this compound have</p> <p>biological and pharmacological functions through the inhibition the growth of many types of organisms.</p> Aseel Fadhil Kareem1 , Hasan Thamer Ghanim2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1515 1519 Effect of Cupping (Al-Hijima) on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters for some Volunteers in Missan Province <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of Cupping is to extract the blood which is believed to be harmful for the body which</p> <p>in turn rids the body of potential harm from symptoms leading to a reduction in stressful condition. The</p> <p>study was performed to evaluate the effects of cupping (Hijama) on the hematological and the biochemical</p> <p>parameters in the patients before and after making the cupping.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and Method:</strong> The study was performed in period between (first November -2018 to May- 2019)</p> <p>and conducted on (30) volunteers coming to Hijama centers in different parts of Missan province in ages</p> <p>between (30-50) years with . Five (5ml) of venous blood samples were collected the first sample was</p> <p>taken before and after one week of cupping and two weeks later after cupping . Each sample of blood</p> <p>was separated into two tubes for hematological assessment and the serum was stored in -20°C freezer till</p> <p>handled for biochemical analysis ,determined lipid profile and serum electrolytes level. These parameters</p> <p>were performed in laboratories of Al- Sadder Teaching Hospital – Amarha City according to the standard</p> <p>methods that described in the Analysis Kits that used in this study was products of Spinach Company Spin</p> <p>react.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The obtained results for hematological analysis observed significant increase in (RBCs) after</p> <p>one and two week of making Hijima in (p&lt; 0.05).as compared results before making hijjama ,significant</p> <p>decrease in haematocrit(HCT) ,hemoglobin (Hb) ,Platelets (Plt) , neutrophiles and lymphocytes percentages</p> <p>after one and two week of making Hijama as compared results before making hijama . Total cholesterol</p> <p>were observed significant decrease in (P&gt;0.05) after one and two weeks of hijima in compared with the</p> <p>total cholesterol before making the hijima ,decrease in (LDL), (vLDL) and Triglyceride after one week and</p> <p>two week of hijima as compared before making the hijima .High density lipoprotein (HDL-ch) observed</p> <p>significant increase in (P&gt;0.05) after one week and two weeks of making hijima as compared with (HDL</p> <ol> <li>ch) before making the hijima. The biochemical analysis observed significant decrease in levels of ALP</li> </ol> <p>enzyme,creatinine ,blood urea nitrogen and blood glucose in(P&gt;0.05) after one and two weeks of Hijima,</p> <p>significant increase in levels of total proteins , AST and ALT in(P&gt;0.05) after one and two weeks of</p> <p>making Al-hijima as compared with levels before making the hijima. Serum electrolytes level showed an</p> <p>significant decline in serum Calcium ions (Ca+2) in (P&gt;0.05) after one and two weeks of making Al-hijima</p> <p>as compared to the serum calcium level before making of Al- hijama. Also observed insignificant decline in</p> <p>serum sodium(Na+2), chloride ions (Cl-) and potassium ions(K+) as compared to level of sodium ,chloride</p> <p>and potassium ions before making of Al- hijama.</p> Abbas Ch. Mraisel 1 , Mustafa A. Nama2 , Ahmed, A. Habeeb3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1520 1525 Knowledge and Attitudes of Women Toward Breast Self-Examination in Hilla City: Application Health Belief Model <p><strong>Background:</strong> Breast cancer in all parts of the world begins to be seen at about 20 years of age. Afterward,</p> <p>age specific incidence steadily rises until the menopause when geographic differences begin to be seen.</p> <p>In the developing world, a flattening and then a decline occur about 10–15 years after the menopause. In</p> <p>developed countries, the age specific incidence accelerates after the menopause, and at age 70 and above</p> <p>doubles that seen at 45–49 years old.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive design study was accomplished at teaching hospitals in Babylon province.</p> <p>The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the women toward the breast self- examination</p> <p>by the application health belief model from 25th November/ 2018 to 13th June/ 2019. A non-probability</p> <p>“convenient sample” of (250) women were selected from outpatients of the main teaching hospitals of the</p> <p>hilla city. The researcher selected 10% from the number of visitors prior to the month of data collection from</p> <p>each of the three hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the present study show that the demonstrates the distribution of women according</p> <p>to their knowledge about breast self-examination items. With regard to their knowledge reported (Do not</p> <p>know) that puberty as the age of initiation of BSE, it should be done monthly and it should be done five days</p> <p>after menses (59.1%),(61.6%),(70.8%) respectively. Item (1) only reported fair assessment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong>. Study focuses on clarifying the knowledge and attitudes of women regarding breast self</p> <p>examination according to health belief model in hilla city hospitals.</p> Rehab. F. H1 , Salma. K . J2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1526 1530 Knowledge of Parents toward Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Baghdad City <p>Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in child and</p> <p>teenage psychiatry. ADHD children are at risk for a school organization constrains a multimodal treatment</p> <p>database1. This study surveys parent’s knowledge and attitudes towards attention deficit hyperactivity</p> <p>disorder. The study aimed to assess the level of the knowledge and perspective for Parents who have</p> <p>children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder. A non-probability, purposive sample of 75 child and</p> <p>75 parents (40 mothers and 35 fathers), who had children with ADHD between the ages of (4 and 12) were</p> <p>selected. A descriptive study was conducted at the Child Psychiatric Unit at Ibn Rushed Psychiatric Teaching</p> <p>Hospital and Central Child Hospital Teaching in Baghdad City, from September8st to October 30th, 2017.</p> <p>A questionnaire format used for data collection and constructed by the researcher to achieve the objectives</p> <p>of the study. Reliability of questionnaires was estimated through a pilot study which was carried out for the</p> <p>period from December 10th 2017 to December 30th 2017. Data were analyzed through the application of</p> <p>descriptive statistical analysis and the application of inferential statistic. The results of the study indicate</p> <p>that the ADHD parents are no significant association between father knowledge and ‘ socio-demographic</p> <p>except income ,child age, gender and received medication which was correlated significantly at p-value 0.01</p> <p>respectively. The researcher recommended that future researches should be directed toward teaching parents</p> <p>and teacher to increase their knowledge about the ADHD and provide many strategies to help them to reduce</p> <p>parents burden and coping .</p> Iman H. Alwan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1531 1534 Histopathological Changes in Liver Induced by Piroxicam Administration in Adult Male Albino Mice Mus musculus <p><strong>Background</strong>: Piroxicam is one of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which is widely used in treating</p> <p>rheumatic disorder. <strong>Aim of the study</strong>: Studying the effects of piroxicam pertaining on the liver tissue to</p> <p>the chronic administration in male albino mice <em>Mus musculus</em> histologically and histochemically changes.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods</strong>: A total number of (30) adult male albino mice were utilized in this study, they were</p> <p>randomly distributed into three groups, the first and second groups were orally treated with concentrations</p> <p>(75, 150) mg/kg of piroxicam respectively for one and two months, the third group considered as control</p> <p>group were orally treated with distilled water, liver samples were collected every one and two months for</p> <p>the histological and histochemically study. <strong>Results</strong>: This study recorded the presence of histopathological</p> <p>changes in liver tissue of the treated mice with concentration 75 mg/kg represented by degeneration of</p> <p>hepatocyte, sinusoidal dilation, inflammatory cellular infiltration, vascular congestion in the portal vein</p> <p>and beginning of calcium casts formation, while the group treated with 150 mg/kg of the drug showed</p> <p>portal vein congestion and dilation, blood sinusoidal were highly obliterated, proliferation of bile duct and</p> <p>nuclei appeared pyknotic, in addition there were a remarkable decrease in the glycogen controls of cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It could be concluded that piroxicam drugs has drastic effects on liver tissue as represented by</p> <p>the observed histopathological changes.</p> Intidhar Mohammed Mnati1 , Baydaa Hussain Mutlak1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1535 1541 Prevalence of Negative Exploratory Laparotomy in Some the Hospitals of Al-Russafa Side of Baghdad City <p>Not all abdominal trauma need laparotomy thus this study has been conducted to evaluate the prevalence</p> <p>of negative laparotomy in some of the hospitals of Al-Russafa side of Baghdad city. A retrospective cross</p> <p>section study was be conducted in four hospital (Baghdad Teach hospital, Al-kindy, Al-sadder, Al-emam Ali</p> <p>hospital) in Baghdad city. The period for data collection are (8) months from February to September 2014.</p> <p>Data was analyzed using the SPSS.</p> <p>This study revealed that the distribution of –ve labratomy are ( 6) for AL-Sadder hospital and (4) for other</p> <p>hospitals in sample with (12%) for Al-sadder hospital ,(11.76 %) for Al-emam Ali and Baghdad hospitals,</p> <p>and (8) for Al –kindy hospital,The results of this study indicated that one ten of all expletory lapratomy was</p> <p>negative lapratomy. The prevalence distribution of expletory lapratomy are difference between hospitals of</p> <p>Al-russafa and also there is difference in the prevalence of –ve expletory lapratomy among these hospitals.</p> <p>Based on this study Reliance on algorithm for patients with abdominal trauma should be to identify injuries</p> <p>requiring surgical repair, and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy. In addition provide imaging modalities and</p> <p>other investigative techniques in all hospitals and training of medical staff working in hospitals on focal</p> <p>assessment sonography for trauma program(FAST).</p> Israa Dawood Salim1 , Mohammed Abdulridha Alzamili 2, Sameeha Naser Abed3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1542 1546 Cloning, Sequencing and Expression of the Brucella Melitensis Novel Lomr Protein <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection transmitted from animal to human directly by the animal or indirectly</p> <p>from their products. It is worldwide distribution especially in the middle east including Iraq and Kurdistan</p> <p>Region. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> The gene coding for the outer membrane protein assembly factor LomR</p> <p>of 18kDa, now designated of <em>Brucella melitensis</em> 16M was cloned and sequenced. Cloning of insert DNA</p> <p>from bacteria into pET-28+ allowed the selection of a plasmid bearing a 5.5-kb NcoI fragment that seemed</p> <p>to contain the entire omp gene under control of its own promoter. <strong>Results:</strong> LomR was localized within a</p> <p>region between the NcoI and XhoI insert of approximately 396 bp. The reliability of the constructed plasmid</p> <p>was established by restriction enzyme mapping and sequencing. LomR was expressed after induction with</p> <p>IPTG in Escherichia coli BL21. Recombinant LomR was purified by chromatography through Ni-agarose.</p> <p>Sequencing of this region revealed an open reading frame of 390 bp encoding a protein of 132 amino acids</p> <p>and a predicted molecular mass of 20 KDa. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The availability of recombinant LomR and the</p> <p>identification of the antigenic determinant recognized will allow the evaluation of their potential protective</p> <p>activity and their potential for the development of subunit vaccine against brucellosis.</p> Othman Jamal Nassrullah1 , Mohammed Omer Mohammad2, Shwan Kamal Rachid3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1547 1551 Attitudes of Secondary School Students toward Health Promotion Behaviors in Al- Hila City <p><strong>Objectives</strong> To identify the school students sociodemographic characteristics . To assess the attitude of</p> <p>participants toward health promotion .</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A cross-sectional descriptive study consisting of (177)students ,to Attitudes of Secondary</p> <p>School Students toward Health Promotion Behaviors of secondary school student in Al- Hilla City</p> <p><strong>Result: :</strong>Analysis of data reveals that there is a( 67.8%) of adolescent have a normal body mass index, and</p> <p>(15.8) have underweight, (12.4%) overweight, while(4%) only have obesity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Most of the students maintained normal weight status according to their BMI. Most of students</p> <p>aged at middle adolescence period, males more than females, majority of students were un married, at fourth</p> <p>grade, most of them were urban residence and ordered as 2nd member in the family, majority of them were</p> <p>not smoking and live with their parents.</p> Hasaan Abd Ali1 , Salma K . Jihad2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1552 1555 Investigation of mec A and (tst-1) Genes Among Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin Infection in Al- Diwaniyah Iraq <p>In this study one handered and five samples were collected from skin infection in hospital Diwaniyah</p> <p>Dermatology Consultancy in Al-Diwaniyah governorate. from December 2018 to April 2019. All samples</p> <p>were cultured and Identified by using phenotyping tests. The results revealed that 41 isolates were <em>Staph. </em></p> <p><em>spp.</em> and 30 Isolates out of them Diagnosed <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> by using (API staph). Virulence factors</p> <p>were explicated by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methicillin-resistant <em>staphylococcus aureus </em></p> <p>( MRSA ), were identified by detecting (<em>mec</em>A gene), which revealed that all skin infections were MRSA</p> <p>( 100 % ). Also, toxic shock syndrome toxin ( TSST ) were identified by using PCR to detect ( <em>tst-1 </em>gene 326</p> <p>bp.), which revealed that 23 isolate were positive out of 30 isolate ( 76.33 % ).</p> Rasool kadam-alheyawey1 , Ibtisam Habeeb Al-Azawi2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1556 1560 Electroencephalogram and Visual Evoked Potential Changes in Patients with Primary Headaches <p>This study was a case/control study in which a total of (450) subjects, into (150) with primary headache ( male</p> <p>and female) and this was included in this study, 128 with migraine headache, 22 with non-migraine headache</p> <p>and 300 were normal, as control group. The electrophysiological tests were done at the neurophysiology unit</p> <p>of Mirjan Teaching hospital in Babylon City, during the period from 28 / October/ 2014 until 22 / May/2015.</p> <p>This study reveals that involvement of the migraine are more than that of the non-migraine in headache</p> <p>patients when compared with control group and when compared between the migraine and non-migraine</p> <p>headache patients. The most common EEG changes in headaches patients were diffuse slowing and spike</p> <p>wave of back ground activity, in such a way that 54 (42.2%) migraine patients had abnormal EEG changes,</p> <p>in comparison to 4 (18.2%) of non-migraine patients. Visual evoked potential (VEP) was dependable marker</p> <p>for central nervous system affection in primary headache (migraine and non-migraine ) and the most common</p> <p>abnormalities were prolonged latency and amplitude is stay in normal ranged (5-10) µ.volt.</p> Nidaa S. Mohammed1, Mohammed Jaber Al-Mamoori 2, AbudAlK. Albermani3 , Wahab. R. AbudAlameer4 , Farah N. Abbas5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1561 1568 Effect of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) upon Lung Functions among Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease at Al-Najaf Cardiac Center: Correlation Study <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The study objectives to detect the effect of angioplasty upon lung functions among Patients</p> <p>with ischemic heart disease and to find out the relationship between the patients lung functions and their</p> <p>demographic and clinical characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive (correlation) design was conducted on the at Al- Najaf center for cardiac surgery</p> <p>and catheterization. Starting from 1st April 2019 to 1st October 2019. In order to detect the effect of angioplasty</p> <p>on lung function among of patient with ischemic heart disease. A non-probability (purposive) sample of (52)</p> <p>patients, those who admitted to angioplasty unit and coronary care unit without any respiratory diseases.</p> <p>Patients were ischemic heart disease. The patients’ demographic and clinical data collected through the</p> <p>utilization the semi-structured questionnaire and by means of interview technique with the subject, while the</p> <p>pulmonary functions test collected by using spirometer instrument. Data was analyzed by using descriptive</p> <p>statistic (percentage and Frequencies) and inferential (person s correlation coefficient, independent sample</p> <p>t-test, and paired t-test).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results shows that there is a high significant relationship between the pulmonary functions pre</p> <p>and post cardiac catheterization, and most the patients with low PFTs post angioplasty.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The present study recommended the nurses whose work at the open Heart Center should teach</p> <p>the patient undergoing cardiac catheterization breathing exercises to increase the lung capacity as particular</p> <p>and the respiratory system as general and the patient should be given oxygen for at least 60 minutes before</p> <p>and after cardiac catheterization to ensure an increase in the oxygen level and perfusion in the body tissues.</p> Mohammed A. Mustafa 1 , Dhafer Ammen Jabbar 2 , Husham Qassim Mohammed 3 , Sura Ibrahim Luaibi 4 , Rawnaq Hussain Al-Ghrebawi 4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1569 1575 The Role of Fractional CO2 Laser in Treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar used Alone and in Combination with Intralesional Steroids <p><strong>Background:</strong> The hypertrophic and keloid scars are thick , raised, disfiguring areas of skin with abnormal</p> <p>prolonged inflammatory response of wound healing process and overproduction of collagen. Carbon dioxide</p> <p>(CO2) laser has been used in the treatment of hypertrophic scar and keloids for more than 20 years.</p> <p><strong>Aim of Study:</strong> To evaluate the effect of (CO2) laser in treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scar with use of</p> <p>intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (kenacort) 40 mg/ml as adjuvant therapy.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study was done on 22 patients in Imam al-Sadiq teaching hospital in Hilla city with</p> <p>dividing the patients randomly in to two groups ,one group treated with four sessions of intralesional</p> <p>corticosteroids and the second group treated with four sessions of intralesional corticosteroids with carbon</p> <p>dioxide laser.</p> Nadia H. Sahib1 , Mohammed K. Al-hattab2 , Fatin Ahmed Fakhry3 , Ihsan Jara Atiyah4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1576 1581 Isolation, Amplification Approaches of Human Pokemon gene (ZBTB7) and Incorporation into Yeast Vector <p>The transcription repressor protein ZBTB7 (FBI1, BTB-ZF protein LRF) known as a Pokemon is critical</p> <p>factor in oncogenesis which is encoded by ZBTB7 gene. ZBTB7 processes by controlling the pathways that</p> <p>are required to transform normal cell to cancerous one. It produces its effects by repressing the function of</p> <p>other proteins including a tumor suppressor protein ARF leading to lymphomas and other oncogenic effects</p> <p>and present in very high level in certain type of B cell. So the structural study of the translation product of</p> <p>this gene is an important task to know about the carcinoferous effect of ZBTB7 along with their interactive</p> <p>pattern with co-repressor which prone transcription repression by stopping the activity of transcription</p> <p>factors. In the present project DNA binding domain of ZBtB7 gene’s cDNA is developed and cloned into</p> <p>suitable yeast vector.</p> Nawal Kadem Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1582 1587 The Risk Factors of Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration among Patients in Misan Governorate <p>Recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) is the most common oral mucosal disease which characterized by</p> <p>recurrent episodes of multiple or solitary painful ulcerations without association with systemic diseases.</p> <p>The objectives of our study were to investigate the relation of RAU to demographical, education level and</p> <p>smoking habit. The study was conducted on 120 patients, personal data (age, sex), site, level of education</p> <p>and smoking habit were taken. The results showed that females were affected more than males, the buccal</p> <p>mucosa and tongue (58 %, 24%) respectively were the most common site of occurrence. There was higher</p> <p>prevalence rate of RAU among patients with higher educational level (60%) and in non-smokers (93.3%)</p> Sami Khalef Jabar1 , Sadiq Musa Ahmed2 , Najeh Jasim Issa3 , Ali Imad Al-Khasssaki4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1588 1592 Macular Thickness and Its relation with Age and Gender in Healthy Eyes Using Cirrus-HD Optical Coherence Tomography <p><strong>Purpose of the Study</strong>: To provide a normative data for macular thickness in healthy Iraqi eyes using Zeiss</p> <p>cirrus HD-OCT and to determine the effects of age and gender on their measurements.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Two hundred healthy adult volunteers (?20 years), four hundred eyes underwent</p> <p>macular cube scanning using Zeiss cirrus-HD OCT. Macular thickness from all 9 regions of the Early</p> <p>Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study map was documented for each subject. Variations in macular</p> <p>thickness by age and gender were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of volunteers was 37±10.4 (range 21-67)years. The mean of central foveal thickness</p> <p>was 254.6±17.3Mm, the mean macular thickness was 279.0 ± 10.7 Mm, and the macular volume was 10.0 ±</p> <p>0.4 mm3.Females were found to have a significantly thinner macula (P&lt; 0.001) than males in all 9 ETDRS</p> <p>regions except outer inferior quadrant. Central foveal thickness was found to have very weak correlation</p> <p>with age which was not statistically significant. All other macular regions, mean macular thickness and</p> <p>volume showed statistically significant nonlinear reduction with age(p value&lt;0.001)<em>.</em></p> Qasim Kadhum Farhood1 , Ahmed Ali Ibrahim2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1593 1599 Effectiveness of an Education Program on Knowledge of Primary School Teachers toward Mumps Disease <p>This study aims to determine the effectiveness of an education program on primary school teachers’ knowledge</p> <p>toward mumps disease and to identify the relationship between the primary school teachers’ knowledge and</p> <p>some demographic variables. Quantitative research a quasi-experimental design (pre-post tests) has been</p> <p>used in the present study for the period of January 2018 to the end of June 2019. A nonprobability (purposive</p> <p>sample) sample of 60 teachers has been selected from 30 primary schools in Holy Kerbala City. The sample</p> <p>of the study was divided into two groups: (30) teachers for the study group, who have been exposed to the</p> <p>education program, and (30) teachers for the control group, who not exposed to the education program. The</p> <p>groups are almost matched relative to their characteristics. The questionnaire was submitted to the teachers</p> <p>for the pre-test before the implementation of the program. Post-test I was conducted immediately after that.</p> <p>Post-test II was conducted two months later. The findings of the data analysis indicate that the teachers’</p> <p>knowledge among the study group improves as a result of the implementation of the education program.</p> <p>Among the control group, there is no significant difference in the level of teachers’ knowledge. The study</p> <p>recommends the cooperation between the Ministry of Education with the Ministry of Health to develop</p> <p>a national plan regarding mumps and other communicable diseases to raise the awareness of the school</p> <p>community (students, teaching, and non?teaching staff, and parents) regarding this diseases.</p> Haqi I. Mansoor1 , Kahtan H. Hussein2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1600 1604 Effects of Cement Dust on Electrolytes and Osmolality in Serum and Urine of Kufa Cement Factory workers <p>Cement industry is considered one of the serious pollutants in the environment inducing different kinds of</p> <p>health problems among workers. However, there have been few studies examining the adverse effects of</p> <p>cement dust on the levels of electrolytes and osmolality among workers. In the current study, we investigated</p> <p>the potential impacts of the cement dust on the levels of electrolytes and osmolality in both serum and urine</p> <p>among workers of Kufa Cement Factory. The workers were grouped into three groups according to their</p> <p>departments. The workers, who were aged between 38-48 years, were grouped into oven workers (N=20),</p> <p>mills workers (N=16) and control workers (N=22). While workers who were aged between 49-59 years,</p> <p>were also grouped into oven workers (N=14), mills workers (N=13) and control workers (N=9). Serum</p> <p>and urine samples were collected from all studied subjects. Regardless of age groups, the results showed</p> <p>that the levels of serum sodium and potassium were significantly increased among workers at the oven and</p> <p>mills departments compared to the control. While the levels of blood serum calcium and osmolality were</p> <p>significantly reduced among workers at the oven and mills departments compared to control group. In the</p> <p>urine samples, the levels of sodium were significantly higher among oven workers compared to the findings</p> <p>in both mills and control. While the levels of calcium and osmolality were significantly higher in both oven</p> <p>and mills workers compared to the control.</p> Noor Amer Hakim AL-Mamoori1 , Nada Saad Naji AL-Taee2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1605 1609 Assessment of Risk Factor for Developing Acute Kidney Injury in the Setting of Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction <p><strong>Background: </strong>An acute kidney injury (AKI) is a recognized complication in patients with ST elevation</p> <p>myocardial infarction (STEMI) by several mechanisms and it adversely affects morbidity and mortality on</p> <p>long-term bases (1, 2, and 3). Few studies have investigated which patients with STEMI are at risk of developing</p> <p>AKI (6), and this study is aiming to do this assessment.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods</strong>: We enrolled patients with STEMI who were admitted to the CCU. KDIGO</p> <p>definitions was utilized to search for development of AKI in these patients throughout their stay in the</p> <p>CCU (their baseline serum creatinine was measured and traced daily thereafter; and their urine output was</p> <p>monitored). Common epidemiological and some relevant medical parameters were recorded for all patients.</p> <p><strong>Results and conclusion: </strong>low baseline systolic blood pressure, ejection fraction % and estimated glomerular</p> <p>filtration rate (eGFR); in addition to use of diuretics; are the major risk factors for the development of AKI</p> <p>in the setting of STEMI.</p> Shawqi Watheq Mohammed Ali1 , Fareed Murad Kareem2 , Yihia Mousa Al-Sunbly3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1610 1616 Psychological Factors Associated with Relapse in Psychotic Patients attending Teaching Hospitals in AL_Furat Al-Awsat Governorates) <p><strong>Background</strong>: Relapse demonstrates a large problem in general health; the relapse effects on the family and</p> <p>the client together social contact with other people and financially.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To find out the relationship between the Psychological factors of relapse and sociodemographic</p> <p>data of psychotic patients attending teaching hospitals in AL_Furat Al-Awsat Governorates.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The design was (Descriptive-Correlational) used to describe the variables and the</p> <p>relationships that occur among them in this study. The sample was (a non-probability) purposive of (181)</p> <p>relapsed psychotic patients were selected from our patients centers from teaching hospitals in AL_Furat</p> <p>Al-Awsat Governorates, during the period from 9th May 2019 to 20th August 2019. The instrument included</p> <p>two parts: sociodemographic variables and the psychological factors associated with relapse. The researcher</p> <p>used descriptive statistics tools such as frequency, percentage, mean of score and used in inferential statistics</p> <p>such as Chi-Square.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The findings of the study indicate that (45.86%) of the sample their diagnosis was schizophrenia,</p> <p>(25.97%) were schizoaffective and (11.60%) were major depressive disorder with psychotic features. Also,</p> <p>the findings of the study indicate that (39.2%) of the study samples they have poor psychological factors,</p> <p>(34.8%) they have moderate psychological factors and (26%) they have good psychological factors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is a high significant relationship between the most sociodemographic data and</p> <p>psychological factor (that included high express emotion and stigma factors).</p> Ali A. ALHatab1 , Saja H. Mohammed2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1617 1622 Unmet Supportive Care Needs of General Cancer in Kurdistan Region- Iraq <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The study aims to to determine the SCNs of cancer patients in Iraq.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The present cross-sectional study and data was conducted in Rezgary teaching and Nankaly</p> <p>Oncology Hospital in the Kurdistan Federal Region of Iraq. A total of 300 eligible cancer patients were</p> <p>invited to participate in the study from February to August, 2018. Eligibility criteria included: 18 years or</p> <p>above; having a defifinite diagnosis of any type of cancer; physically or mentally able to participate in the</p> <p>study; and being aware of exact diagnosis for at least three months.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In 15 items of the SCNs, more than 60% of the participants reported that their needs were unmet.</p> <p>Most frequently, unmet needs were related to health system and information, physical and daily living,</p> <p>psychological, and patient care and support domains, and most met needs were related to physical and daily</p> <p>activity domains.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Kurdish cancer patients had many unmet needs and there is a need for establishing additional</p> <p>supportive care services and educational programs to increase quality of life in Kurdistan Region- Iraq.</p> Ezaddin Kamal Mahmod 1, Saadia Ahmed Khuder2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1623 1628 Studying The Effect of Mentha Longifolia Plant Extract In Inhibition Growth of Some Bacteria and Inhibiting the Emergence Fourth Stage Larvae of Mosquitoes Aedes Aegypti <p>This study make as research about activity of secondary compounds in Mentha longifolia plant extracts as</p> <p>crude , the effect of crude extract of Mentha longifolia leaves make as inhibitory growth factor for two types</p> <p>of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli , and inhibit emerge four stage larvae of mosquitoes</p> <p>. watery and alcohol plant extracts of Mentha longifolia leaves were prepared , were appear variation effect</p> <p>in bacteria , the water plant extract show simple effect in Staph. aureus , while alcohol extract show clear</p> <p>effect in E. coli . in state of emerge four stage larva of mosquitoes , there are clear effect for alcohol extract</p> <p>in larvae comparing with water extract</p> Alaa Adnan Al-janabi1 , Atyaf Ali Sahib1 , Farah Jabbar Ali1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1629 1633 Relationship between H. Pylori Patients and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease <p><strong>Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD) </strong>Autoimmune Thyroid Disease is one of the diseases, more common</p> <p>in women than men, caused by a combination of reasons discussed later. In this study, we have tried to</p> <p>understand how Autoimmune Thyroid Disease is related to H. pylori or Helicobacter Pylori. We have</p> <p>discussed the pathology and the manner in which AITD is developed</p> <p>This report depicts the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Autoimmune Thyroid</p> <p>Disease or Autoimmune Thyroiditis. However, some other reports concerning the relationship between H.</p> <p>pylori infection and Autoimmune Thyroiditis are conflicting. We’ve discussed how AITD is developed,</p> <p>along with the causes and effects of the disease. In this study, we’ve also aimed at determining the presence</p> <p>of H. pylori bacteria in AITD patients, particularly in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis and Grave’s disease two of</p> <p>the commonly occurring thyroid diseases. The manner in which AITD develops is multi-factorial and H.</p> <p>pylori infection is reported more in AITD patients (adults). H. pylori is said to be involved usually in non</p> <p>gastrointestinal conditions.</p> Marwah Ali Oudah Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1634 1639 Female Adolescents Knowledge Regarding Reproductive Health <p><strong>Background</strong>: Adolescence as the period of human growth and development that occurs after childhood</p> <p>from 10 to 19 years of age. The physical and psychological wellbeing is vital for knowledge of this group</p> <p>considering their health..</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: The study was conducted among girls aged 16_20 years in female secondary school in AL_Hilla</p> <p>city. Collected about 141 samples so we collected these samples to educate and increase of awareness</p> <p>of reproductive health. We use a developed and wellconstructed questionnaire, the data collected by the</p> <p>methods of selfadministered technique. We used accurate details to know the percentage of adolescent girls</p> <p>on the concept of reproductive health and discuss the concept of puberty with their parents, teachers, sisters</p> <p>or brothers as well as knowledge of diseases related to the reproductive system.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Sixtyeight percent have low knowledge about the concept of reproductive health. This means that</p> <p>they are risky factors to have reproductive diseases such as UTI or STD for the lack of awareness of how to</p> <p>take care and maintain of themselves and all of that because their lack of education and knowledge about the</p> <p>reproductive health and this constitutes a negative impact on the concept of reproductive health.</p> Ibtisam Sahib Asal 1 , May Sallal Sahib 2 , Manal Saheb Hamza3 , R.N .Kadhim Hussein Jassim4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1640 1643 Estimation of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Activity in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure <p>Renal failure is a serious disease that affects the kidney and leads to different chemical changes and most</p> <p>cases lead to death .The aim of the study is to measure the activity of phenylalanine hydroxyls (PAH), and</p> <p>biochemical variables (urea, creatinine, and albumin) In the blood and urine of healthy and chronic renal</p> <p>failure (CRF) individuals. The study included 80 patients aged between 78 and 20 years and 80 healthy</p> <p>subjects between the ages of 23-65 years. The results showed significant differences in the activity of PAH</p> <p>at P ? 0.0001 in sera and urine chronic renal failure patients compared to healthy, as the of the activity</p> <p>significantly decreased in sera of patients with CRF and increased in urine. The mean activity of PAH was</p> <p>54.67 ± 6.03 (IU / ml) in sera for CRF patients, whereas in healthy individuals it was 120.83 ± 23.21 (IU</p> <p>/ ml), and the average activity of enzyme was 61.34 ± 7.12 in urine of patients with CRF compared with</p> <p>33.87 ± 3.08 ( IU / ml) in healthy individuals. The activity of PAH enzyme was compared according to age</p> <p>groups, showing a decrease in the age group more than 45 years more than those in the age group less than</p> <p>45 years with significant differences. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that CRF is associated</p> <p>with loss of secretory function, and metabolism Endocrine actions in the kidneys, seems likely to lose renal</p> <p>activity phenylalanine hydroxylase.</p> Najlaa Jawad Hasani Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1644 1650 Hand Hygiene Practices and Infection Control Measures among Emergency Units Health Care Providers <p><strong>Background:</strong> Emergency units is a main part for hospital admission. It is the front line of the healthcare</p> <p>systems in the response to emergencies and public disasters, so the infection preventive measures practices</p> <p>can be easily overlooked or neglected by immediate and life threatening issues.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To assess the practices of health care providers regarding hand hygiene.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study design carried out from the period between (Sep. 2018</p> <p>to Aug. 2019). The study has been conducted in the emergency units at Al-Hilla teaching hospitals. Non</p> <p>probability (purposive) sample of (125) health care providers who work in the emergency unit were selected,</p> <p>(110) nurses, (15) physicians were selected related to special criteria. Special checklist prepared, inter</p> <p>observer reliability calculated the statistical results recorded (r: 0.90), which is statistically accepted.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results shows that the higher percentage of the study sample 104 (83.2%) were between (20-</p> <p>30) years age group, 73 (58.4%) were male, while most of the study sample 67 (53.6%) were Bachelor or</p> <p>postgraduate degree holder, related to the study sample marital status, the higher percentage 64 (51.2%)</p> <p>were married. Overall hand washing practices which consider as the most important measures to control of</p> <p>infection were poor (1.61 0.748).</p> <p><strong> Conclusion:</strong> Regarding to the healthcare providers practices in hand washing with respect to the infection</p> <p>control measures during their daily caring in the emergency units the statistical results show low level of</p> <p>practices.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> Effective educational program should take place for all healthcare providers by task</p> <p>based strategies to utilize the practices include bedside procedures.</p> Anees Flayyih Abdulhassan1 , Sahar Adham Ali2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1651 1655 Genipin Cross-Linked Chitosan / Polyvinyl Alcohol blend for Biomedical Engineering <p>Chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol cross-linked with genipin at different concentrations were utilized to synthesize</p> <p>films by solvent casting for bone tissue engineering applications. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy</p> <p>(FTIR), swelling degree, degradation rate, contact angle, tensile strength was investigated. The results revealed</p> <p>a decrease in swelling degree, degradation rate, contact angle with an increased genipin concentration, while</p> <p>tensile strength increased. It can be indicated that cross-linked CS/ PVA with genipin could be applied in</p> <p>application for tissue engineering.</p> Ishraq A. Kadhim1 , Aseel B.Al.Zubaidi1 , Zuhair Jabbar Abd Alameer2 , Falah Mahmood Hameed3 , Ail Wasfi Sadeq3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1656 1662 Assessment of Primary Dysmenorrhea and Its Effect on the Quality of Life among Female Students at University of Babylon <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The objectives of this study were to assess primary dysmenorrhea condition among participants.</p> <p>In addition to, find out the correlation between primary dysmenorrhea and quality of life of among female</p> <p>students at Babylon of University.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross sectional study design used in this applied quantitative research through the period of</p> <p>4 August 2019 to 22 October 2019. The study conducted in Babylon province, Iraq at University of Babylon.</p> <p>Four faculties has been selected randomly as setting of current study. The total participants were (N=145)</p> <p>females students, selected as 20% from each faculty, by using purposive non-probability sampling approach.</p> <p>The data collected by using an adapted questionnaire and analyzed electronically by using SPSS program.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The findings of the present study revealed that (89%) of participants were unmarried. Almost the</p> <p>entire of sample had family history of primary dysmenorrhea. According to NPRS scale for assessing pain</p> <p>intensity (62.1%) with severe primary dysmenorrhea. The study’s finding found out a negative significant</p> <p>correlation between primary dysmenorrhea intensity and overall quality of life scale at P?0.05 (r= - 0.642,</p> <p>P=0.000).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Primary dysmenorrhea is a very common problem among female students at university</p> <p>of Babylon; it affects their quality of life. QoL decreases with the increase in the severity of primary</p> <p>dysmenorrhea.</p> Zainab Abdulameer Abdulrasol1 , Salma K.J.Al.Ibrahimi2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1663 1669 Vitamin D Level Status and Hypertension among Old Adult Iraqi People in Al Hillah City <p><strong>Background: </strong>Vitamin D has different biological actions in the body . Vitamin D has the pleiotropic effects</p> <p>in multiple organ systems, and vitamin D deficiency was suggested to be associated with high blood</p> <p>pressure according to previous reports. Several interventional studies have examined the effect of vitamin D</p> <p>supplementation on high blood pressure patients</p> <p><strong>Objective :</strong> to identify Vitamin D level and its correlate with hypertension among old adults.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This was across sectional descriptive observational study included convenient sample of</p> <p>elderly people in Hilla City ,Babylon province, the period of the study started from the first of January</p> <p>through August 2019, a pretested semi structured questionnaire was used to interview the participants who</p> <p>attended primary health centers after obtaining their verbal consents, the sample included( 300) old adult</p> <p>of both gender, serum level of Vitamin D was assessed by chemo immunoassay method, the blood pressure</p> <p>was measured single handy by the researcher using mercury sphygmomanometer to diagnose hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study included 300 participants 83.0% of the study sample had either insufficiency or</p> <p>deficiency of Vitamin D level. Hypertensive people had significant Vitamin D Deficiency (both deficiency</p> <p>and insufficiency of vitamin D, 81% and 70% ) respectively as compared to normotensive participants , this</p> <p>difference was statistically significant p&lt;0.05<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>there was a significant inverse relationship between vitamin D level and blood pressure.</p> Ismael Hasan Jawad1 , Hasan ALwan Baiee2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1670 1675 Attitudes of Secondary School Students toward Health Promotion Behaviors in Al- Hila City <p><strong>Objectives</strong> To identify the school students sociodemographic characteristics . To assess the attitude of</p> <p>participants toward health promotion .</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A cross-sectional descriptive study consisting of (177)students ,to Attitudes of Secondary</p> <p>School Students toward Health Promotion Behaviors of secondary school student in Al- Hilla City</p> <p><strong>Result: :</strong>Analysis of data reveals that there is a( 67.8%) of adolescent have a normal body mass index, and</p> <p>(15.8) have underweight, (12.4%) overweight, while(4%) only have obesity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Most of the students maintained normal weight status according to their BMI. Most of students</p> <p>aged at middle adolescence period, males more than females, majority of students were un married, at fourth</p> <p>grade, most of them were urban residence and ordered as 2nd member in the family, majority of them were</p> <p>not smoking and live with their parents.</p> Hasaan Abd Ali1 , Salma K . Jihad2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1676 1679 Investigation of mec A and (tst-1) Genes Among Staphylococcus aureusIsolated from Skin Infection in Al- Diwaniyah Iraq <p>In this study one handered and five samples were collected from skin infection in hospital Diwaniyah</p> <p>Dermatology Consultancy in Al-Diwaniyah governorate. from December 2018 to April 2019. All samples</p> <p>were cultured and Identified by using phenotyping tests. The results revealed that 41 isolates were <em>Staph. </em></p> <p><em>spp.</em> and 30 Isolates out of them Diagnosed <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> by using (API staph). Virulence factors</p> <p>were explicated by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methicillin-resistant <em>staphylococcus aureus </em></p> <p>( MRSA ), were identified by detecting (<em>mec</em>A gene), which revealed that all skin infections were MRSA</p> <p>( 100 % ). Also, toxic shock syndrome toxin ( TSST ) were identified by using PCR to detect ( <em>tst-1 </em>gene 326</p> <p>bp.), which revealed that 23 isolate were positive out of 30 isolate ( 76.33 % ).</p> Rasool kadam-alheyawey1 , Ibtisam Habeeb Al-Azawi2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1680 1684 Electroencephalogram and Visual Evoked Potential Changes in Patients with Primary Headaches <p>This study was a case/control study in which a total of (450) subjects, into (150) with primary headache ( male</p> <p>and female) and this was included in this study, 128 with migraine headache, 22 with non-migraine headache</p> <p>and 300 were normal, as control group. The electrophysiological tests were done at the neurophysiology unit</p> <p>of Mirjan Teaching hospital in Babylon City, during the period from 28 / October/ 2014 until 22 / May/2015.</p> <p>This study reveals that involvement of the migraine are more than that of the non-migraine in headache</p> <p>patients when compared with control group and when compared between the migraine and non-migraine</p> <p>headache patients. The most common EEG changes in headaches patients were diffuse slowing and spike</p> <p>wave of back ground activity, in such a way that 54 (42.2%) migraine patients had abnormal EEG changes,</p> <p>in comparison to 4 (18.2%) of non-migraine patients. Visual evoked potential (VEP) was dependable marker</p> <p>for central nervous system affection in primary headache (migraine and non-migraine ) and the most common</p> <p>abnormalities were prolonged latency and amplitude is stay in normal ranged (5-10) µ.volt.</p> Nidaa S. Mohammed1, Mohammed Jaber Al-Mamoori 2 , AbudAlK. Albermani3 , Wahab. R. AbudAlameer4 , Farah N. Abbas5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1685 1692 Pulmonary Thromboembolism in Organophosphorus Poisoning – A Rare Complication <p>Organophosphate based insecticides constitute the cause of a large number of mortality and morbidity cases</p> <p>in the developing world. The reasons include easy availability, being inexpensive, and lack of regulations</p> <p>regarding their sale and storage. Another factor that has made organophosphate insecticides a major source</p> <p>of suicidal ingestion is the perceived fatality associated with them. Though the muscarinic, nicotinic and</p> <p>central nervous system complications of organophosphate poisoning are well known, the organophosphate</p> <p>toxidrome can sometimes present with unusual presentations and unexpected complications. In the scenario</p> <p>that exists wherein there are substantial number of cases, there arises the possibility that these presentations</p> <p>and complications will only increase in number. In this context it becomes important to know the possible</p> <p>mechanisms that cause unusual presentations and take adequate safeguards. In the case examined herein,</p> <p>a geriatric patient consumed organophosphorus insecticide. Treatment included an initial stomach wash,</p> <p>standard atropine therapy and supportive management. The patient experienced multiple diverse presentations</p> <p>related to the poisoning before eventually succumbing after 1 month. On autopsy the immediate cause of</p> <p>death was found to be pulmonary thromboembolism. The increased susceptibility of thromboembolism</p> <p>could have multiple reasons such as increased immobilization, myopathy resulting in inefficient venous</p> <p>return and deep vein thrombosis, or vessel damage due to inflammatory mediators. This case illustrates</p> <p>the need to consider pulmonary thromboembolism as a potential lethal complication of organophosphorus</p> <p>poisoning.</p> Haneil Larson Dsouza1 , Anita S 2 , Pavanchand Shetty1 , Ranjit Immanuel James3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1693 1696 An Analysis of Autopsied Maternal Deaths in Dakshina Karnataka District Over A 10-Year Period <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Though all deaths are accompanied by profound sorrow and anguish, maternal deaths are</p> <p>perhaps more so. Unfortunately, when these deaths are reported as medico-legal cases, the agony is then</p> <p>prolonged. Anguish from the family members is understandable, but opportunities to conduct autopsies on</p> <p>these deaths present an opportunity to examine in detail the pathophysiology of these deaths. This study is</p> <p>an attempt to find the cause of death in autopsied maternal death cases that have been filed as medico-legal</p> <p>cases and to compare the trends of autopsied maternal deaths with other regions.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To find the cause of death in autopsied maternal death cases that have been filed as medico-legal</p> <p>cases and to compare the trends of autopsied maternal deaths with other regions.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A record-based study was conducted consisting of maternal deaths in the past 10 years based on</p> <p>the medico-legal autopsied reports from Government Wenlock Hospital mortuary.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the causes of death attributed, the most common cause of death was embolism related with</p> <p>4 deaths. This included deaths due to amniotic fluid embolism, trophoblast embolism and their complications</p> <p>such as DIC. Haemorrhage was the cause of death in 2 cases. In 2 cases, the cause of death was acute liver</p> <p>failure. However, one of these cases also had features of gestational acute respiratory distress syndrome.</p> <p>In one case, the cause of death was attributed to coronary artery disease complicated by pregnancy. One</p> <p>case was of ruptured ectopic pregnancy. In another case, the cause of death was a surgical complication of</p> <p>a dilatation and curettage procedure. In the remaining 3 cases, the cause of death could not be ascertained</p> <p>even after histopathological examination, chemical analysis, and a complete autopsy.</p> Nimisha Ratra 1 , Haneil Larson Dsouza2 , Pavanchand Shetty2 , B Suresh Kumar Shetty 3 , Jagadish Rao Padubidri2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1697 1701 Morphometric Measurements of Cervical Spine using Computed Tomography <p>The cervical spine antomy exhibits wide variations. For cervical spine pathologies which require surgical</p> <p>treatment, the prior knowledge of these anatomic variations would reduce the surgical complications. The</p> <p>aim of the study is to perform CT based measurements of cervical transverse foramen and spinal canal in</p> <p>indian population which would be useful in providing road map and guidance for surgical interventions</p> <p>of cervical spine. This is a retrospective study. A total of 73 patients (49 males, 24 females, age range:</p> <p>18-75 years) indicated for CT cervical spine from June 2018 to June 2019 were included. The sagittal</p> <p>spinal canal Diameter (dSSC), sagittal (TFs) and transversr diameters (TFt) of transverse foramen, distance</p> <p>between transverse foramen and spinal canal (dTF-SC) were measured at C1-C7 levels. We found that</p> <p>significant difference in sagittal spinal canal diameters at all the levels of cervical spine (C1-C7) between</p> <p>males and females (p&lt;0.01). Our study also found significant difference in sagittal (TFs) and transverse</p> <p>(TFs) diameters of transverse foramen at all cervical levels in males and females between right and left side</p> <p>(p&lt;0.01). Significant difference were noted for distance between transverse foramen and spinal canal (dTF</p> <ol> <li>SC) at all the levels of cervical spine in males and females between right and left side (p&lt;0.01). From our</li> </ol> <p>study we conclude that a thorough comprehension of cervical anatomy with CT- based measurements help in</p> <p>preoperative planning and reduce the complications in surgical interventions. Our study noticed significant</p> <p>reduction in distance between transverse foramen and spinal canal (dTF-SC) in both males and females on</p> <p>left side. Hence, care must be taken while performing surgical procedures of cervical spine on the left side</p> <p>in males and females at all cervical levels.</p> Husseina Hassanali 1 , Prateeksha S1 , Fayas P1 , Saikiran Pendem2 , Priya P S3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1702 1708 Determination Reference of Concentration (RfC) Xylen Exposure Based on Xylen NOAEL in White Rats and Workers’ Body Weight and Height in Surabaya Car Painting Area, Indonesia <p>This study aims to calculate the value of RfC from xylen exposure around the car painting area of Surabaya,</p> <p>Indonesia. This is an observational cross-sectional study with quantitative data analysis methods conducted</p> <p>manually. The population in this study was groups of car painting workers and groups of car repairer on Jalan</p> <p>Pengenal Kota Surabaya. The sampling technique was proportionate stratified random sampling to take 51</p> <p>people. The measurement of xylen concentration around the car painting area was 635.98 mg/m3 (146.47</p> <p>ppm). This value is above the threshold value according to Minister of Manpower and Transmigration</p> <p>Regulation Number 13 of 2011 and Minister of Manpower Regulation Number. 5 of 2018 is 434 mg/m3 (100</p> <p>ppm). RfC of car painting workers with NOAEL 50 mg/kg was 7.76 mg/kg.</p> Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 , Juliana Jalaludin2 , Prihartini Widiyanti 3, Syamsiar S Russeng4 , Pudji Rahmawati5, Ahsan Ahsan6 , Indri H Susilowati7 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1709 1715 Therapeutic Health Benefits of Religion Among Elderly- A Population based Representative Survey from Iran <p><strong>Background: </strong>We determined whether practice of religious beliefs influence health-related lifestyle among</p> <p>general elderly population.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We recruited elderly (60+years) subjects from among the general population who were invited to</p> <p>answer <em>practice of religious belief</em> and <em>healthy lifestyle in Iranian elderly</em> questionnaires.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 218 elderly subjects participated (51.3% males, mean age: 68.3 years, SD 9.2, range</p> <p>60-92). The mean religious belief was 73.0 (SD 11.5) without male-to-female difference (p=0.9). The mean</p> <p>lifestyle was 100.9 (SD 14.7, range 61-138) with a 9.3% male-to-female difference, p=0.0001. The odds of</p> <p>better lifestyle with religion was 5.5 (p=0.001, effect-size=0.18, variance=29.5%). The most benefit was in</p> <p>prevention (effect-size 0.18), nutrition (effect-size 0.15), and social relationship (effect-size 0.12).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Based on a representative un-selected validated sample, and by using a systematic</p> <p>questionnaire, and after controlling for various possible confounders, and within current evaluation limits,</p> <p>we may conclude that religion may mitigate health-related lifestyle.</p> Adeleh Sadeghloo1 , Somayyeh Meshkani 2 Hamid Hojjati 3, Devender Bhalla4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1716 1720 The Effect of Storage and Time of Blood Specimen Examination of Plasma Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Stabilities <p>his was an analytical study with cross sectional design. Collection of blood specimens was carried out by</p> <p>consecutive sampling during March-June 2019. Blood specimens in this study were healthy adults aged ?21</p> <p>years who underwent general medical check-up or blood donors who met the inclusion criteria and signed</p> <p>informed consent. A total of 71 samples were stored at room temperature and temperature 4-8 °C, then PT</p> <p>(prothrombin time) and aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) checks were carried out at 0, 4, 12, and</p> <p>24 hours. Data were analyzed by using Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank</p> <p>Test. There were differences in the results of PT in the room temperature specimens and 4-8 °C at 4 hours,</p> <p>12 hours, and 24 hours with <em>p</em> value &lt;0.001. This was also found in the aPTT parameter, but for specimens</p> <p>at 4-8 °C at the 24th hour examination the results of changes in aPTT were not statistically significant</p> <p>with <em>p</em> values 0.062. Different PT and aPTT tests at the two storage areas and at different examination</p> <p>times obtained different and statistically significant results with <em>p</em> value &lt;0.001. Examination of hemostasis</p> <p>physiology requires special attention, where pre-analytic plays an important role which can influence the</p> <p>overall test results. The aspects of time and storage on the stability of PT and aPTT specimens are illustrated</p> <p>in this study where significant differences were obtained with <em>p</em> values &lt;0.001. Examination and storage of</p> <p>coagulation study specimens in accordance with CLSI recommendations will provide accurate results and</p> <p>accurately describe the state of the specimen according to the patient’s clinical condition.</p> Aditea Etnawati Putri1 , Yulia Nadar Indrasari2 , Yetti Hernaningsih2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1721 1726 Correlation of Urine Leukocytes and Urine Bacteria Using Current Sitometry Using Urine in Patients of Children Channel Infection <p><strong>Background:</strong> Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is a common illness. The gold standard for UTI</p> <p>diagnosis is urine culture, but it takes a long time and often gives negative results. Currently developed a</p> <p>method of flow cytometry for checking urine sediments. This tool is able to detect leukocytes urine and urine</p> <p>bacteria in quick time. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of urine leukocyte count and</p> <p>the number of urine bacteria using flow cytometry with urine culture in patients with UTI</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Eighty-four patients were enrolled in this study that consisting of 43 patients with suspected UTI</p> <p>and 43 patients with non-ISK treated at Inpatient Installation, Emergency Installation Department of Health</p> <p>Sciences at Dr.Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya for 4 months. The examination of urine leukocytes and</p> <p>urine bacteria was using current cytometry method (UF-500i, Sysmex, Japan). While, examination of urine</p> <p>culture using blood agar plate and Mac. Conkey.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was a significant relationship between the number of leukocytes and the number of colonies.</p> <p>The relationship between leukocytes and the number of colonies was weak, this was indicated by Spearman</p> <p>correlation coefficient (rho) value of 0.376. There was a significant relationship between bacteria and the</p> <p>number of colonies. p &lt;0.05. The relationship between the number of urine bacteria and the number of</p> <p>colonies was quite strong indicated by rho = 0.729.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There was a relationship between urine leukocyte count and the number of urine bacteria using</p> <p>flow cytometry with a urine culture.</p> Adriyani Amin1 , IGAA Putri Sri Rejeki1 , Ninik Soemyarso Asmaningsih1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1727 1732 Ecological Analysis of Stunted Toddler in Indonesia <p>The results of the Indonesia Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas) in 2007, 2013 and 2018 showed the stunted</p> <p>rate for toddlers was still above 30%. While proven poverty often comes with stunted on toddlers. The</p> <p>study aimed to answer whether poverty factors and the availability of health services are related to the</p> <p>prevalence of stunted toddlers in provinces in Indonesia. This study was a secondary data analysis “Data and</p> <p>Information: Indonesian Health Profile in 2017”. The results showed that the high percentage of the poor</p> <p>population (&gt;14.43%) was dominated by the high prevalence of stunted toddlers (22.51%-30.0%). In the</p> <p>category of health center ratio per 100 thousand high population (?4) seen dominated by the prevalence of</p> <p>stunted toddlers in the high category (22.51%-0.0%). In the category of nutritionist ratio per 100 thousand</p> <p>high population (&gt;12), it appears to be dominated by the prevalence of stunted toddler in the high category</p> <p>(22.51% -30.0%). In the category of midwife ratio per 100 thousand high population (&gt;97) was dominated</p> <p>by the prevalence of stunted toddler (22.51%-30.0%). It was concluded that the percentage of the poor</p> <p>population was positively related to the prevalence of stunted toddler. While health service input factors</p> <p>(health center, nutritionists, and midwives) were not related to the prevalence of stunted toddlers.</p> Agung Dwi Laksono1 , Ina Kusrini2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1733 1739 The Use of Touch DNA Analysis in Forensic Identification Focusing on STR CODIS LOCI THO1, CSF1PO and TPOX <p><strong>Introduction</strong>:Identification through DNA analysis is an accurate diagnostic tool. DNA analysis is via</p> <p>Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP)<em>. </em></p> <p>Up to date, blood spots/blood, sperm spots, vaginal swabs, buccal swabs and bones are specimens that</p> <p>are widely used in the field of forensics for DNA analysis. At the crime scene, the perpetrator’s skin may</p> <p>accidentally be in contact with surrounding objects thereby transferring trace evidence to the objects.</p> <p><strong>Method and Materials</strong>: Laboratory observation to demonstrate identification through DNA isolation from</p> <p>the objects that are touched (touch DNA), using the STR CODIS locus, with a momentary research design.</p> <p>DNA was isolated from buccal swabs and swab properties (watches and mobile phones) from volunteers</p> <p>who have signed the consent form. A total of ten samples were used in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion</strong>: Mean levels of DNA [UV-Visible Spectrophotometer] buccal swab: 167.89 ±</p> <p>85.71 µg / ml, watch swab: 59.19 ± 5.58 µg / ml, mobile swab: 38.09 ± 2.12 µg / ml and the purity of the</p> <p>buccal swab DNA: 1.79 ± 0.71, the watch swab: 1.69 ± 0.76, the mobile swab:1,53 ± 0,56. Visualization of</p> <p>PCR products onPolyacrylamide Agarose Composite Gel Electrophoresis [PAGE] stained with Silver and</p> <p>amplified using the standard primers THOI, TPOX and CSF1POfor STR CODIS showed a 100% detection</p> <p>of amplicons. Allele profiles on all samples of STR CODIS were a match or identical to the positive control</p> <p>K562.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>Property (handphone and watch) swabs can be used as alternative materials in forensic</p> <p>identification using Touch DNA analysis. It was able to be isolated and amplified by using Polymerase Chain</p> <p>Reaction on the STR CODIS loci THO1, CSF1PO and TPOX</p> Ahmad Yudianto1 , Simon Martin Manyanza Nzilibili2 , Pudji Harjanto2 , Fery Setiawan2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1740 1744 Topological Data Analysis for Image Forgery Detection <p>The manipulation of digital images has become easy due to powerful computers, advanced photo-editing</p> <p>software packages and high-resolution image-capturing devices. The identification of image authenticity</p> <p>has received much attention because of the increasing power of image editing methods. Object removal is</p> <p>an image forgery technique, which is usually achieved by the Exemplar-Based Inpainting (EBI) method</p> <p>without any noticeable traces. Some legal issues may arise when a tampered image cannot be distinguished</p> <p>from a real one by visual examination. Therefore the manipulation of digital images has become a huge</p> <p>challenge to passive image forensics. There are a lot of forgery techniques that use to detect on these images</p> <p>after removing the object, but these techniques have limitations when used some post-processing operations</p> <p>such as super-resolution processing, noise addition, blurring and compression processes. To address this</p> <p>issue, this paper proposes a novel forgery detection technique to recognize tampered inpainting images,</p> <p>using topological data analysis (TDA) approach. TDA is a mathematical approach concern studying shapes</p> <p>or objects to gain information about connectivity and closeness property of those objects. This proposed</p> <p>technique is applied for a large number of natural images with getting a good results.</p> Ahmed K. Al-Jaberi1 , Aras Asaad2, Sabah A. Jassim3 , Naseer Al-Jawad4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1745 1751 Moringa Leaf (Moringa oleifera Lam) Nanoparticle Supplementation on Zygote Cleavage in Goat Embryo Culture In Vitro <p>One of the causes of failure of zygote development is oxidative stress in the culture medium. Where oxidative</p> <p>stress can damage the structure and function of zygotes due to free radicals Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).</p> <p>Moringa oleifera Lam contains antioxidant polyphenol compounds, flavonoid flavanols namely quercetin</p> <p>which is the most antioxidant content in Moringa leaves which is expected to fight excess ROS. The purpose</p> <p>of this study was to prove that the supplementation of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf nanoparticles to increase</p> <p>zygote cleavage in goat embryo culture in vitro. The research subjects used goat oocytes which were divided</p> <p>into 4 groups consisting of 1 control group and 3 treatment groups. Each group consisted of 31 samples.</p> <p>Control group K1 without Moringa leaf nanoparticle supplementation, treatment group I P1 Moringa leaf</p> <p>nanoparticle supplementation with a dose of 0.5 µM, treatment group II P2 supplementation of Moringa leaf</p> <p>nanoparticles with a dose of 1.0 µM, Treatment group III P3 supplementation with Moringa leaf 2.0 µM.</p> <p>Embryo culture was carried out in a 5% CO2 incubator, temperature 38.5ºC for 48 hours, then observed</p> <p>under an inverted microscope. The results show that there are significant differences with the value of p =</p> <p>0.041 which means p &lt;0.05. Supplementation of moringa leaf nanoparticles (Moringa oleifera Lam) can</p> <p>significantly increase zygote cleavage at embryo culture stage in vitro.</p> Alfina Aisatus Saadah1 , Widjiati2 , Hendy Hendarto3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1752 1757 Study of Tuberculosis Related Topics in Baghdad, Iraq 2012-2016 Tuberculosis Related Topics <p><strong>Objective(s): </strong>The present study designed to explore topics related to Tuberculosis, such as new smear</p> <p>positive cases, causes, treatment and new pulmonary positive cases in Baghdad City, Iraq for 2012-2016.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive “retrospective” design was performed throughout the present study from the period</p> <p>of November 12th 2017 to February 13th 2018. All registered tuberculosis patients in Baghdad, Iraq for</p> <p>the period of 2012-2016. An instrument was constructed for the purpose of the study. Data were collected</p> <p>from the health records at the National Tuberculosis Center, State TB center, and district TB center for the</p> <p>period of 2012 to 2016 with the use of the study instrument. Data were analyzed through the application of</p> <p>descriptive statistical data analysis approach of frequency, percent, incidence rate and ratio.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study findings depicted that most of the new smear positive cases are accounted for the</p> <p>age group of (15-24) year old during the years of 2012-2016. Causes of Tuberculosis in the rural area</p> <p>were accounted for poverty (39.95%), smoking (22.39%), untreated cases (12.4%), alcoholism (11.32%),</p> <p>malnutrition (10.30%) and overcrowded (3.57%) respectively, and accounted for alcoholism (27.77%),</p> <p>overcrowded (27.16%), malnutrition (24.69%), smoking (11.93%), poverty (7.62%) and untreated cases of</p> <p>Tuberculosis (0.80%) respectively in the urban area.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concluded that Most of the new smear positive cases are accounted for the age group</p> <p>of (15-24) year old during the years of 2012-2016. Patients, in 2014, had benefited out of the Tuberculosis</p> <p>Program more than others based on the success rate.</p> Ali Kareem Durib1 , Ekterina Valerievna Blinova2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1758 1762 Analysis of Factors Related to Pesticide Poisoning in Rice Farmers in Teweh Selatan Subdistrict, Barito Utara District <p>The results of monitoring and examination of farmers in Barito Utara District by examining the cholinesterase</p> <p>enzyme by the Regional Health Laboratory and the District Health Office of Barito Utara in the blood of</p> <p>farmers found 71.19% experienced organopathic pesticide poisoning. This study aims to analyze the risk</p> <p>factors associated with the level of pesticide poisoning in rice farmers in Teweh Selatan Subdistrict, Barito</p> <p>Utara District, namely mixing dosage, spraying time, spraying frequency, spraying duration, working period,</p> <p>wind direction, and use of personal protective equipment. The research design used was observational with</p> <p>cross sectional approach. The number of samples is 55 people taken by simple random sampling. Rice</p> <p>farmers who experienced pesticide poisoning by 56.4%. Chi-Square Test showed four variables had a</p> <p>significant relationship with the incidence of pesticide poisoning and were a risk factor for the occurrence of</p> <p>pesticide poisoning namely mixing dose (p=0.003 OR=6.909; 95% CI=2.020-23.627), frequency of spraying</p> <p>(p=0.004; OR=6,300; 95% CI=1.913-20.749), working period (p=0.020; OR=4.416; 95% CI=1.402-13.906)</p> <p>and wind direction (p=0.007; OR=5.714; 95% CI=1.756-18.591). Multiple logistic regression test showed</p> <p>that the most dominant factor related to the incidence of pesticide poisoning was the frequency of spraying.</p> <p>Risk factors associated with the incidence of pesticide poisoning are mixing dosage, frequency of spraying,</p> <p>working period and wind direction.</p> Ali Sodikin1 , Ruslan Muhyi2, Eko Suhartono3 , Husaini3, Lenie Marlinae4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1763 1768 The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Improving Cognitive and Nutrition Status among Preschool Children Coming to Family Medicine Center Clinic in Nikla Village at Giza <p><strong>Objectives: </strong></p> <ul> <li>Prevalence of zinc deficiency among preschool children in the study.</li> <li>Impact of zinc supplementation on cognitive function and the nutritional status among preschool</li> </ul> <p>children.</p> <ul> <li>Health education for healthy food and their requirement from the food regard the age and sex.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Study design</strong>:</p> <p>This is a pre-post intervention study included 50 preschool child.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>The children randomly assigned to receive zinc supplementation daily for 6 months according to the</p> <p>level of plasma zinc. They were A self- administered questionnaire was used included (socio-demographic</p> <p>data, food frequency questionnaire and 24 hr. recall), anthropometric and cognition were assessed at the</p> <p>beginning and the end of the supplementation period. In addition to health education about healthy food</p> <p>throughout the follow up 6 months.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:-The study included males (46%) and females (54%);</p> <p>-There was a significant difference in weight for age and height for age between the group before and after</p> <p>zinc supplementation.</p> <p>- A significant difference in cognitive function, which the full-scale IQ, verbal IQ and nonverbal IQ between</p> <p>the group before and after zinc supplementation</p> <p>-The health education effect positively on increasing the consumption of healthy food as protein, CHO,</p> <p>fruits, and vegetables to the normal proportions also effect on decrease consumption of unhealthy food as</p> <p>manufactured potatoes, fizzy drinks, and sweats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>zinc supplementation has an effect on cognitive and nutrition status on preschool age.-</p> <p>Health education about healthy food have good</p> <p>feedback on the study.</p> Amany Nassef Tawfik Elshemy1 , Hanna Mohamed Aboulghar2 , Maha Abd El Rahman Mowafy3 , Maha Emad Eldin Ahmed4 , Marwa Sayed Mohamed5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1769 1776 Antibiotic Sensitivity of Streptococcus Pneumoniae that Isolated from Different Pneumococcal Infections <p>During the period from June of 2018 to February 2019 (150) isolates of <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae </em>were</p> <p>isolated from 600 patients with clinical symptoms of Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) (pneumonia),</p> <p>otitis media and meningitis obtained from Baqubah Hospitals. The results showed that not only <em>S. pneumoniae </em></p> <p>causes pneumonia and it can causes diseases other than pneumonia such as otitis media and meningitis</p> <p>but with less frequency.<em> S. pneumoniae </em>showed different susceptibilities towards antibiotics used in this</p> <p>study. The total susceptibility was (65.8%) and the total resistance was (34.2%). The highest pneumococcal</p> <p>susceptibility was showed to the cell wall inhibitors (44.4%) followed by protein synthesis inhibitors (28%)</p> <p>and quinolones (17.3%), and the lowest susceptibility was to folate antagonists with 0%. The highest rates</p> <p>of susceptibility was to penicillin (100%), chloramphenicol (86%), vancomycin (80%) and moderate rates</p> <p>of susceptibility to levofloxacin (90) 60%, linezolid (42.7) %, cefotaxime (40%), ofloxacin (40%) whereas</p> <p>there was a relatively lower susceptibility rate towards other antibiotics such as ampicillin, imipenem,</p> <p>amoxicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Therefore, it should be avoided in the treatment in addition to</p> <p>tazobactam, amikacin, gentamicin, which had lowest rates susceptibility against <em>S. pneumoniae. </em>As a result,</p> <p>it required more research to identify new antibiotic or vaccine to reduce the risk of pneumococcal infection.</p> Anfal Shakir Motib1 , Hani Hameed Wadi2 , Saja Khamees Sabae3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1777 1783 Incidence of Blunt Force Trauma Deaths in the Transkei SubRegion of South Africa (1993-2015) <p><strong>Background: </strong>Trauma is a serious health problem especially when an individual is poor. They cannot reach</p> <p>hospital timeously, and also could not afford to get a quality of care in hospital. Transkei is the poorest region</p> <p>in South Africa with poor infrastructure like transport and health care.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To study the incidence of blunt force trauma deaths in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>An autopsy record review study at Forensic Pathology Laboratory at Mthatha over a period of</p> <p>23-years (1993-2015).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were 26 855 autopsies were conducted over the period of 23 years. Of this, 2960 (11 %)</p> <p>deaths are related with blunt force trauma. Majority were males 2477 (9.2%). The male to female ratio is 6:1.</p> <p>About one-fourth 720 (30.21%) are between 21 and 30 years of age group. The average blunt force trauma</p> <p>fatalities is 20.2 per 100 000 per year. The highest rate of deaths, 25 per 100 000 has recorded in the year</p> <ol start="1993"> <li>&nbsp;</li> </ol> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There has been an increasing trend of deaths as a result of blunt force trauma in the Transkei</p> <p>sub-region of South Africa. Poverty is probably a major underlying factor in these deaths.</p> B. Meel Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1784 1788 The Relationship of General Health Condition with Safety Attitudes and Demographical Specifications in Workers of Car after-Sale Services Workshops Iran 2019 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Health condition of workers affects their productivity. The relationship between general</p> <p>health and safety attitudes is not quite clear.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The present paper is an attempt to examine the relationship of general health condition with</p> <p>safety attitude and demographical specifications of workers at car after-sale services workshops in Ardabil</p> <p>Iran.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>The study was carried out as a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study. The</p> <p>sample group consisted of 650 workers in small car after-sale services workshops located in Ardabil City.</p> <p>Three questionnaires including a demographical form, the General Health questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the</p> <p>safety attitude inventory were used for data gathering. The collected data was analyzed in SPSS19.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean score of safety attitude was 71.05±2.3 and the mean score of general health was</p> <p>24.96±3.35. The score of general health had a significant relationship with age group, work experience,</p> <p>marital status, education level, and history of work incident. The mean scores of safety attitude was</p> <p>significantly different depending on age group, work experience, workshop ownership status, marital status,</p> <p>education level, income, and history of work accident.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The subjects had a low safety attitudes score and high probability of general heath disorders.</p> <p>General health condition was directly related to safety attitude of the participants. Therefore, providing</p> <p>applied educations based on the workers’ needs to increase awareness and improve safety attitudes of</p> <p>workers can lead to a decrease in the rate of work accidents and a higher general health in the workers.</p> Behzad Saranjam1 , Maryam Feiz-Arefi2 , Malek Abazari3 , Parisa Abedi-Vakilabad4 , Masoud NezhadMohammad4 , Roohollah Ghasemi6 , Amin Babaei-Pouya1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1789 1793 Personal Hygiene and its Effect on the Treatment of After Cesarean Section Debridement in NTB General Hospital <p>Personal hygiene is important for after cesarean patients because personal hygiene will affect one’s health</p> <p>and psychological well-being. Patients with after cesarean wounds should be given immediate wound care by</p> <p>cleaning to prevent infection during the wound care. This will affect the wound healing process in cesarean</p> <p>surgery patients. This study aims to determine the relationship between personal hygiene and healing of</p> <p>after cesarean wounds in the NTB General Hospital. An accidental sampling technique of 52 patients with</p> <p>after cesarean section who experienced personal hygiene during wound care in the NTB General Hospital</p> <p>was used in this study using a prospective cohort study design. By using data analysis based on the chi</p> <p>square test, the results showed that personal hygiene in after cesarean patients was mostly good category of</p> <p>40 respondents (76.9%), cesarean section wound healing in after cesarean patients most of the categories</p> <p>were cured as much as 46 respondents (88.5%) and obtained a p-value of 0.002 &lt;0.05. The results of the</p> <p>study confirmed the relationship between personal hygiene and healing of after cesarean wounds in the</p> <p>NTB General Hospital. This study recommends that nurses and other health teams develop theories and</p> <p>guidelines for the implementation of personal hygiene that are more effective and efficient in order to reduce</p> <p>infection after cesarean section.</p> Chairun Nasirin1 , Sri Wahyuningsih1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1794 1798 Factors Affecting the Incidences of Needle Stick Injury on The Nurses Emergency Department of Hospital East Java <p>Hospital with all the facilities and equipment that can be a source of health and safety hazards of potential,</p> <p>especially for health workers if no management following the standards of safety and health procedure</p> <p>kerjaNeedle stick and sharp object injuries is a significant challenge for health workers, and nurses are</p> <p>jobs are most often associated with the incidence of needle stick injury. The purpose of this study was</p> <p>to determine the factors that influence the prevalence of needle stick injury to nurses in the emergency</p> <p>department of hospital Eas Java. This study using 64 samples from a total of as many as 76. The ER nurse</p> <p>that most of the variables age category ? 29 years, ? five years of working life, has never participated in</p> <p>occupational safety and health training, and education level diploma 3 — workers who perform unsafe</p> <p>actions as much as 37.5%. The Bivariable analysis showed that age, work periode, education level, and</p> <p>training has a significant value above 0.05 was no meaningful relationship to the needle stick injury. Unsafe</p> <p>action was a value of 0.026, which means significance was a substantial relationship with a needle stick</p> <p>injury. The multivariable nurses who perform dangerous activities are at increased risk of needle stick injury</p> <p>4x compared to nurses who work safely. Prevention of occupational accidents to human factors include labor</p> <p>regulations taking into account the limits of the abilities and skills of workers, nullify the things that reduce</p> <p>the concentration of workers, enforce work discipline, avoid actions that bring accidents and eliminate their</p> <p>physical and mental incompatibility.</p> Adity Adha Putra1 , Ni’matu Zuliana1 , Zikri Fathur Rahman1 , Noeroel Widajati1 , Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1799 1803 Post Mortem Organ Weight at Bhayangkara Pekanbaru Polda Riau Hospital, Indonesia <p>Post mortem organ weight is one of indicator that serves as supporting evidence in determining the cause</p> <p>of death, because if there is a difference between the post mortem organ weight with normal organ weight</p> <p>indicates the occurrence of pathological conditions that may be related to the cause of death. The objective</p> <p>of this study was to determine post mortem organ weight in autopsy cases at Bhayangkara Pekanbaru Polda</p> <p>Riau Hospital in 2017-2018. This research is a retrospective descriptive study using secondary data. Data</p> <p>were obtained from autopsy data in the forensic section of Bhayangkara Pekanbaru Polda Riau Hospital in</p> <p>2017-2018. Data were analyzed by using univariate analysis carried out on each variable of the research</p> <p>results. The results of this study were obtained from twenty one autopsy cases with a mean value of organ</p> <p>weight: the brain (1334.29 grams), liver (1130.90 grams), right lung (370.48 grams), left lung (311.24 grams)</p> <p>gram), heart (275.33 grams), left kidney (114.52 grams), right kidney (114.00 grams), and spleen (113.43</p> <p>grams). Organs in men are heavier than women, except the liver. Organ weight has decreased in old age.</p> <p>People with short bodies tend to have lighter organ weights than people with tall bodies. The conclusion of</p> <p>this study is the average value of post mortem organ weight in this study is different from the weight value</p> <p>of organs found in forensic textbooks.</p> Citra Manela1 , Biomechy Oktomalio Putri2 , Majesty Anita Imran3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1804 1810 Awareness of Senior and Specialist Dental Student Toward the Importance of Cost Analysis and Business Practice Management: Cross Sectional Study from a Public University in Indonesia <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dental students not only develop practical skills but also management skills. Dental students</p> <p>must be able to understand how to determine cost analysis, which is a measure of the relationship between</p> <p>costs and output. <strong>Objective: </strong>to determine the awareness of senior dental student toward the importance</p> <p>of cost analysis and business practice management. <strong>Materials and Method: </strong>A cross-sectional study was</p> <p>conducted using a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. The study sample included 119 participants</p> <p>in Airlangga Dental College, Surabaya. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive statistical analysis</p> <p>and chi square tests. <strong>Results: </strong>One hundred nineteen questioners were returned and analyzed. BDS 95</p> <p>students while the specialist was 24 students. It was seen that there are 79% of specialist students who have</p> <p>a good level of confidence while in BDS students only 51% have a good level of confidence. BDS students</p> <p>(42%) and specialist students (33%) indicated that their knowledge was sufficient about the costs of practice</p> <p>management or business management. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>students have confidence in clinical skills but are not</p> <p>quite sure about practice management knowledge. Students are also interested in increasing the range of</p> <p>knowledge about business and practice management.</p> Anisa Nur Halimah, Aulia Ramadhani Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1811 1815 The Relationship of Self-Motivation in Diabetes Mellitus Management with Blood Sugar Levels of Diabetes Mellitus Type II Clients <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of self-motivation to diabetes mellitus (DM)</p> <p>management with blood sugar levels of DM type ii clients in Outpatient Polyclinic Installation in Dr. Doris</p> <p>Sylvanus Hospital Palangka Raya. The research uses descriptive correlational with cross sectional research</p> <p>design. The sampling technique uses purposive sampling. The respondents of this study were 40 people. Data</p> <p>collection using a questionnaire and recording the value of blood sugar from the results of laboratory tests</p> <p>in the client report status. Statistical tests use the Chi-Square test. The results of statistical analysis revealed</p> <p>that self-motivation on clients was in the unfavorable category of 32 people (80%), blood sugar levels were</p> <p>in the high category of 26 people (65%) with a p-value of 0.001 (p &lt;0.05). There is a significant relationship</p> <p>between self-motivation to DM management with blood sugar levels of DM type II clients in the Outpatient</p> <p>Polyclinic Installation of Dr. Doris Sylvanus Hospital Palangka Raya.</p> Berthiana T Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1816 1820 Morphological Changes in Ovaries in Rats with Experimental Polycystic Ovary <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the important causes of infertility, metabolic syndrome. Complications</p> <p>of PCOS are a serious health hazard. The relevance of the study of morphological changes in the ovaries</p> <p>in rats is justified by the need to improve the treatment of PCOS. The experiment consisted in the fact that</p> <p>rats from the experimental group received testosterone for 7 days and were in constant artificial daylight for</p> <p>60 days. As a result of histological examination of the ovaries in this group, multiple cysts, foci of fibrosis</p> <p>were found. Vaginal smears in rats from the experimental and control groups were collected and compared.</p> <p>The extracted ovaries of rats of the experimental and control groups were compared, the differences in</p> <p>colour according to Van Gieson X 100, haematoxylin-eosin X 40, haematoxylin-eosin X 100, B-G X 100</p> <p>were analysed. Studies indicated oestrous cycle disturbance, hormonal changes in rats with experimental</p> <p>polycystic. The work can serve as material for further studies aimed at identifying fast and easily accessible</p> <p>methods for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome predictors.</p> Chinara S. Zhylkichieva1 , Konstantin R. Nifontov2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1821 1826 The Correlation between Myelucleopidase Levels and the Event of the Acute Coronary Syndrome <p><strong>Background: </strong>Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a collection of symptoms due to cardiac blood flow</p> <p>disorders consisting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with increased ST segment (STEMI), AMI</p> <p>without increased ST segment (NSTEMI) and unstable angina pectoris (UA). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is</p> <p>an enzyme that plays a role in the destabilization and rupture of plaque that rises earlier within 2 hours</p> <p>after AMI attack so it can be used as an early marker of ACS without depending on evidence of myocardial</p> <p>necrosis. So, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between MPO levels and ACS events.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study is using quantitative method. Research sample was 40 patients serum with the main</p> <p>complaint of chest pain that fulfilled the inclusion criteria who came to the emergency unit of Dr.Soetomo</p> <p>General Hospital Surabaya. The blood samples were examined for MPO with MPO kit from Quanticine (R</p> <p>&amp; D system) using ELISA method. The diagnostic value obtained from the calculation with the 2x2 table.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Patients with chest pain were 27 persons (67.5%), while non-ACS patients were 13 persons</p> <p>(32.5%). There were significant differences in MPO levels between the STA (STEMI, NSTEMI, UA) groups</p> <p>of 986.48 ng/ml and non-ACS 381.08 ng/ml (p = 0.002). Diagnostic sensitivity was 88.88%, diagnostic</p> <p>specificity 69.23%, negative predictive value 75% and positive predictive value 85.71%. The correlation</p> <p>coefficient between MPO and ACS content is r = 0.45 with p = 0.003.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was a correlation between MPO levels and the incidence of ACS. The higher the MPO</p> <p>level the higher the incidence of ACS.</p> Citra Indah Setyaningrum1 , Jusak Nugraha1, Muhammad Aminuddin1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1827 1831 Effect of Foot Strengthening Exercises in Osteoarthritis Knee <p><strong>Background:</strong> Knee osteoarthritis is one of the leading cause of global disability. Patients with degenerative</p> <p>knee osteoarthritis clinically complain of pain, decreased muscle strength, joint instability, joint stiffness and</p> <p>proprioceptive deficits, all of which lead to a decrease in or loss of function. Foot pain is highly disabling,</p> <p>functional abilities and increases the risk of falls.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This was an experimental study with total of 33 subjects who had knee osteoarthritis with foot</p> <p>disability. Subjects of both genders with age group of 40 – 65 years fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion</p> <p>criteria participated. The outcome measure used was womac scale, for pain Visual analogue scale (VAS).</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong>Statistical analysis of VAS, WOMAC and range of motion (ROM) were found to be extremely</p> <p>significant with a P value of &lt;0.0001.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study concluded that foot strengthening exercises were effective. It is proved from this</p> <p>study that foot strengthening exercises has significant effect on pain, range of motion and functional status</p> <p>of OA knee.</p> Cynthia S. Jagtap1 , Mandar Malawade2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1832 1836 Correlation between Eruption of Permanent Teeth and Anthropometric Measurements among School Children <p><strong>Background: </strong>The assessment of nutritional status of a child is essential in the clinical practice. Several</p> <p>clinical and laboratory parameters are being used for this purpose, of which height and weight play a</p> <p>major role. This study was carried out to correlate the eruption of permanent teeth with anthropometric</p> <p>measurements among school children.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>This cross sectional study was carried out among 983 school children between the age group of</p> <p>4-14 years. The height and weight were measured using standardized scales. Eruption of permanent teeth</p> <p>were examined clinically. The classification of stunting and underweight was carried out based on CDC</p> <p>standards.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Stunting was present in around 10% of each age group upto 7 years, followed by 20-30% between</p> <p>7-8.9 years. From 9-11 years, stunting was present in around 40% of the participants and beyond 10 year, it</p> <p>was present in around 50% of the participants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Although this study has not demonstrated statistical significance, it has elucidated the increased</p> <p>prevalence of malnutrition with advances in age with respect to both stunting and underweight, warranting</p> <p>adequate addressing of the nutritional needs of the school children.</p> Daniel Rajendran T Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1837 1845 Effect of Purple Leaf Extract (Graptophyllum Pictum (L.) Griff) on the Number of Macrophage Cells in Pulp Perforation <p><strong>Background:</strong> Purple leaf (Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff) is one of Indonesia’s traditional medicinal</p> <p>plants, which has anti-inflammatory properties which is expected to stop the inflammation of the pulp</p> <p>accompanied by perforation. <strong>Purpose:</strong> To determine the effect of giving purple leaves (Graptophyllum</p> <p>pictum (L.) Griff) to the number of macrophage cells in pulp perforation. <strong>Method</strong>: The study used 24 Wistar</p> <p>rats divided into four groups, namely control (K), and 3 treatment groups P1, P2, P3. Each group consisted</p> <p>of 6 rats prepared, then P1 was given 10% purple leaf extract, P2 was given 15% purple leaf extract, P3</p> <p>was given 20% purple leaf extract. On the 3rd day, the Wistar rat was sacrificed and continued with the</p> <p>preparation of HPA. Calculation of the number of macrophages was obtained from the One-way ANOVA</p> <p>test. <strong>Results:</strong> There were significant differences between the control and treatment groups (K with P1, P2,</p> <p>P3), on the results of the One-way ANOVA difference-result test (p &lt;0.05) <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Purple leaf extract</p> <p>(Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff) affected increasing the number of macrophage cells in pulp perforation</p> <p>after the 3rd day of treatment.</p> Devi Eka Juniarti1 , Tuty Kusumaningsih2 , Adioro Soetojo1 , Ninuk Hariyani3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1846 1851 Therapeutic Effect of Statins and LPS Antibody on Proinflammatory Mediator and Biochemical Markers of Sepsis Rat Model Induced by E. coli <p>This study aims to determine the effect of statins and LPS antibodies administration combined with <em>E. coli </em></p> <p>intraperitoneal injection toward proinflammatory mediators (TNF-?, hs-CRP, PCT, and MDA) urea, BUN,</p> <p>and creatinine) and liver function (SGPT, SGOT, and total bilirubin) in sepsis rats. This study used 30 male</p> <p>white rats (<em>Rattus novergicus</em> strain Wistar) divided into 6 groups induced by <em>E. coli</em> bacteria combined with</p> <p>statins, LPS antibody (Ab-LPS), and a combination of statins+Ab-LPS. Examination of proinflammatory</p> <p>mediators (TNF-?, hs-CRP, PCT, and MDA) was carried out by the ELISA method through the examination</p> <p>of biochemical markers namely renal function (urea, BUN, and creatinine) and liver function (SGPT, SGOT,</p> <p>and total bilirubin) were analyzed by using the autoanalyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed</p> <p>using the T-test. The result shows that <em>E. coli</em>+statins gave significant changes on the MDA level at 0th hour</p> <p>administration and TNF-? and hs-CRP at 3rd hour administration. The <em>E. coli</em>+Ab-LPS treatment showed</p> <p>significant changes at the 0th hour administration for MDA, creatinine, and total bilirubin and at the 3rd</p> <p>hour administration for MDA. The <em>E. coli</em>+statins+Ab-LPS treatment showed significant changes in MDA,</p> <p>creatinine, and total bilirubin at 0th hour administration and on creatinine and total bilirubin at 3rd hour</p> <p>administration.</p> Dian Samudra1,2, Sumarno Reto Prawiro3 , Sanarto Santoso3 , Aswoco A. Asmoro4 , Husnul Khotimah5 , Arif N. M. Ansori6 , Emy K. Sabdoningrum6,7 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1852 1856 Correlation between Urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) Levels and Male Reproductive Functions among Sample of Egyptian Population <p>BPA as a xenoestrogen negatively influences male reproductive functions as well as sperm quality. This</p> <p>study aimed at evaluating the correlation between urinary BPA concentrations and male fertility by assessing</p> <p>semen parameters as well as hormone profile. It included (150) males divided into two groups; infertile cases</p> <p>(n= 100) and fertile controls (n= 50). Results showed highly significant difference in mean urinary BPA</p> <p>concentrations between both groups being higher among infertile group (P-value &lt; 0.001). Besides that,</p> <p>there was statistically significant correlation between the mean urinary BPA concentrations and deterioration</p> <p>of sperm concentration and motility among cases with P-values (&lt; 0.001). Finally, there was statistically</p> <p>significant correlation between mean urinary BPA and hormone levels FSH, LH, T and E2 levels with</p> <p>P-values 0.002, 0.033, 0.001 and &lt; 0.001 respectively.</p> Dina Ali Shokry1 , Marwa Issak Mohamed1 , Mokhtar Fathy Abdel-satar1 , Nada El Sayed Selim1 , Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Salam2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1857 1862 Effect of Video-Based Rehabilitation as an Adjunct to Physiotherapy in Post Stroke Patients <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of video-based rehabilitation along with</p> <p>physiotherapy in improving the activities of daily living in stroke patients and evaluating its effects on</p> <p>spasticity.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>There were total 37 subjects, out of which 30 stroke patients were the participants of the</p> <p>study. This was a study to evaluate the effects of video-based rehabilitation along with physiotherapy in</p> <p>stroke patients. Here patients were evaluated on the basis of Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Barthel</p> <p>Index before the treatment. Patients were showed videos of activities of daily living for 3 minutes every day</p> <p>after their physiotherapy session for 12 weeks and were assessed daily. At the end of the last session the</p> <p>patients were reassessed and re-evaluated on the basis of the same scales.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>There is a significant change in performing the activities of daily living and spasticity of the patients</p> <p>after 12 weeks of treatment compared to before treatment</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Activity of daily living can be performed better with the help of videos, and daily physiotherapy</p> <p>sessions, video-based rehabilitation and physiotherapy also has an impact on reducing spasticity in stroke</p> <p>patients.</p> Dollar J Brahambhatt1, G Varadharajulu2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1863 1868 Knowledge & Perception of General Population on Forensic Autopsy in Ahmedabad City <p>The Autopsy is beneficial in determining, the cause of death, time since death, validity of therapeutic</p> <p>modalities, potential medico-legal issues surrounding death and providing data on disease &amp; injury.</p> <p>This cross-sectional study was carried out on a general population of Ahmedabad City with the help of</p> <p>questionnaires specially prepared in vernacular language i.e. Gujarati. We observed that overall awareness</p> <p>is quite good regarding the aims and objectives of postmortem examination in the general population. But</p> <p>general populations have poor knowledge about legal procedure regarding post mortem examination. Among</p> <p>the respondents who rejected autopsy, most of them feared of disfigurement of the body of their near ones,</p> <p>followed by delays in funeral, the involvement of police/court &amp; fear of removal of the organs. Refusal on</p> <p>the religious ground was the least common reason cited by the participants. People have to be made aware of</p> <p>the process and importance of a medico-legal autopsy by various programs &amp; seminars so that the relatives</p> <p>won’t resist autopsy of their near ones.</p> Dushyantkumar Barot1 , Mohammed Musaib M. Shaikh2 , Jayjeet Trivedi3 , R. S. Bhise4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1869 1872 Correlation between High Sensitivity-Crp Level and Executive Function Disorders in Elderly Patients <p><strong>Background:</strong> C-Reactive Protein is a marker of inflammation and vascular disease. The high serum of high</p> <p>sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) concentration was associated with interruption the integrity of the</p> <p>frontal-subcortical circuit.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the correlation between high serum concentration of hs-CRP and executive function</p> <p>disorder in elderly patients.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Thirty six elderly patients was examined by using a case control study. The subjects were enrolled</p> <p>from the out-patient at Neurology Departement Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. The</p> <p>time period was 4 months (April to July 2015). Executive function was measured with the Trail Making</p> <p>Test B (TMT B) and divided into two groups, case and control. Complete blood count and serum hs-CRP</p> <p>concentration were measured from nonfasting blood samples. Chi-square test was used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Eighteen subjects were enrolled in the case group (3 men, 15 women) and the other 18 subjects</p> <p>were enrolled in the control group (4 men, 14 women). Executive function disorder was found in 17 (94,4%)</p> <p>subjects of case group and 11 (61,1%) subjects of control group. High levels of hs-CRP was not associated</p> <p>with executive function, with p = 0,149 and adjusted OR 5,629 (CI 95% 0,538-58,860).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These data suggested that high levels of hs-CRP was not associated with executive function in</p> <p>elderly patients.</p> Muhammad Hamdan1 , Joseph Ekowahono Rahardjo1 , Yudha Haryono1 , Devi Ariani Sudibyo1 , Dyah Anetta Afri Rahmi1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1873 1878 Islamic Ethical Value of Customary Basis of Marriage Proposal Application in Indonesia <p>This community legal observance in the field of Islamic marriage is based on the concept of good deeds</p> <p>which can be said to be deontologically valid. The approach is based on <em>deon</em>/obligations arising from</p> <p>the principles of Islamic life. This research method is an empirical method that looks at social reality and</p> <p>is carried out with an ethical approach to understanding the meaning of deeds in the marriage process.</p> <p>Philosophical analysis is used to analyze values in the conduct of the marriage process of Islamic societies</p> <p>in Indonesia. The results showed that in Indonesian Islamic society, marriage and marriage registration</p> <p>had become a community culture that had a philosophical value of worship. This happens because there</p> <p>is enculturation in the form of symbols of Islamic teachings that make it easier for people to recognize the</p> <p>value of an action. Proposal and registration of marriage has become the culture of the Islamic community</p> <p>with the symbol of halal and worship in marriage. Thus the community’s obedience to Islamic law and state</p> <p>law is not coercion carried out by state power, but is the legal culture of Islamic society.</p> Edy Sismarwoto Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1879 1882 Puberty Knowledge and Communication among Adolescent Sexual Offenders in Indonesia: A Qualitative Study <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Rape against women, as one of sexual assaults form, which has been became a serius issue</p> <p>throughout the world in social and public health. It is a gross violation on the women’s human rights, which</p> <p>is can not be accepted from any perspectives. In the latest cases, the perpetrators of rape are conducted by</p> <p>adolescent or minor.</p> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This article presents the study how the young sexual offenders’ knowledge on puberty and their</p> <p>sexual communication.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>This research was qualitative toward 30 sexual perpetrators, all informants are being undergone</p> <p>sentences in Correctional Institutions of Bengkulu province, Indonesia. The informants were all child</p> <p>convicts, (aged less than 18 years) at four correctional institution in Bengkulu province.</p> <p><strong>Results of the study:</strong> The perpetrators of sexual assault were middle adolescents who were in-between 16</p> <p>to 18 years. Based on the results of analysis were found that there were ineffective sexual communication</p> <p>patterns among perpetrators, both informants communication parents, friends, teachers and couples.</p> <p>Moreover, this study found inadequate puberty knowledge among sexual offenders.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations: </strong>This article only describes sexual communication and knowledge on puberty, while</p> <p>other individual factors and social aspects are not discussed at all in this article.</p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong> Based on the various results of previous studies, there are no researches have been found that</p> <p>specifically examines the behavior of sexual violence by minors in Bengkulu province.</p> Emi kosvianti1, 2 , Emy Susanti3 , Windhu Purnomo4, Agung Suhadi5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1883 1887 Analysis of the Moringa oleifera Seed Oil Extract on Insulin Level in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rat (Rattus norvegicus) <p><em>Moringa oleifera</em> is a plant that can be used and grown intensively in several Southeast Asian countries. This</p> <p>study aims to determine the effect of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> seed oil extract on the levels of the insulin and blood</p> <p>glucose levels of <em>Rattus norvegicus</em> induced by alloxan. This study used 30 female Wistar white rats induced</p> <p>by alloxan. Rats were divided into 6 groups. Groups 3 to 6 were injected 100, 200, 300, 400 mg/kg BW</p> <p>extract of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> seed oil, respectively. Group 1 neither had alloxan induction nor treatment while</p> <p>group 2 had been induced alloxan but no treatment. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with</p> <p>a significance level of 0.05. The results showed that there was no effect of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> seed oil extract</p> <p>on insulin level (<em>p</em> value = 0.161). Conversely, there was an effect on blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced</p> <p><em>Rattus norvegicus</em> (<em>p </em>value = 0.036).</p> Estri Kusumawati1 , Sri Hidayati L.1 , Nova Lusiana1 , Risa Purnamasari1 , Moch. Irfan Hadi1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1888 1893 Estimation of Age Using Kvaal Technique Based on Cone-beam Computed Tomography Images of Mandibular Canine Teeth in Bojnourd <p><strong>Background and Objective</strong>: Identifying age in anthropology and forensic medicine and examining the</p> <p>proper development of children and adolescents is important. Age estimation techniques using teeth are of</p> <p>particular value. This study tends to evaluate the accuracy of age estimation by Kvaal technique using CBCT</p> <p>images of mandibular canine teeth in a sample of Iranian population.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: In this crossvalidation study, data from 140 samples of records of patients aged 15</p> <p>years and older, during 2018-2019, available at a private oral and maxillofacial radiology center in Bojnourd</p> <p>was used. The parameters used in Kvaal technique were measured in mandibular canine teeth on CBCT</p> <p>images of patients.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Using multiple linear regression model to correlate parameters of Kvaal technique based on CBCT</p> <p>images of mandibular canine teeth and age with stepwise method showed that variables pulp length/root</p> <p>length, pulp width/root width in the middle, length teeth/root length were significant in predicting age</p> <p>(p&lt;0.05 in all 3 cases). According to the above method, age = 551/5-500 (M) was obtained which was able</p> <p>to estimate age in 35% of the samples. The mean age of the patients was estimated to be 7.9 years, which is</p> <p>acceptable.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Kvaal formula was significant for use in Iranian population. The regression formula obtained</p> <p>from the control group could also be generalized to the test group.</p> Farzam Tajdini1 , Seyedeh Mahla Hemati2 , Farzad Tajdini3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1894 1899 The Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on the Quality of Life of Post Stroke Patients in Aloei Saboe Hospital <p>Quality of life is a global concept that emphasizes dimensions of health status including finance, housing,</p> <p>and work. The quality of life of post-stroke sufferers can experience disturbances or obstacles due to physical</p> <p>disabilities, cognition, psychological and social disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the</p> <p>effect of ACT interventions on changes in the quality of life of post-stroke patients at Aloe Saboe Hospital.</p> <p>The method used in this research is quasi-experimental research method pre-posttest with the control group.</p> <p>The sampling technique used was the purposive sampling technique. The number of samples studied was 60</p> <p>respondents divided into the experimental group (ACT Therapy and health education) and the control group</p> <p>(health education). The variables used are independent variables namely ACT therapy and the dependent</p> <p>variable is the quality of life of patients after stroke. Based on the results of the analysis, there is an effect of</p> <p>ACT intervention on improving quality of life in post-stroke patients as evidenced by the results of t count</p> <p>= -9.015, then the Significant value is 0,000. This shows that the value of p &lt;0.05 then Ho is rejected, so</p> <p>the research hypothesis is proven that there is an effect of ACT therapy on the quality of life of post-stroke</p> <p>patients at Aloei Saboe Hospital, Gorontalo City.</p> Fatmawati Mohamad1 , Wenny Ino Ischak1 , Heni Panai1 , Hafni Van Gobel1 , Yusrin Aswad1 , Rini Fahriani Zees1 , Dewi Kartika2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1900 1905 Capsaicin’s Inhibition Effects on Biofilm Aerococcus Viridans <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Aerococci has colony shape with <em>Streptococcus viridans</em>, so that it is usually missdiagnosed</p> <p>between of them. It has high difficulty on its identification, because it is rarely to be found and resistant of</p> <p>Antibiotic grup, called penicilin and vancomycin.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method:</strong> This research used two kinds of samples, such as: fried food sold on the road and toothbrush</p> <p>obtained from ten respondens. Then, it needs inducing its biofilm and measuring by <em>Tissue Culture Plate</em> (TCP)</p> <p>methode and ELISA.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> ANOVA one-way revealed that extract capsaicin has anti biofilm effect on 12.5% concentration with</p> <p>p=0,0000 (p&lt;0,05) among each group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Extract capsaicin can be used as an alternative herbal agent to treat infection caused by <em>Aerococcus </em></p> <p><em>viridans</em> because it has antibiofilm effect. As known before, biofilm causes antibiotic resistance to treat</p> <p><em>Aerococcus viridans</em>’s infection.</p> Fery Setiawan1 , Jenny Sunariani2 , Ahmad Yudianto3 , Latief Mooduto4 , Eta Radhianto5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1906 1912 The Evidence-Based Midwife Professionalism <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Midwife professionalism is the basic social contract between a midwife and society so that</p> <p>professionalism is considered to be very important. There are some cases related to midwife professionalism.</p> <p>Midwife as health practitioner should understand about midwifery practice very well. The midwife should</p> <p>realize that she works based on regulation and law.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method</strong>: The study was aimed to find out the professionalism in midwifery practice. Non</p> <p>Doctrinal research was used as the research approach. The sample was taken with non-probability sampling,</p> <p>which is a snowball technique.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: 93% of midwifery practices were qualified to administer code of ethics, 86% of midwifery</p> <p>practices were qualified to administer responsibility of midwifery practice, 93% of midwifery practices</p> <p>were qualified to precise collaboration and reference for midwifery practice, all the midwifery practices</p> <p>were qualified to administer continuing education in order to improve midwifery care, 93% of midwifery</p> <p>practices were qualified to competence for midwifery practice, 53% of midwifery practices were qualified</p> <p>to administer advocacy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It can be concluded that the midwifery practice has fulfilled the professionalism indicators</p> <p>such as profession code of ethics, responsibility, precise collaboration and reference, continuing education,</p> <p>and competence. Nevertheless, there were some professionalism indicators which have not been fulfilled. It</p> <p>was giving advocacy. It was due to the lack of knowledge and comprehension about advocacy in midwifery</p> <p>practice.</p> Fitriani Nur Damayanti1 , Absori Absori2 , Kelik Wardiono2 , Sri Rejeki1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1913 1917 Analytical Study of Railway Accidental Deaths <p>Travel but on the other hand caused lot of damage to human lives in the form of accidents. The present</p> <p>study conducted at Guntur medical college, Guntur over the period of two years among the autopsies done</p> <p>in the forensic medicine department. Out of 1748 autopsies railway accidental deaths were 114 with male</p> <p>predominance. Most of the railway accidental deaths were seen in the middle age. More deaths were due to</p> <p>decapitation.</p> G. Lavanya Kowsil1, Kampa Venkat Nagaraju2, Jakkam Surendar3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1918 1923 Life Support in the Arctic Upon Synchronizing the Development of the Northern Territories of Yakutia <p>The role of the Arctic and Northern regions, especially the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in the geopolitical</p> <p>position of Russia in the world is increasing every day. The purpose of the study is to investigate the</p> <p>branches of life support in the Arctic upon synchronizing their development. The leading research method</p> <p>for this problem is the analysis method. The paper describes innovative ways to manage the life support</p> <p>sectors in the Arctic upon synchronizing their development, restructuring and reforming. The comparison</p> <p>of the Strategy for the development of a unified energy system of the Republic of Sakha until 2030 and the</p> <p>Republican target program is provided. The novelty of the study is determined by the fact that it analysed</p> <p>the urgent problem of the need to separate the management system by industry, by creating branch ministries</p> <p>corresponding to the structure of the Government of the Russian Federation. The practical significance of</p> <p>the study is determined by the need to expand and implement the existing program of targeted training, to</p> <p>ensure close communication between the enterprises of fuel and energy complex and educational institutions</p> <p>of the Republic.</p> Galia E. Kokieva1 , Anna G. Cherkashina2 , Motrena N. Khaldeeva3, Galina A. Gerasimova4 , Nadezhda K. Lotova5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1924 1928 Legal Aspec Bioprospecting Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Indonesia <p>The country of Indonesia is an archipelago, which has various types of plants. One of them is a medicinal</p> <p>plant. This plant has ingredients that can be used as a treatment. But by seeing the high population growth</p> <p>of Indonesia, the medicinal plants are threatened. This makes the need for an action that can maintain</p> <p>the existence of these medicinal plants. Bioprospection conservation is an effort to preserve and develop</p> <p>medicinal plants so that their presence is not lost.</p> Hafid Zakariya1 , Pramono Hadi2 , Nur Rohim Yunus3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1929 1933 Stature Estimation in Egyptian Primary School Children from Giza Governorate <p>Stature is one of the used parameters for identification in forensic anthropology. This study aimed to develop</p> <p>a formula to estimate the stature of children using anthropometric measurements. Ten anthropometric</p> <p>measurements were measured for 350 students randomly selected from two primary schools. The arm span</p> <p>exceeds height at old ages and the majority of measurements were higher in girls. A strong correlation was</p> <p>found for stature and majority of measurements.</p> Howaida Saeed Mohammed1 , Nadia Abd El Monem Kotb1 , Usama Mohamed El Barrany1 , Mai Moustafa Magdi1 , Maha AbdeLrahman Mowafy2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1934 1939 Gene expression and Levels of Plasma Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-Receptor Type 22 (PTPN22)in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients and their Household Contacts in Makassar, Indonesia <p><strong>Background</strong>: The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gen,has been involved in</p> <p>the immune response to tuberculosis infection by affecting the inflammatory response and subsequent anti</p> <p>microbial immunity. This study aims to determine the PTPN22 expression and differences in the levels of</p> <p>PTPN22 in pulmonary TB patients (PTB) with household contacts and healthy control.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: We analyzed PTPN22 expression and the level of plasma PTPN22 from pulmonary tuberculosis</p> <p>patients (PTB), household contacts and healthy control using real time PCR and ELISA method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> ThirtyPTB, 30 household contacts and 30 control were involved in this study. Analysis of the</p> <p>assocation of PTPN22 gene expression against TB showed that PTPN22 gene expression was 7.3 times</p> <p>upregulated compared to household contact and 12.1 times upregulated compared to healthy controls.Levels</p> <p>of plasma PTPN22 in PTB: 10.0620 ng/ml, in Household contact: 6.7923 ng/ml and in control: 4.4293 ng/</p> <ol> <li>These values did not differ significantly between the patients, household contact and control.</li> </ol> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study results found that PTPN22 gene expression is significantly increased in PTB than</p> <p>household contact and control.Levels of plasma PTPN22 in PTB patientsdid not differ significantly than in</p> <p>household contact and control.</p> Ibrahim A1,3, Djaharuddin I2 , Hidayah N1 , Subair1 , Handayani I1 , Tenriola A1 , Massi MN4,5* Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1940 1945 Awareness Program of Pesticides Used among Farmers using Difficulty-Usefulness Pyramid (A Suggestion for Health Laws and Policies Regarding the Use of Pesticides) <p>Pesticides are toxic chemical substances that are used in agriculture to control plant pests. Excessive use of</p> <p>pesticides and uncontrolled can cause negative effects among farmers, such as vomiting, diarrhea, dyspnea,</p> <p>blurred vision, paresthesia, slurred speech, and chest pain. The prevention effort through health education</p> <p>was used to prevent the risk behavior of farmer, however, it still found obstacles. There are many elements</p> <p>need to be improved and it must be selected which element that significant and priority to change risk</p> <p>behavior among farmers. This study had selected the elements based on Difficulty-Usefulness Pyramid</p> <p>(DUP). The sample was 100 respondents who knew about pesticides in Indonesia. Personal protective</p> <p>equipment (PPE), storage of pesticides, procedure for using pesticides, use of pesticide doses, duration and</p> <p>frequency of spraying pesticides, cleaning the equipment, spraying pesticides based on the wind direction,</p> <p>time of pesticide spraying were selected elements in this study. Difficulty and usefulness were indicators to</p> <p>determine the priority of attributes. Attribute scale (1 to 10) was used based on the level of importance in</p> <p>each attribute. Google form questionnaire was used to collect the data. Each element was measured by: (1)</p> <p>difficulty and usefulness; (2) the mean score of difficulty and the mean score of usefulness; (3) range (from</p> <p>mean score of difficulty to mean score of usefulness). Then the range was sorted starting from the smallest</p> <p>and presented in the form of a pyramid. The pyramid showed that the priority elements were use of pesticide</p> <p>doses, procedures for using pesticides, personal protective equipment (PPE), cleaning the equipment, time</p> <p>spraying pesticides, duration and frequency of spraying pesticides, storage of pesticides, spraying pesticide</p> <p>based on the wind direction.</p> Ilyas Ibrahim1 , I Ketut Sudiana2 , H. J. Mukono3 , Suhartono4 , Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1946 1951 Regional Disparities of Stunted Toddler in Indonesia <p>Although there has been a decline in the prevalence of stunting in Indonesia in the past decade, the figure</p> <p>is still the highest among countries in Southeast Asia. The purpose of the study was to analyze the regional</p> <p>disparity of stunted toddlers in Indonesia. The analysis in this study uses data from the 2017 Indonesian</p> <p>Nutritional Status Monitoring. The sample used in this study was 149,571 toddlers aged 0-59 months. Data</p> <p>were analyzed using the Binary Logistic Regression test. Toddlers in the Sumatra region have the possibility</p> <p>of 0.921 times stunted compared to toddlers in the Papua region. The Java-Bali region was 0.805 times more</p> <p>likely than toddlers in the Papua region to be stunted. The Nusa Tenggara Region was 1.39 times more likely</p> <p>than toddlers in the Papua region to be stunted. Kalimantan Region has 1.161 times more likely than toddlers</p> <p>in the Papua region to be stunted. The Sulawesi region has 1.18 times the possibility of toddlers in the Papua</p> <p>region being stunted. Maluku region has a probability of 0.88 times that of toddlers in the Papua region to</p> <p>be stunted. There was a regional disparity of stunted toddler in Indonesia.</p> Ina Kusrini1 , Agung Dwi Laksono2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1952 1956 Correlation Between Influenza Virus Replication and ATP6V0C of Trivalent Influenza (TIV) Vaccination in Ferret <p>Influenza virus infections are a major public health threat. Influenza viruses are associated with high</p> <p>mortality and morbidity worldwide through seasonal epidemics. Vaccination programs are available, but</p> <p>unpredictable antigenic changes in circulating strains require annual modification of seasonal influenza</p> <p>vaccines. Influenza vaccines are given, one of which is a trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) aimed at the</p> <p>formation of antibodies that are specific to influenza viruses by B cells. In this study TIV vaccination has an</p> <p>effect in the form of decreasing viral replication in ferret that have been tested with H1N1 and H3N2 viruses.</p> <p>The results of this study are data about viral replication obtained from hemagglutination tests (HA test) and</p> <p>ATP6V0C expression with SDS-Page.</p> Ira Humairah1,2, Reviany V. Nidom3 , Setyarina Indrasari3,4, Ema Qurnianingsih2 , Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori3,4, Irine Normalina1,3, Chairul Anwar Nidom3,6 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1957 1962 Changes in Immunological Parameters in Patients Treated Using Direct and Indirect Restorations of the Hard Tissues of the Anterior Teeth in Combination with an Antioxidant <p>The problem of aesthetic restoration of the hard tissue defects in the anterior teeth and the choice of materials</p> <p>for quality restorations, which can include direct composite or indirect ceramic restoration, in particular</p> <p>ceramic veneers, is currently extremely important in clinical dental orthopedics. Currently used composite</p> <p>and ceramic materials are known to have different effects on the conditions of the marginal periodontium</p> <p>and the local immunity in the oral cavity. Therefore, we propose a new approach to treatment, which is</p> <p>the use of indirect ceramic restorations in combination with an antioxidant. The purpose of this article is</p> <p>to increase the effectiveness of treatment in patients with defects in anterior teeth using indirect ceramic</p> <p>restorations with antioxidants. To study the intensity of immune reactivity in patients with existing defects</p> <p>of the coronal part of the anterior teeth, we analyzed the levels of lysozyme and sIgA in the oral fluid. The</p> <p>results of the studies confirm the advantages of indirect ceramic restorations over direct composite ones in</p> <p>the treatment of hard tissue defects in the anterior teeth, taking into account the levels of immunological</p> <p>reactivity and using an antioxidant drug Resverasin.</p> Iryna R. Kumhyr1 , Volodumyr P. Levko1 , Zinovii R. Ozhogan2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1963 1967 Morphology of Endometrial Scrapings in Early Spontaneous Abortions <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Study of morphological changes in the endometrium and fetal membranes during spontaneous</p> <p>abortions in 9-12 weeks of pregnancy to clarify the etiopathogenetic mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> Study material was endometrial scrapings with components of fetoplacental tissue</p> <p>obtained after spontaneous abortions (176 cases) in 9-12 weeks of pregnancy, received at the Republican</p> <p>Pathological Bureau from several City Maternity Hospitals of Bishkek (Kyrgyz Republic). The histological</p> <p>sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E), and a mixture of acid fuchsin and picric acid. The</p> <p>Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) reaction was performed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 176 cases in 80 cases, by the medical reports, pregnant women had concomitant gynecological</p> <p>infectious pathology in the form of chronic endometritis, chronic salpingoophoritis, chlamydia, colpitis, and</p> <p>adnexitis. Histological examination revealed inflammatory changes in the form of deciduitis (24.5% of</p> <p>cases), endometritis (20.5% of cases), villitis (17.3% of cases) in 70% of cases. Pathological changes in the</p> <p>decidual membrane are determined as foci of leukocyte infiltration in 65% of cases, in 30% - foci of necrosis</p> <p>and in 20% - foci of hemorrhage. In 60% of cases, as their combination.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Histological examination of endometrial scrapings and fetal membranes after spontaneous</p> <p>abortions in 9-12 week pregnant women, with a history of infectious inflammatory pathology, revealed the</p> <p>tissue inflammatory changes of varying severity, with the following additional microscopic characteristics:</p> <p>the compact arrangement of endometrial glands, weak vascularization of villus chorion; sclerotic, dystrophic,</p> <p>and necrotic changes with hemorrhages in the endometrium and decidual membrane.</p> Ishenbek Satylganov1 , Saltanat Osmonalieva2 , Altynai Zhumabekova3 , Vityala Yethindra4 , Gulnara Moldotasheva5, Tugolbai Tagaev6 , Yogesh Parihar7 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1968 1971 The Correlation of Length of Work and Mental Workload with Work Stress at University Lecturers <p>The main role of lecturers at Tri Dharma University, namely education, research, and community service.</p> <p>That makes them have certain responsibilities which if it lasts a long time will cause stress. This study aims</p> <p>to determine the correlation between work time and mental workload with work stress on college lecturers in</p> <p>Surabaya. This descriptive study was conducted on 43 active lecturers who teach at a university in Surabaya.</p> <p>The results of this study were analyzed to determine the lecturer’s length of work, the mental workload of</p> <p>lecturers with categories from NASA TLX and their correlation with work stress. The results stated that 22</p> <p>people had worked for more than 20 years, as many as 25 people had very high mental workloads, and 30</p> <p>people with mild stress. Most of the lecturers already have a lot of experience and a large number of task</p> <p>demands but are still able to deal with everything well so that work stress does not arise. The correlation value</p> <p>between the length of work and work stress is 0.461, and the correlation value between mental workload</p> <p>and work stress is 0.808. This value states there is no correlation between the length of work and mental</p> <p>workload with work stress. Recommendations are given to universities, lecturers and all those involved in</p> <p>efforts to maintain the atmosphere and work culture to improve comfort for all parties, such as adding green</p> <p>areas in the workspace, providing remuneration for lecturers who excel, and maintaining communication</p> <p>between lecturers.</p> Kenia Bella Christy1 , Noeroel Widajati1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1972 1977 Epidemiological Profile of Fatal Poisoning Autopsy Cases Conducted at Gims, Kalaburagi, Karnataka- A Retrospective Study <p><strong>Background-</strong> Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem worldwide, with thousands of deaths</p> <p>occurring every year, mainly in developing countries. Its usage has been increased in recent past leading its</p> <p>misuse to commit suicide. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of fatal poisoning cases in and</p> <p>around Gulbarga district &amp; to find out its correlates.</p> <p><strong>Methodology- </strong>The present study is a retrospective study of fatal poisoning autopsy cases performed at GIMS,</p> <p>District Hospital, Kalaburagi, Karnataka from January 2018 to December 2018. During this period a total</p> <p>of 647 autopsy cases were conducted of which 85 cases were due to fatal poisoning. Relevant information</p> <p>and subjective data like age, sex, marital status, religion, seasonal variation, type of poison consumed and</p> <p>manner of death have been collected from medicolegal autopsy register, police inquest and treatment history</p> <p>using a predesigned proforma.</p> <p><strong>Results- </strong>A total of 647 cases were autopsied during the year Jan 2018-Dec 2018. Out of 647 cases 85.9%</p> <p>cases were due to unnatural deaths of which 85 cases (13.1%) were due to suspected poisoning. In our study</p> <p>males outnumbered females with 67 cases (78.8%) compared to females with 18 cases (21.2%), maximum</p> <p>number of cases were in the age group between 21-30 years with 36 cases (42.4%). Maximum number of</p> <p>cases were from rural locality with 69 cases (81.2%) &amp; majority of poisoning cases were seen during summer</p> <p>with 42 cases (49.4%). Maximum number of deaths were due to suicide (95.2%) followed by accidental</p> <p>poisoning (4.8%). Majority of poisoning cases were seen in Hindu population (82.3%) and maximum cases</p> <p>were seen in married people (74.1%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion-</strong> Agrochemical pesticides especially Organophosphorus compounds are responsible for most</p> <p>of the poison related fatalities, which is seen in our present study. Strict legal enforcement in selling and</p> <p>handling of agrochemicals is the need of the hour, and establishment of poison detection centres and early</p> <p>management of poisoning cases at all hospitals, primary health care centres could considerably minimise the</p> <p>morbidity and mortality due to poisoning.</p> Khaja Azizuddin Junaidi1 , Kashif Ali2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1978 1983 Assistance in Child Feeding Influences the Nutritional Intake of Stunting Children: Randomized Control Trial <p><strong>Background.</strong> Basic Health Research (BHR) in 2018 noted the prevalence of stunting in Indonesia was still</p> <p>high 30.8%, and around 8.9 million Indonesian children stunted. The Province of South Sulawesi ranks the</p> <p>fourth highest stunting prevalence of all provinces in Indonesia. Nutrition Status Monitoring (NSM) results</p> <p>in the last three years show the percentage of stunting children in South Sulawesi in 2015, 2016 and 2017</p> <p>was 34.1%, 35.6%, and 34.8%.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study wants to investigate effect of assistance in child feeding for stunting children to</p> <p>nutrient intake and weight gain.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: The Randomized Control Trial (RCT). The sample is stunting children aged 2-3 years. There</p> <p>were 30 children (15 as the intervention and 15 as the control group). Study location in the <em>Paccerakang </em></p> <p>Community Health Center in Makassar City. Statistical analysis used to test hypotheses using Mann-Whitney.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> an increase in the intake of carbohydrates, protein, vitamin A, z ink higher in the treatment group</p> <p>than the control group (p&lt;0,05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Child feeding assistance significantly influence the nutrition intake of stunting children and</p> <p>also have an effect but not significantly on weight gain of stunting.</p> Hj. Sukmawati, 1,2 Sirajuddin2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1984 1988 Determinant of Unmet Need for Family Planning in East Java Province Analysis of 2015 Inter-Census Population Survey Data <p>One of the government’s efforts to control population growth is Family Planning program and one indicator</p> <p>of its performance is unmet need for contraception. Based on 2015 Inter-Census Population Survey Data,</p> <p>East Java is one of the provinces with high unmetneed events in Indonesia. Unmet need for contraceptive in</p> <p>East Java is 16.3 percent. This study examines factors that correlate with unmetneed in East Java. Chi-square</p> <p>test used to find correlation between independent variables and unmetneed. The data used is the 2015 Inter</p> <p>Census Population Survey Data - East Java Province. The results showed age, area of residence, work status,</p> <p>education, and number of children are related to unmetneed events. Interventions that should be undertaken</p> <p>are improving counseling, communication, information and education, fulfilling demand of contraception</p> <p>and making it easier to access family planning.</p> Lutfi Agus Salim Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1989 1994 Correlation Analysis between Women’s Body Mass Index and Mechanical Low Back Pain <p><strong>Background: </strong>Obesity can cause mechanical effects on spine, particularly lumbar spine, thus increased</p> <p>weight will cause spine, tendon and ligament muscle tensions. These problems can change lumbar curve</p> <p>with increased anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion to maintain normal posture that may eventually cause</p> <p>low back pain. Women may experience weight gain, and it can cause low back pain. However, correlation</p> <p>between increased body mass index and low back pain is still debatable.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The research aimed to analyze correlation between women’s body mass index and mechanical</p> <p>low back pain.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A total of 12 patients aged 50-60 were the subjects of the research. The subjects’ body mass index,</p> <p>pain scale and lumbosacral axis were measured. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees</p> <p>of Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital (Surabaya, Indonesia). The correlation test was conducted using Pearson’s</p> <p>correlation test (Significant if p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The research found no correlation between increased body mass index and low back pain (p =</p> <p>0.47), while there was a correlation between increased body mass index and lumbosacral axis (p = 0.04).</p> <p>Moreover, there was no correlation between increased lumbosacral axis and low back pain (p = 0.07)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study found that the more the body mass index increased, the lumbosacral axis also</p> <p>increased, whereas no correlation between body mass index and low back pain.</p> Lydia Handini1 , Andriati1 , Subagyo1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 1995 1999 Analysis of Health Utilization Services in Worship Place <p><strong>Background</strong>. Good health services will greatly affect health improvement and treatment. One of the health</p> <p>service facilities is the mosque health service. The number of visits to mosque health services from 2016-</p> <p>2018 decreased by 49.1%. <strong>Purpose</strong>. This study aims to determine the factors that influence the worshipers</p> <p>of the mosque in the utilization of mosque health services in Surabaya Ittihad mosque. <strong>Method</strong>. This study</p> <p>design used descriptive method with cross sectional research design. Population and samples were the</p> <p>entire worshipers of the Ittihad mosque. The number of samples 123 respondents with sampling techniques</p> <p>conducted by means of purposive sampling. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire. Data</p> <p>analysis used Chi Square test. <strong>Results</strong>. This study shows that the sex of mosque worshipers (p = 0,604),</p> <p>age (p = 0,617), education (p = 0,690), occupation (p = 0,243), knowledge about mosque health services</p> <p>(p = 0,999), mosque health service Tariff (p = 0.645), and access to information (p = &lt;0.001). <strong>Conclusion</strong>.</p> <p>It can be concluded that the factors that influence the utilization of mosque health services are access to</p> <p>information provided by the mosque and mosque health services.</p> M L I Ansori1 , Aryo Dwipo Kusumo2, D.Y Tandy1 , Windhu Purnomo3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2000 2005 Criminalization toward LGBT Community and its Implementation through the Aceh Qanun in Indonesia <p>This paper discussed some Criminal Laws on LGBT community regulated in the Criminal Code and in</p> <p>special legal provisions outside the Criminal Code. It also discussed criminalization toward LGBT people</p> <p>through the Aceh Perda, regulated in the Aceh Qanun and its implementation through the Banda Aceh Sharia</p> <p>Court. In the criminal law stipulated in the Indonesian Criminal Code today and in the legal provisions</p> <p>outside the Penal Code, some of the illegal acts committed by LGBT people are liable to imprisonment.</p> <p>The criminal law stipulated in the Aceh Qanun cleanly regulates the acts of lesbian and gay people as the</p> <p>ones which are strictly prohibited and liable to being punished. Therefore, based on this Aceh Qanun, their</p> <p>acts are considered as criminal acts. Aceh Qanun (which is considered as the Aceh Perda or Government</p> <p>Regulation), has criminalized the acts of LGBT people. In Aceh, committing sexual intercourse of gays</p> <p>and lesbians has been formulated in Article 63 and Article 64 of the Aceh Qanun No. 6/2014. The violation</p> <p>against these Articles has been implemented on the perpetrators who are punished with ‘uqubat’ or whipped</p> <p>85 times before public as it is found in the Banda Aceh Sharia Court’s Verdict No. 19/JN/2017/Ms.Bna on</p> <p>May 17, 2017</p> M. Hamdan1 , Eva Syahfitri Nasution1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2006 2008 Counseling Intervention to Reduce Violence and Promote the Psychosocial Well- Being of Women Who Experience Domestic Violence <p><strong><em>Introduction:</em></strong> This study aims to review married women with domestic violence and detecting the</p> <p>effectiveness of counseling intervention on the reduction of intimate partner violence (IPV).</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> Phase one of this study was a cross-sectional in which 315 married women living in Al-Badrashin,</p> <p>a slum area in Giza-Egypt, were included and invited to participate in the study and screened for IPV,</p> <p>social support, and psychological status; phase two was an interventional phase in which all abused women</p> <p>detected in phase one invited to participate in the interventional counseling program.</p> <p><strong><em> Results:</em></strong> The study revealed that the overall prevalence of IPV among the studied group was (37.7%); the</p> <p>highest form (54.0%) was psychological abuse, followed by physical (52%) one then severe combined abuse</p> <p>including sexual abuse items (48.6%). However; less than one fourth (22.2%) were exposed to harassment.</p> <p>Also revealed the presence of high significant p-value (0.000) reductions in all forms of violence following</p> <p>the intervention program.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> Counseling intervention had a positive effect on participants, demonstrating a decrease in</p> <p>violence exposure, improvement of social support and psychological status.</p> Maha Mowafy1 , Dina Shorkry2 , Heba El Nahas3 , Asmaa Sayed4 , Arwa El Shafei5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2009 2015 Prevalence of Osteopenia and Osteoporosis in the Kyrgyz Republic <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To study the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis (OP) among residents of the Kyrgyz</p> <p>Republic in 3 different age categories (18-39 years, 40-59 years, and 60-79 years), Give a comparative</p> <p>assessment of the prevalence of osteopenia and OP depending on gender and Based on the results, make</p> <p>proposals for the identification and diagnosis of osteopenia and OP in the Kyrgyz Republic.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> An Ultrasound bone densitometry (USBD) studied the Bone mineral density</p> <p>(BMD) in a total of 1200 people with 691 women and 509 men of 3 different age categories (18-39 years,</p> <p>40-59 years, 60-79 years).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the first group from 18-39 years, normal values found in 55.6% of people, osteopenia in 38.9%</p> <p>of people and OP in 5.5% of people. In the second group, from 40-59 years old, normal values found in</p> <p>30.9% people, osteopenia in 60.2% people and OP in 8.9% people. Moreover, in the third group, from 60-</p> <p>79 years, normal values were found in 9.5%, osteopenia is seen in 50.2% and OP in 40.3% of older people.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Osteopenia and OP are quite common not only in the older age but even affect people of a</p> <p>younger age. The frequency of detection of osteopenia and OP is the highest recorded in older age groups.</p> <p>Women mostly exposed to OP that has pronounced degrees of BMD affection.</p> Mamatov Sagynali Murzaevich1 , Farida Imanalieva2 , Chyngyzbek Mamazhakyp Uulu3 , Tugolbai Tagaev2 , Vityala Yethindra4 , Mira Arstanbekovna2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2016 2020 Current Aspects of Disability in the Kyrgyz Republic <p>The objective is to study the epidemiological characteristics and assess the system for establishing a disability</p> <p>in the Kyrgyz Republic.</p> <p>In establishing disability, a biomedical model of health is used, which does not provide an objective assessment</p> <p>of a person’s condition. This study analyzes data on the disability situation in the Kyrgyz Republic, which</p> <p>indicates a steady annual increase in the disability rate. For children under 18 years of age, the establishment</p> <p>of disability and assignment of the category “disabled child” is biased, since only the state of health and</p> <p>dysfunction of the child’s functional abilities are assessed and, despite the difference in the severity of the</p> <p>condition, the possibility of work capacity and the ability to participate in education is not evaluated.</p> Mamatov Sagynali Murzaevich1 , Tolkunbek Baimuratov2 , Ulan Aliev2 , Ziyabidin Aidarov3 , Chyngyzbek Mamazhakyp Uulu4 , Tugolbai Tagaev5 , Vityala Yethindra6 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2021 2026 About the Status and Prospects of Gerontology and Geriatrics in the Kyrgyz Republic <p>The objective is to assess the state and prospects of development of the gerontological service and to study</p> <p>the level of the demographic situation in the Kyrgyz Republic.</p> <p>We studied Legislative, regulatory and legal documents and materials from open sources have studied since</p> <ol start="1991"> <li>Using the example of Bishkek and Nizhne-Serafimovsk social stationary facilities, the state of health</li> </ol> <p>was analyzed, and 442 patients examined. Successes in the development of the gerontology: the Kyrgyz</p> <p>Republic became a member of the AgeNet International gerontological network (2005), the law “On Senior</p> <p>Citizens in the Kyrgyz Republic” (2011) was adopted, and an Action Plan to improve the quality of life of</p> <p>older citizens at 2019-2025. A high frequency of comorbidity revealed: 241 (56.4%) of the wards had from</p> <p>1 to 3 diseases, 185 (43.3%) from 4 to 6 diseases and in 128 (29.9%) of the departments, seven or more</p> <p>diseases registered. The country needs to create a single coordinating body for gerontological and geriatric</p> <p>services, which will be responsible for its work and development.</p> Mamatov Sagynali Murzaevich1 , Arstanbekova Mira Arstanbekovna1 , Imanalieva Farida Eldiyarovna1 , Nartaeva Aida Kanatbekovna3, Musakeev Adilet Omurbekovich1 , Vityala Yethindra2 , Tugolbai Tagaev Jumabekovich1 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2027 2032 Correlation between the Expression of Melanoma-Associated Antigen-A3 and Cytology Results on Bronchoalveolar Lavage on Nsclc <p><strong>Background: </strong>Lung cancer is still considered an alarming health problem, causing a major cause of death in</p> <p>malignant disease. The incidence rate is likely to increase and most of it comes with an advanced stage of</p> <p>diagnosis. To improve the healing rate and life expectancy, the detection of lung cancer should be done early,</p> <p>when it is still small and localized. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology is a method of examination that</p> <p>can be used in lung cancer. The expression of Melanoma-Associated Antigen (MAGE) becomes the marker</p> <p>that is sensitive to certain types of cancer, including lung cancer.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong>To analyze the correlation between expression MAGE-A3 and cytology of BAL specimen on</p> <p>NSCLC.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Bronchoscopy was performed on patients with NSCLC lung tumor at pulmonology unit of Dr.</p> <p>Soetomo Teaching Hospital Surabaya Indonesia to collect the BAL. Histologic examination for BAL and</p> <p>MAGE-A3 examination were conducted on patients. Statistical analysis used to determine the correlation</p> <p>between the expression of MAGE A3 and cytology of BAL specimens on NSCLC was fisher’s exact test.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>We found that there were 7.14% of subjects with BAL cytology had cancer cells (<em>adenocarcinoma</em>).</p> <p>MAGE-A3 expression was positive only in 28.60% of subjects diagnosed with NSCLC. The result of MAGE</p> <p>A3 expression analysis with cytology of BAL specimen showed p = 0.286.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was no significant correlation between MAGE-A3 expression and histopathology type.</p> <p>The results of MAGE A3 RT PCR fluid expression examination showed that most of them were in the</p> <p>negative category.</p> Mawartih Susanty1,Isinin Anang Marhanang2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2033 2038 Effect of Bosu Pilates on Primary Dysmenorrhea in Adolescent Girls <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dysmenorrhea is a painful menstruation or a cramp labor like pain in the lower abdomen</p> <p>that radiates to upper abdomen, waist and thighs and sometimes accompanied by systemic symptoms like</p> <p>nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Dysmenorrhea can be treated by various pharmacological and</p> <p>non-pharmacological remedies. Incidence rate of dysmenorrhea among Indian girls is found to be 79.67%.</p> <p>It complicates the lives among adolescents females and affect the quality of life of many women. Pilates</p> <p>exercises is safe, non invasive treatment modality to relief pain of primary dysmenorrhea.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To study the effect of Bosu Pilates on primary dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Ethical clearance was obtained from the institute committee. 25 women were screen from KARAD</p> <p>aged between 18 to 30 years. They were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. They</p> <p>were allowed to fill the form given which included the scale which rated the working, location, intensity,</p> <p>days of pain in dysmenorrhea. According to which conclusion was made.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> After analyzing the data there was significant effect of exercises like stretching and core strengthening</p> <p>exercises performed on bosu ball which helped to reduce pain status in primary dysmenorrheal adolescent</p> <p>girls seen on Wong Baker scale (p=&lt;0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concludes that there was significant effect of bosu pilates on primary dysmenorrhea</p> <p>in adolescent girls.</p> Mayuri T. Gotpagar1 , Poovishnu Devi2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2039 2044 Two-Years Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Outcomes in Patients with Keratoconus <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aimed to report refractive, topographic, and tomographic outcomes of 2-years corneal</p> <p>collagen cross-linking in patients with progressive keratoconus.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>This prospective study was conducted on76 eyes of 40 patients with progressive</p> <p>keratoconus and a corneal thickness of at least 400?m. After the baseline examination, cross-linking was</p> <p>performed using riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet irradiation (370 nm, 3 mW/cm2) for 30 min. Uncorrected</p> <p>visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest refraction spherical</p> <p>equivalent (MRSE), cylinder, keratometric readings, and corneal thickness were evaluated at baseline, 6,</p> <p>12, and 24 months after corneal collagen cross-linking.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Results showed that at a 24-month follow-up, mean BSCVA, and UCVA had significant</p> <p>improvements. Changes in MRSE and cylinder were not significant during the two years of follow-up.</p> <p>At a 2-years follow-up, the mean values of minimum keratometry, maximum keratometry, and average</p> <p>keratometry decreased significantly to0.75, 0.97, and 0.52 D, respectively, compared to their baseline values.</p> <p>Anterior best fit sphere (BFS) also had significant difference at 24-month follow-up compared to base line</p> <p>evaluation. The central corneal thickness decreased significantly up to38 ? after 2 years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Corneal collagen cross-linking is an effective treatment to stop the progression of keratoconusas</p> <p>shown by reduced keratometry and improved vision.</p> Mitra Zamani1 , Asghar Heidarian2 , Mohammad Sadegh Mirdehghan3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2045 2051 Detection of Emerging Infectious Disease in Cynopterus brachyotis and Rhinolopus boorneensis as Reservoirs of Zoonotic Diseases in Indonesia <p>Bats are mammal species that have the highest diversity. During the last two decades, various types of</p> <p>infections caused by microorganisms have again become epidemic in many countries, this phenomenon is</p> <p>known as a new infectious disease that arises and re-emerges or Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID/</p> <p>REID). The purpose of this study was to identify EID in bats in the karst area of South Malang. The research</p> <p>method of bat sampling is conducted in the karst area of South Malang, bats are identified by species,</p> <p>taken by blood, prepared and carried out by NGS (next generation sequencing). From the results of the</p> <p>research conducted, obtained 2 types of bats namely fruit-eating bats (<em>Chiroptera brachjatis</em>) and insect bats</p> <p>(<em>Rhinolopus boorneensis</em>). From the results of the NGS, we get specific viruses and bacteria in bats. The</p> <p>conclusion of this research is that bat in South Malang Karst has potential as a carrier of EID and zoonotic</p> <p>disease.</p> Moch. Irfan Hadi1 , Munawir1 , Muhammad Yusuf Alamudi2 , Dedi Suprayogi1 , Mirna Widiyanti3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2052 2057 Knowledge and Awareness of Bio-Medical Waste Management among Senior Undergraduate and Specialist Dental Students: Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> There has been a universal rising in knowledge and awareness regarding the bio-medical</p> <p>waste management and the hazards related to it. <strong>Purpose</strong>: aims to determine and asses the knowledge</p> <p>as well as the awareness towards the management of bio-medical waste among senior undergraduate and</p> <p>specialist dental students in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya - Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method:</strong> The study was carried out by using a close-ended survey. The Population of the</p> <p>study consisted of 743 students. However, the taken sample was based on Lemeshow method that includes</p> <p>130 senior undergraduate and 62 specialist students making a total of 192 participants. Statistical analysis</p> <p>was performed via descriptive statistical analysis and chi-square test. <strong>Results: </strong>This survey was shown that</p> <p>around 192 questionnaires were distributed of which (86%) returned and analyzed. It was seen that (58.7%)</p> <p>of senior undergraduate students and (87.1%) of specialist students, were having average knowledge of</p> <p>bio-medical waste management system in dental clinics. According to the Chi-square test analysis, it was</p> <p>seen there is a statistically significant P-value (p?0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Within the limitation of this study,</p> <p>we affirmed that there is a good level of knowledge and awareness of bio-medical waste management. In</p> <p>this present study, highly needed for continuing education and training programs to be conducted in dental</p> <p>teaching curricula in the Faculty of Dental Medicine</p> Mohammad Ahmed Qasim Aljunaid1 , Aryo Dwipo Kusumo2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2058 2062 Correlating Schizophrenia with DRD3 Ser9Gly or HTR2 Receptor Gene Variants by using RFLP Method <p>Genetic polymorphism in many candidates associated with psychiatric disorder and Schizophrenia (SCZ).</p> <p>The current research is directed to see if the polymorphisms of Dopamine Receptor D3 (DRD3) or of</p> <p>the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Type 2A (HTR2A) genes is related to SCZ patients. From those admitted to Al</p> <p>Rasheed Hospital, fifty patients with SCZ (half of them are males and the other half are females), in addition</p> <p>to control group (25 healthy individuals) were included in this study. Blood samples from each individual in</p> <p>both, healthy and control groups were collected, DNA was extracted. Specific primers for exon1 and another</p> <p>for exon 2 have been used to amplify the genes of DRD3 receptor and HTR2A. The data generated in this</p> <p>study indicated significant positive association between T102C polymorphism of HTR2A A1804G transition</p> <p>and DRD3 gene sequence, that resulted in the substitution of Ser9Gly amino acid Iraqi SCZ patients.</p> Mohammed Ayyed Najm1 , Zeina S. M. Al –Hadeithi2 , Ali Talib Abid Salih3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2063 2068 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i3.10727 Attitude and Knowledge of Medical Negligence among General Population of Ahmedabad City, Gujarat <p>This study explored perspective and knowledge on medical negligence among the general population of</p> <p>Ahmedabad city. 500 Peoples voluntary participated in the study. Peoples were asked to respond anonymously</p> <p>to a structured questionnaire which dealt with their views, perception, knowledge and attitude toward</p> <p>medical negligence.In the present study, out of 500 participants, 69% were male,58.4% were aged between</p> <p>21-40years &amp; 56.8% were graduate &amp; postgraduate. The majority of people have quite good knowledge about</p> <p>medical negligence, but less knowledge about legal proceedings regarding medical negligence. Educational</p> <p>seminar and awareness programs on this subject may helpful for them and for medical professionals also.</p> Mohammed Musaib M. Shaikh1 , Dushyantkumar Barot2 , Jayjeet Trivedi3 , R. S. Bhise4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2069 2074 A study on the relation between socio-economic characteristics and HIV/AIDS among the tribal women of Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya <p>The social fabric of a population is of utmost importance to know the scenario of HIV/AIDS in that</p> <p>population. This paper highlights vulnerability of women towards the disease based on their socio-economic</p> <p>characteristics. It is a cross-sectional study among the Jaintia tribal women of Meghalaya belonging to the</p> <p>reproductive and vulnerable age group (15-35years). The methods used for data collection are structured</p> <p>interview schedules, participant observation, focussed group discussions and in-depth interviews. The</p> <p>findings revealed that majority of the women are poor and uneducated and as a result, this has an impact on</p> <p>their role and ability to protect them from contracting the disease.</p> Monsumi Barooah1 , Roumi Deb2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2075 2080 IQ Difference before and after Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery: First report from Indonesia <p>Epilepsy is a serious disorder of the brain, affects almost fifty million people in the world. About 40%</p> <p>of the patients finally became refractory to epileptic drugs, especially those with temporal lobe epilepsy</p> <p>(TLE). This refractory condition may cause psychosocial decline, including patient’s intelligence. Surgical</p> <p>therapy has an important role in stopping further damage to brain cells caused by repeated seizures. The</p> <p>elimination of the seizure after surgery will hopefully results in better intelligence score. This study aims</p> <p>to find out the effect ofsurgical therapyin TLE patients after surgery. We were using a Quasi Experimental</p> <p>study with One Group Pre-test and Post-test design. The samples were taken with consecutive sampling</p> <p>method. Subjects were 15 TLE patients who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and have passed at</p> <p>least one year postoperative period, and also had done an intelligence quotient (IQ) test before surgery. IQ</p> <p>before and after surgery were measured with WAIS and WISC-R method. The statistical tests used were</p> <p>paired t-test. We found the verbal IQ after surgery(98.8±9.88(76-119)) were significantly higher(p=0.01)</p> <p>comparedwithpreoperativeverbalIQ(92.7±9.60(77-113)). On the other hand, performance IQ after surgery</p> <p>(98.2±8.64(82-115)) were higher compared with preoperative performance IQ (96.0±9.39(75-116)) but it was</p> <p>not significant (p=0.5). Total IQ after surgery (97.8 ±7.69(81-107)) also higher compared with preoperative</p> <p>total IQ (93.9±9.28(75-115)) but also not significant (p=0.08). Postoperative verbal IQ improvement was</p> <p>found compared with preoperative verbal IQ.</p> Muhamad Thohar Arifin1 , Fajar H. Niantiarno1 , Nabila Amalina1 , Hardian2 , Muttaqin Z Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2081 2085 Relationship Between Farmers Weaknesses About Knowledge of Formulation and Feed Technology on Feed Conversion in Alabio Ducks <p>The study aims to determine and analyze the relationship between breeders’ knowledge about feed</p> <p>formulations and the conversion value of duck feed. The subjects in this study were Alabio duck breeders in</p> <p>Hambuku Raya Village and Putat Atas Village, Hulu Sungai Utara, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia</p> <p>with observed objects in the form of Alabio duck feed conversion and breeders’ knowledge of feed</p> <p>formulation knowledge and Alabio duck feed technology. The research method used was non-experimental</p> <p>explorative, the researcher did not give treatment to the group of Alabio ducks and conducted a survey by</p> <p>distributing questionnaires to farmers. Observation of feed conversion is carried out for 3 (three) months</p> <p>from February-April 2018 in each group. Observation of feed conversion is carried out starting from Alabio</p> <p>ducks to produce eggs, which are about 6 months old. Testing of feed conversion, normal data using analysis</p> <p>of variance (Anova), if significant continued with LSD. Survey research is the stage of analyzing using</p> <p>SWOT analysis to determine the level of weakness and strength in the framework of the development of</p> <p>Alabio ducks in the Hulu Sungai Utara Regency of South Kalimantan Province. The results of the analysis</p> <p>of feed conversion of the three groups were not significantly different, the group of Putat Atas Ducks for</p> <p>feed conversion an average of 4.51 ducks Hambuku Raya 1 group an average of feed conversion every</p> <p>month 5.30, the ducks of the Hambuku Raya 2 group the average conversion of feed every month 4.75.</p> <p>SWOT analysis value of weakness factor is 1,764, this factor includes one of them is knowledge of farmers</p> <p>about feed formulation. The results of this study are in line with the results of feed conversion in the first</p> <p>stage of research, the value of feed conversion obtained is still relatively high at 4.51-5.30. The conclusion</p> <p>is the SWOT analysis score of weakness factors one of which is the lack of knowledge of farmers about</p> <p>formulation and feed technology affect the high feed conversion.</p> Muhammad Aftabuddin Rijaluzzaman1, Pudji Srianto2 , Chairul Anwar Nidom2 , Rini Fajarwati3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2086 2090 Scores Consumption of Functional Foods based on Local Foods in Pregnant Women Buginese in the city of Makassar <p><strong>Background</strong> Recent evidence is known that functional foods are foods that provide the latest prospects</p> <p>for preventing nutritional problems not only because of their macro and micro nutrient content but their</p> <p>bioactive components that have an effect on the methylation process at the cellular level.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: the purpose of this study was to determine the consumption of functional foods based on local</p> <p>foods in pregnant women in Makassar City</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A cross sectional study design. The sample size was 647 pregnant women taken from 41 Puskesmas</p> <p>in Makassar City, except the Sangarrang Kepulauan Puskesmas. Functional food intake was collected</p> <p>using the FFQ method, Macro and micro nutrient intake with Food recall 2 x 24 hours. The data collection</p> <p>enumerators were 21 graduates from Nutrition III / IV graduates. Enumerators are trained for two days.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>; showed that functional foods consumed by pregnant women based on local foods are sources of</p> <p>fiber, probiotics, Vitamin C, carotenoids, omega 3/9 and folifenol respectively (39.03 ± 36.78), (21.15 ±</p> <p>7.74), (38.44 ± 30.9), (90.04 ± 50.53), (83.42 ± 60.42) and 166.57 ± 92.66). <strong>Conclusion</strong>; is that consumption</p> <p>of functional foods based on local foods in pregnant women is good.</p> Mustamin1, Sirajuddin1,2, Tapriadi3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2091 2094 Activity of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Merremia mammosa Hall as Anti-Influenza A (H1N1) <p>The outbreak of influenza A viruses (H1N1 and H5N1) has raised a global concern on the future risk of a</p> <p>pandemic. Oseltamivir, the current neuraminidase inhibitor, could not meet the demand if there is a major</p> <p>outbreak. Thus, there is a need to find alternative treatment for influenza A, especially from natural herbs.</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to determine antiviral influenza A activities of <em>Merremia mammosa</em> Hall</p> <p>against influenza A H1N1. People in Madura island, Indonesia used this rhizome to cure tuberculosis. In</p> <p>this research, <em>Merremia mammosa</em> Hall rhizome was extracted gradually using n-hexane to remove the</p> <p>non-polar compound. The residue was extracted using ethyl acetate to obtain semi-polar extract. The ethyl</p> <p>acetate fraction of <em>Merremia mammosa</em> Hall was subjected to <em>in vitro</em> antiviral assay against influenza A</p> <p>(H1N1) virus using Hemagglutinin Assay. This is a method for titering influenza viruses based their ability</p> <p>to attach molecules present on the surface of chicken red blood cell. The virus was incubated in embryonated</p> <p>chicken eggs and treated by ethyl acetate fraction of <em>M. mammosa</em> for 3 x 24 hours. Allantoic fluid was</p> <p>harvested and subjected on hemagglutinin assay to measure the titre of virus after treated with the fraction.</p> <p>The ethyl acetate extract of <em>Merremia mammosa</em> Hall can reduce the titer of hemagglutinin virus by 97.39%</p> <p>at concentration 1000 µg/mL In conclusion<em>, Merremia mammosa</em> Hall has the potential to be developed as</p> <p>agent of antiinfluenza A infection.</p> Neny Purwitasari1 , Mangestuti Agil2 , Herra Studiawan3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2095 2098 The Effect of Flavonoid Fraction from Vitex trifolia Leaves on Pandemic-2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus Propagated in Embryonated Chicken Eggs <p>The aim of this study is to investigate antiviral activity of flavonoid fraction of <em>Vitex trifolia</em> leaves</p> <p>towards influenza A viruses H1N1 pandemic-2009 that were propagated in embryonated chicken eggs</p> <p>(ECEs). Fraction that rich of flavonoid compounds was isolated from the crude ethanolic extract using</p> <p>column chromatography, prior to be subjected to antiviral inhibition assay. The assay was evaluated by</p> <p>using hemagglutination (HA) test. The HA titre reduction of the virus was counted after being treated</p> <p>with the flavonoid fraction, compared to untreated one. The result showed that percentage of inhibition</p> <p>of this flavonoid fraction against pandemic-2009 H1N1 influenza A virus are 37.50%, 71.25%, 71.25% at</p> <p>concentration 125 ?g/mL, 500 ?g/mL, and 750 ?g/mL, respectively. In conclusion, the flavonoid fraction</p> <p>of <em>Vitex trifolia</em> leaves showed effect to reduce viral hemaglutinine, the enzyme that has a crucial role in the</p> <p>initiating step of virus infection, without possesed any toxicity to ECEs.</p> Neny Purwitasari1 , Krisma Agung Subarka2 , David Fransnado Grismana Putra2 , Herra Studiawan3 , Kuncoro Puguh Santoso4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2099 2104 Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy in Indonesia <p>The phenomenon of teenage pregnancy in Indonesia has increased annually, but only a few studies that</p> <p>indicate its predictors. The present research aimed at anlyzing the determinants of teenage pregnancy in</p> <p>Indonesia. The study used secondary data obtained from the Indonesian Demography and Health Survey</p> <p>(IDHS) in 2017. The independent variables are as follows age, wealth status, education, occupation, and</p> <p>marital status. On the other hand, the dependent variable is teenage pregnancy. The data were analyzed</p> <p>using binary logisctic regression. It was found that age is a significant determinant of teenage pregnancy.</p> <p>The richest teenager has 0.61 higher possibility of getting pregnant than the poorest. A teenager with higher</p> <p>education is 0.03 times more possible to get pregnant than one that has not gone to school before. Moreover,</p> <p>a working teenager has the possibility to get pregnant higher than that of not working teenager by 1.47 times.</p> <p>The present study empirically proves that marital status is not a determinant of teenage pregancu. While</p> <p>the four other variables, such as age, lower wealth status, no education, and working have been proven as</p> <p>determinants of teenage pregnancy in Indonesia.</p> Nikmatur Rohmah1,2, Ah Yusuf3 , Rachmat Hargono4 , Agung Dwi Laksono5 , Masruroh6 , Ilyas Ibrahim7 , Saiful Walid8 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2105 2110 Some Theoretical and Practical Issues of Medical Geographical Research <p>In the context of globalization of global economy and intense competition and steady increase in</p> <p>population, mortality rates among people with infectious and parasitic diseases are increasing. International</p> <p>organizations are also paying much attention to fighting these problems and their consequences. In particular,</p> <p>the UN Sustainable Development Program up to 2030 emphasizes “issues related to the elimination of</p> <p>immunodeficiency, tuberculosis and malaria epidemics in the period up to 2030, as well as measures to combat</p> <p>hepatitis and other waterborne infections”. Successful implementation of these tasks requires stabilization</p> <p>of nosocheological and nosogeographic situations in arid climates. Medical geographical situation in the</p> <p>regions is one of the most important factors determining the development of society and the way of life of</p> <p>the population. Addressing medical geographical problems and improving public health, reducing morbidity</p> <p>and increasing life expectancy are of vital scientific and practical importance.</p> Nilufar K. Komilova1 , Aliqul K. Ravshanov2 , Lolakhon K. Karshibaeva3 , Komila Q. Ishankulova4 , Zulfiya N. Madrahimova4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2111 2117 Study of Nozogeographic Situation and Its Study on the Basis of Sociological Survey <p>Development of scientific and practical recommendations on improvement of nosogeographic situation by</p> <p>assessing the impact of nosogeographic situation on the territorial structure of diseases and pathological</p> <p>processes of population in Samarkand and Navoi regions. This includes an analysis of the pathological</p> <p>processes associated with the disease of the population of Samarkand, Navoi regions and their districts;</p> <p>Identification and evaluation of natural, socio-economic geographical factors and nosogeographic situation</p> <p>affecting the health of the population in the regions; medical geographical analysis of some infectious</p> <p>diseases occurring among the population of the regions and their specificity; Determine the main problems in</p> <p>the nosogeographical condition of the regions, the prognosis of the existing diseases among the population.</p> <p>The study identified groups and types of diseases that occur in the regions of the region such as Khatirchi,</p> <p>Qiziltepa, Bulungur. The nosocomial situation was assessed on the basis of a sociological survey method.</p> Nilufar Kh. Komilova1 , Lolakhon K. Karshibaeva2 , Umriniso T. Egamberdiyeva3 , Zulfiya L. Abduvalieva4 , Shuxrat Q. Allanov5 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2118 2123 Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction in Morocco – Evaluating the Knowledge of Pharmacists <p><strong>Background. </strong>Pharmacy professionals, as the most available members of medical team, have an important</p> <p>role in educating patients about Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction (CADR). Our aim was to evaluate</p> <p>pharmacists’ knowledge of the cutaneous drug reaction, and their recommendations under hypothetical</p> <p>situations, through a written questionnaire. <strong>Methods.</strong> based cross-sectional study was conducted among</p> <p>community pharmacists working at the private sector of the rabat-salé-zemmour-zaer region using a structured</p> <p>interviewing questionnaire. <strong>Results. </strong>Ninety- eight pharmacists completed the questionnaire (response</p> <p>rate 48%). The mean overall score was 52.87 ± 23.19% correct answers. The majority of pharmacists</p> <p>(66,32 %) estimated that they view more than a Patient with CADR each month, and only forty-seven</p> <p>pharmacists underwent CADR related training during the year preceding the survey. Pharmacists obtained</p> <p>the highest correct scores on the true/false statements inquiring about Cutaneous reaction due to drugs</p> <p>definition, classification and the most common medication classes implicated in Cutaneous reaction due to</p> <p>drugs, Overall, the true/false questions were relatively easier to address, compared with the multiple choice</p> <p>questions (63.60 ± 13.15% vs. 51.18 ± 24.12%, respectively; p &lt; 0.01). Only 14 pharmacists were familiar</p> <p>with Cutaneous reaction due to drugs sach as ( Drug Reaction With Eosinophilia, contact dermatitis, Nail</p> <p>Disorders, bullous pemphigoid ). Longer time since training completion was associated with a lower total</p> <p>score (38,77 ± 9% vs. 61,22 ± 11% for the pharmacists who were in practice 5 years or less and those with</p> <p>longer time in practice, respectively; p &lt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion.</strong> Pharmacists were knowledgeable regarding</p> <p>some aspects of CADR. However, our study, as in previous studies among health care professionals,</p> <p>identified some gaps in knowledge. These findings indicate the need for better education of pharmacists</p> <p>regarding CADR and its supported.</p> Youssef Moutaouakkil1 , Esso Eric Valery Latt1 , Rachid el Jaoudi2 , Mina Ait el cadi2 , Yahia Cherrah3, Jamal Lamsaouri4 , Yassir Bousliman2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2124 2129 Improved Oral Hygine as A Result of Successful Toothbrushing Intervention in a Restricted Community Islamic Boarding School <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Brushing teeth is an important thing to do since it is one of the factors that affect oral hygiene,</p> <p>especially to remove plaque on the teeth.1 The ability to brush teeth properly and correctly is a fairly important</p> <p>factor in maintaining dental and oral health, especially in adolescence.5 The purpose of study to explain the</p> <p>differences in plaque scores before and after toothbrushing training using Bass technique in adolescents</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>The sample were 100 students aged 12-15 years old in grades 7, 8 and 9. This study design was</p> <p>experimental quasi and using a pre-test and post-test after 7 days to determine the difference in plaque scores</p> <p>before and after the training. The plaque index method that used to examine oral hygine was Patient Hygiene</p> <p>Performance (PHP). Comparison between plaque scores before and after training evaluated using Wilcoxon</p> <p>test. <strong>Result: </strong>Examination of PHP index before training shows 81 samples (81%) in poor criteria, then</p> <p>most subjects undergoes improvement after training. There were 94 samples (94%) experienced decrease</p> <p>or improvement in plaque score whilst 6 samples (6%) did not show improvement after training. Median</p> <p>of plaque score before training was 4.3 (0.2-5 (SD=0.502)) afterwards improved to 2.2 (0-4.8 (SD=0.496)).</p> <p>Wilcoxon test obtained a value of p&lt;0.05 which was 0.000. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>There were significant differences</p> <p>in plaque scores before and after toothbrushing training using Bass technique.</p> Pindobilowo1 , Dwi Ariani2 , Nadia Shabrina Amalia3 , Taufan Bramantoro4 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 14 3 2130 2135 Family Background and Parenting Characteristics of Young People with Methamphetamine Use Disorder in Northeastern Region of Thailand