Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology <p>Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology is a double-blind peer reviewed international journal. The frequency is quarterly. It deals with Forensic Medicine, Forensic Science, Toxicology, DNA fingerprinting, sexual medicine, environmental medicine, Forensic Pathology, legal medicine and public health laws. It has been assigned International standard serial No. p-0973-9122 and e-0973-9130. The Journal has been assigned RNI No. DELENG/2008/21789. The journal is indexed with Scopus, EMBASE. The journal is also abstracted in Chemical Abstracts (CAS) database. The journal is also indexed /abstracted with many databases. </p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> en-US <p><strong>Re use and mixing of content policy</strong>- We follow Creative Commons Licence Policy. We follow CC BY. Please refer below for all details</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>CC BY</strong></p> <p>This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon our work, even commercially, as long as they credit us for the original creation.</p> <ol> <li>The journal allows readers to <em>read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles</em> and allow readers to <em>use them for any other lawful purpose</em>.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions</li> </ol> (Prof (Dr) R K Sharma) (kavita) Fri, 27 Nov 2020 11:01:13 +0000 OJS 60 Age Estimation from Second & Third Molar by Modified Gleiser and Hunt Method : A Retrospective Study <p>The aim of the present investigation, which is a modification of previous study done by Gleiser and<br>Hunt(1955). The study was conducted to determine juvenile and adolescent ages of age group 10 to 19.9yrs,<br>in South Indian Population. The evaluated materials consisted of 200 OPG’S. In this Mandibular Left 37 &amp;<br>38 is the most variable tooth in the permanent dentition, which was the only data used for age estimation.<br>The Standard deviation for Male 37 staging is ± 2.15years and for 38 staging is ± 1.29 years. And, the<br>Standard deviation for Female 37 staging is ± 2.58 years and in 38 staging is ±2.24 years. The combination<br>of Male tooth number 37 &amp; 38 staging is revealing the good results with the standard deviation of ± 1.23<br>years and the combination of Female tooth number 37 &amp; 38 revealing the average results of ±2.18 years.<br>While comparing to both Male and Female tooth number staging Male is showing more accurate than<br>females in root maturation.</p> Abirami Arthanari1 , Nagabhushana Doggalli2 , Vidhya A3, Sushma Rudraswamy4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Usage of Anti-Anxiety Drugs in Paediatric Patients among General Dental Practitioners <p>Aim : To assess the knowledge attitude and practice of usage of anti-anxiety drugs among the general dental<br>practitioners.<br>Background: Anti-anxiety drugs can act as effective way to manage patients with anxiety and dental fear<br>mainly children. Adequate knowledge is necessary for using anti-anxiety drugs. Usage of anti-anxiety drugs<br>can help to treat the patients in an effective way.<br>Material and Methods: Questionnaires consisting of 15 questions was distributed to 80 general dental<br>practitioners practicing in private dental hospitals and clinics in Chennai city in June 2017. The questionnaire<br>was designed to enquire about the knowledge and usage of anti anxiety drug in children<br>Results: 83.75% of dentists are aware of the pharmacological means of anxiety reduction. 51.25% are aware<br>of the side effects and over dosage reaction of using anti anxiety drugs. 12% of dentists are aware of the<br>method of managing side effects and over dosage reaction of using anti anxiety drugs<br>Conclusion : Anti-anxiety drugs can act as a better alternative and also an adjunct to the conventional<br>behaviour management. Proper knowledge about its mechanism of action, dosage, adverse effects are<br>essential for the dentist to use anti-anxiety drugs in an effective way. Hence the usage of anti-anxiety drugs<br>can be recommended and encouraged among dentists provided they have a sound knowledge about the drug</p> Ahsana A1 , M. Dhanraj2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride Treatment on the Quality of Life of Children <p>Background: Early childhood caries is known to affect the quality of life of children. Silver diamine fluoride<br>is a desensitizing agent used for preventing and arresting dental caries. It is inexpensive and can be easily<br>applied.<br>Aim: The aim of the present study was to find the effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) treatment on the<br>Oral Health-Related Quality of Life<br>Method: ECHOIS questionnaire designed to evaluate the child’s behavior, physical abilities, pain,<br>temperament, and how well the child gets along with other people was distributed to the parents of children<br>aged 1-5 with ECC with reversible pulpitis. The questionnaire has two components ie Family Impact Score<br>and Child Impact Score. The parents were asked to fill the questionnaire at baseline and one month after<br>SDF application.<br>Results : Significant difference was observed in the mean Child Impact Score(CIS) and Family Impact<br>Score(FIS) at baseline and one month follow up. SDF application significantly improved the quality of life<br>of children(P&lt;0.005). Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to check the level of significance in the mean<br>difference of the CIS and FIS at the base line and one month follow up<br>Conclusion: Children with ECC after the application of SDF showed improvement in the quality of life at<br>one-month follow up compared with the baseline as measured by ECHOIS questionnaire</p> Ahsana. A1 , Deepa Gurunathan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Pilot Study on Snake Bite Deaths in the District of Malda, West Bengal, India <p>The alarming number of deaths due to snake bite are often under-reported and missed due to several<br>interrelated socioeconomic factors. Epidemiology of fatal snake bite have been reported sparsely from<br>West Bengal in recent past .The present investigation was devised to explore the profile of the fatal cases<br>of envenomation in snake bite from a district of northern part of West Bengal. Deaths due to snake bite<br>constituted 02.067% of all unnatural deaths from mortuary data. The mean age of the cases of fatal snake<br>bite was 34.18 with SD 2.67. It was seen that the mean interval between bite and treatment was 3.35 hours<br>with SD 0.48. The present work was a short regional research to supplement epidemiology and add to the<br>database of deaths from snake bite in a district of West Bengal, India.</p> Aloke Mazumder1 , TanushreeMondal2 , Partha Pratim Mukhopadhyay3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Profile of Dowry Death Cases Reported for Autopsy in Thoothukudi Medical College - A Retrospective Study <p>Violence against women inside the family is a worldwide phenomenon. Violence against women traverses<br>every geographical area, economic layers, education level, age, and employment status. It is seen that in spite<br>of its high education status and all around acclaimed social method of advancement, India is at top position<br>in Dowry Death. United Nation General Assembly in 1993 embraced the Declaration on the Elimination of<br>Violence against Women. All the medicolegal cases brought to an autopsy that is registered under section<br>304 B IPC are included in this study. Inclusion criteria: Death of married women within 7 years of marriage.<br>A total of 80 cases were analyzed retrospectively. 71(88.75%) cases belong to Hindu religion. 45(56.25%)<br>cases are from urban regions, 40(50%) cases completed high school education, 44 (55%) of the deaths<br>occurred in 2-4 years of marriage, 63(78.75%) cases belong to arranged marriage, 32(40%) cases belonged<br>to nuclear family, 65 (75%)cases belong to the age group 18 to 25 years, 3(3.75%) cases were homicide,<br>Hanging is the most common form of death in this study 44(55%) cases. The government of India has<br>attempted to battle the developing rate of dowry death by instituting different laws to keep such deaths from<br>happening and to punish those responsible when they do happen. Notwithstanding lawful forward leaps,<br>stunning news on dowry deaths kept on appearing in Indian papers</p> Seethalakshmi.M 1 , Rajalakshmi. S.2 , Rajesh.R3 , Vinoth K.V.4 , Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Closed Mitral Valvotomy (as a Surgical Treatment Option) – Does it has any Medico Legal Bearings in the Present Scenario <p>Introduction- A prospective study of closed Mitral Valvotomy in 104 patients<br>Method and Result- From December 2012 to December 2019, 104 patients underwent CMV. 94 Patients<br>become symptom free after surgery and only 7 patients required Mitral valve replacement surgery on followup<br>Conclusion- Closed Mitral Valvotomy represents a satisfactory technique in terms of lower cost, high<br>efficacy, simplicity and reproducibility</p> Amit Chaudhary, Amit Singh2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chest Injury Outcomes due to Road Traffic Accidents – an Institutional Experience <p>Background -Thoracic trauma is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in developing world<br>countries. Complications in chest trauma develop secondary to rib fractures and subsequently leading to<br>pain, inadequate ventilation as well as direct injury to lung parenchyma due to fractured rib segments.<br>Methods - In this study, we present our 2 year experience (August 2017 to August 2019) in the management<br>and clinical outcome of 236 chest trauma cases as a result of road traffic accidents. Patients were divided<br>into three groups based on the presence of rib fractures. The groups were evaluated to demonstrate the<br>relationship between the numbers of rib fractured and associated injuries.<br>Results – Mean hospitalization time was 7.5 days. Mortality rate was 1 % for the patients with only blunt<br>chest trauma, 4 % in patients with more than two rib fractures and 20 % for those with flail chest. We found<br>that there is significant association between the mortality rate and the number of ribs fractured, the patient’s<br>age as well time since the accident.<br>Conclusion – Risk of increased morbidity and mortality was associated with presence of more than two rib<br>fractures, age over 60 years and delayed hospitalization after the injury</p> Amit Chaudhary1, Amit Singh2 , Roopak Aggarwal3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Factors Influencing Academic Performance of Nursing Students <p>Objectives: this study is intended to assess factors influencing academic performance of nursing students in<br>selected institution.<br>Methods: This is a descriptive cross sectional design conducted at Ambala, Haryana, India. 420 participants<br>(308 females and 112 males) consisting of age group between 17 to 25 years were included. Responses were<br>collected by structured scale consisting of 22 items in 3 point scale.<br>Results: Maximum students (88.6%) agreed that good and supportive relationship between teacher and<br>students fosters better academic performance of students. A significant number felt that different teaching<br>strategies used by the nurse educators help to improve academic performance. More than half of the<br>students (53.8%) disagree that students from low socioeconomic status have low scores in their academic<br>performance compared to their classmates with high socioeconomic status. From all of the academic factors,<br>highest mean is of teacher related factors. There is a significant association found with mother’s education.<br>Conclusion: These findings to be helpful for nursing college teachers and managers to advance academic<br>performance of students.</p> Amoldeep1 , Bhawna Sharma2 , Sudhir Gupta3 , Jyoti Sarin4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Descriptive Correlation Study on Stress and Psychological Wellbeing among Nursing Students in Selected Nursing Institutes of Ambala, Haryana <p>Introduction-There is widespread recognition that stress can have reflective negative impacts on nurses’<br>psychological well-being. Stressful environment was repeatedly causing a negative effect on the academic<br>performances and psychological well-being of the nursing student<br>Method- A correlation study was selected. Total 120 nursing students were included by disproportionate<br>stratified random sampling. Data was collected by using DASS-42 (14 items of stress) and psychological<br>general wellbeing index<br>Result- Finding of the study showed that there was significant moderate negative correlation between stress<br>and psychological wellbeing.<br>Conclusion-The study concluded there was a significant correlation between stress and psychological<br>wellbeing scores among nursing students. Hence, it infers that if stress decreases psychological well being<br>increases and vice versa.</p> Anamika Gautam1 , Srinivasan.P2 , Gurvinder Kaur3 , Jyoti Sarin4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Observations on Inter-Rater Agreement in Assessing Fusion Activities at Elbow, Wrist and Pelvis by Conventional and Digital X-Ray Films <p>The present study was designed to measure the inter-rater reliability between two observers in opining and<br>grading the degree of fusion of the secondary centres of ossification using digital and conventional X ray.<br>Attempt was made to examine whether the digital x-ray is superior to conventional X-ray as regards the<br>interrater reliability. It was found that The Kappa score ranged from 0.560 to 0.761 for conventional x-ray<br>films; whereas it ranged from 0.840 to 0.946 in case of digital x-rays. Interrater agreement was noted to<br>be near perfect using digital x ray for all the centres of ossification applied in the study .The accuracy of<br>digital radiography in age determination by observing the fusion activity at elbow, wrist and pelvis (Using<br>Schmeling’s staging) will be superior than conventional radiography</p> Aniruddha Das1 , Srimoyee Mukherjee 2 , Arani Majumder3 , Debasis Sarkar4 , Partha Pratim Mukhopadhyay5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Contriving an Opinion of Cause of Death in Autopsies <p>Contriving an opinion of cause of death is something that requires a good expertise in the subject knowledge<br>and the right set of discriminative skills. The immediate and basic causes of death, circumstances surrounding<br>the death, and the investigation findings of police officers are all the necessary prerequisites to be gathered,<br>before formulating an opinion. Decisions on the cause of death most often de facto will decide the manner<br>of death.<br>A forensic pathologist can give causes of death in a logical sequential manner. Hume’s and Mill’s philosophy<br>is something to be always borne in the mind of a forensic pathologist. Istanbul Protocol is the only literature<br>mentioning as to how to opine an effect, with respect to the causes or circumstances that led to the effect.<br>This can be extrapolated to have five different compartmentalised categories of opinions. Unless there is<br>certain uniformity in opining, the more are the chances of confusion among our fraternity and the judiciary</p> Anu Sasidharan1 , Nadia M. Al-Kandary2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Patterns of Thoracic Injuries in the Victims of Vehicular Incidents Brought to the GMCH Mortuary for Medicolegal Autopsies <p>The present study aims to highlight the pattern of thoracic injuries sustained by the victims of fatal road<br>traffic accidents (RTA) brought to the GMCH Mortuary for medico legal autopsies. The study is an autopsy<br>based observation during 1st April 2019 to 31st March 2020. In this study, incidence of thoracic injury<br>among all cases of vehicular accident is 23.83%. A male preponderance (89%) was observed with a malefemale ratio of 7.7:1. Peak incidence was observed in the age group of 21-30 years (27.24%). In all cases,<br>thoracic injuries are associated with external or internal injuries on other parts of the body. Pleura are the<br>most commonly involved organs in the thoracic regions. Majority of the victims were pedestrians ((36.6 %)<br>followed by two-wheelers (31.06%). The study indicates the pattern of thoracic injuries sustained along with<br>the trend of road traffic accidents in the region</p> Anurupa Choudhury1 , Himangshu Das 2 , Ravi Kumar Sharma3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude Towards Medical Ethics among Medical Students <p>Background: A sense of discontent with services of medical practitioners and growing reliance on alternative<br>medicine with increased public awareness, negative publicity leads to increased lawsuits against medical<br>professionals. Medical ethics training provides a basis for balancing one’s obligation to patient and practice,<br>as well as responsibility to those seeking medical care. Aims and Objectives: To assess medical students’<br>knowledge and attitude towards medical ethics. Material and Method: A cross-sectional questionnairebased study among 246 medical undergraduates was conducted. Data was analyzed for percentage, mean<br>and ‘t’ test. Results: Majority knew importance of medical ethics in medical profession and existence<br>of institutional ethics committee. 84.9% agreed that written informed consent should be mandatory.<br>Response was statistically significant regarding confidentiality (p=0.001883), utmost respect for human<br>life (p=0.00542) and respect for dignity and privacy of patient (p=0.001408). 80.4% disagreed that ethical<br>conduct is important only to avoid legal action. 82.5% agreed strongly to integrate medical ethics in medical<br>curriculum. Conclusion: Though students had adequate knowledge about medical ethics, reinforcement at<br>all levels of medical education is necessary.</p> Arti Ajay Kasulkar1 , Ayushi Keoliya2 , Madhur Gupta3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Different Types of Diatoms Seen in the River Narmada in India <p>Aim: To determine the different types of diatoms present in the waters of River Narmada flowing through<br>5 distinct cities of India and ending into the Arabian Sea. Different types of Diatoms were observed with<br>change in the course of water. Objective: The study shall assist to determine the different types of diatoms<br>present in the river Narmada. Materials and Method: The study does not require any special instruments<br>and the technique used to extract the diatoms from the waters is also very simple to perform. In this study<br>the acid digestion technique is not used but the technique is slightly modified in order to prevent the damage<br>to the walls of the diatoms. Result: Various types of diatoms were seen and the diatoms present in the water<br>collected from different cities of India are found to be different including the species unique to the area.<br>Conclusion: The study describes the type of diatom present in the water of river Narmada collected from<br>different places.</p> Arushi Chawla1 , Dhwani Patel2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Age Estimation by Radiological Assessment of Ossification Centers at Hand Wrist and Elbow Joint at a Tribal Teaching Medical College of Adilabad <p>Background: Radiological assessment of the skeletal ages is an important tool for the estimation of age in<br>the living. Such data can be very useful for forensic practitioners especially in developing countries some of<br>the population is uneducated where the birth records are not present.<br>Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology,<br>Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences [RIMS], Adilabad. A total of n=26 males and n=46 females cases<br>were examined for the ossification at 4 areas which include left-Hand epiphyses (the distal end of radius and<br>ulna), Base of the first metacarpal and Conjoint Epiphyses. The assessment of radiographic images of hand<br>and elbow joints was based on the revised method for epiphyseal union assessment.<br>Results: The mean ages at ossification for stage I in males were found to be 12.90 years. At stage II we found<br>the mean age of 15.18 years. In stage III we found the mean age of 16.15 years and stage IV the mean age<br>value at all ossification centers was 19.18 years. Similarly for females the mean values of all ossification<br>centers at the stage I estimated the age of 14.12 years. In stage II the mean age estimated was 15.27 years<br>and stage III the mean age estimated was 16.29 years and stage IV mean age estimated was 17.96 years.<br>Conclusion: Within the constraints of the present study we found that hand wrist and elbow joint radiographs<br>are very useful for estimation of bone age in cases up to 18 years of age. We used digital radiographs along<br>stages for determining the degree of ossification which has a greater degree of reproducibility and reliability.</p> B Shekhar Rao1 , Mohd Inayatulla Khan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Admission, Transfer and Discharge Procedure in Hospital: Review Article <p>Background: Admission to hospital can be traumatic experience with anxiety and fear for anyone. The<br>person loses his identity, independence and control of daily living. The duration and severity of illness<br>influence his/her reaction to admission procedure. This study aim to determine the role of nurse in admission<br>discharge and transfer procedure in hospital<br>Methods: A PubMed, Google scholar and textbooks (2000-2018) literature review was undertaken to define<br>the admission, discharge and transfer procedure in hospital.<br>Results: We identified 10 relevant articles and books. The most frequently noted form of admission discharge<br>and transfer procedure in hospital.<br>Conclusions: This article bring to light the procedure of admission, points to be remember during<br>hospitalization of patient because admission to hospital can be traumatic experience with anxiety and fear<br>for anyone</p> Bhawna Sharma1 , Pratibha Thakur2 , Amoldeep3 , Sudhir Gupta4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Descriptive Study on Emotional Intelligence Amidst Nursing Undergraduates of Choosed Nursing Institute <p>Background: Emotional intelligence is that portion of the human soul which persuades people to perform.<br>Emotional intelligence may accommodate student nurses while managing their personal and patients’<br>emotions, manifesting genuine emotional reaction, while being empathetic and effective communicator<br>undergraduate nurse determine effective way to visualize emotions without introducing conflict of interest.<br>It also helps in dealing with instinctive feelings, such as anger and dissatisfaction, in a nurse–patient<br>relationship.<br>Objectives: Researchers have set the objectives of Computing the level of emotional intelligence among<br>nursing undergraduates, and to find out the Correlation among different components of emotional intelligence<br>tool.<br>Methodology: Researchers have used Descriptive research design, 179 Nursing Undergraduates of one<br>nursing Institute, have been recruited as a sample with Consecutive non probability technique. Researchers<br>have used standardized schutte self reported emotional intelligence tool in the form of 5 point likert scale,<br>Results: Researchers have identify that 130 sample ( 72.63% ) have average emotional intelligence, 25<br>sample ( 13.97%) have good emotional intelligence, 24 sample (13.41%) have poor emotional intelligence.<br>Mean distribution suggests that perception of emotions has mean of 35.13, managing own emotions mean is<br>35.21, managing others emotions mean is 31.41, Utilization of emotions mean is 24.55.<br>Conclusion: It also reciprocates that each of the components of emotional intelligence tool have positive<br>correlation with each other components. Thus Researchers have concluded that to boost the emotional<br>stability an individual should emphasize their own self. This may also lead in positive social change,<br>reducing emotional conflicts, resulting in high productivity</p> Binal Joshi1 , Franny Joel Emmanuel2 , Vipin Vageriya3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Cardiac Troponin I in Case of Death Time EstimationAn in Vitro Study <p>Background- Beta blockers are used for treating hypertension but few of them when taken in overdose<br>can be fatal. Acebutolol is one such beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent that is considered one of the most<br>toxic beta blockers when taking overdose. Determination of postmortem interval is a common practice in<br>medicolegal investigation.<br>Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the degradation pattern of cTnI with respect to<br>time.<br>Materials And Methods: Group 1 were anesthetized with Sodium pentobarbital (40 IP). The chest cavity<br>was then quickly opened, and the heart was excised out. Group 2 (Asphxial Death) were sacrificed by<br>clamping a tracheostomy tube. Group 3 (Acebutolol Death) were sacrificed by giving an oral lethal dose of<br>Acebutolol(6620mg/kg). Incubation at 28º C for different time interval (0 hrs, 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24hrs, 48 hrs,<br>72 hrs, 96 hrs and 100 hrs). The heart was then isolated and freezed at-80ºC.The extraction of protein from<br>tissue was optimized so as to stop or minimize the degradation of protein during the extraction process. The<br>conventional method was used for extraction with slight modifications in the extraction buffer and an added<br>step of carrying every step of the extraction process at low temperature (1-4ºC)<br>Results- The data clearly established that the degradation pattern of cTnI is different for all the three groupsControl, Acebutolol and Asphyxia. In case of Acebutolol the degradation of cTnI into its molecular fragments<br>is at a much faster rate when compared to the Control and Asphyxia groups, The difference in degradation<br>of cTnI is because Acebutolol is highly cardiotoxic, and its effect on cardiac tissues is high and immediate.<br>Conclusion- The degradation of intact cTnI into smaller molecular fragments is also dependent upon<br>temperature. In order to know more about the measurement of cTnI fragmentation for the determination of<br>the postmortem interval, further investigations are necessary to understand more about the cTnI degradation<br>pattern.</p> Boddupally Ravi Kumar1 , Prakash Chandra Jha2 , Shakti Shishodia3 , Dattatraya P. Kale4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Stature from head length in medical students. <p>Background: Identification of an individual, living or dead is of paramount importance in forensic practice,<br>especially when dismembered body parts or skeletal remains are received for examination. Estimation of<br>stature is one of the important criteria in terms to determine the identity of individual. Many studies have<br>revealed the relationship between stature and some parts of the skeleton and the body parts in consideration.<br>This study will helpful when only skull is available for medico-legal examination. Aim: To estimate stature<br>of person from head length. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Krishna<br>Institute of Medical Sciences for a period of 2 months from April to May 2018. Data was collected by<br>measuring stature using stadiometer and head length using spreading calliper in 200 medical undergraduate<br>students (100 males and 100 females). Results: There is low statistically significant correlation between<br>head length and stature (r=0.25 for males and r=0.22 for females). Conclusion: Accurate stature estimation<br>is not possible from percutaneous head length</p> Chandrakant M Kokatanur1 , Ajay V Patil2 , Vinay Bannur3 , Karan Deep Mishra4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Evaluation of Stress Distribution Around Mandibular Overdentures Surrounded by Three and Four Implants: A Three?Dimensional Finite Element Analysis <p>Background and objectives: Placement of more than two implants in the interforaminal area may create<br>a greater implant-to-bone contact area that allows for better stress distribution and minimizes crestal bone<br>loss. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the stress distribution around implants of the<br>three or four implant?retained mandibular overdenture.<br>Methodology: Two finite element models comprising an edentulous mandible with three and four implant<br>supported mandibular overdenture with bar and clip attachment was used. A vertical load of 30 pounds was<br>applied bilaterally to the first molar. Maximum and minimum von Mises stress values in the bone around<br>the implants were evaluated.<br>Results: The highest stress value was observed in the bone around the distal implants and lowest stress<br>value was concentrated in the middle implant in the molar region in three implant supported overdenture.<br>The highest stress value was concentrated in the bone around the distal implants and lowest stress value was<br>concentrated in the anterior implants in four implant supported overdenture. Stress values were more on four<br>implant supported overdenture than three implant supported overdenture.<br>Conclusion: Within the limitation of the study, three implant supported overdentures demonstrated lesser<br>stress in comparison to the four implant supported overdentures. The stresses generated were higher in the<br>bone around the distal implants and lowest in the middle and anterior implants.</p> Ashrath Azwin1 , Mayur Hegde2 , Vidya K Shenoy3 , Sathish Shenoy4 , Bharath Prabhu5 , Mithun Upadhya6 , Shobha Rodrigues7 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Oxygen Consumption in Freshwater Fish Labeo Rohita Exposed to Lethal and Sub Lethal Concentrations of Ethion 50%Ec <p>The pesticide pollution different classes like organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and other new<br>generation ones affect the fish oxygen consumption in sublethal concentrations. Respiratory responses to<br>lethal concentrations increase the ventilation volume and symptoms of pesticide intoxication suggesting<br>that the effect on respiratory surface were high in fish. Hence, in the present study an attempt has been<br>made to study the effect of lethal(1.2µg/l) and sub-lethal 1/10(0.12µg/l) LC50 and 96hrs of 50% mortality<br>concentrations of Ethion 50% EC an Organophosphate effect on oxygen consumption for 24 h at each 2<br>hours interval to the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Oxygen consumption of aquatic animals is<br>a very sensitive physiological process and therefore, alteration in the respiratory activity is considered as an<br>indicator of stress of animals exposed to pesticides. The significant drop in the rate of oxygen consumption<br>was observed in the present study in lethal and sub-lethal concentrations.</p> Ch.Prasanna1 , Ch.Anithasmruthi2 , V.Venkatarathnamma3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Faradism Under Pressure Versus Complex Decongestive Therapy in Subjects with Peripheral Oedema <p>Background: Oedema is defined as excessive accumulation of free fluid in interstitial tissue spaces and<br>serous cavities. The oedema may be of 2 main types: Localized when a particular organ or limb is involved<br>e.g. lymphatic oedema, inflammatory oedema, allergic oedema and generalized when it is systemic in<br>distribution, particularly seen in the subcutaneous tissues. The gold standard therapy for lymphedema is<br>complex decongestive therapy (CDT). The first stage of CDT includes manual lymphatic drainage (MLD),<br>compression therapy, exercise, and good skin care. The second phase, consisting of self-managing lymphatic<br>massage, daily use of compression garments, and self-directed continuation of the exercises, should be<br>implemented only after the completion of the first phase. Also, Faradism under pressure (FUP) is beneficial<br>in oedematous conditions. In FUP, the pumping action of the alternate muscle contraction and relaxation,<br>brings about increased venous and lymphatic return. The fluid is propelled towards the heart by an inward<br>pressure on the tissue spaces and veins caused by the contraction of the muscle.<br>Objectives: The objectives of the study were as follows: To determine effect of faradism under pressure in<br>peripheral oedema. To determine effect of complex decongestive therapy. To compare the effect of faradism<br>under pressure and complex decongestive therapy in peripheral oedematous conditions.<br>Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethical committee. A total of 20 subjects<br>were assessed and all were included in the study based on inclusion criteria. Oedema was diagnosed using<br>volumetric and girth assessment. Results: Intra-group statistical analysis of intervention group, pre-post<br>volumetric measurement score was 33.6 ±9.192 and was found to be extremely significant and pre-post girth<br>assessment score was 2.540 ± 0.9513 which was extremely significant. Conclusion: We found that both FUP<br>and CDT were significantly effective in reducing peripheral oedema but CDT was more effective compared<br>to FUP. This treatment was effective by reducing the volumetric and girth measurements which improved<br>quality of life of patients.</p> Chelcy S Jaju1 , Mandar Malawade2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effectiveness of Hot Fomentation with Epsom Salt Versus Common Salt on Knee Joint Pain among Elderly in the Selected Old Age Home of Pune City <p>Background &amp; Objective: Aging is a multidimensional process of change in the physical, psychological<br>and social. In India Osteoarthritis 2nd most cause of knee joint pain with the prevalence of 22 to 39%. Our<br>aim was to assess the effectiveness of hot fomentation with Epsom salt versus Common salt on knee joint<br>pain among elderly<br>Methods: A Quasi Experimental, Non- randomized one group pre-test post-test control group design was<br>adopted involving 40 elderly who have knee joint pain. After obtaining informed consent elderly were<br>allocated into two groups of 20 each by using the Non-probability purposive sampling technique. Hot<br>fomentation (100 ml of water at the temperature of 30-40 degree Celsius) with 2gm of Epsom salt for the<br>experimental group and common salt for the attention control group for 5 days once a day. Global pain scale<br>was used to assess the level of pain.<br>Results: The significant change was observed in Pain level as evident that the t-value is 26.29, p-value of<br>Epsom is 0.00001 that is less than 0.05 and the t-value is -21.03, p-value of Common salt is 0.0001 that is<br>less than 0.05, both the interventions were effective but Epsom salt is more effective than common salt on<br>knee joint pain. Hence, null hypothesis (H0) was rejected. None of the demographic variables are found to<br>have significant association with the level of knee joint pain.<br>Conclusion: The effectiveness of hot fomentation with Epsom salt is higher than the common salt so null<br>hypothesis is rejected.</p> Derin Okram1 , Dipak Sethi2 , Ranjana Chavan3 , Sharadha Ramesh4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Postural Drainage and Forced Expiratory Technique Along with Segmental Relaxation Technique on Airway Clearance in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients <p>Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is the major leading cause of death. In COPD,<br>mostly death occurred due to inappropriate airway clearance. So if these condition left untreated then this<br>inflammation leads to repeated cycles of injury and repair of the airway wall. Few studies have shown the<br>effect of postural drainage and forced expiratory technique on COPD patients for airway clearance. In<br>this study postural drainage and forced expiratory technique along with segmental relaxation from Laura<br>Mitchell Relaxation Technique use for mucus clearance as soon as possible in COPD patients<br>Aim: To study the effect of segmental relaxation followed by postural drainage and forced expiratory<br>technique on airway clearance in COPD patients.<br>Material and Method: In this pre-post intervention study 28 individuals with COPD were included. They<br>were randomly divided into 2 groups with 14 individuals in each group. Group A were treated with segmental<br>relaxation from Laura Mitchell Relaxation Technique along with postural drainage and forced expiratory<br>technique and Group B were treated with postural drainage and forced expiratory technique. After pre-post<br>assessment, data was analysed with the help of appropriate statistical methods.<br>Conclusion: In that postural drainage and forced expiratory technique has less effect than these techniques<br>that is postural drainage and forced expiratory technique along with segmental relaxation from Laura<br>Mitchell Relaxation Technique in COPD patients.</p> Apurva Girish Mehta1 , Smita Chandrakant Patil2 , Chandrakant Babaso Patil3 , Khushboo Trishant Chotai4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Perturbation Encompassing Dental Amalgam Toxicity: A Review <p>Amalgam in dentistry has been in use for over 150 years and still been widely used because of its low cost,<br>easy application, durability, bacteriostatic effect, and strength. Whenever aesthetics isn’t the prime concern<br>it is possibly used with no age bar, in areas of stress, as a foundation for cast-metals, ceramic restorations,<br>and below-par oral hygiene conditions. Its advantages such as long-lasting and being less technique sensitive<br>among all restorative materials, there has been growing concern about amalgam that it causes mercury<br>toxicity. Mercury (Hg) has been historically popular as one of the extremely toxic nonradioactive materials.<br>Therefore, the present article aims to discuss and assess a brief historical review of literature on its adverse<br>effects, toxicological aspects that have been noted, potential risks relating to the dental personnel’s and its<br>safe and effective way of manipulating and handling concerning the use of mercury in dentistry.</p> Arjun Hegde1 , Ganaraj Shetty2 , Nishi Jayasheelan3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study to Evaluate The Influence of Thread Designs Affecting Stability of Immediately Loaded Implant at Maxillary Posterior Region <p>Purpose: For successful osseointegration of an immediately loaded implant, the fundamental element is<br>primary stability. Establishment of primary stability is influenced by combination of various factors one of<br>them being implant geometry. Evaluation of primary stability and the factors influencing it is essential for<br>successful treatment outcome.<br>Methods: A total of 20 patients were divided into two groups. the implant placed in group I was with square<br>thread designs (Ankylos® implant ,DENTSPLY, Sirona) and group 2 was V shaped thread design MIS seven<br>implant( MIS implant Ltd, Israel) in the pre molar-molar region. The stability was assessed with the aid of<br>resonance frequency analysis (Osstell™, Integration Diagnostics, Sweden) at the time of implant placement,<br>at three months and at six months. A repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni Pairwise comparison was<br>used to compare the ISQ within each group.<br>Results:There was a statistically significant difference in the stability at baseline to six months (p=0.006),<br>from baseline to three months (p=0.006) and from three months to six months (p&lt;0.001) in both the groups.<br>Correlation could be found between implant geometry and stability observing improved stability in group 1<br>compared to group 2.<br>Conclusion: The result from this material showed that the all implants were successfully osseointegrated<br>with a mean ISQ of 80 and 71 at six months in group I and group II respectively. Implants with square threads<br>showed a higher stability at baseline, at three months and at six months in comparison to the v shaped thread.</p> Athma Shetty1 , Manoj Shetty2 , Chethan Hegde3 , Nivya John4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Modes, Manner of deaths and types of injuries in Warangal Municipal Limits <p>Accident is an unexpected, unplanned occurrence which may involve injury or it may be defined as an<br>unpremeditated event resulting in recognizable damage. Railway related injuries are not those uncommon<br>occurrences in forensic practice. Among the varied presentation of injuries, superficial injuries along with<br>fractures were commonly observed. Over the last 15 years many railway accidents have happened in Andhra<br>Pradesh and in India. Following these train accidents, there has been a large amount of public debate about<br>safety management on the Indian railways. These accidents have raised issues regarding the effectiveness of<br>the safety management of the railway system. This paper presents a summary of the results of a preliminary<br>systemic analysis of several rail accidents in and around Warangal City. The present study was conducted<br>in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Warangal Medical College, Warangal from January 2013 to June<br>2014 i.e., 12 months, during which the total postmortem cases were 74 occurred in the jurisdiction of the<br>Govt. Railway Police Station, Warangal. The factors taken to enumerate the study are cause of death, manner<br>of death, relationship between scene of offense and cause of death, relation of intoxication status to the<br>manner of death, age versus manner of death and period of survival.</p> D. Vijaya Raghavendra1, K. Ravimuni2 , K. Usha Rani3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of Suicidal Deaths in the First Month of Lockdown at A Tertiary Care Hospital: a Time Trend Analysis <p>Lockdowns and quarantines were set up in various countries around the world to combat the Corona virus<br>pandemic. The pandemic has its mental health consequences which have been aggravated by the lockdown<br>measures. The resulting psychological distress and depression has ultimately led to suicides. This study<br>explores the trends of suicide in the month of the lockdown and compared it with those to the prior months.<br>The study was conducted between 25th January 2020 to 24th April 2020 and March 25th 2019 to April 24th<br>2019 at Cooch Behar Government Medical College and Hospital, Cooch Behar. 52.1% cases of suicide were<br>recorded in the month of lockdown which increased from 34.1% in February 2020 and 43.1% in March<br>2020. Most cases of suicide in the period of lockdown were in the second and third decade of life with a<br>male predominance. For the period of lockdown, housewives, businessmen and labourers were found out to<br>be the vulnerable population. A social and public health response in addition to a mental health response is<br>crucial to prevent suicidal behaviour in lockdown period</p> Deepmalya Sengupta1 , Saikat Saha2 , Pranabesh Bharatee2 , Rajib Prasad3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Radiological Study of Ossification Centres Around Pelvis to Determine Their Age of Appearance and Fusion among Bengali Population – A Retrospective Study <p>Introduction and background: Radiological data of appearance and fusion of ossification centres are mostly<br>used to determine age of individuals and compare with chronological age for medicolegal purposes. X-Ray<br>of pelvis is very important for elderly adolescent age group. Objectives: This study has been conducted to<br>study the age of appearance and fusion of ossification centres around pelvis for known chronological aged<br>subjects from Bengali population and compare them with known standards. Methods: In this retrospective<br>study x-ray films of 74 females and 220 males of 8 to 21 years age group from the period of 1st January 2017<br>to 31st December 2019 have been observed. Data analyzed in Microsoft office excel 10 and presented in<br>the form of table and diagram. Conclusion: The study reveals age of appearance and fusion of ossification<br>centres around pelvis in Bengali population which corroborate with standard values in some cases and in<br>some do not match. It will help to estimate age of individuals for medicolegal purpose.</p> Deepsekhar Dalal1 , Abhishek Das1 , Sujash Biswas2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Quasi Experimental Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Assertiveness Training Program on Self Esteem and Interpersonal Communication Satisfaction among Nursing Students in Selected Nursing Institutes of Ambala, Haryana <p>Background: Assertiveness is an important behavior for today’s professional nurse. As nurses move away<br>from traditional roles and perceived stereotypes, it is increasingly being recognized that a nurse needs to<br>behave in an Assertive manner. Assertiveness is necessary for effective nurse/patient communication, it is<br>suggested that its development may also aid the confidence and self esteem. So aim of the study to evaluate<br>effectiveness of assertiveness training program on self esteem and interpersonal communication satisfaction<br>among nursing students of selected institutes of Ambala Haryana.<br>Methodology: Quasi-Experimental research design “Non equivalent control group pre test-post test<br>design was used. Data was collected from 60 nursing students (30 in experimental and 30 in comparison)<br>by convenience sampling technique. Standardized Rosenberg self esteem Scale and Interpersonal<br>Communication Satisfaction Inventory were used to collect data.<br>Conclusion: The ‘t’ test analysis showed a significant difference before and after the administration<br>of Assertiveness training program. in terms of self esteem(t=11.78 and p=0.001) and Interpersonal<br>communication satisfaction (t=12.78 and p=0.001) at 0.05 level of significance. Repeated measures ANOVA<br>shows that there is a significant difference within the group in terms of self Esteem (F=4.45, p value=0.002)<br>and Interpersonal Communication Satisfaction (F=56.60, p value=0.001) in experimental group.</p> Diksha Sharma1, Manpreet Sharma2 , Gurvinder Kaur2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of MBBS Students on Effects of Workplace Violence and Conflict Management in Hospital Scenario <p>According to World Health Organisation, healthcare workers are four times more prone to injuries due to<br>workplace violence compared to other professions. An ongoing study by the Indian Medical Association<br>inferred that about 75% of doctors have faced violence at work, where many of the cases were reported from<br>Emergency wards and Intensive Care Units and the patient’s relatives were the prime offenders. Poor doctorpatient communication and weak conflict resolution skills are some of the preventable reasons for violence<br>on doctors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted on MBBS students to assess the effects of violence<br>on doctors and their level of preparedness in dealing with violent situations. Majority of the students were<br>not taught precautionary measures or methods of managing conflicts and thus are not properly equipped in<br>tackling workplace violence. By improving their manner of conduct towards the patients in likely incidents<br>of violence and training them in managing conflicts, such acts shall be curbed effectively</p> Divya Reddy Pannala1 , S.M. Krishna Sagar2 , Hemantha Rao Amara3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effectiveness of Information Education Communication (IEC) on Knowledge and Practices Regarding Patient Safety Measure among Nursing Officers in Selected Hospital of Pune City <p>Background &amp; Objective: Patient safety is very important in the provision of quality care. Our aim was<br>to assess the Information Education Communication (IEC) on knowledge and practices regarding patient<br>safety measure among nursing officers.<br>Methods: A Pre-Experimental one group pre-test post-test design was adopted involving 60 nursing officers.<br>After obtaining informed consent nursing officers were allocated by using the Non-probability Convenience<br>sampling technique. IEC module was given to the nursing officers after the Pre-test was taken. An interval<br>of 7 days was given then post-test was obtained. Tool used in the study are Self-Structured Questionnaire on<br>assessment of knowledge and practice.<br>Results: The average change in the level of knowledge was significantly increase in post-test as compared<br>to pre-test. In pre-test 70% of nursing officers have average knowledge, 28.33% have poor knowledge and<br>1.67% have good knowledge. The mean knowledge of the nursing officers was 6.37 and standard deviations<br>was 0.71. While in the post-test 78.33% of nursing officers have good post-test knowledge, 21.67% have<br>average knowledge and no nursing officers have poor knowledge. The mean knowledge of the nursing<br>officers was 11.7 and standard deviations 1.75.<br>The change in the level of practice was also significantly increase in post-test as compared to pre-test. In<br>pre-test 60% of the nursing officers have average practice score, while 36.67% have poor practice and<br>3.33% have good practice. The mean practice of the nursing officers was 6.35 and standard deviations was<br>2.37 while in the post-test 53.33% of the nursing officers have good practice, 46.67% have average practice<br>and no nursing officers have poor practice. The mean practice of the nursing officers is 13.5 and standard<br>deviations from to 0.71.<br>Conclusion: The findings of the study shows that there is highly significant difference between the score of<br>pre-test and post-test. Therefore, and null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and IEC module is effective.</p> Divyank Kalal1 , Dipak Sethi2 , Ranjana Chavan3 , Sharadha Ramesh4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Profile of Homicidal Deaths in South Chennai- A Retrospective Study <p>Killing of an individual is the highest level of aggression found in all cultures. The overall risk of suffering<br>a violent death as a result of intentional homicide has been declining steadily for a quarter of a century. In<br>2017, there were 6.1 homicide victims per 100,000 population worldwide, compared with a rate of 7.4 in<br>1993. The present study is a retrospective study conducted in Department of Forensic Medicine, Government<br>Kilpauk Medical college in the period Jan 2017 to march 2019. A total of 70 homicidal death cases were<br>analysed retrospectively. In analysing religion 61(87.14%) cases belong to Hindu religion, 33 (47.14%)<br>cases were labourers, 68 (97.14%) belong to nuclear family, Some sort of quarrel or oral arguments was seen<br>in 19 (27.14%) cases, place of death 28 (40%) cases seen in the victim own house. Cause of death is Shock<br>and haemorrhage due to multiple cut injuries was seen in 22 (31.42%) cases. Head is the most common part<br>of the body with injuries seen in 37 (52.85%) cases. Defence wounds seen in 20 (28%) of cases.<br>Strengthening the rule of law is central to reducing homicide levels. Policies aimed at tackling homicide<br>should address drivers of homicide both at the individual level (such as the age and sex of a person) and<br>at the macro level (such as unemployment, inequality, absence of the rule of law, the prevalence of gender<br>stereotypes in society and the presence of organized crime). Targeted and efficient interventions require a<br>comprehensive understanding of the scale of homicide and its various drivers, which is essential for ensuring<br>that Sustainable Development Goal targets related to violence can be met by 2030</p> Selvaraj.K1 , Rajalakshmi. S.2 , Vinoth K.V3 , Sivakumar. S.4 , Sudalaimuthu. R5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 YouTube TM Videos as a Source of Information on Clear Retainers <p>Background: Internet is one of the most important information sources in dental field to obtain information<br>regarding treatment procedures. The content and quality of information about clear retainers available on<br>YouTube is not known. The aim of the study was to analyze the source and quality of information about clear<br>retainers on YouTube.<br>Methods: The search keywords were “clear retainers”. The first 100 results were arranged in decreasing order<br>of “relevance” using default YouTube algorithm. Two orthodontists independently viewed and analyzed the<br>videos for video content using customized 10-point Likert scale and video information and quality index<br>(VIQI) to determine the quality of the videos.<br>Results: Out of 100 videos screened, 48 videos met the inclusion criteria. The inter investigator results were<br>similar in evaluating video content and the findings was not significant except for comparison by investigator<br>II (p=0.006). For VIQI, internal consistency showed good reliability of Cronbach’s Alpha .855. Most of<br>the videos were uploaded by layperson (64.6%) rather than dental professionals (29.2%). Instructions on<br>retainer hygiene was the most commonly covered topic (64.6%), followed by handling the retainer (60.4%).<br>The least mentioned content was the procedure of making the clear retainer (19.8%).<br>Conclusion: The results of the study sheds light on the inadequacies in the content of the YouTube videos<br>on clear retainers and also points out the underrepresentation of videos uploaded by dental professionals and<br>orthodontists. The study suggests that YouTube is currently not an appropriate source of information on clear<br>retainers. Dental professionals and academic institutions hold a responsibility for improving the content of<br>YouTube about clear retainers and directing the patients to professional online sites for reliable information.</p> Ramya Vijeta Jathanna1 , Krishnaraj K.K2 , P.N. Roopalekha Jathanna3 , Vinod Rakesh Jathanna4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Various Mesh Designs on Shear Bond Strength of New and Recycled Brackets –A Comparative, Invitro Study <p>Introduction: Various chemical and mechanical methods are used to enhance the retention of adhesive to<br>the metal bases of the brackets.Inspite of several efforts,bracket failure is one of the commonest problems<br>faced during treatment.Debonded brackets are generally recycled and reused.This study was designed to<br>compare the shear bond strength(SBS)of five commonly available mesh designs and to determine which<br>mesh design offers least reduction of SBS following recycling.<br>Method: Sample consisted of 5 types of brackets with different mesh designs, bonded to 70 extracted human<br>premolars.The SBS was checked using Instron universal testing machine.The brackets were recycled using<br>sandblasting procedure and were rebonded on the sample teeth.Bond strength testing was again carried out<br>using the same procedure.<br>Results: Mean SBS of Discovery smart bracket with laser structured base was highest followed by 3M<br>Unitek brackets.The brackets by American Orthodontics had lowest bond strength.After recycling with<br>sandblasting procedure,an insignificant reduction in SBS was noticed in all five groups.<br>Conclusion: Laser structured base design was superior to other bracket base designs.All five bracket types<br>had optimal bond strength required for successful bonding both before and after recycling (&gt;7.8 MPa).</p> Kopal Agarwal1 , Siddarth Shetty2 , Asavari Desai3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Medicolegal Aspects of COVID-19: Microbial Terrorism <p>The entire World is going through hard times because of the emergence of new pandemic named Coronavirus<br>or COVID-19. The virus originated from Wuhan and is spreading Worldwide. There are many questions<br>arising regarding the origin of this fatal virus; whether it is natural or man-made. In the past years, many<br>microorganisms were used as a bio-warfare agents for causing destruction. In 2001, anthrax attack took<br>place in US by the use of bacteria, Bacillus anthracis which acted as a bioweapon and lead to number of<br>deaths in Texas, US. This review summarises the origin, epidemiology, medico-legal aspectsand the recent<br>researches of the virus indicating its nature of being manmade or a natural virus</p> Ekampreet Kaur1 , Jaskaran Singh2 , Neeta Raj Sharma3 , Gitanjali Dass4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Module on Knowledge and Practice Regarding Prevention of Medication Errors among Critical Care Nurses in Selected Hospital <p>Introduction and objective: Medication administration is the major tasks of each nurses in their clinical<br>practice. Medication administration errors are preventable if the nurses have adequate knowledge and<br>practices regarding the medications. Hence the main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness<br>of module on knowledge and practices regarding prevention of medication errors among critical care nurses.<br>Methodology: Pre experimental one group pretest and posttest research method used for the study. 50<br>critical care nurses were selected using convenient sampling method and given questionnaire to assess their<br>knowledge in pretest and posttest done after 1week of intervention. Checklist used to assess their practices<br>in pretest and posttest.<br>Result: The mean score of knowledge in pre-test was 13.2 and in post-test was 21.5 and the t-value was 27.7<br>The p value was less than 0.05. The mean score of practice in pre-test was 35.3 and in post-test was 48.0,<br>and the t value was 55.3 The p value was less than 0.05. This shows that the module is effective. Hence the<br>null hypothesis is rejected.<br>Conclusion: The improvement found in the post test proved that the module is effective in improving the<br>knowledge and practices regarding prevention of medication errors among critical care nurses.</p> Jeba B1 , Jasneet Kaur2 , Deepak Sethi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Non-Compressive Mechanical Injuries to the Neck: An Autopsy based Study <p>Study of non-compressive mechanical injury to neck determines the causes of deaths by these injuries<br>and preventive measures to be taken. The study was conducted in the department of forensic medicine,<br>Government Medical College Srikakulam. Postmortem examination of each case was carried out various<br>types of non-compressive mechanical neck injuries were recorded, and analyzed over a period of 6 months.<br>Total number of 354 postmortems were conducted among these 41cases had non-compressive mechanical<br>injuries to neck. Injuries were most common in male gender (82.92%) and in age group between 20-40<br>years. Improving proper traffic rules may reduce mortality due to these injuries.</p> Jeeveswararao Bagadi1 , Sadu Rammohana Rao2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluate the Effectiveness of Recreational Therapy on Level of Wellbeing and Hope among Psychiatric Inpatients <p>Background: In India at least 13.7 per cent of general population has various mental disorders, 10.6 per cent<br>of them require immediate interventions. While nearly 10 per cent of the population has common mental<br>disorders, 1.9 per cent of the population suffers from severe mental disorders.<br>Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of recreational therapy on level of wellbeing and hope among<br>psychiatric inpatients<br>Method: The present study adopted a Quantitative research approach. The sample comprised of 33 psychiatric<br>in patients with psychotic and neurotic disorder admitted in psychiatry ward of MMIMSR hospital, Haryana<br>on the basis of purposive sampling technique. The data were collected before and after the administration of<br>recreational therapy, and only two components of recreational therapy (Physical exercise and Mandala Art<br>therapy) were administered to the patients for 8 consecutive days with 16 sessions. The level of wellbeing<br>and hope were assess by using Wardwick Edenburg Mental Wellbeing scale and Herth Hope Index.<br>Conclusion: The results of the study show a significant mean difference in the level of hope and level of<br>wellbeing. The value of p=0.00 was also statically significant at 0.05 level of significance. From the study, it<br>can be concluded that recreational therapy was effective in increasing the level of wellbeing and hope among<br>the psychiatric inpatients</p> Luxmipyari Soubam1 , Ms. Parul2 , Manpreet Sharma3, Jyoti Sarin4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Autopsy Findings in Cases of Sudden Cardiac Death at Kakatiya Medical College and Hospital Warangal <p>Background and Objectives: The incidence of sudden cardiac death is increasing in developing countries<br>due to changes in lifestyle and food habits. We in the present study tried to evaluate the autopsy findings of<br>cases of sudden cardiac death reported to Kakatiya Medical College and MGM Hospital Warangal.<br>Methods: The present study was carried in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Kakatiya<br>Medical College and MGM Hospital Warangal from January 2019 to Jan 2020. All the cases including both<br>sexes those who died suddenly and unexpectedly brought to the institute for post-mortem examination were<br>studied.<br>Results: In 10% of cases major blockage was noted in both right and left main coronary arteries. Left main<br>trunk blockage was noted in 31% of cases 5% of cases the blockage was seen in only right coronary arteries.<br>In 32% of cases, the blockage was severe &gt;90%. The highest incidence of major blocks was seen in the age<br>group 60-70 years. The younger age group showed the tendency of blockage of the left coronary arteries.<br>The less commonly affected was the circumflex branch and right coronary arteries. MI was the cause of<br>death in 44% of cases and 5% of cases there was evidence of old and fresh infarcts.<br>Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study it can be concluded that most of the cases of sudden<br>cardiac death in this study were from 51-70 years. The most commonly affected victims were males by a<br>ratio of 17:3. Autopsy plays an important role in the accurate diagnosis of sudden cardiac death. Therefore<br>meticulous postmortem examination and histopathological examination are needed to minimize the risk of<br>negative reporting</p> Mohd Raza Malik Khan1 , B Shekhar Rao2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Radiographic Evaluation of Third Molar Development in Relation to Chronological Age among South Indian Population <p>Background: The aim of the study was to correlate the radiologic development status of third molars with<br>that of chronologic age specifically among individuals belonging to Dakshina Kannada and Udupi district<br>in the age group of 16-22 years.<br>Method: A total of 152 orthopantomograms (OPG) were evaluated to assess the development status and<br>scored using the evaluation method suggested my Gleiser and Hunt. Intra- and Inter-observer reliability<br>was evaluated using the k statistics. Statistical test used were multiple regression analysis and Pearson<br>correlation coefficients.<br>Results and Conclusion: The formula to determine chronological age among females is Age= 13.416 +<br>(-0.873 Upper Right (UR)) + 0.803 Upper left (UL) + 0.536 Lower left ( LL) + 0.362 Lower Right (LR)<br>with standard deviation of 1.61, and for males is Age = 12.766 (-0.187 UR) + 0.748 UL + 0.873 LL + (-0.541<br>LR) with SD of 1.57.</p> Nanditha Sujir,1 Nidhi P Chauhan,2 Keerthilatha M Pai,3 Junaid Ahmed,4 Ceena Denny5 , Nandita Shenoy5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms for Orthognathic Surgery in South Indian Population <p>Background and Aim: Orthodontic treatment is aimed at achieving good facial aesthetic and occlusion.<br>Proportioned soft tissue contours form an integral part of orthodontic treatment. It is important to establish<br>standard cephalometric norms for various population groups. The present study was aimed to establish soft<br>tissue norms (for Orthognathic surgery) for South Indian population and to compare the values with that of<br>Caucasian standards.<br>Materials and methods: 50 South Indian subjects comprising of 25 males and 25 females in the age group<br>of 18-30 years were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria who were subjected to lateral<br>cephalometric radiographic analysis. Soft tissue parameters were analysed in the study group and compared<br>with the Caucasian group based on Burstone and Legan analysis.<br>Results: South Indian population showed increased lower face protrusion, lower lip protrusion, upper lip<br>protrusion and deep mentolabial sulcus in both males and females when compared to Caucasian population.<br>An increased lower face-throat angle was seen in South Indian males. Diverse results were also seen in some<br>other soft tissue parameters.<br>Conclusion and clinical significance: The current study shows that certain soft tissue cephalometric<br>parameters in South Indian population are significantly different from the Caucasian population in both<br>males and females. The differences in both racial groups are clearly evident in the study and can thus be of<br>utmost clinical importance while planning out orthognathic surgery.</p> Murali P S1, K Saidath2 , Sonika Achalli3 , Azhar Mohammed1 , Crystal Runa Soans1 , U S Krishna Nayak4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Extraction Technique Using Physics Forceps and the Conventional Method : A Comparative Study <p>The subsequent bone loss that occurs after extraction is inevitable.The morphologic changes seen following<br>tooth extraction is due to the body deactivating the system caused by disuse atrophy.1Extraction using<br>conventional elevators and forceps involves the separation of the periodontal ligament attachments,<br>expansion of the alveolus and lifting of the tooth out of the socket with the forcep beaks which invites<br>unnecessary trauma including broken roots and bone, inflammation and post operative pain, loss of tissue,<br>and stress for the patient and dental team.2<br>Nevertheless, These can be easily reduced through current site<br>preservation techniques such as using the ‘Physics ForcepsTM’ that can reduce the degree of damage and<br>extent of resorption that physiologically occurs following tooth extraction by utilising just two opposing<br>forces. These two forces eliminates the need for the third force (the clinician’s arm) and thereby the risk of<br>fracturing the dental structures would be dramatically reduced.In addition to this the extraction procedure<br>can be much more comfortable to the patient.3<br>The following study aimed at assessing the amount of extraction defect caused by the conventional extraction<br>technique and the physics forceps design which employs a new extraction technique.In this study ,100<br>patients indicated for extraction were categorised in two equal groups using the two techniques.<br>Both the extraction defects in these groups was assessed with the use of an Atraumatic Safe Extraction<br>Score, Extraction Defect Sounding Classification System, Visual Analog Scale and the Amount Of Strain<br>experienced by the operator.<br>The results showed that there was significant success with tooth extraction using the Physics forceps TM<br>as compared with the conventional technique. Moreover the results indicated that the Physics ForcepsTM<br>causes less bone defect , reduced operator strain and minimal discomfort to the patient than the conventional<br>technique.</p> Prasanna Shetty1 , Sharma2 , Nivya John3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between Gestational Age and Head Circumference in Third Trimester <p>Introduction: In today’s advanced medical world maternal child health care the important part of the health<br>care system and import components is estimation fetal gestational age.<br>Gestational age is age of unborn baby, defined in weeks as beginning from first day of last menstrual<br>period prior to conception. Trimester is period of three calendar months during a pregnancy. Clinically, the<br>gestational period is divided into three trimesters. Estimation of gestational age and thereby forecasting<br>expected date of delivery (EDD) is not only concern of the Individual but it is invaluable in the diagnosis of<br>intrauterine growth retardation of fetus and obstetric planning other fetal parameters are useful Hence; we<br>planned the present study to estimate fetal HC length for measuring the gestational age and compare it with<br>other parameters.<br>Material and methods: The study Correlation between gestational age and head circumference in Third<br>trimester was carried out at Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Nanded, between July 2011 to July 2013<br>period . The study included 132 pregnant women the data so collected was then subjected to statistical<br>analysis by expert statistician with the help of SYSTAT Crainsoft version 12 software. Standard statistical<br>methods, parametric methods were used for the evaluation and significance.<br>Results: As the value of R is 0.8612, the variation in fetal growth on the basis of Head Circumference during<br>third trimester can be explained to the extent of 86.12%. The value of R is highly significant (Student’s‘t’<br>test value = 228.92, p&lt;0.0001, very highly significant) showing that there is statistically highly Positive or<br>strong positive association between gestational age and head Circumference<br>Conclusion: From the present study Head Circumference found to be statistically highly significant. The<br>regression equations derived for growth parameter for estimating gestational age in a normally developing<br>fetus, increase with gestational age, showed good correlation with gestational age. In Present study, Head<br>circumference is the sensitive parameter and a result of present study was comparable with previous studies.</p> Pande Varsha 1 , Patond Swapnil 2, Patil Bharat3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Allied Health Care Professional Students Towards Universal Precaution <p>A universal precaution is an approach to infection control to treat all human blood and certain human body<br>fluids. History and examination cannot reliably identify all patients infected. Universal precautions are<br>framed to prevent health care professionals who are exposed to various infections and by practicing various<br>basic principles of infection control. A cross sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge, attitude<br>amongst allied health care professional about universal precautions and to investigate their practice<br>towards universal precaution. First year Students of School allied health sciences, who were willing to<br>participate included in the study. Study showed overall moderate knowledge among the students. Hence<br>training sessions of universal precaution may need to be conducted regularly for these students. Awareness<br>amongst students can be achieved to maximum level by conducting awareness programs every year by the<br>Infection control committee in the medical college.</p> Patond Swapnil1 Dakhode Sarika2 , Rawekar Alka3 , Pande Varsha4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An analysis of the Inventory Level of Consumables in the Wards of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in South India <p>Material management is important and crucial for all healthcare industries because it not only deals with the<br>financial aspects but also deals with the well-being of the hospital and quality care of the patient. Reducing<br>inventory cost is a critical responsibility of healthcare managers in hospitals. Inventory management should<br>be done with the help of proper value analysis. This study attempts to assess the inventory techniques and<br>monthly maintenance figure which have contributed to efficient inventory management in a tertiary care<br>teaching hospital</p> Bhargav Kumar, Rajesh Kamath2 , Jibu Thomas3 , Karan Giriyan4, Nagraj5 , Abhishek Pallerla6 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 COVID -19 Pandemic: Immediate Psycological Impact During The 3TD Stage of Lockdown among General Population of Selected Areas of Vadodara City <p>The Covid -19 pandemic &amp; lockdown has cause deliberate effect to human’s physical &amp; mental health &amp;<br>trigger many psychological problems like anxiety, loneliness, stress, depression &amp; other panic disorder.<br>The investigators interested to find out the psychological impact of lockdown among general population &amp;<br>correlation with different components of modified psychosocial impact event scale. Researchers have used<br>non – experimental descriptive research deign with Non – randomized convenient sampling &amp; 500sample<br>recruited for the study. Researchers have used standardized modified impact event scale in the form of<br>5 point likert scale, they have identified that 366 sample(73.2%)have moderate stress,110 sample (22%)<br>identified with severe stress &amp; remaining 24 sample (4.8%) have mild stress. Another finding revel that each<br>component having positive correlation with each other. The significant association of psychological impacts<br>&amp; selected demographic variables were found with use of modified impact event scale. Researcher have<br>concluded that this type of event or diseases outbreak affect the mental health of the person , increased stress<br>among individual &amp; also affect the daily life of the person.</p> Ishita Shah1 , Jalpa Prajapati1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Pattern of Fusion of Coronal Suture Using Skull Radiography and its Association with Documented Age in Males <p>Cases of age estimation are seen by Forensic Practitioners. Identification is the establishment of the<br>individuality of a person. A medico-legal dispute can arise at any age. Age estimation is needed to apply<br>for government posts or pension or in cases of amnesia. Legal enforcement agencies often bring cases<br>for estimation of age, a few examples are that for employment, superannuation, pension settlements and<br>benefits. Use of fusion of sutures on the skull with other factors has been found reliable for age estimation.<br>In the present study we studied skull roentgenogram of patients. These patients were advised roentgenogram<br>for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose from other clinical departments. We studied the stage of fusion of<br>coronal sutures in those roentgenograms where age of the patient was documented after verification against<br>a standard identity proof. The suture was divided into upper half and lower half and stage of fusion was<br>documented. We followed the Key stage of fusion of sutures. The earliest age of commencement of suture<br>fusion was at 34 years and 30 years in its upper half and lower half respectively in our study. The earliest age<br>of completion of suture fusion was 56 years in upper half and 50 years at lower half.</p> Ishita Thakur1 , Rashid Nehal Khan2 , Thippesh Kumar3 , Abhijit Rudra3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of Firearm Injuries: A Five Year Retrospective Study at a Tertiary Care Centre in Central India <p>Firearm injuries are reported all over the world. From very basic thermodynamic structures to the most<br>sophisticated semi-automatic and automatic guns of the present times, firearms are one of the common<br>causes of significant mortality. In our country there is rampant use of unlicensed country - made firearms,<br>particularly in rural areas. The present study was conducted at a teaching cum tertiary care hospital in<br>Gwalior region of Central India, a region which is notoriously famous for the use of illicit firearms.<br>The study was retrospectively done analysing the firearm injury cases brought to the mortuary of G.R.<br>Medical College, Gwalior from January 2015 - December 2019 for post-mortem examination. All relevant<br>information regarding autopsy cases were gathered from relatives, police paper; inquest reports, ballistic<br>reports, crime scene findings, autopsy reports. A scientific tabulation of all relevant information was done to<br>arrive at various epidemiological markers relating to firearm injury cases.<br>In the present study it was concluded that young males were more vulnerable for firearm related deaths<br>with 21-30 years age range showing maximal preponderance. While country made weapons and shotguns<br>accounted for greater majority of cases, rifled weapons were involved either. A plethora of underlying social<br>and psychological factors accounted for such death though region specific familial rivalries stood first in<br>order. Maximum observed diurnal frequency of firearm deaths were reported in relatively calm hours of<br>night, though no time segment was spared. While in most cases single shots were reported, few other had<br>multiple inflictions. Head (including face) was the commonest site involved followed by thoraco-abdominal<br>injuries. Homicide was the most common manner of firearm deaths.</p> Juglan Sarthak1 , Mustaria Pankaj Kumar Shushil2 , Singh Sandeep3 , Dhingra Vinod4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Accuracy of Mesiodistal Crown Measurements using CBCT Images: A Comparison with Plaster Models <p>Aim: Comparison of the mesiodistal crown measurements made on plaster models and CBCT-images.<br>Materials &amp; Methods: Thirty pre-existing CBCT records of the maxillary arch and type-III stone<br>orthodontic models, soaped and polished were used in this study. A digital vernier caliper was used to make<br>measurements on each cast. The largest mesiodistal crown dimension of each tooth was measured from<br>central incisor to the second premolar of one quadrant of the maxillary arch. The OnDemand 3D program<br>(Cybermed Co, Seoul, Korea) was used to convert CT DICOM images into 3D reconstructed images. The<br>mesiodistal crown width measured using the OnDemand 3D program.<br>Results: The precision of the measurements on the plaster models and on the CBCT 3D reconstructed<br>images were the same. There was no significant difference between them as evaluated by paired t test.<br>Conclusion: The distance and the precision of the measurements on the plaster models and on the CBCT<br>3D reconstructed images are equivalent. CBCT 3D reconstructed images can replace the process of making<br>plaster models.</p> Kanak Priya1, Poonam Agrawal2 , Dinesh Kumar Bagga3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Personal Identification by Means of Cheiloscopy among People of North India <p>Introduction: Personal identification is becoming increasingly important not only in legal medicine but also<br>in criminal investigation, identification and in Genetic Research. The grooves present on the lips are unique<br>for every person. Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with the identification based<br>on lip traces.The aim of this study was to assess the specific lip print pattern for personal identification, its<br>uniqueness among males and females and the reliability of the technique in suspect identification at the<br>crime site.<br>Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females) aged<br>between 10 and 50 years; dark?colored lipstick was applied uniformly on the lips and clear impressions of<br>the lips were taken on the bond paper. The scanned lip-print image studied using Microsoft office picture<br>manager. Fingerprints were analyzed by following the classification given by Suzuki and Tsuchihashi.<br>Chi?square test and p-value of the samples were calculated.<br>Results: The study revealed that the lip print patterns for each individual were unique and there was no<br>peculiar pattern distribution among male and female subjects.<br>Conclusion: Cheiloscopy is analogous to fingerprint analysis and can be used as a tool for individual<br>identification along with dermatoglyphics. It can also be used as an aid in forensic sex determination.</p> Mukul Chopra Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Autopsy Study of Medicolegal Aspects of Burn Death among Married Females <p>Background - Burn injuries are very common cause of morbidity and mortality among Indian populations<br>specially the bride burning cases which are related to dowry deaths. The study was aimed to analyze the<br>epidemiology, pattern, cause and manner of deaths to formulate burn the possible preventive strategies.<br>Methods - In present study we analyzed the autopsy done in the department of forensic science &amp; toxicology,<br>Institute of Medical Science, BHU, Varanasi, U.P., India from the period of March 2014 to August 2015. We<br>reported total 155 unnatural deaths of women who died within seven years of their marriage and out of them<br>total 96(62%) cases were due to burn.<br>Conclusion- The most of the cases (51%) reported within 2 to 5 years after marriage and majority (70%)<br>of them happened in kitchen where cooking gas was most common (64%) source of burn. Maximum (35%)<br>case were having total body surface area(TBSA) 51-60% and 92% of victim died in hospital and septicemia<br>was major (60%) cause of death. Most of the deaths (56.25%) were suicidal in nature. Such bridal deaths are<br>major concern toward the society, health agencies and law enforcing agencies.</p> Neelesh Kumar Shakya1 , Pratibha Shakya2 , S.K. Panday3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Parental Perception on the Effect of Various Factors in a Dental Clinic Affecting Child’s Behaviour <p>Background: Societal, professional views and parenting styles have evolved tremendously over the years.<br>Thus, it is important to understand the parental perceptions on the various factors influencing child behaviour<br>in the dental clinic.<br>Aim: To record and evaluate the parent’s views regarding the various factors that influence child behaviour<br>in a dental clinic.<br>Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 164 parents who were asked to<br>complete a close-ended questionnaire divided into 4 categories- dentist, dental clinical settings, dental<br>treatments and child related factors. This data was analyzed using descriptive statistics.<br>Results: According to the study results, the parents perceived that the dental treatments and dental settings<br>played a significant role (p&lt; 0.05) that affected the child’s behaviour in a dental clinic. There was no<br>significant differences between the “yes” and “no” responses for the dentist and child related factors.<br>Conclusion: The parental attitudes and styles are constantly changing as the society evolves. Thus it is<br>important to understand and reassess their beliefs and update our way of managing the dental setup and<br>treatments regularly.</p> Neethu Ann Preethy1 , Deepa Gurunathan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 ffect of Music on the Vital Signs and Behaviour of Children During the Recovery Period after General Anaesthesia Procedure - A Randomized Controlled Trial <p>Background: Music has been suggested as a complementary treatment and this study evaluates the effect of<br>music listened to on the vital signs and behaviour of children during the recovery period after day surgery.<br>Study design: This study followed a randomized controlled design which involved a total sample size of 62<br>children randomly assigned into 2 categories- experimental group (31) and control group (31).In both the<br>groups pulse rate , diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and<br>the mean behaviour score before and after music therapy as well as the surgical procedure were evaluated.<br>Frankl’s behaviour rating scale was used to evaluate the behaviour.<br>Results: Children who listened to music during the recovery period demonstrated a more positive behaviour<br>than the group who did not listen to music . The experimental group exhibited a significantly lower value<br>in relation to pulse rate, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure and behaviour rating score and a<br>significantly higher value in relation to oxygen saturation.(p&lt;0.05)<br>Conclusion: Music therapy can be considered as a complementary treatment method in children during<br>the recovery period as it shows a positive effect on behaviour, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, diastolic and<br>systolic blood pressure</p> Neethu Ann Preethy1 , Deepa Gurunathan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Nursing Handoff Education Programme on Competencies of Handing Over among Nursing Students Posted in Selected Hospital of Ambala, Haryana <p>Background: An effective handover supports the transition of critical information and provides continuity of<br>care, whereas poor communication at handover can harm patient safety. Objectives: To assess and compare<br>the competencies of handing over among nursing students before and after administration of Nursing Handoff<br>Education Programme, to determine the association of competencies of handing over among nursing students<br>with selected sample characteristics of nursing students. Design: Quasi-Experimental research design<br>“Non equivalent control group pre test-post test design was used. Participants: Data was collected from<br>60 nursing students (30 in each group) by convenience sampling technique. Setting: Pediatric laboratory<br>setting and Pediatric medical and surgical wards of MMIMS&amp;R Hospital. Structured handing over checklist<br>was used to collect data. Results: the mean post test competency scores of nursing students regarding of<br>case scenario was higher in experimental group (28.3) than in the comparison group (20.93). No significant<br>association was found in case scenario I, II, III regarding handing over among nursing students with their<br>sample characteristics.</p> Nidhi Sahu1 , Jyoti Sarin2 , Parvinder Kaur3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Spectrum of Various Pressure Abrasions Caused by Ligature Material in Violent Asphyxial Deaths <p>From since a long time, in day to day work deaths due to pressure around the neck have been found to<br>be a common cause of death during post mortem examination. Hanging and ligature strangulation are the<br>two forms of violent mechanical asphyxia in which ligature mark is found. The study was conducted in<br>department of forensic medicine and toxicology at J.L.N. Medical College, Ajmer for a period of one year<br>i.e. from June 2019 to June 2020. During this period a total number of 104 cases of violent asphyxia death<br>caused by pressure abrasion due to ligature were observed. In the present studytypes of ligature material used<br>and pressure abrasion produced by them in different situation and their manner of infliction is discussed. In<br>this study chunni (soft material) was the most common ligature material used i.e. in 32.6% cases. Fixed knot<br>pattern was the most common (94 %of total cases). Most of the cases were occurred in closed space (room)</p> Nirjhar Mathur1 , Ravi kantsaini2, R. K. Mathur3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Observational Study of Sociodemographic Profile on Female Autopsy Cases of J.L.N Medical College, Ajmer <p>Introduction:- Unnatural deaths of females in a particular geographic area is the reflection of its law and<br>order situation. Lower incidences indicate presence of peace, harmony and security in the society. Present<br>study is designed to determined unnatural deaths of females in Ajmer city. This study includes the various<br>socio-etiological aspects of un-natural female death. The findings of our study is useful in planning of<br>prevention polices.<br>Aims &amp; objectives:- -To collect the statistical data of Autopsy cases of unnatural female death cases brought<br>to J.L.N. Hospital, Ajmer mortuary<br>Objectives:- To study the various socio demographic data of autopsy cases of un-natural deaths of females.<br>Material and Method:- Population Universe:-<br>All Medico-legal Autopsies conducted in Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology at J.L.N. Medical<br>College and Associated Group of Hospitals, Ajmer. These were total 953 medico-legal autopsies in number<br>Case Study:- As present study comprised 170 autopsy cases of unnatural female deaths<br>Study period:- 1st April 2019 to 31st March 2020<br>Method:- Performa for study was prepared on the basis of information obtained from Autopsy, Panchnama,<br>questionnaire of relatives and all collected data were put into the master-chart, which was prepared and then<br>feed into the computer in Excel worksheet and then analyzed.<br>Observation &amp; Results:- More than half of victims were married (69.41%) Among the married women,<br>maximum cases (61.86%) were of more than 7 years of marriage life. Highest number of cases (40%)<br>was seen in Summer. Literate women comprise of about 66.47% of total cases. Highest number of cases<br>(50.58%) was of accidental in nature. Suicidal deaths constituted more than half of deaths which occurred<br>within in seven year of married life. Burns (30.58%) was most common cause of death. It was also same in<br>road traffic accidental deaths (30.58%). Most common poison which causes 66.66% deaths is OPC while<br>Second most common was ALP (13.88%).<br>Recommendations:-our target group for prevention of unnatural deaths should be married woman of first two<br>year of married life of age segment of middle economic literate Hindu group</p> Nirjhar Mathur1 , Sumer Singh2 , R K Mathur3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Incidence and Pattern of Snake Bite Cases Brought in Tertiary Care Hospital, Rims, Ranchi, Jharkhand <p>The hospital-based cross-sectional was done to check the toxic nature of snake bite. The study was carried<br>in 375 patients, patients were divided in the group of 46 male belong to the age group of 20 - 49 (67.39%),<br>female (48.27%) and farmers (60%), in RIMS Ranchi from 1st Jan to 31st Dec 2019. Among farmers 63.04%<br>was male and 55.17% was females. The most of the females shoed to be housewife among famers. The result<br>showed maximum victims among farmers, and it was shown to be illiterate. The Maximum victims such as<br>81.3% were belongs to lower middle and upper lower class while 93.3% were belongs to rural region. There<br>is a statistically significant data of occurrence in rural and urban area, the statistical analysis was done based<br>on 5 % confidence level (p=0.05) (student t –test analysis). The result showed 60% were bitten in fields<br>followed by 36.1% at home. Among all the groups, 37.3% bite was 12.01 pm to 6PM and 32% during 12.01<br>AM to 6AM. Of the 225 cases who had bites in fields, 125 bitten between 12.01 pm to 6 pm, and the number<br>showed, 135 cases at home, 110 cases bitten during 12.01 am to 6 am. The study showed 60.1% victims had<br>been bitten by snake in the month of June to September (monsoon season). The conclusion showed adult<br>males were more prone to snake bites since they were more commonly involved in agricultural/outdoor<br>activities. The specific reason not known, but it can be concluded based on sociodemographic profile of the<br>literacy population</p> Nityanand Kumar1 , Rohan Kumar2 , Ajit Kumar Chaudhary3, Tulsi Mahto4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Profile of Organophosphorus Poisoning Cases in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India <p>Introduction: Organophosphorus poisoning is an important medical emergency and its pattern and outcome<br>varies from place to place. Given the widespread availability and use of these chemicals, OP poisoning is<br>quite common following either accidental or intentional exposures.<br>Aims and Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the spectrum of acute poisoning in a tertiary<br>care hospital.<br>Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of organophosphorus poisoning cases brought to<br>emergency department/casualty of a tertiary care hospital from Jan 2011 to Dec 2014. Result: Total 805<br>cases of acute poisoning were recorded over aperiod of 4 years. Acute poisoning was common in men, and<br>age group of 20–40 years was the most affected. The most common offending population was poor class (V)<br>and financial burden was the most common reason noted.<br>Conclusion: From these results we found that Organo Phosphorous compounds are commonly ingested with<br>suicidal intent due to its easy availability by young population in rural areas, more commonly males with<br>economical burdens</p> Pande Varsha1 , Patil Bharat2 Patond Swapnil3 , Gore Raju4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Embalming Fluid on the Histological Appearance of Organs - A Cadaveric Study <p>Objective: Histopathological investigations with tissues from embalmed cadavers are generally not<br>considered ideal for determining the cause of death at autopsy in forensic medicine. Instead fresh tissue<br>fixed in 10% formalin is usually preferred. The aim of the present study was to compare the histological<br>appearances of samples processed from routine formalin-embalmed cadaver with samples fixed in 10%<br>formalin from a fresh cadaver.<br>Methods: The study was carried out on cadavers received as donation to the department of Anatomy from<br>body donors. Tissue samples of four organs comprising kidney, lung, liver and spleen were obtained from a<br>fresh cadaver (used as control) as well as from embalmed cadavers. The quality of the slides was graded 1<br>to 3 based on organ microscopic architecture, cell morphology and state of epithelium, as follows: 1 - high<br>degree of cell distortion, 2 -moderately good sections and 3 - near normal.<br>Results: Kidney: Slight architectural distortion, with collapsed convoluted tubules were observed in<br>embalmed tissue sections (grade 2). Lung: The architecture of the embalmed tissue showed alveolar<br>spaces that were cystically dilated, but pneumocytes appeared normal (grade 2). Liver and spleen: The<br>cell morphology and The cell morphology and architecture appeared almost as preserved as in fresh tissue.<br>(grade 3).<br>Conclusion: Of the four organs studied, liver and spleen were well preserved and close to normal, whereas<br>cytoarchitecture of lung and kidney specimens showed slight distortion. However this is a preliminary study<br>and efforts are on to study more number of specimens with varying concentrations of formalin.</p> Swapna R1 , Annie Jojo2 , Tintu TS3 , Asha G4, Pillay VV5 , Minnie Pillay6 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Statistical Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Association With Demography and Biochemical Investigation <p>In this paper we discussed the basic statistical analysis of the biological data and associated with the<br>demographic profile and biochemical profile of the samples of arthritis. Arthritis is a multi-factorial disorder<br>consisting of more than 100 types of arthritis9<br>, it is really difficult to say that a particular disease is causing<br>that disorder. For determination of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) we have used biochemical tests of the 70<br>individual affected with rheumatoid arthritis. The peripheral blood serum and plasma has been collected<br>using vacutainers containing EDTA, the samples have gone through 5 tests for the determining the pattern<br>of arthritis. By using this method pre-diagnostic measure for arthritis, results have shown us that most of the<br>patient have correlative increase and decrease in their serum and plasma level when the patient is affected<br>with RA. Various test such as Hb, Uric acid, serum glucose, serum calcium levels are used to determine the<br>presence of arthritic profile. The results have found completely based on correlation of the demographic data<br>with the arthritic marker, diabetic marker, lipid marker, kidney function marker, liver marker. The results<br>have found that maximum correlation is shown among the liver marker as its maximum correlation with all<br>the arthritic markers and demographic data.</p> G Y Mythili 1 , B. Venkateswarlu2, T. Subramanyam3 , C. Narayana4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Surrogacy in India: Ethical and Legal Aspect <p>India has emerged as a surrogacy capital and destination for couples from different countries, in the past two<br>decades. Fertility clinics operating across India, offering artificial insemination, IVF and surrogacy services<br>to Indian citizens and foreign couples have increased dramatically. With the boom in surrogacy, there are<br>increased instances of complex legal and ethical issues. Incidents of unethical practices such as exploitation<br>of surrogate mothers, selective breeding, abandoning of children have increased. This paper highlights the<br>various case scenarios in India and the timeline of various regulations brought by the government of India to<br>regulate surrogacy services. Various guidelines and regulation bills across the period have been discussed in<br>simple tables with the up to date surrogacy regulation bill of 2019. Issues not addressed in the recent Indian<br>regulation have also been discussed.</p> Gerard Pradeep Devnath1 , Senthil Kumaran2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Literature Review in Forensic Practitioner and COVID-19 <p>In the present scenario where everyday new facts of the SARS-CoV2 virus arises, a glimpse on the existing<br>guidelines and the role of the forensic practitioner in COVID-19 cases has been studied. In our study we found<br>that extensive studies have been done on the droplet mode of transmission and prevention of the disease. A<br>comparative glimpse at the guidelines showed the importance of isolation and prevention practices. Using<br>the National guidelines, International guidelines on the disposal of body and autopsy practises a study was<br>done. It was observed that the basis of all guidelines was infection prevention and isolation techniques. Use<br>of disinfectants after contact has been the basis in guidelines.</p> Ishita Manral1 , Thippesh Kumar2 , KV Radhakrishna3 , Ravi Rautji4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy as a cause of Sudden Cardiac Death—An Autopsy Study <p>Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an unexpected death with underlying cardiac pathology. Hypertrophic<br>cardiomyopathy is one of the causes of SCD. It comes almost second important cause after Ischemic pathology.<br>However, it remains to be explored. It is a 10-year retrospective study done between (2002-2020) including<br>all the postmortem cases of SCD coming to the Department of Pathology for histopathological examination.<br>The present study highlights various histopathological features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy</p> Kanwardeep Kaur Tiwana, Manmeet Kaur2 , Mohanvir Kaur3, Shaffaly Gagneja4 , Haspreet Kaur5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Attitude and Knowledge toward Organ Donation among Arts and Science Students <p>Aim: A cross sectional study was undertaken to study the attitude and knowledge towards organ donation<br>among, higher secondary students, graduate students and post graduate students at different arts and science<br>colleges in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir).<br>Material and Method: 200 students participated in the study between the age group of 17 to 21 years.<br>The students responded to self-administered questionnaires (pre validated) that comprised of seventeen<br>questions.<br>Result: The students responded completely to the self-administered questionnaires that comprised of<br>seventeen questions. Out of 200 students who participated in the study 118 (59%) were male and 82 (41%)<br>were female. Majority of the students 164 (82%) had information about organ donation and were of the<br>opinion that organ donation can save lives 136 (68%). Majority of the participants 111 (55.5%) believed that<br>organs can be donated after death. The main source of information regarding organ donation was found to<br>be newspaper and magazines 87 (43.5%), followed by television/radio 63 (31.5%) and the most common<br>organ that can be donated was considered to be kidney 81 (40.5%) followed by eye 62 (31%). 115 (57.5%)<br>of participants were unwilling to donate organs based on their religious belief. It was found that 64 (32%) of<br>students were willing to receive organ and majority of students 136 (68%) were against charging of money<br>for organs but were in favour of formulation of law regarding organ donation 183 (91.5%).<br>Conclusion: This study suggested that majority of students had information about organ donation and were<br>of the opinion that organ donation can save lives but most of them were unwilling to donate organs based on<br>their religious belief. Further study should be conducted to know the awareness and attitude towards organ<br>donation among general public.</p> Khan F1 , Latif M2 , Bashir S3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Study of Finger print Patterns among Male and Female <p>Dermatoglyphics, the study of epidermal ridges on palm, sole and digits, is considered as most effective<br>and reliable evidence of identification and plays a major role in any crime investigation. The finger prints<br>are unique and distinguishable for every individual. The objective of the present study was to study the<br>finger prints of different Individuals and compare particular pattern in the different gender. This study was<br>conducted on 150(75 males and 75 females in the age group of 18-50 years) persons randomly selected.<br>Finger prints were recorded with the help of Camalin ink on bond paper and were analyzed. The mean age<br>for male was 35.78 years and for female 28.52years. The predominant pattern among both Male and Female<br>was loop, (62.8%) in Male and (58.8%) in Female respectively which was followed by whorl (24.53%)<br>in Male and (32%) in Female respectively. Plain arch pattern in male and female was 10.14% and 7.34%<br>respectively. Ulnar loop was commonly seen in all fingers whereas radial loop was predominantly seen on<br>index fingers in both sexes.</p> Mukul Chopra Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Midazolam as A Sedative Agent in Paediatric Dentistry- A Literature Review <p>Behaviour management forms an integral part of managing children in the day to day paediatric dental<br>practice. Pharmacological behaviour management strategies serve to be an effective alternative when<br>the basic behaviour management technique fails. Pharmacological management strategies involve the<br>administration of general anaesthesia or sedation. Recently, midazolam has gained popularity for use in<br>conscious sedation in paediatric dentistry. Midazolam has a short half-life, which results in rapid onset and<br>recovery in paediatric dental patients, hence encouraging its use in paediatric dentistry</p> Neethu Ann Preethy1 , Sujatha Somasundaram2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on the Appearance and Fusion of Iliac Crust Epiphyseal Center among Natives of Ajmer Region <p>Introduction:- Scientific determination of age of an individual is required for the law enforcement agencies<br>in both civil and criminal matters.<br>Aims and Objects:- Statistical study on the appearance and fusion of ossification centers of iliac crust<br>among natives of Ajmer region and comparative study between both sexes.<br>Material and Method:- This prospective study has been conducted on 102 subject (48 males and 54<br>females) of the Ajmer region in Rajasthan of known age group between 13-21 years in the Department of<br>Forensic Medicine and Toxicology in J.L.N. Medical College and Associated Hospitals, Ajmer between<br>1stApril 2019 to31stMarch 2020.<br>Inclusion Criteria:- Cases whom parents are born at Ajmer region. Case subjects are also residing at Ajmer<br>since birth, consented for study<br>Exclusion Criteria<br>1. They should not be with any physical disability,congenital,nutritional or endocrinal anomaly.<br>2. Person should have accurate record of their birth date.<br>Observation:-<br>In Males appearance of iliac crest in present study was found at the age 15yrs age in all cases. Simultaneously<br>fusion of iliac crest was found at the age of 19.3 yrs in 100% cases.<br>Similarly In female’s appearance of iliac crest in present study was found at the age 14.2yrs age in 100%<br>cases. Similarly fusion of iliac crest was found in majority of cases appeared at the age of 19 yrs in all cases.<br>Conclusion:- iliac crest fusion is found earlier in females of Ajmer region</p> Nirjhar Mathur1 , Vipin Gupta2 , R. K. Mathur3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Google Site as a Tool for Teaching Undergraduate Students in Forensic Medicine <p>Background: Today, students are well versed with use of internet and web based teaching can become<br>important source to supplement traditional teaching. Web based teaching via google site can touch deeper<br>aspect of learning by serving as good tool for revision.<br>Objectives: To develop web based teaching module via google site and evaluate students’ performance<br>before and after exposure to web based teaching module along with perceptions of students and faculties<br>on it.<br>Methods: Web based teaching module in Forensic Medicine on one topic of core competency (Mechanical<br>injury) was developed and validated. Module contained lecture notes, photographs, etc. on google sites.<br>Consent form, feedback form and pre-test and post-test Questionnaire (Total 10 multiple choice questions)<br>were formed and validated. All the medical undergraduate students (5th semester) were subjected to pre-test<br>questionnaire, web based teaching module, post-test questionnaire followed by feedback after obtaining<br>their informed written consent via google site. Feedback of faculties were also obtained and analysed.<br>Results: Out of 138 participants, 84 were male and 54 were female. There was no statistically significant<br>difference between perceptions of male and female participants. Comparison of pre and post test scores of<br>students was done using Wilcoxon’s sign rank test. Students scored significantly more in post-test. Both<br>students and faculties gave positive feedback for web based teaching module.<br>Discussion: Classroom traditional teaching is always limited to time, place, person and mood of students<br>while web based teaching via google site can be accessed by students on their own time, ease and pace<br>without any limitation. Higher domain can be explored and in depth teaching is possible via web based<br>teaching.<br>Conclusion: Web based teaching module via google site was found to be very useful to enhance teaching<br>experience of undergraduate students as good tool of revision.</p> Pragnesh Parmar1 , Swapnil Patond2 , Gunvanti Rathod3 , Sudhir Ninave4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Profile of Snake Bite in Children at a Tertiary Care Center <p>Background: Snake bite is a common neglected emergency in children. The present research was<br>undertaken to study clinical profile of snake bite in children below 12 years of age. Method: This was a<br>4 years retrospective (2011-2014) and 2 years prospective (2015-2016), observational study conducted in<br>43 children with history of snake bite admitted in paediatric Intensive care unit and ward of a tertiary care<br>teaching hospital during a period of 6 years from 2011 to 2016. Results: Majority of cases were in the age<br>groups of 9-12 years (46.5%) with male preponderance (65.1%). 79.10% children had snake bite during<br>outdoor activity at day time (76.74%), lower limbs were the commonest site (65.1%) and 53.4% cases<br>did not receive any appropriate first aid after snake-bite. 69.76% children were vasculotoxic. Common<br>symptom/sign were local pain, swelling (95.3%) and cellulitis (70.02%). 46.51% children had moderate and<br>44.1% had severe grade of envenomation. ASV was administered in 95.3% of cases and most of the cases<br>were treated with 11- 20 vials of ASV. Out of 3 died cases, 2 died due to respiratory failure and 1 died due<br>to DIC with shock with AKI. Conclusion: The most vulnerable to snake bites were boys aged between 9-12<br>years. It must be emphasized that this study probably represent a biased population of sicker children, but we<br>believe it should provide a good overview of children with snakebite present to tertiary hospitals.</p> Rahul Yashavant Surve1 , Anupama V. Mauskar2 , Vishal Sawant3, Rajesh Nare4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Soft Palate Dimensions and Configuration Changes in Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF)- A Radiographic Study <p>Introduction: It is a highly potent and premalignant condition affecting the oral cavity of people consuming<br>arecanut, gutka. The clinical presentation of Oral Submucous Fibrosis depends on the stages of the diseases<br>during detection is characterized by juxta epithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of<br>submucosal tissue that affect most parts of the oral cavity, such as in the soft palate.<br>Aim: To assess the changes in dimensions and configuration of soft palate by using digital lateral cephalometry<br>was considered.<br>Materials and Methods: A total of 10 subjects of both the gender, in the age group 20-60 years, were selected<br>from the Outpatient Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. These 10 Subjects were divided into two<br>group, group I comprised 5 patients which is clinically diagnosed Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) and<br>group II comprised of 5 individuals having habit with no mucosal changes, the dimensions and configuration<br>(shapes, anteroposterior length and supero inferior width of soft palate) was evaluated using digital lateral<br>cephalometry. The data were statistically evaluated by using the SPSS statistical software 21.0 Version, the<br>Chi Square test was used for the comparison of categorical variables. The level of the significance for the<br>present study was fixed at 5%.<br>Results: In the subjects with Oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSMF) the shape commonly observed are Type<br>1-leaf shaped followed by Type 2 Rat shape. The mean AP score in Oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSMF) was<br>26.82±4.77 whereas in the subjects without Oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSMF) the mean AP score was<br>33.62±2.67. The difference between the groups was statistically significant. In the subjects with Oral<br>Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) the mean SI score was 7.80 ±1.77 whereas in the subjects without Oral<br>Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) the mean SI score was 9.34± 1.42. The difference between the groups was<br>statistically non-significant.<br>Conclusion: As stages of Oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSMF) increases the anteroposterior soft palate length<br>get decreased and supero inferior soft palate width get increased.</p> Ravindra. S. V1, Aiman Mahfooz2 , M.K. Sunil3, Anudeep Raina4, Surangama Lehri5, Lucy Pradhan6, Monika Singh7 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Observational Analysis of Suicidal Deaths during COVID 19 Pandemic Lockdown at Lucknow, India <p>COVID 19 Pandemic has affected the global population. . In this paper we have tried to study the possible<br>contributing factors to suicides along with the demographic data of people committing suicides. Aim<br>of the study- to analyse the role and magnitude of severity of these factors contributing to suicides and<br>devising possible strategies to help the vulnerable groups to cope with such situations in future. Material<br>&amp;methods- We had conducted an observational analysis of suicidal deaths which occurred in Lucknow<br>during the Lockdown period in India. Observations- A total 59 suicides were reported in Lucknow during<br>the lockdown period of 69 days. Majority of suicides were done by Hanging (93.2%), Economic factors<br>accounted for 49.2%, domestic conflicts 23.7%, psychological and emotional factors (27.1%). Conclusionwe should try to develop strategies and appropriate and timely interventions to eliminate the contributing<br>predisposing factors to suicide.</p> Richa Choudhury Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Forensic Odontology in India: Present Scenario, Hurdles & The Way Forward <p>The utilization of forensic odontology services in India is not proportional with the volume of research<br>undergoing in this specialty. A lot of scientific knowledge is generated in this field, but recommendations<br>on how to translate this knowledge into real world for the benefit of stake holders are lacking. This article<br>presents some of the key areas where forensic odontology can be of significant help, highlighting the present<br>scenario and hurdles associated with them along with recommendations for better utilization of forensic<br>odontology services. A special act for the regulation of activities of a forensic odontologist would expedite<br>the mainstreaming of forensic odontology. A credentialing body modeled on the functioning of various<br>international organizations needs to be constituted in India.</p> Rohan Ashok Gawali Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Nutrient-Gene-Interaction on Periodontal DiseasesAn Over View <p>The key role to maintain equilibrium between microbial challenge and host response is played by nutrition,<br>which is also important in various chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes &amp; rheumatoid<br>arthritis. An individual’s baseline inflammatory position is influenced by macronutrients &amp; micronutrients<br>which modulate pro inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cascades. The aim of this review is to give an<br>insight on mechanism of action of various macronutrients, micronutrients and some of the trace elements<br>with their positive effects in resolution of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular, cancer<br>and periodontal diseases. Thus dietary changes can be associated with genetic composition, this in turn may<br>be due to changes in individual response. This highlights the significance of unravelling the role of nutrient<br>gene interaction in progression of chronic diseases. Periodontitis is linked to a number of chronic systemic<br>diseases which emphasize the significance of effective periodontal disease management for tooth retention<br>as well as for overall health.</p> Razia Haidrus1 , Sangeeta U Nayak2 , Deepa G Kamath3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Celiac Disease and Healthy Individuals <p>Objectives: To study the effects of celiac disease on bone mineral density.<br>Design: Case-control study.<br>Setting: The study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner,<br>Rajasthan.<br>Participants: A total of 90 patients, 60 control group healthy normal and 30 celiac disease patients case<br>group were incorporated in study with informed consent.<br>Material and Methods: The bone mineral density was measured in case and control group at calcaneum by<br>peripheral dual X-ray absorptiometry along with body mass index and age.<br>Results: The significant difference was found between the bone mineral density of case and control group<br>(0.87±0.49 &amp; 0.61±0.44: p=0.0001) and 43.33% subjects had osteopenia in case group while only 5% subjects<br>had osteopenia in healthy group. The significant difference of bone mineral density in both groups below the<br>age of 15 years was non existing but between the age group of 16-30 years it was significant(-1.17±0.68 &amp;<br>0.68±0.21: p=0.001)<br>Conclusion: Celiac disease patients are at higher risk of osteopenia so it is suggested that they should be<br>investigated in early time of diagnosis mainly in the growing years because it affects most at this time.</p> Roymon Joseph1, Ranjna Janagal2 , Mohan Singh3, Dimple Patel4, Rohit Zariwala5 Garima Khatri6 , Khushboo Joshi7 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Profile of Accused of Sexual Offences in Thoothudi Medical College- A Retrospective Study <p>Sexual violence is a major public health and human rights problem with consequences on women’s physical,<br>mental sexual and reproductive health. Data on sexual violence typically come from police, clinical settings,<br>nongovernmental organisations and survey research. The magnitude of the problem of sexual violence may<br>be viewed as tip of iceberg floating in water. There is limited amount of information on sexually violent<br>men, it appears that sexual violence is found in almost all countries in all socioeconomic classes and in all<br>age groups from childhood onwards. Data on alleged accused also show that most direct their acts at women<br>whom they already know. A total of 70 cases were analysed, 40 (57.14%) cases belong to Hindu religion, 44<br>(62.85%) cases were unmarried, 32 (45.71%) cases were illiterate, 26 (37.14%) cases the offence occurred<br>in open space, 34(48.57%) cases the incident was consensual act. In 35(50%) cases the alleged accused and<br>victim was lovers, the age of the accused in 38(54.28%) cases were between 19-25 years, age of the victims<br>in 55 (78.57 %) cases was in between 13 – 18 years. In examination of alleged accused there were no scars,<br>ulcer, sinus discharge and sexually transmitted disease in any of the case. Sexual violence has generally been<br>a neglected area of research in most parts of the world, yet the evidence suggests that it is a public health<br>problem of substantial proportions. Much more needs to be done both to understand the phenomenon and<br>to prevent it.</p> Seethalakshmi.M1 , Rajalakshmi. S.2 , Rajesh.R.3 , Vinoth K.V.4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Profile of Medicolegal Death in Females in Thoothudi Medical College- A Retrospective Study <p>The cause of unnatural deaths in females differ from that of males. Unnatural death is an intentional<br>(hanging, poison ingestion) or unintentional death (road traffic accidents) as a result of external factors. The<br>socioeconomic differences in lifestyle are associated with differences in attitudes towards life and hence<br>accordingly the incidence of physical violence, suicides are encountered. There is an increasing incidence<br>of traffic accidents among females in recent years, this may be a result of development in education and<br>ocupational opportunities for female sex. A total of 70 cases were analysed, in analysing religion 60 (85.71%)<br>cases belong to Hindu religion. 62 (88.57%) cases were married, 55 (78.57%) cases were house wife, 49<br>(70%) cases were illiterate, 20 (28.57%)cases was seen in 61-70 years of age group, road traffic accidents 16<br>(22.85%) cases were noted. Distribution and causes of unnatural female deaths in present study is not similar<br>to the pattern found in most of the other Indian studies The present study revealed that the unintentional<br>trauma, mainly the road traffic accidents are responsible for unnatural deaths of females i.e pedestrian and<br>pillion riders. This highlights the importance of timely interventions of road safety measures.</p> Selvaraj. K1 , Rajalakshmi. S2 , Vinoth K.V3, Sudalaimuthu. R4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Stature using Ulnar Length in a Population of Chennai <p>Estimation of stature plays a major role in the field of Forensic Medicine and anthropometry especially helps<br>in establishing the identity of an individual from mutilated, decomposed and amputated body parts. In our<br>study, stature was estimated from the percutaneous length of ulna. Study sample consisted of 96 adult males<br>and 66 adult females between the age group of 18 - 22 years, born and brought up in Chennai. The length of<br>the of the right and left ulna was measured with a vernier caliper from the tip of the olecranon to the styloid<br>process and the height of the individual was measured with a calibrated stadiometer. The measurements<br>were noted in the proforma. The data was statistically analyzed and linear regression formulae were derived.</p> S. Siva Kumar1 , P. Vinod Kumar 2 , R. Selva Kumar3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Pattern of Thoracic Injuries in Cases of Railway Traffic Accidents Brought to the Post Mortem Centre <p>Post mortem examination has important value in case of railway accidents when the thoracic injury are<br>incorporated. There were so many statistical data present which had defined the thoracic injury but no<br>statistical data is observed regarding the traumatic lesion of the vital organs in thoracic region in cases of<br>Railway traffic accident deaths. This significant oversight can lead to find out the exact cause of death in<br>cases of railway traffic accidents.1<br>It can help to improve the hospital emergency centre as far as concerned<br>to chest injury victims in case of Railway traffic Accidents. Observations made were compared with the<br>previous studies. The study period extended from the 1st JUNE2012 to 31st OCTOBER 2014. During<br>this two (2) years period, a total number of 867 Autopsies were carried out in the department of Forensic<br>Medicine, out of which, 74 cases of railway accident were selected for evaluation in the present study.<br>Approval of local institutional ethical committee has been taken. It has been observed that chest fatalities<br>are quite common and their correlation done with other authors.</p> Surwade V B1 , Meena S.K2 Tirpude B.H.3 Murkey P N4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness among Medical Students about Forensic Odontology <p>Every tooth possesses a set of unique characteristics and the way the teeth are arranged in different oral cavities<br>are unique in every individual. Therefore, dentition is useful for individual identification and comparison,<br>especially in mass disasters where the bodies of the victims become mutilated beyond recognition. Forensic<br>odontology deals with the science of dentistry to aid in the administration of justice. There is a huge void in<br>the number of forensic odontology experts required to meet the demand and those that are actually getting<br>trained in this concern. In order to ease this, there is a need to incorporate MBBS undergraduate curriculum<br>with the shortlisted particulars of forensic dentistry. The study was conducted to evaluate the awareness and<br>knowledge about forensic dentistry amongst the 2nd Year MBBS under graduates in Mahavir Institute of<br>Medical Sciences. The study showed that the level of awareness on topic was adequate in the participants<br>but they had little knowledge about the practical application of forensic odontology in routine practice.<br>Conducting regular seminars and workshops can be helpful to develop the practical skill required in handling<br>forensic odontology related cases in emergency department.</p> S.M.Krishna Sagar1 , Divya Reddy Pannala2 , Rithya Kuppam3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Google Classroom - An Effective Tool for Online Teaching and Learning in this COVID era <p>Background: Nationwide lockdown due to corona virus pandemic compelled the medical colleges to<br>conduct online classes to compensate for the loss of academic period. Among all the available apps, Google<br>classroom was found to be more user friendly app with many built in features. After using one month of<br>Google classroom app in the department of Forensic medicine, a feedback survey was done to know the<br>effectiveness of online classes and in particular about the advantages and disadvantages of Google classroom<br>as a tool for teaching and learning online.<br>Material and Methods: A Questionnaire which had both objective and open ended questions was<br>administered to 150 phase II MBBS students who underwent online classes conducted by department of<br>Forensic Medicine and 6 instructors who took classes.<br>Results: Students felt that undergoing online classes was the best way of utilizing lockdown time (54%).<br>Both students and teachers found the app very user-friendly and easy to navigate. Students felt that, using<br>anytime anywhere (68%), interaction through private comment section (90%), getting the constructive<br>feedback (86%) and material available for revision all the time (84%) were the advantages of Google<br>classroom. While teachers found, tracking of assignment, grading system and record keeping as advantages.<br>No automated update option, network issues, No search option and No integration were few disadvantages<br>quoted by students and teachers.<br>Conclusion: Online classes are the best way of utilizing the lockdown time to make up the loss of academic<br>period. Google classroom is an effective tool for teaching and learning online classes because of its ease of<br>use and features which are both teacher friendly and student friendly</p> Santosh Sheelavant Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Autopsy Cases - Viscera Sample Reports A Retrospective Study <p>Analysis of viscera. i.e subjecting the internal organs, body fluids and secretions to Forensic Science lab<br>is a part of routine procedure in complete autopsy. The viscera is sent to lab for detected of any poison<br>or substance abuse eg. alcohol, organophosphorus poisoning. This retrospective study was conducted in<br>Government Thoothukudi Medical College, Department of Forensic Medicine, during the period of Jan to<br>March 2018. A total of 100 cases whose viscera samples sent to the forensic science lab were analyzed by<br>perusing inquest reports, history of the case, autopsy findings, histopathology reports, and viscera reports.<br>The data obtained from the study was analysed. 78 (78%) cases were males and 22(22%) cases were females.<br>The maximum number of cases 21(21%) was seen in 31- 40 years. Alleged history of poison ingestion was<br>noted in 21(21%) cases, out of which poison was detected in 10(10%) cases only. The poison was not<br>detected in 11 (11%)cases. with a history of sudden death in 35 cases out of which 9(9%) cases poison was<br>detected. organophosphorus compounds were found in 11(11%) cases and ethyl alcohol was detected in<br>6(6%) cases. Paraphenylene diamine was detected in one case and cyanide was detected in one case(1%).<br>Hence it is recommended to send the viscera samples to the lab in all cases of sudden deaths.</p> Selvaraj. K1 , Vinoth K.V2 , Sudalaimuthu. R3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Digital Visualizer as an Aid-assisted Teaching in Anatomy <p>Background: Innovative medical education technologies are used as alternate mode of teaching-learning of<br>anatomy to undergraduate students. As knowledge of anatomy helps students in their clinical area, effective<br>innovative teaching-learning tools need to be explored to build up their competency in anatomy.<br>Aim: To find the outcome of application of digital visualizer in systematic teaching-learning of anatomy to<br>undergraduate dental students.<br>Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken among first year dental students studying<br>at Penang International Dental College, Salem, India. 50 students were divided in two groups. The groups<br>were subjected to conventional and aid-assisted teaching using digital visualizer in a cross-over design on<br>separate topics with comparable level of difficulty. Both groups were assessed by pre and post-test followed<br>by feedback from them in reference to use of digital visualizer as aid in regular anatomy teaching-learning<br>process.<br>Results: Both the conventional and aid-assisted teaching showed significant changes in students pertaining<br>to gaining of subject knowledge and the mean post-test score was found to be higher with the use of digital<br>visualizer. The post-test scoring using digital visualize in both groups was higher in osteology teaching<br>(10.21±0.76 &amp; 10.39±0.83) and cadaver specimen demonstration (8.76±0.44 &amp; 8.80±0.41). In the feedback<br>analysis, majority of the students considered digital visualizer as an innovative aid for teaching-learning in<br>anatomy.<br>Conclusion: The use of medical educational technologies can assist as a comprehensive tool in regular<br>teaching learning sessions. The study will be further continued for first year medical students of our<br>institution.</p> Senthil kumar.B1, Deepti Shastri2 , Samraj. T3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Assertiveness and Self Esteem among Nursing Students in Selected Nursing Colleges: A Systematic Review <p>Background: Assertive behaviour promotes a feeling of personal power and self-confidence. These two<br>components are commonly lacking in individual/students. Becoming more assertive empowers individuals<br>by empowering self-esteem, without diminishing the esteem of others. Purpose: To systematically review<br>the articles to assess assertiveness among nursing students in selected Nursing colleges. Method: The search<br>of significant articles including assertiveness and its correlates among nursing students was carried out in<br>PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar and other databases. It includes both Qualitative and Quantitative studies<br>were evaluated according to predefined quality criteria. Medline and PubMed were searched to identify<br>peer-reviewed English-language studies published between 1985 and March 2018 reporting Assertiveness<br>among nursing students. Total 250 studies were selected for review, out of which only 30 Studies were found<br>appropriate to be included in the study. Results: Analysis was done 90 papers were retrieved by the search.<br>Among them, 30 were evaluated to be of higher quality. These Studies included sample of nursing students<br>and excluded Non Nursing Students. Conclusion: Based on the review it was concluded that the level of<br>assertiveness among nursing students studying in advanced Semesters was increased slightly as compared to<br>those displayed by first-semester. It was also concluded that concluded that there was significant correlation<br>found between the assertiveness and academic achievement and with self- esteem.</p> Shilpa1 , Shalini2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cryotherapy as an Adjunct to Cleaning and Shaping in Endodontics: A Review <p>Cryotherapy refers to treatments that are done at reduced temperatures. In the recent times, Cryotherapy has<br>found use in the field of endodontics during root canal irrigation, primarily to reduce post-operative pain<br>after non-surgical endodontic therapy. In this review, we are throwing some light over use of Cryotherapy in<br>root canal irrigation, its clinical implications along with positive and negative side effects based on currently<br>available literature. Vital pulp cryotherapy is a process in which sterile water ice shavings are applied on<br>exposed pulp tissue. Cryogenic fluid, when used as an irrigant has shown efficacy in antibacterial action<br>as it can reach the desired depth and bring about immediate freezing of bacterial cells along with their<br>subsequent Cryodestruction. Use of cold saline solution (2.5 0 C) as the final irrigant brings about reduction<br>in external root surface temperature by more than 100C for 4 minutes, which might be produce a local antiinflammatory effect in the periradicular tissues. In addition, Various clinical and experimental studies have<br>highlighted the role of Cryoirrigation in controlling post-operative pain after endodontic therapy</p> Shivangi Vats1 , Vinod Jathanna2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Pelvic Girdle Pain in Post Partum Women <p>Background: Pelvic girdle pain is frequently reported musculoskeletal disorder in pregnant women. The<br>condition is complex and underlying mechanism is unclear. Onset of pain is usually at 14-30 weeks of<br>gestation.<br>Pregnancy hormones soften and stretch the ligaments of the body allowing the pelvis to open slightly during<br>labour thus allowing easier passage. This leads to less stable pelvis. Women experiences reduced capacity<br>for activities such as standing, walking and sitting.PGP results in greater disability in pregnant women.<br>Pelvic instability and pain due to increased lumbar, thoracic and pelvic mobility due to secretion of relaxin<br>hormone lead to increased ligament laxity and there is slightly larger range of movement in the pelvic joint.<br>[3]<br>PGP is diagnosed on the basis of site of pain and ability to the pain by using the pain provocation tests. PGP<br>is managed conservatively by a multidirectional team. It include addressing the psychosocial implication for<br>the women and family. Approach should be implemented for activity modification , pelvic support garments,<br>manage acute exacerbations, physiotherapy and exercise program to prevent progression of symptoms.<br>Objective: To find out the prevalence of pelvic girdle pain in post partum women.<br>Method: An observational study was carried out using a cross sectional study design. The study was<br>conducted in the city of Karad, Maharashtra. Study was conducted using a sample size of 64 post partum<br>women for a period of 6 months. The inclusion criteria was 20-40 years of females were included who were<br>had FTND. Exclusion criteria was obese females, pre pregnancy low back pain, women with high risk of<br>pregnancy and any kind of trauma to pelvic during pregnancy.<br>Results: The results showed that 60.93% women have pelvic girdle pain during their post partum period by<br>using FABER, P4 test and pelvic girdle questionnaire (PGQ).<br>Conclusion: On the basis of the result of the study, it was concluded that there is significant pelvic girdle<br>pain in post partum period.</p> Shraddha Dhongade1 , G. Varadharajulu2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Practices of Documentating the Pre-Operative Informed Consent in Obstetrics and Gynaecology in a Tertiary Care Hospital – An Interventional Study <p>An informed consent form plays a major role both in giving the needed information for the patient and<br>as a legal tool for the doctor to carry out various diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. This paper was<br>an interventional study, conducted in Department of Forensic Medicine, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical<br>College and Hospital, Madagadipet, Puducherry to audit and improve the current practices of using informed<br>consent forms by the faculties of Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The practice of documenting<br>the informed consent forms obtained during the major surgeries of the concerned department was analyzed<br>using a validated check-list. Deficiencies were identified in the documentation and an intervention was<br>carried out to stress on the importance of documentation in the consent forms and the post-interventional<br>consent forms were analyzed against the same validated check-list. The results of both the pre- and postintervention data on the documentation of consent form were analyzed and compared, which showed a<br>significant improvement in the documentation of the informed consent forms by the faculties of the Obstetrics<br>and Gynecology Department. This study result will emphasis the role of intervention mode used to enhance<br>the documentation of informed consent forms.</p> Shreen R.1 , Kagne R.N.2 , Ganesh Rajendiran3 , Jayasree M4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Otitis in Aerospace-Aerotitis: A Review <p>Background: Aerotitis media is a painful disorder of ear which is experienced during ascent &amp; descent of<br>the flight, caused by rapid change in external pressure leading to discomfort, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus and<br>vertigo. It can also lead to permanent hearing loss.<br>Objective Methods: Various research articles have been reviewed from different databases such as Google<br>Scholar to study the various preventive strategies which can be taken to avoid this condition during flight.<br>Result: Valsalva maneuver is helpful in decreasing the symptoms of aerotitis media and making passengers<br>comfortable during the air travel.<br>Conclusion: As aerotitis media is prevalent in ascent and descent of flight passengers, Valsalva maneuver and<br>other preventive strategies shows beneficial effects on the symptoms of the condition through incorporating<br>its principles</p> Shweta Sharma1 , Heeral Joshi1 , Pooja Anand2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Morphometric Study to Find Correlations among Various Dimensions of Proximal End of Humerus of Telugu Population <p>Background: Long bones from skeletal remains are useful for identification of the deceased, estimation of<br>stature, determination of sex etc. in case of fracture of proximal humerus, the contra lateral head dimensions<br>are used as a template for making prosthesis in replacement surgery.<br>Aims and Objectives: To study and compare the morphometric data of proximal end of humerus of Telugu<br>population with similar studies of other ethnic populations, and generate regression equations using the<br>measured parameters.<br>Material and Methods: Study was conducted on 159 unpaired dry humeri (72 right and 87 left) from<br>the collection of Department of Anatomy, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Using slide calliper and<br>Osteometric board.<br>Results: The mean of maximum length of humeri of right/ left side were 309.88 ± 20.07/ 303.97 ± 22.07,<br>the mean of transverse diameter of humeri of head of right/ left were 38.95 ± 3.38/38.21 ± 3.68, the mean<br>of vertical diameter of humeri of right/ left were 42.77 ± 3.86/41.28 ± 3.84,the mean of circumference of<br>surgical neck of right/left were 81.18 ± 8.47/79.58 ± 7.30. Circumference of surgical neck had a strong<br>positive correlation with transverse diameter &amp; vertical diameter of head which was statistically significant<br>( p &lt; 0.001).<br>Conclusion: The morphometric parameters of proximal end of right humeri were found to greater than<br>that of the left humeri. The mean humeral length was similar to that found in studies of various Indian<br>populations.</p> Sinchal Datta Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study of Facial Indices of Maharashtrian Adults with Other Ethnic Group and Test For Reliability of Sexual Dimorphism <p>Background: Variations in different craniofacial features is studied and documented using various<br>anthropometric techniques. The same depends on gender, race, ethnicity, nutritional and socioeconomic<br>status of a person. So the human face and its variations has always been an object of interest for anatomists,<br>forensic experts, anthropologists, plastic surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons, security experts and artists. The<br>aim of the present study was to identify the facial phenotypes of the Maharashtrian Males and Females.<br>Availability of the Facial indices will augment the already available data of other studies.<br>Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 505 (243 males, 262 females) pure bred<br>Maharashtrian adults (3 generations on the maternal and paternal side of Maharashtrian origin)of the age<br>group 18-60 years. The data was analyzed using MS excel Data Analysis Pak and Two-Sample t-test for<br>Unequal Variances was done for facial indices of male and females to check for sexual dimorphism.<br>Conclusion: The predominant facial type in Maharashtrian male is Mesoprosopic (37.86%) followed<br>by Euryprosopic (29.22%) and that of female is Mesoprosopic (33.21%) and Euryprosopic (32.06%).<br>This is similar to the results of studies on Indian males and females except Gujarati males who have<br>Hypereuryprosopic face and Rajput males havingHyperleptoprosopic (long )face.A statistically significant<br>difference (p&lt; 0.05). was obtained between facial indices of Maharashtrian males and females, which is a<br>key to sexual dimorphism</p> Sinchal Datta1 , Sawant V.G2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of Forensic Dentistry among Dental Practitioners <p>Background- Dental identification has proved its importance in identifying deceased individuals, and<br>recently it has evolved as a new ray of hope in assisting forensic medicine, but its importance and role in<br>forensic medicine is still in a state of infancy in India. Very less institutions offers formal training in forensic<br>odontology, with the lack of job opportunities for qualified forensic odontologists who have obtained degrees<br>abroad.<br>Materials and Methods-A cross?sectional study was conducted among 70 dental practitioners of Jaipur,<br>Rajasthan. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire (Based on Attitude, Knowledge and Practice<br>criteria.) Questionnaire used in study. Informed consents were obtained.<br>Results-A total 70 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire out of these 20% not maintain dental<br>records in their clinic, 77% maintained dental records, 3% participants did not answer the question.<br>Conclusion- For an efficient forensic investigation, we need a dental team, comprising personnel from all<br>branches of dentistry, working in close association with experts from other branches of forensic science. The<br>government has a social obligation to recover, identify and hand over the remains of a deceased person to the<br>relatives and every effort must be made to achieve this.</p> Smita Dutta Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Ergonomic Training Program on Knowledge, Self-efficacy and Practice on Prevention of Work Related low Back Pain among Staff Nurses <p>Background: Low back pain is a major occupational problem among health care workers. Body mechanics<br>and Ergonomic programs can prevent low back pain amongs them. The aim of the study was to assess and<br>compare knowledge, self-efficacy and practice on prevention of work related low back pain among staff<br>nurses before and after administration of Ergonomic Training Program in experimental and comparison<br>group.<br>Methods: A Quasi Experimental Non Equivalent Control Group Pre-test and Post-test Design was used.<br>Eighty staff nurses from MMIMS&amp;R Hospital, Mullana were selected by convenience sampling technique.<br>Ergonomic Training Program was administered in experimental group for two days. Standardised Nordic<br>questionnaire for low back pain, Pain assessment scale, structured knowledge questionnaire, structured selfefficacy scale and structured observational checklist were used to collect data.<br>Results: The study showed that there was a significant difference in the mean post-test knowledge (p=0.001)<br>and practice (p=0.001) scores of staff nurses in experimental and comparison group. There was a significant<br>difference between the mean pre-test and post-test knowledge (p=0.001), self-efficacy (p=0.047) and practice<br>scores (p=0.0001) in experimental group.<br>Conclusion: Ergonomic Training Program was effective in improving the knowledge, self-efficacy and<br>practice on prevention of work related low back pain among staff nurses.</p> Sosunika Hijam1 , Uma Deaver2 , Kanika3 , Jyoti Sarin4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Adolescent Behavior: Understanding in Relation to Mental Health Issues with Implication in Nursing- Review Article <p>The aim of this review article was to explore the issues and concerns of adolescents with regard to their<br>mental health and this need for implication in nursing practice. The study materials were collected from<br>various sources like books, journals, online data base and news paper cuttings of last ten years 2008-2018.<br>Online search engines were such as PubMed/ Medline, SCOPUS, CINAHL, PsychoINFO, and Google<br>Scholar by search of significant articles with the following key words: “Adolescence”, “Adolescent<br>behavior”, “Adolescent AND mental health”. “Aggression AND Adolescence”. Further article revealed<br>about the need of understanding adolescent behavior and its correlates, existing practices, problems and<br>shortcomings in terms of adolescent behavioral issues, strategies to improve the situation and solve issues,<br>nursing implication with available resources to handle the situation at current scenario and to overcome the<br>associated mental health issues among the adolescence. Study concluded that there are various reasons due<br>to which adolescent behavior is affected and it requires a group of strategies to handle and overcome all<br>associated issues.</p> Srinivasan.P1 , R. Sreevani2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Limb Injuries in Road Traffic Accident Cases-An Analytical Study in IMS And SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha <p>Aim and Objectives: To know: i) The age and sex wise distribution of road traffic accidents (RTA) cases.<br>ii) Pattern of limb injuries sustained. iii) Type of vehicle involved and speed of vehicle. Materials and<br>Methods: The study was carried out in the department of F.M.T in association with the Department of<br>Accident &amp; Emergency, Department of Orthopaedics, and Department of Surgery of IMS and SUM Hospital,<br>Bhubaneswar. Duration of study June 2015- July 2017. Study type- cross sectional study. The number of<br>cases were 200. Results: Of the 200 patients in the present study 90.5%( 181) were males and only 9.5%(19)<br>were females. Two wheelers were the most unsafe in the vehicles category involved in road traffic accidents<br>(79.5%). Vehicle travelling between 60-80 km/hr are more susceptible (58%) to injury/accident. The most<br>common injuries were laceration &amp; fracture (30%) . Right lower limb(38%) was mostly involved.</p> Srimannarayan Mishra1 , Tapaswini Mishra2 , Pusparaj Samantsinghar3 , Nirupama Samantaray4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Reconstruction of Length of Femur from Its Fragments- A Preliminary Study in Eastern Indian Population <p>Stature being a very important data for creating the identification profile of any individual, has immense<br>anthropological and forensic importance. Often the unavailability of intact long bones poses for difficulty to<br>estimate the stature. So reconstruction of the total femoral length from its different fragments by applying<br>desired statistical methods can be used as a very important tool for it. The present cross-sectional study was<br>designed aiming for a specific formula-based model in Eastern Indian population. Fully ossified, intact, dried<br>60 femora of Department of F.S.M., Burdwan Medical College were measured using Hepburn’s Osteometric<br>Board and sliding digital. All the measurements were performed by multiple examiners to exclude observer<br>biasness and the mean value was recorded. Linear regression analysis was performed using maximum Femur<br>length as the dependent variable and the different fragments as predictors to form a linear relationship with<br>help of SPSS Statistical software. P value of &lt;0.05 was considered significant. Among all the measured data,<br>the Epicondylar Breadth, Midshaft antero-posterior Diameter and Transverse Head Diameter were found<br>as statistically reliable predictors for determination of the maximum Femoral length. This finding is thus<br>helpful in practical scenario when either the upper end or lower end of the femur is destroyed.</p> Srimoyee Mukherjee1 , Aniruddha Das2 , Debasis Sarkar3 , Arani Majumder3 , Partha Pratim Mukhopadhyay4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Epidemiological Study of Drowning Deaths in Madurai Region <p>Background: World Health Organization described drowning as serious and neglected public health<br>problem. Nearly about 42 people every hour and 3.7 lakh people every year die due to drowning in the world.<br>Method:The present study was undertaken at Government Medical College and Hospital located in Madurai<br>on dead bodies brought for postmortem. The study was carried out during the period of January 2017 to<br>December 2018 on 80 cases to study the various epidemiological parameters of drowning.<br>Results and Conclusions: We have concluded that 75% victims were males and 25% were females. Drowning<br>deaths were commonly seen in age groups of 11 to 20 years (25%). Maximum no of drowning deaths had<br>occurred in urban region constituting 52% followed by rural region of 48%. Study also revealed majority of<br>the victims were students constituting males 67% and females 33%. Number of victims of drowning deaths<br>has familial and financial problems in males 78% and females 22%, depression seen in males 71% and<br>females 29%. Number of drowning deaths occurred in September 16.5%. Most of the drowned victims were<br>retrieved from river 59%, Wells 25%, Pond 29%.</p> T.Selvaraj1 , .V.Rama2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Sex and Estimation of Age by Mandibular Basal Bone Height <p>Aims and Objectives: To assess the age and sex determination through mandibular basal bone height<br>Materials and Methods: The study consists of 120 OPG samples, (60 males and 60 females) in the age<br>group of 30 to 70 years, hereby the mandibular basal bone height measured as D1 and D2 on OPG’s using<br>planmeca romexis software. The distance measured between the lower border of mental foramen to the<br>lower border of the mandible termed as D1. The distance between the lowest point of mandibular canal to<br>the lower border of the mandible termed as D2. All these measurements were further subjected to statistical<br>analysis like independent t-test, correlation and regression analysis to estimate age and to compare the<br>differentiation between males and females.<br>Results: Overall the result shows the moderate level of significance, on multiple comparisons between age<br>groups and sex among the population, it was observed that statistically significant in male with relation<br>to D1 among 61yrs to 70yrs though other age groups show significant with less confidence interval.<br>Female observations failed to show similar results neither with D1 nor with D2. Regression formula for age<br>estimation and logistic regression for sex determination have been derived.<br>Conclusions: The present study highlighted that the male gender of the mandible can be determined by<br>using D1 value as it gives significance, thus it can be used as an additional tool to establish the identity of<br>a gender</p> Vidhya Arumugam1 , Nagabhushana Doggalli2, Abirami Arthanari1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study on the Aspiration Procedures in Syringes among Health Care Professionals <p>Aspiration during routine injection is meant to ensure that the injecting needle tip is at the anticipated<br>location during this unsighted procedure. While injecting needle appears to be a simple procedure, it has<br>produced a lot of controversy regarding the apparent benefits and indications. Keeping in view the huge<br>number of injections given worldwide, it is observed that key questions regarding aspiration till now,<br>remain unanswered. Due to very smaller number of studies and data in the literature there is no evidence of<br>particular injecting procedure as truly beneficial or unjustified. The present integrative review was chosen to<br>draw conclusions about the current state of knowledge and practice of aspiration and use of syringes among<br>medical, paramedical and dental practitioners. On analyzing the questionnaire output data’s, it was observed<br>that most sound knowledge practitioners found difficulty in usage of syringes and forget to aspirate due<br>to nervousness during injection resulting in positive aspiration (p&lt;0.05) during the procedure. Henceforth<br>a new invention in the syringe for safer and easier use or a standard injecting technique with aspiration<br>protocol have to be established to avoid complications due to difficulty in usage of syringes during minor or<br>major surgical procedures.</p> Vijay Anand1 , Rathika Rai2 , Nirmal Famila Bettie3 , Shantha Priya4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study to Assess the Opinion of Students about Uses of Digital Education Technology during COVID-19 Lockdown in India <p>During the period of COVID-19 Lock-down the e-learning became very popular by dependency of both<br>teachers as well as the learners to avoid interruptions in their academic progress. In a view to assess the<br>effectiveness and evaluate the adaptation of the students towards e-learning, a survey was conducted among<br>the nursing students in the form of feedback. The feedback was mainly focused on the student’s interest, and<br>the efforts taken by teachers in regard to class time and pace, organization and preparations of class, and fair<br>assessment opportunities provided by teachers etc. The survey results were computed through Microsoft<br>excel analysis based on the central tendencies, reveals that the Most of students “Agree”, maximum have<br>“Strongly Agree” and very few students have “Disagree” to the approaches and efforts of the teachers taken<br>during e-learning. It was concluded from study that majority of the students had strongly agree that faculty<br>organized and prepared well for every class and faculty were encouraged in discussions and responded to<br>questions.</p> Yogesh Kumar1 , Jasoda Sanasam2 , Dhanesh Garg3 , Jyoti Sarin4 , Parvinder Kaur5 , Chetna Kumari6 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Accessible India Campaign “A Silver Lining for the Persons with Disability”- An Analysis <p>As early as 1957, the then UN Rehabilitation Chief, Kurt Janson observed: “About 12 to 13 percent of the<br>population of any given country suffers from a permanent or long term disability”. So there is an urgent<br>need to provide the person with special facilities at different levels so that they can be made to survive easily<br>with all other individuals. There is a lack of approach on the part of the Government as well as the other<br>officials who are liable to create a harmonious environment for the person suffering from a disability. They<br>must make an atmosphere where they don’t feel being suppressed or humiliated. Although Accessible India<br>Campaign has not attained the desired goal it was supposed to attain but yes it has helped in acting as a<br>guide and ray of hope amongst the Person with Disability.The objectives of the present paper are to analyze<br>the motive and objective of the Accessible India Campaign and to critically judge its achievement and<br>shortcomings. The researcher has adopted the Doctrinal Research Methodology for the research undertaken.</p> Yogesh Mishra1 , Nilanjan Chakraborty2 , Debalina Sengupta3 , Ankita Mishra4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Sex from Maxillary Sinus in Western Maharashtra Population <p>Background: As Maxillary Sinus are pneumatic bones delicate in cadavers, Morphological study has<br>anatomical anthropological and medico legal important. Hence Morpho metric parameters of MXS in CT<br>scan of both sexes were studied.<br>Methods: 23 male 23 female adult aged between 20-50 year healthy people were studied with CT images to<br>measure medio-lateral, superoinferior and antero posterior dimensions and volumes of MXS in both sexes<br>and results were analysed statistically.<br>Results: In ML Right mean values Males was 29-30 (SD±3.17), female 27.12 (SD±5.16 t test was 1.72<br>and p&lt;0.001. SIR Right – Mean value of male was 40.02 (SD±3.66), female 35.11 (SD±4.40) t test 4.11<br>and p&lt;0.001. AP (right side) Mean value of male was 44.23 (SD±3.21), female 38.03 (SD±2.30) t test 7.53<br>p&lt;0.00. MLC (left side) mean value of male was 29.04 (SD±2.30), female 25.06 (SD±4.20) t test 3.98<br>p&lt;0.004. SIL left side mean value of male 38.41 (SD±4.12), female 35.07 (SD±3.60) t test 2.92 p&lt;0.005.<br>APL (left side) mean value of male 42.36 (SD±2.60), female 39.05 (SD±2.45) t test value 4.44 p&lt;0.001.<br>The volumes study of MXS had VR – mean value of male 18.25 (SD±2.53), female 13.30 (SD±3.14) t test<br>5.88 p&lt;0.041. In VL study mean value of male was 17.09 (SD±2.75), female was 12.44 (SD±3.42) p&lt;0.001.<br>Conclusion: This pragmatic study of sexual dimorphism will be quite useful to medico-legal expert,<br>anthropologist and anatomist</p> Umang P Patel 1 , Makardar U K2 , Karkhyle Md. Layeeqeu3 , Kailash Balkund4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 COVID-19: Analysing the Legal Nuances of the Lockdown Order <p>COVID-19 has posed a serious challenge to countries all over the world taking lives, destroying livelihood,<br>bringing down the economies to the ground. The question now is not how soon it will pass away but how<br>effective will it be dealt with it. Nearly 3/4th of the countries which are affected do not have sufficient<br>preparedness to deal with it. It may be the lacking of a Mitigation Plan, or maybe the lack of an effective<br>health care system, or maybe the lacking of an efficient R&amp;D, or it may also be the lack of an efficient farsighted Leader. India has been under the shadow of a few of many problems. The government of the country<br>relies on the Laws to bring out a Preventive Mechanism to deal with the outburst of cases and other effects.<br>One of which is the LockDown order which has been held as one of the first, earliest, and strictest in the<br>World. The paper seeks to analyze critically the legal backing of such Lock Down, testing the nuances of it<br>on the Constitutional Touchstone</p> Swati Mohapatra1 , Yogesh Mishra2 , Lipsa Dash3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of Finger Prints in Raichur District Population A Prospective Studiy Conducted at Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences, Raichur <p>The present study was a prospective study conducted in LVD College, Raichur, Karnataka, and study period<br>was December 2013 to November 2014 (One year). During study period, total of 210 subjects (40 male and<br>170 female) of Raichur origin were randomly selected and included in the study. The students were in the<br>age group between 18 to 28 years. The purpose of the study was to find out the pattern of finger print patterns<br>in Raichur district region.</p> Gopinath M1 , Suraj2 , Priyanka A Ghuli3 , Sharanabasavappa Karaddi4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Management of the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Obstacle to Successful Endodontics in C Shaped Canals: A Case Series <p>Comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of the root canal system is of paramount importance in successful<br>endodontic treatment. It has been stated that a single tapering canal with a single apical foramen is an<br>exception rather than a rule. Hence, awareness of unusual morphologies in the canal system is critical<br>for favourable outcome of treatment. Efficacious biomechanical preparation and obturation depends upon<br>the timely identification of the root canal system. An important variation of the root canal system is the<br>C shaped canal configuration. It presents with a fine fragile fins or webs joining the root canals causing<br>inadequate debridement of the root canal system compromising the prognosis of treatment. This case series<br>presents successful diagnosis, accurate radiographic visualisation of microanatomy using contrast media and<br>management of four cases of C?shaped mandibular second molars with different morphological variations.</p> Raksha Bhat1 , Preethesh Shetty1 , Abhishek MA2 , Prajwal Shetty3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Profile of Victims of Rape in the Transkei Sub-Region of South Africa (2006-2014) <p>Background: Rape of a women is a serious public health problem in South Africa. It is a complex issue,<br>but it become more complex when raped either elderly women or a baby. Objective: To study the profile of<br>victimsof rape in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa (2006-2014).<br>Method: This is retrospective descriptive study over a period of 16 years (2006-2014), carried out at Sinawe<br>Thuthuzela Center (STC), Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa.<br>Results: Between 2006 and 2014, 6699 cases of rape were recorded in the register of Sinawe-Thuthuzela<br>Center. Of this, 3208 (47.88%) were children of the age of 16 and below. Majority 3048 (45.5%) of rape were<br>outside of their home. Victim was known in 3418 (51%) of cases. Only 1064 (15.9%) sustained physical<br>injury. Alcohol has contributed in 56.2% cases. Delayed (&gt;72 hrs) reporting to STC were 2052 (30.6%). HIV<br>positive were found 1180 (17.6%) victims at the time of reporting to center.<br>Conclusion:There is a high number of rape in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa. About half of them<br>were children under the age of 16 years. It needs urgent attention.</p> B MEEL Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Child Homicide in the Mthatha region of South Africa of South Africa- Case Reports <p>Background: Children are the most vulnerable members of society and susceptible to being victims of<br>crime, although the problem is hardly recognized in society. The South African Children’s Act of 2005 is a<br>fine piece of law, but its implementation at ground level is a challenge. Long-term poverty in the majority of<br>households and high levels of crime are inherent risks to children’s well-being in this region.<br>Objective: To highlight the problem of child homicide in the Mthatha region of South Africa.<br>Case report: These case reports examine three incidents of children being killed by their caregivers. In the<br>first case the child had multiple injuries to bones, with distorted extremities and fractured ribs. The second<br>was an infant decapitated by her mother and thrown into a nearby river. The third, a five-year-old boy, was<br>killed by a gunshot injury to the head. The histories, postmortem findings, cause of death, medico-legal<br>reports and the Child Protection Act of 2005 are discussed in this manuscript.<br>Conclusion: Crime against children takes place in the Mthatha region of South Africa, despite the existence<br>of the Child Protection Act. This Act needs to be strictly implemented.</p> B Meel Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Poverty and non-natural deaths among former mineworkers and their families in Transkei region of South Africa <p>Background: Thousands of ex-migrant mineworkers across the former Transkei have already passed on<br>from natural causes, are disabled, or have died due to either mining-related diseases or in non-natural ways<br>such as accidents, suicide or homicide. Many ex-mineworkers have died prematurely, placing a strain on<br>families.<br>Case History: Eighty-four family records were analyzed. Of these, 21 (25%) were found to be those of former<br>mineworkers and their immediate family members. There were five mineworkers, and 14 were children of<br>mineworkers. Only one was a spouse of a mineworker who had died unnaturally. Three mineworkers died as<br>a result of firearm injuries, one was assaulted by a knobkerrie, and another one died as a result of alcoholic<br>intoxication. Two of them had heavy drinking habits. Three mineworkers were unemployed. The causes<br>of unnatural death were as follows: five were stabbed, two died from firearm injuries, one was killed in<br>a motor vehicle accident, one was assaulted with a blunt object, and three committed suicide by hanging<br>and poisoning. Most victims consumed alcohol. The history and psychosocial effects are discussed in this<br>presentation.</p> B Meel Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A case report on Shortfall in Pension in a Dual Employment in Health and Rural University, South Africa <p>Background: Chances in dual employment are that an employee will be exploited by an employer not only<br>in terms of salary, but also in terms of pension. The exploited an employee use to do double work, less salary<br>and pension The question is, who will take responsibility if this happens? The primary health employer in<br>dual employment must take responsibility for safeguarding an employee’s pension in this case.<br>Objective: To describe and calculate pension in dual employment from 1996 to 2018.<br>Results: Mr BM was employed by the DOH in the government, where 5% of his salary was deducted from<br>1996 to 1999 to be paid into a public investment fund (GEPF). He was appointed as head of department<br>(HOD) at the rural University in February 1996, but was kept on the payroll of the health, as he was working<br>in the joint establishment. He was shifted from health to university payroll in 2001. This was only a shift<br>of payroll, not the amount of work remained same before and after this. When Mr BM retired in September<br>2018, his pension was calculated from 2001, instead of 1996. His salary was also reduced by half by the<br>second employer (university). This dual employment has complicated Mr BM salary as well pension and<br>has described in this manuscript.<br>Conclusion: This double jeopardy of losses by first and second employer must be calculated so that the<br>pension and salary can be paid appropriately from 1996 to 2018. It is primarily the responsibility of the<br>Department of Health as a first entry point employer.</p> B Meel Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Complexity of Dual Employment in Department of Health and university, South Africa <p>Background: Dual employment was inherited from the Transkei government, which ruled that all doctors<br>who worked in hospitals also had to work in the medical school of the rural University. Policies at this<br>university are inadequate, and where they do exist their implementation is discriminatory in nature.<br>Case history: Mr. BM joined the Department of Health as a medical officer and was subsequently appointed<br>as an acting head of department in the Department. He had to work in the health care system as well as at<br>the university full-time (Joint establishment); he was working on his own in his department. He was paid as<br>a medical officer by the health but received no remuneration from university. This was contrary to labor law<br>and University policy and once the council realized this, a resolution was taken granting him back payment.<br>Unfortunately, it was not implemented.<br>Mr. BM was working against the post of professor and acting head and carried out all the responsibilities<br>of that post without being remunerated. Although he was paid at the occupational-specific dispensation<br>(OSD) scale in 2009, it was not adjusted till his retirement in 2018; therefore it affected his pension as well.<br>The case history, short payment in salary, and unfair labor practice in respect of his dual employment are<br>discussed in this manuscript.<br>Conclusion: The DOH must take responsibility in his dual employment for this shortfall in salary, as it is<br>the source of major funding.</p> B Meel Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biometric Cardiac Profile as a Possible Identifier for sex among Sample of Egyptian Population <p>Biometric cardiac profile measured by Echocardiography is satisfying the properties of being a successful<br>biometric technique which are universality, distinctiveness, collectability, performance, acceptability and<br>circumvention.<br>Objectives: The aim of the current study is to establish biometric cardiac profile as a possible identifier for<br>sex among Egyptian candidates.<br>Subjects &amp; Methods: a prospective study involving 250 adult healthy volunteers provided equal sex<br>distribution and age range between 18 &amp; 70 years. The sample was divided into 5 equal groups according<br>to age. Demographic data were collected. Cardiac parameters were measured by echocardiography. Body<br>measurements (weight, height, body mass index ‘BMI’ and body surface area ‘BSA’) were taken from each<br>subject to be studied with respect to the corresponding age, sex &amp; cardiac parameters.<br>Results: Discriminant scoring was calculated to identify sex using echocardiography with accuracy (65.6%).<br>Conclusion and Recommendations: Presumptive categorization of persons according to sex can be<br>achieved through cardiac profile measured by Echocardiography</p> Walaa Abd el Hady Abd el Halim Abo-Zeid1 , Abeer Ahmed Ahmed Zayed2 , Heba Gamal Kotb2 , Reham Nafad Elbendary3 , Emmanuel Fares Aziz4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Expression of MRHR-CRHR1 (Type I CRH Receptor) and the Effects of Prenatal Yoga on Mother Primagravida Trimester III <p>Background: CRHR1 receptors are very important for determining the initial HPA axis response to stressful<br>events. Changes in the CRH system and chronically elevated CRH levels are involved in stress-related<br>affective disorders.<br>Methods: The design of this study is a quasi-experimental approach / quasi experimental and one group<br>design pre and post test design with group control. The population in this study were all trimester III<br>primigravida mothers who examined their pregnancy in PPK I ranks of the XIV / Hasanuddin Kesdam and<br>several health centers in Makassar in 2019. The sample in this study amounted to 24 respondents<br>Results: the mean CRHR1 gene expression value after was greater than the mean CRHR1 gene expression<br>before. So this means that in the control group CRHR1 gene expression in third trimester pregnant women<br>there will be a significant increase.<br>Conclusion: an increase in CRHR1 gene expression means that it can be concluded that prenatal yoga<br>decreases CRHR1 gene expression before and after treatment.</p> Ruqaiyah1,2, Nusratuddin Abdullah3 , Mochammad Hatta4 , Nasrudin A Mappeware5 , Ayatullah Harun 2 , Fatmawati Amir2 , Alfina Baharuddin6 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Measurement of Cortisol Levels in the Blood Pregnant Trimester III with ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay ) Method <p>Background: During pregnancy, maternal cortisol increases 2-4 times. Every type of body response in the<br>form of stress, both physical and psychological stress can increase ACTH secretion, which in turn can<br>increase cortisol levels.<br>Methods: This study uses quasi experimental / quasi experimental one group design pre and post test design<br>with group control. The sample in this study was 24 respondents. . Cortisol level examination tool uses a<br>microplate reader with the ELISA examination method.<br>Results: There was a significant difference (p = 0.000 &lt;?) of the average cortisol level in the control group<br>before observation (54.43 ± 25.86) and after observation (459.15 ± 28.08Whereas in the treatment group<br>showed a significant difference (p = 0.004 &lt;?) the average cortisol level before being treated (65.26 ± 28.74)<br>and after being treated (53.65 ± 23.68) Yoga exercises.<br>Conclusion: There was a significant difference (p = 0,000 &lt;?), mean cortisol levels in the control group<br>before observation (54.43 ± 25.86) and observations after (459.15 ± 28.08), whereas in the treatment group<br>there were significant differences (p = 0.004 &lt;? ) it can be concluded that prenatal yoga reduces cortisol<br>levels before and after treatment.</p> Ruqaiyah1,2, Nusratuddin Abdullah3 , Mochammad Hatta4 , Nasrudin A Mappeware5 , Ayatullah Harun 2 , Fatmawati Amir2 , Alfina Baharuddin6 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Contamination of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons- (PNAH) in Sediments: Identification and Distribution in the River of Shatt Al-Arab-(ROSA) <p>The sediments were analyzed for total organic carbon content-(TOCC), grain size-(GS), and PNAH levels<br>and origins. The sediments were taken from 9 stations-(ST) on ROSA. Gas chromatography-(GC) analysis<br>showed that the PNAH level in ROSA sediments was comparatively low to medium compared to other<br>world locations. The PNAH total levels varied from 31.86 ng/g dry weight-(DW)-(ST 9) to 88.99 ng/g DW-<br>(ST 6). The highest PNAH levels were close to oil pollution sources at ST 2, 4, 6, and 8. The TOCC ranged<br>from 0.32 % to 1.64 %. The data suggested that the PNAH levels in the ROSA were linked to TOCC and GS.<br>The PNAH compounds and ratios and analysis of principal components-(AOPC) indicated that the PNAH<br>sources in the river were biogenic-(organisms), pyrogenic-(combustion), and petrogenic-(petroleum).<br>Ecological risk evaluation showed that PNAH did not cause any deleterious impacts on the ROSA.</p> Wisam Abdul-Ameer Farid1 , Wasen Abdul-Ameer Ali1 , Aseel Nadum Al-Salman2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Serum Androgens in Men with Rheumatoid Arthritis <p>Background: It has been hypothesised, that low serum concentrations of<br>androgen-anabolic hormones would play part in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed<br>to determine the role of low serum testosterone and DHEAs in men with rheumatoid arthritis.<br>Methods: a case control study was conducted on 73 male patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 73 healthy<br>male age matched control at the Department of Rheumatology and medical rehabilitation, Rheumtologic<br>outpatient, and the biologic centre, Basra teaching hospital, Basra Provence at the south of Iraq from February<br>2019 till March 2020.Full investigations including total serum testosterone(TST) and dehydroepiandosteron<br>sulfate( DHEAs) levels and disease activity were measured for patients, TST and DHEAs were measured<br>for controls. Results: The median total serum testosterone level of the patients and the control groups was;<br>2.2ng/ml and 7.8ng/ml respectively. The median DHEAs level of the patients and the control groups; 81mg/<br>dl and 343mg/dl respectively. Men with low serum androgen levels and in particular low serum level of<br>DHEAs and to less extent TST associated with negative rheumatoid factor and anti CCP. patients with high<br>disease activity associated with lower androgen levels.<br>Conclusion: Men with rheumatoid arthritis have low levels of serum androgens, may related to the lack<br>of the anti-inflammatory effects of androgens, lower androgen levels associated with negative serological<br>markers and high disease activity. Androgen replacement may have associated with clinical improvement<br>and low disease activity</p> Abdulsatar J. Mathkhor1 . Abdulnasser H. Abdullah2 . Amer S. Khudhairy3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Disposition of Policy Implementers: Study on The Hospitals Payment System Change in The Indonesian National Health Insurance Era <p>Background: Disposition of implementers to changes in hospitals payment system policies has become<br>an important issue in the implementation of the Indonesia National Health Insurance (NHI) program. The<br>change from fee for services to a prospective payment system in the form of the Indonesia Case Based Group<br>(INA-CBG) have caused low acceptance from clinicians. On the other side there was potential for fraud in<br>the hospitals claim collection scheme published by the corruption eradication commission. The objective of<br>this study was to analyze the effect of disposition of implementers on financial pressure and fraud intention.<br>Methods: The study used an observational analytic approach with a survey method, where researchers<br>conducted observations, interviews and questionnaires. The research variables consist of disposition of<br>implementers, financial pressure, and fraud intention. The research respondents were 110 physicians in<br>charge of patients in 12 hospitals in East Java Indonesia. Data were analyzed by path analysis.<br>Result: The direct causal effect of the disposition of implementers regarding the INA-CBG payment system<br>in hospitals to financial pressure had a value of p = 0.001 and B = -0.332.<br>Conclussion: Disposition of implementers to changes in hospitals payment systems had a significant effect<br>on financial pressure and fraud intention. A negative beta indicated that the disposition of implementers will<br>have an effect on increasing financial pressure.</p> Abu Khoiri1,2, Widi Hidayat3 , Djazuly Chalidyanto4 , Fendy Suhariadi5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 How to Teach Intramuscular Injection Through Virtual Learning Environment in Covid-19 Pandemic Time for Nursing Students <p>During the pandemic COVID-19 spread and the temporary lockdown of universities, there has been a global<br>shift toward online learning. Some universities were not prepared for such circumstances, and they began<br>attempting to meet this unprecedented task for not missing the academic year. Recently, there has been<br>a project that is currently working on the same issue regarding teaching nursing students how to deliver<br>intramuscular (IM) injection using online in a virtual learning environment. The objective of this study<br>was to create a simulation in an online course using a three-dimensional (3D) learning management system<br>(LMS) in a virtual learning environment (VLE). That can replace IM injection traditional teaching method.<br>This LMS intended to supplement the existing lab practice to nursing undergraduate students by creating a<br>simulated online clinic with a nurse and patient avatars. Theoretical content in the form of reading material<br>and related videos was also provided for students’ cognitive base before they start the 3D simulation training.<br>This new course was founded on the Galvis panqueva method that resulted in a product called Online-3DIMI-VLE. Various validation processes undertook for multiple development processes involving nursing<br>content specialists and computer multimedia. The pilot results showed that this LMS could replace the<br>traditional way of teaching and support online learning during the normal education environment as well as<br>in this COVID-19 pandemic time.</p> Adam Mahmoud Salameh Khraisat1 , Hermizi Hapidin2 , Nik Siti Hanifah Nik Ahmad3 , Mohammad Dzulsyafiq Mohammad Yusoff4 , Mohd Said Nurumal5 , Kasmah Wati Pardi6 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Virtual Learning Environment for Teaching Intramuscular Injection: A Focus Group Discussion Analysis <p>The teaching of Intramuscular Injection (IMI) is an essential topic for nursing students and consider one of<br>the daily routines job for any nurse. However, the traditional teaching of IMI has shown some limitations<br>to help the students acquire injection skills. Since the advancement of technology available instruments and<br>applications available in the virtual stores, it seems employing an advanced computer technology would be<br>more suitable in the present era, particularly with a large number of students. Content experts among nursing<br>lecturers were invited to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional teaching method and<br>the need to create an online program to teach IMI in a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). A combination<br>of structured and open-ended questions based on related literature was used in the focus group discussion<br>to explore different opinions from the content experts. All the participants recognized the limitations of the<br>traditional teaching of IMI and agreed to the need to create an online computer software as an alternative<br>teaching method to teach the nursing students on IMI. Thus, since the traditional teaching method of IMI<br>administration has the limitations, teaching and practicing IMI virtually and interactively would be more<br>appropriate for the nursing program in producing nursing students who are competent in IMI.</p> Adam Mahmoud Salameh Khraisat1 , Hermizi Hapidin2 , Nik Siti Hanifah Nik Ahmad3 , Mohammad Dzulsyafiq Mohammad Yusoff4 , Mohd Said Nurumal5 , Kasmah Wati Pardi6 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Hospital of Bengkulu City, Indonesia: Case Control Study <p>Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is currently increasing and is an important cause of<br>premature death and disability. Insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus is caused by multiple<br>factors such as non-modifiable factors and modifiable factors. Objectives: assess the relationship of factors<br>can not be modified and factors can be modified with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods:<br>This is a case control study. Samples taken based on several criteria, namely: 1) patients aged ? 18 years,<br>2) patients can communicate smoothly. Risk factors were analyzed using the chi-square test, knowing the<br>magnitude of the risk using the Odds ratio (OR). Results: variables related to type 2 diabetes mellitus were<br>age (p = 0.019), OR = 2.5 (1.2-5.2), family history of diabetes (p = 0.007), OR = 2.9 (1, 3-6.1), body mass<br>index (BMI) (p = 0.001), OR = 3.2 (1.6-6.5), high sugar diet (p = 0,000), OR = 4.2 (2.0 -8.6), low fiber diet<br>(p = 0.018), OR = 2.5 (1.2-5.4), and physical activity (p = 0.000), OR = 7.1 (3.0- 16.6). Conclusion: Risk<br>factors proven to be related to type 2 diabetes mellitus are age, family history of diabetes, BMI, high sugar<br>diet, low fiber diet, and physical activity. While gender, central obesity and smoking cannot be proven to be<br>risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physical activity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus,<br>with a 4 times greater risk for those who lack physical activity</p> Agung Sutriyawan1 , Tenike G Miranda2 , Hairil Akbar3 , Riswan4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Validity and Reliability of the Questionnaire Assessing the Healthcare Delivery Status in Iran’s Prisons <p>Considering the prisoners’ statistical population in Iran and the illness-prone environment of the prisons,<br>which necessitates the delivery of appropriate healthcare, a tool should be developed to assess the status of<br>healthcare delivery to these prisoners. The current study has been conducted with the aim of assessing the<br>validity and reliability of the developed questionnaire for assessing the healthcare delivery status in Iran’s<br>prisons. This research is a descriptive-analytical study. The developed questionnaire was given to the experts’<br>panel to be assessed for content validity. Content Validity Index (CVI) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR)<br>were calculated using the collected opinions. To assess the validity of this questionnaire, 25 people including<br>physicians and prison authorities were asked to fill the questionnaire for another time after 15 days. Test and<br>retest reliability were calculated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Kappa’s agreement<br>coefficient. Data were analyzed by SPSS.26 and Excel.2019 softwares. The content validity experts verified<br>the questionnaire based on its appropriateness, clarity, necessity, and congruity between its words and the<br>relating culture. CVR index was higher than the least standard value (0.62) in every item. Also, all variables<br>of the questionnaire had a CVI of higher than 0.70. Kappa’s agreement coefficients of all items ranged from<br>0.61 to 1.00. ICC values for all items except “Time for system’s admissions process” ranged from 0.71 to<br>1.00 in two times that tests were done. This indicates that reliability of the test and retest of the questionnaire<br>was acceptable. The final version of the questionnaire can be used as a tool for assessment of the healthcare<br>delivery status in prisons and planning programs to enhance that.</p> Ahmad Hajebrahimi1 , Khalil Alimohammadzadeh2,3, Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini4 , Ali Maher5 , Mohammadkarim Bahadori6 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Outcome of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction using Femoral Intrafix for a Single Tunnel Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction <p>Background: Single-tunnel double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with<br>anatomical placement of hamstring tendon graft can closely restore the anterior knee instability when<br>compared with single bundle reconstruction.<br>Aim: Evaluation of the clinical and functional outcomes of ACLR using femoral intra-fix and tibial<br>interference screw.<br>Methods: This is a prospective study held on 40 patients who underwent autologous hamstring graft ACLR<br>using femoral intra-fix and tibial interference screw. After a median follow up of one year the clinical<br>(Lysholm score), functional outcome (International Knee Documentation Committee, IKDC) and Joint<br>laxity (assessed with KT-1000 arthrometer - MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) were evaluated.<br>Results: As regard IKDC 36 patients (90%) had normal or nearly normal knees postoperatively in<br>comparison to 100% had abnormal and severely abnormal knees pre-operatively (P value &lt; 0.001). The<br>mean Lysholm score was higher in the postoperative follow up than preoperative (91.40±7.3 Vs 53.35±<br>13.55) with statistically significant (P value &lt; 0.001). The mean anterior translation of tibia improved from<br>7.55 mm preoperatively to 2.1 mm after one year of ACLR.<br>Conclusion: ACLR using femoral intra-fix and tibial interference screw provide secure graft fixation and<br>allow early rehabilitation. The clinical and functional outcome of this fixation technique is rewarding.</p> Ahmed Mahmoud Gad1 , Mohamed Kamal Ismail2 , Ramy Salah Morsy3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 PON1 Q192R Gene Polymorphism and Pesticide Exposure Status of Rice Farmers, Suphan Buri, Thailand <p>PON1 Q192R (rs662) polymorphism in coding region is conveying differential catalytic activity of<br>organophosphate. Study was aimed to investigate PON1 Q192R gene polymorphisms in rice farmers along<br>with pesticide knowledge and practices; and to evaluate the relationship of gene polymorphisms and serum<br>cholinesterase (SChE) levels. Information of pesticide exposure, knowledge and practices were collected<br>from 50 rice farmers and 50 control respondents by questionnaire interviewing. Each blood sample was<br>obtained by venipuncture and prepared to serum for SChE activity test by paper test and automatic analyzer;<br>to EDTA blood for genotyping by PCR-RFLP. Exposure status, knowledge and practices on pesticide use<br>were represented as frequency. Chi-square was used to analyze on the different of personal information;<br>and of polymorphism. Independent t-test was used for comparison of SChE levels. Person correlation was<br>evaluated relationship between SChE level and genotypes. 60% of rice farmers were used pesticide over<br>10 years. Rice farmers were long-term pesticide exposure with good on pesticide knowledge, however<br>poorly practice. Means of SChE level of both groups were within reference value and significantly different<br>(p = 0.033). Polymorphisms were included wild type (QQ), heterozygote (QR) and homozygote (RR);<br>and were significantly different between rice farmers (high frequency of RR genotype) and control (p =<br>0.02). Relationship of polymorphism and SChE level were negative correlated (r = -0.261; p = 0.031). This<br>polymorphism may useful biomarker for chronic pesticide exposure in Thai rice farmer and corresponded to<br>decline of serum cholinesterase; and RR genotype was high risk group.</p> Airada Sridon1, Kampol Ruchiwit2 , Kowit Suwannahong3 , Wanida Pongstaporn4 , Yuttana Sudjaroen5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Oral Contraceptive Pills on Levels of Calcium and Vitamin D in women in Al-Najaf Province <p>Background: Combined oral contraceptives comprise of the steroid hormone oestrogen in combination with<br>a progesterone, occupied principally to prevent pregnancy. Combined oral contraceptive pills commonly<br>refer to pills in which an oestrogen and a progestogen are given concurrently in a monthly cycle. Materials<br>and methods: The current study was undertaken over a period of six months from 2019/10/1 till 2020/3/1<br>in Al-Najaf province. Thirty women that take oral contraceptives pill participated in the study, Their ages<br>ranged from (20-38) years divided into three groups(10/group) according to the ages (20-25, 26-31,32 -38)<br>years. Results: Results of this study revealed, oral contraceptives pill cause no effect on serum levels of<br>calcium in women that intake it at different age groups in compare with controls groups, and also causes a<br>significant decrease in serum levels of vitamin D in women that intake it at different age groups in compare<br>with controls groups. On the other hand, the results obtained there aren’t apparent difference in these<br>parameters when compared between age groups and group that use it for long period (3,6 and 9 year).<br>Conclusion: The present study concluded that oral contraceptives pill cause no effect on serum levels of<br>calcium in women and little effect on vitamin D in women.</p> Alaa Abd Kadim1 , Suha Hussein Mohammed1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical study on the therapeutic effects of Quercus infectoria galls as oral powder in gingivitis and plaque patients <p>Gingivitis is a nondestructive disease that causes inflammation of the gums and is one of the most common<br>periodontal diseases. The cause of inflammation is bacterial bovillomatosis, known as the plaque, on the<br>surface of the teeth. The plaque is the main cause of periodontal disease; if left untreated, gingivitis can<br>develop into inflammation of the tooth, where inflammation of the gums destroys the bones, causes tissue<br>erosion around the teeth and can lead to loss of tooth. Q. infectoria were applied topically to ten people aged<br>25-55 who were suffering from gingivitis and plaque. Diagnoses and follow-up treatment were performed in<br>a dental clinic under the supervision of a dentist for a period of two weeks. We noted the great efficacy of the<br>herb against gingivitis and plaque. The progress of plaque measured in terms of mean, population standard<br>deviation and variance were 0.66 , 0.17, 0.02 before treatment and 0.29, 0.12, 0.01 after treatment. Gingival<br>progress before and after treatment were 0.72 , 0.15 , 0.02 and 0.32 , 0.11 , 0.01 , respectively. According<br>to results were due to the fact that Q. infectoria contain large amounts of tannin and other compounds that<br>constrict vessels and tissues and are effective against various types of infections. Therefore, we recommend<br>them as an alternative to antibiotics. Effectiveness of Q. infectoria as an effective substance to inhibit the<br>growth of oral bacteria and thus act as an anti-inflammatory and retention of gum tissue where the substance<br>was tested directly on patients have Plaque and gingivitis and we can recommend them as an alternative to<br>antibiotics</p> Ali Hasanain Alhamadani1 , Hiba Ahmed Saeed2 , Hussein Asli Khayoon3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Nursing Management Educational Program upon Head Nurses Knowledge Regarding Patient Management <p>Background: Over the past few decades, the role of the Director of the Nursing Unit (head nurse) has<br>developed considerably globally, from the head nurse who supervisor to patient care and nursing staff<br>and the needs of the ward from all the necessary supplies for nursing care in the ward to the role of the<br>manager nurse who plays a broader role through his oversight of all Nursing ward in the hospital, staff<br>employment and ward quality, development and retention. Previously the head nurses were responsible for<br>the care of clinical patients only in the ward, and their duty was only patient. Objectives: Implement the<br>nursing management education program for the study group. Methodology: A quasi-experimental design<br>is carried out throughout the present study with the application of test-retest approach for the study and<br>control groups from March 24th 2019 to Feb 19th 2020. Settings of the Study: This study was conducted at<br>the nursing units of Al-Najaf AL-Ashraf City Hospitals which include (Al-Sadr Medical City, Al-Hakeem<br>General Hospital and Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital, they represented AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf city). Result:<br>showed that the study group participants had benefits from the implementation of nursing management<br>education program Conclusions: The program considered an effective mean for the improvement of the<br>head nurse’s knowledge. Recommendations: Head nurses should have the required knowledge about wards<br>management regarding patient care. And nursing management education program is an important tool for<br>the development of head nurses’ skills. Accordingly, head nurses need to be encouraged to participate in<br>nursing management education program focused on patient management. Finally, the study proved that there<br>is an essential need for collaboration between the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research with<br>Ministry of Health and Environment to improve the nursing management courses as a part of curriculum in<br>nursing institutes and universities.</p> Ali Hussein Ali Al-Jazaeri.1 , Muna. A. Khaleel Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Willingness of Dental Medicine Students in Handling Positive HIV Patients <p>Background: Dental care for HIV positive people plays an important role in increasing quality of life,<br>tolerance and effectiveness of treatment, nutritional intake, and treatment success rates. Therefore, it is<br>important to ensure optimal dental care for this group of people, especially since many of them, with or without<br>knowledge of their serological status, are now using dental services. Purpose: is to assess the willingness<br>of dental students to treat HIV positive people. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional<br>survey was conducted. In the city of Surabaya, there are around 184,000 HIV positive people. This research<br>was conducted in 2019 using a questionnaire designed to obtain information about student demographics,<br>self-assessment of HIV, attitudes toward infection control practices, perceptions of occupational risks, and<br>willingness to provide care for HIV positive people. Results: The response rate is 76.3 percent. More than<br>77 percent of respondents are in the age group of 19 years to age 25 years. Good knowledge about HIV is<br>only owned by 35 percent of respondents. While around 7.1 percent, showed significant concern about job<br>transmission. Conclusions: From the results of this study, the authors suggest the need for a comprehensive<br>education or motivation program for the next generation of dentists in Indonesia to ensure adequate care for<br>HIV positive people.</p> Alya Sahilla Fahri1 , Nurhana Binti Suhaimi1, Balwinjit Kaur Sidhu1 , Yaaliny A/P Krishnamurthi1 , Oretha Patrick Balinu1 , Mohd Rashid Bin Mohd Abu Bakar1 , Regina Purnama Dewi Iskandar2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Drugs used for Weight Reduction among Iraqi Population Sample, a Comparative Study <p>Obesity is a complex disease characterized by fat accumulation in the body which led to increased risk of<br>other disease such as diabetic, cancer and others. Body mass index (BMI), is the main criteria to define<br>overweight and obesity. In addition to the change in diet, exercise and life style, pharmacological options<br>were used for complicated cases.<br>This study is a retrospective one where the data collected were from 117 obese patients in obesity research<br>and therapy unit in AL-Kindy medical college in Iraq and were divided into four groups according to the<br>drugs that were taken (metformin group, metformin and orlistat group, metformin and fluoxetine group,<br>metformin, orlistat and fluoxetine group)<br>It has been found that each group showed a significant difference in BMI after 2 and four months and<br>by comparison among the four group, metformin group was given a significant difference in BMI after 2<br>months while no significant difference in BMI among groups after 4 months.<br>In conclusion metformin alone gave the best change in BMI in short period with less side effect while for<br>long time, the administration of these three drugs together may lead to more desirable results</p> Amani Anees Aboddy1 , Rua Abbas Alhamdy2 , Zakariya Al-Mashhadani 3, Nabaa Nabeel4, Hussien Ahmed5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nanocurcumin Protective Effect on Lipid Peroxide of Lead Acetate Induced White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Ovarian Granulosa Cells <p>Objective: This study aims to investigate the protective effect of nanocurcumin on lipid peroxidation of rat<br>ovarian granulosa cells induced by lead acetate (Pb).<br>Methods : A total of 45 mice were divided into a negative control group (C-) receiving corn oil, a positive<br>control group (C+) receiving corn oil and lead acetate (Pb) 40 mg/kg bw/day, experimental group 1 (E1),<br>experimental group 2 (E2), experimental group 3 (E3) receiving 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day nanocurcumin<br>dissolved in corn oil and lead acetate (Pb) 40 mg/kg bw/day. The treatment was given orally and the treatment<br>time was daily at 08.00 AM for 26 days. Ovaries were removed for immunohistochemical analysis of MDA<br>expression.<br>Result : The positive control group had the highest MDA expression of ovarian granulosa cells (94.2 ± 10.5)<br>and was significantly different (p &lt;0.05) from negative control group (1.5 ± 1.4), experimental group 1 (17.4<br>± 10.5), experimental group 2 (11.4 ± 8.5) and experimental group 3 (7.2 ± 4.0).<br>Conclusion : Nanocurcumin as a protective oxidative stress on ovarian granulosa cells due to exposure to<br>lead acetate, by protecting lipid peroxidation.</p> Anis Satus Syarifah1,2, Sri Agus Sudjarwo3 , Hendy Hendarto4 , Reny I’tishom5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Educational Program on Nurses-Midwives’ Preventive Measures about Puerperal Sepsis at Baghdad Maternity Hospitals <p>Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the educational program on nurses-midwives’ preventive<br>measures about puerperal sepsis.<br>Method: quasi-experimental study design carried among 60 Nurses and Midwives chosen by non-probability<br>sample (purposive sample) at maternity hospitals. The data collected by the observation checklist Pretest<br>and posttest after the implementation of the educational program. Data were analyzed using descriptive<br>statistical data analysis approach of frequency, percentage, mean, mean of scores, a total of scores, range<br>and standard deviation and inferential statistical data analysis approach T-test, multiple linear regressions,<br>person correlation coefficient, and analysis of variance (ANOVA).<br>Results: (35.3%) of them at age 20-29 years old, (75%) of them had secondary nursing school graduate level<br>of education and (35%) of them had 11-15 years of services in the nursing field. there is a highly significant<br>difference at P &lt; 0.01 between the initial period of Pretest and posttest of the study sample preventive<br>measures toward puerperal sepsis. The grand mean at pretest was (1.69) and at posttest (2.38). There is a<br>statistically significant difference between years of service and preventive measures at posttest and Pretest<br>of the educational program at (p-value &gt; 0.05).<br>Conclusion: there is an improvement in the nurses-midwives’ preventive measures level at the periods of<br>tests after the implementation of the educational program.</p> Anwar Saad Qasim1 , Shukriyia Shadhan Chyad2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mean Circumferential Fibers Shortening Velocity Assessment in Patients with type II Diabetes Mellitus in relation to their Diastolic Function Status <p>Background: The most important cause of death in diabetic patients is the cardiac insult. Mean circumferential<br>fibers shortening velocity (MCFSV) was used to detect the systolic cardiac dysfunction.<br>Objective: This study aimed to evaluate MCFSV in people who have Type 2 diabetes.<br>Patients and methods: This analytic observational study was performed in Al-Furat teaching hospital.<br>Eighty type 2 diabetics were involved in this study. All patients were subjected to traditional Doppler<br>measures: tissue Doppler-derived E/E,<br>and MCFSV.<br>Results: Echocardiographic measures revealed 35 subjects having Grade I of Diastolic dysfunction (DD), 15<br>having Grade II while 10 were diagnosed with Grade III of this condition. MCFSV did not change in patients<br>with normal diastolic function (0.00137±2.02) and those with grade I diastolic dysfunction (0.00148±3.5),<br>(P value: 0.2) while significant reduction was documented in patients with grade II diastolic dysfunction<br>(0.0011±9.1, P value: 0.00) and grade III diastolic dysfunction (0.001±6.02, P value: 0.00)<br>Conclusions: There is a connection between Reduction of MCFSV and increased grading of diastolic<br>dysfunction (DD) in type II diabetics.</p> Asaad Hasan Noaman1 , Amina A. B. Al-Dejeli2 and Falah Mahdi Dananah Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Some Histogenetic Aspects of Methotrexate Associated with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) Treatment Doses <p>A total of (36) mice in the age of (1-3) weeks were selected to evaluate the methotrexate effect on some<br>histogenetic aspects of kidneys. Treatment lasted for three months, and results showed marked hemorrhage,<br>cortical tubular basophilia, necroses, and degeneration in the autopsied organ of animals with low oral<br>hydration. Besides, changes in the DNA methylation pattern were noticed in the RAPD-PCR profile upon<br>analysis with agarose gel electrophoresis.</p> Asal A. Tawfeeq1 , Sundus M. Taifoor2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 X-Chromosome Markers Used in Deficiency of Paternity Case <p>Cases of deficiency paternity, characterized by missing of the alleged father, are a task for forensic genetics.<br>Recently these cases were determined using sets of extremely polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeats<br>(STRs), which indicate to powerful likelihood ratios (LR). Some difficult cases emerge whenever the kinship<br>highly remote or if the another hypotheses are not properly formulated because of the absence of information.<br>In these situations, beyond the routinely used marker set, laboratories usually enlarge the number and/or the<br>type of markers analysed. A set of 14X-STRs is further advantageous than 21 autosomal STRs (AS STRs)<br>biallelic markers. Furthermore, the utility of X-STRs was also appear in cases shows that in father–daughter<br>duos and merely a close family member of the alleged parent (father or mother) is existing for testing. Here<br>we present a cases with biological daughter of the alleged father and her mothers and putative grandmother<br>was the genotyped relative are available for reconstructing his haplotype . Aiming to increase the Paternity<br>Index (PI), Probability of Paternity (PP), and obtain more reliable results. The result of X STR showed that<br>the missing person (father) share 50% genotype with the donors (daughter)and (his mother) at each locus,<br>there are no alleles in any one of these 13 loci conflict with the alleles inherited from her father and Posterior<br>Probability of paternity was (99.999958%) that is mean the missing person was biological father for this<br>donor daughter.</p> Azzah Bahaa Abdulazeez 1,2, Ismail Hussein Aziz 1 , Mohammed Mashni Farhan 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Design and Manufacture of Nanomedicine for Aflax Pump Inhibitors in Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Bacteria <p>The consequences of this bacterium can be severe. Methicillin is one of these drugs, this drug, like other betalactams, inhibits Trans peptidases by binding to penicillin-binding protein (PBP). It prevents the formation of<br>peptide glycans in the bacterial cell wall and destroys the bacterial cell wall. Chemical structure modification<br>has made it resistant to the beta-lactamase enzyme produced by some bacteria. It was made in 1959. Today, it<br>has been removed from the list of drugs and better alternatives such as cloxacillin and nafsilin are available.<br>It has a lower spectrum than penicillin but it works well against beta-lactamase-producing organisms<br>such as Staphylococcus aureus. Design and manufacture of nanoparticles for Aflax pump inhibitors in<br>methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria Preparation of BSA-meticillin nano-drug: This was<br>done using the desolvation method and after ensuring the formation of nanodars using the XRD and FT-IR<br>spectra, Microdiagnostic antibiogram testing was performed on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus<br>and the phenotypic pump activity of all isolates was performed by agar technique containing Ethidium<br>bromide by vil card method. According to a study, the Nano medicine albumin-methicillin has the highest<br>inhibition of methylcellulose-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Aflax pump.</p> Banafshe Sayadi Rad1 , Anoosh Eghdami21 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Security Incident Event Management (SIEM) System for Cyber Security Situation Awareness <p>Cyber-attacks have always targeted information communication technology systems of various organizations.<br>Intruders and hackers have within their reach, very powerful tools through which they capable to bypass<br>the existing network security so as to deliver a payload that might have a severe impact on the whole<br>organization. Therefore, it has become essential for organizations to develop mechanisms through which<br>they can detect a possible cyber threat and then respond accordingly. By establishing cybersecurity situation<br>awareness, organizations will understand what is happening and then respond effectively. The present<br>study evaluated the effectiveness of the Security Incident Event Management (SIEM) system for Cyber<br>Security Situation Awareness. A Hierarchical Network Security Situation Assessment Model (referred to<br>HNSSAM) which joins Security Incident Event Management (SIEM) system evidence theory fusion rules<br>with classified quantitative risk assessment method was applied. Data processing was initially designed so<br>as to collect security data from various sensors. Mechanisms for data verification were then adopted so as to<br>establish whether SIEM was effective in successfully detecting any form of cyber-attack. Results show that<br>SIEM tools may be applied by security analysts to gain visibility into the security threats attacking the IT<br>systems of an organization and then respond appropriately.</p> Bandr Siraj Fakiha Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Barcodes in Naming Basic Denture for Forensic Identification Needs <p>Background: discipline within Forensic odontology is a part of the science of forensic medicine which<br>recently demonstrated its role in the identification of victims, often confronted with various obstacles, to<br>slow down the investigation of the identity of the victim. There are obstacles in the identification process,<br>partly due to the incomplete identification data that can be collected, so that the identification of the remains<br>becomes difficult and requires a long time to be confirmed despite obtaining good professional management<br>in the identification process. The American Board of Forensic Odontology shows that most identification<br>uses teeth based on restorations, caries, missing teeth and / or prosthetic devices such as removable dentures<br>of the victim. The necessity of naming the removable denture as the data themselves are attached to the<br>patient can facilitate the identification of Purpose: Knowing how to manufacture and benefits of identity<br>with a barcode on the denture in the easy identification of individual Methods: this research was preexperiment with only posttest design. By using 10 Full Denture samples, the sample collection was obtained<br>from the Lemeshow Formula. The ten research samples were taken by simple random sampling. Conclusion<br>barcode contain identity data embedded in the denture base can be used as labeling on denture users because<br>of their role in knowing the identity of individuals , and hacyl of reading barcodes are not influenced by the<br>length of the base submerged .</p> Barcode, Denture Base, Forensic identification Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Staff and Students at Sulaimani Polytechnic University towards COVID-19/Iraq <p>COVID-19 is a highly infectious and pathogenic viral disease, its become a global pandemic infection,<br>which is an airborne disease; transmits directly and indirectly between infected cases and other people.<br>Until now, there has been neither vaccine nor specific antivirus medicine against this disease, the only<br>method to prevent the spread of the virus is a preventive practice against the disease, it depends on the<br>knowledge and attitudes of people towards the disease. The online cross-sectional study was undertaken<br>during the pandemic, to estimate Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices towards COVID-19 among a sample<br>of staff and students at Sulaimani Polytechnic University. Data of 270 adult individuals were collected<br>during June 2020 and analyzed. The male/female ratio was 1:88. The mean scores of knowledge, attitudes,<br>and preventive practices of the participants were 7.4 (SD 1.68), 5.5 (SD 1.15), and 6.7 (SD 2.1) respectively.<br>The results reported significant differences between respondents’ knowledge mean score and their gender,<br>and educational background (P=0.005 and P=0.003 respectively). The attitudes mean score of the staff<br>was significantly greater than the attitudes mean score of the students (P=0.021). Likewise, the attitudes<br>mean score was significantly greater in medical subjects compared to non-medical individuals (P&lt;0.001).<br>The respondents with age group ?45 had a significantly higher preventive practice compared to the other<br>age groups (P&lt;0.001). Similarly, the practices mean score was significantly greater in the staff compared<br>to the students (P&lt; 0.001). The vast majority of the participants (88.5%) used social media for obtaining<br>knowledge and advice on the disease. The study indicates that the respondents had sufficient knowledge,<br>positive attitudes, and good practice toward COVID-19.</p> Bestun Ibrahim Hama Rahim Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histopathological Changes in Skin-A Tool to Establish Time Since Death in First 24 Hours <p>Aim: Determination of the time since death is one of the greatest challenge in the practice of Forensic<br>Medicine. There is currently very limited scientific information regarding the process of cutaneous<br>decomposition. This study is aimed at throwing more light towards this field.<br>Method: 30 skin samples from human cadavers are collected where actual time of death is known, from<br>Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore. Skin samples (1 x 2 cm) from the anterior chest were collected,<br>parallel to the longitudinal midline incision. Tissues were fixed in 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin wax,<br>and stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain. The skin samples were observed under light microscope for the<br>changes.<br>Results: Epidermis and Dermis showed marked changes in the histology with increasing PMI and is the<br>most reliable site to look for.<br>Conclusion: This study will throw a better light to post-mortem skin changes and their role in determination<br>of the time since death.</p> Boban Babu1 , Vina Vaswani2 , Kishor Kumar3 , Rani Nallathamby4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty Using Artificial Biotransplant in Veterinary Ophthalmology <p>The article describes a method for anterior lamellar keratoplasty with biological material from porcine small<br>intestine submucosa (tunica submucosa) used to replace the damaged area of the cornea. The indications<br>for surgery were deep ulcers caused by chronic irritation, septic ulcers with elements of keratomalacia,<br>corneal sequesters, traumatic needle-shaped ulcers and xerotic ulcers in cats. Complete graft integration was<br>achieved in 27 eyes (77,14 %) of 35. In 8 cases (22,86 %) complications occurred. Suture failures, partial graft<br>integration and central thinning of the transplant were later corrected by repeated surgeries. Panophthalmitis<br>developed in one eye required its enucleation. Observating the late postoperative period showed a minimal<br>decrease in visual functions, which is not always possible to achieve through other surgeries.</p> Boris V. Usha1 , Vladimir I. Lutsay1 , Uliyana E. Lukashina2 , Uliyana E. Lukashina3 , Evgeny V. Davidov4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Modern Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strain in Bronchoalveolar Lavage from Tuberculosis Patients Associated with Lung Tissue Damage Severity <p>Background: The Beijing sublineage modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain is the most dominant<br>strain in regards to causes of disease progression, extensive lung tissue damage, drug resistance and high<br>outbreak rates.<br>Methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were obtained from Bronchoalveolar lavage patients with<br>active pulmonary Tuberculosis before obtaining anti-tuberculosis drug treatments. The degree of severity of<br>parenchymal lung damage is classified by the NICE Scoring System. PCR was performed on DNA extracted<br>from bronchial lavage, using primers targeting gene TbD1.<br>Result: 30 active pulmonary tuberculosis patients were analyzed in this study. 13 isolates of modern strains<br>and 17 isolates of ancient strains were detected. In modern strains, 4 (30.8%) subjects had mild lung degree<br>damage, while 9 (69.2%) subjects had severe lung damage. In ancient strains, 12 (70.6%) subjects had<br>mild lung damage and 5 (29.4%) subjects had severe lung damage. Mycobacterium tuberculosis of modern<br>strains correlated with the degree of lung damage, p &lt;0.05. Odds Ratio = 5.4 CI 95% (1,12-116,99).<br>Conclusion: In Surabaya, modern strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were detected in BAL of<br>tuberculosis patients. Radiograph evaluations revealed severe lung tissue damage. The risk of severe lung<br>damage with modern strains is 5.4 times higher than compared to ancient strains.</p> Budi Yanti1 , Muhammad Amin2 , Ni Made Mertaniasih2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii) Bark Oil on Pancreatic Histopathology of white Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Induced with Streptozotocin <p>The purpose of this research was to understand the effect of the cinnamomum (Cinnamomum burmannii)<br>bark oil (CBO) on the pancreatic histopathology white rat (Rattus norvegicus) with diabetes mellitus. The<br>variables taken were the diameter and the number of Langerhans Island in the pancreatic of white male rats<br>which had been induced by streptozotocin (STZ). This research using diabetic rat induced by streptozotocin<br>intraperitoneally with single dose of 45 mg/kg BW. Samples consist of fifty rats were divided into five<br>groups, negative control group (K-) was not induced by streptozotocin, which treatment by giving CMC<br>Na 1%, positive control group (K+) was induced by streptozotocin without CBO, group P1 was induced by<br>streptozotocin and gave CBO 100 mg/kgBW, group P2 was induced by streptozotocin and gave CBO 200<br>mg/kgBW, group P3 was induced by streptozotocin and gave CBO 400 mg/kgBW daily for 14 days period.<br>The results showed that cinnamomum bark oil (CBO) with dose 200 mg/kgBW (P2) was significantly higher<br>(p&lt;0,05) than group P1, group P3 and positive control group (K+). It can be concluded that CBO can be used<br>to improve pancreatic function of STZ induced in diabetic rats</p> Budiastuti1 , Reni Utami2 , Mustofa Helmi Effendi3 , and Hani Plumeriastuti4 * Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hypolipidemic Effect of Fermented Soymilk Related with Lactic Acid Bacteria in Feaces <p>The problem of obesity is a global problem that is being faced in the world. One of the precautions taken is<br>functional food. Fermented soy milk is a functional food that has a hypolipidemic effect. The purpose of this<br>study was to analyze the relationship between the hypolipidemic effect of fermented soymilk and the content<br>of lactic acid bacteria in animal experiments. The results showed that the provision of fermented soymilk<br>and unfermented soymilk could increase the total content of lactic acid bacteria in rat feaces. This is in line<br>with the decrease in total blood cholesterol levels in rats. Giving soy milk and fermented soymilk increases<br>the total lactic acid bacteria in feaces thereby increasing cholesterol secretion in feaces</p> Darimiyya Hidayati1,3, Soetjipto2 , Annis Catur Adi1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Culture of Life’s Consumptive Behavior Against Potential Hypertension at Pangkep Community in South Sulawesi Indonesia <p>Background. Every person has life needs that are met in different ways. There are those who meet their<br>needs naturally and there are those who are excessive in fulfilling their needs. This causes people to behave<br>consumptively. Consumptive behavior occurs in almost all walks of life. The habit of going to food courts<br>and fast food restaurants has led to consumptive behavior in modern society, they prefer something that is<br>instant, fast and delicious to consume and this has already happened in rural communities, especially in<br>Pangkep Regency. Patients with hypertension are the main causes of death (13.13%) and increasing cases<br>(11,620) in Pangkep Regency in 2018 and 2019. Hypertension is a disease caused by various causes which are<br>interrelated to one another. One of the causes of hypertension is nutrition (fruit and vegetable consumption<br>habits). Researchers want to analyze the relationship between consumer behavior in consumptive life<br>with hypertension. Material and Methods. The study uses qualitative research with a phenomenological<br>approach. The sampling method uses snowball sampling. The study was conducted in 25 June 2018 - 31 Jan<br>2019. The number of informants was 13 people. Data collection techniques namely interview techniques,<br>observation, documentation. Data analysis techniques include the results of interviews, data reduction,<br>analysis, data interpretation, and triangulation. Results. first, in looking at the consumptive behavior and<br>culture of the Pangkep community, it is found that many hypertension sufferers begin with frequent visits<br>to the mall and consume fast food. Second, consumptive behavior and culture are risk factors for increased<br>hypertension sufferers. This is evidenced by the large number of patients visiting at the Health Service with<br>a diagnosis of hypertension. Conclusion. The people of Pangkep Regency have a consumptive behavior so<br>that they are at high risk of developing obesity, hypertension.</p> Darwis1 , Muzakkir 1, Masriadi2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (NTISS) in Rural Country: Mortality and Length of Stay (LOS) Predictive Score in Preterm Infant <p>Background: Preterm infants need comprehensive management due to high risk of mortality and morbidity. Proper treatment in NICU can decrease the mortality risk in them, but some of them may take long time before they can go home. Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (NTISS) hopefully can be a predictive score for the mortality and Length of stay (LOS) of a preterm infant, yet, it’s use is still very limited in Indonesia. The authors aim to analyze NTISS to predict mortality and length of stay of preterm infants in Indonesia. Method: This retrospective study conducted in March 2017 and collected medical record data of preterm infants treated in NICU from July 2016 - March 2017. The inclusion criteria were infants with gestational age &lt;37 weeks, treated at NICU&gt; 24 hours and complete medical record data. NTISS total scores are collected after 24 hours at the NICU. Results: A total of 108 infants met the inclusion criteria. The ratio of NTISS scores had an area under the curve (area under curve / AUC) of 0.879 (95% CI 0.259-0.913) with cutoff at 20.2. it had 91.3% and 74.1% in sensitivity and specificity respectively; 48.8% and 96.9% in positive and negative predictive value respectively; positive likelihood ratio 3.52; negative likelihood ratio 0.12; and 77% inaccuracy. There was no correlation between NTISS scores and length of stay (p = 0.084). Conclusion: NTISS can be used to predict the mortality of preterm infants.</p> Desy Nurrosalia Wisnuwardani1 , Mahendra Tri Arif Sampurna2 , Martono Tri Utomo2 , Risa Etika2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Toluene Safe Duration (Hours/Day) and Glutathione Concentration, Malondialdehyde and Neurotoxic Symptoms in Osowilangun Shoe Home Industry Workers <p>Introduction: Exposure of toluene can cause a decrease in glutathione concentration, increase in<br>malondialdehyde and neurotoxic symptoms. The safe duration of toluene in hours/day for each person can<br>vary. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the safe duration of toluene (hours/<br>day) with the concentration of glutathione, malondialdehyde and neurotoxic symptoms in Osowilangun<br>shoe home industry workers.<br>Methods: This research was observational with quantitative approach and cross-sectional design. The<br>sampling technique used was accidental sampling with 25 respondents. The variables studied were safe<br>toluene duration (hours/day), glutathione concentration, malondialdehyde concentration, and neurotoxic<br>symptoms. Data were analyzed using Pearson and Phi correlation.<br>Result: The average of safe duration was 1,489 hours/day, glutathione concentration was 58,349 µg/L,<br>and malondialdehyde was 7,847 MU. As many as 11 out of 14 workers experienced neurotoxic symptoms.<br>The relationship between safe duration (hours/day) with glutathione concentration (r=0.139) and<br>malondialdehyde (r=-0.146) was very weak. While, the relationship between safe duration (hours/day) and<br>neurotoxic symptoms was weak (?=-0.223).<br>Conclusion: The relationship between safe duration in hours/day with glutathione concentration and<br>malondialdehyde was very weak, while relationship with neurotoxic symptoms was weak.</p> Diah Pramesthi Ningrum1 , Abdul Rohim Tualeka2 , Juliana Jalaludin3 , Syamsiar S Russeng4 , Pudji Rahmawati5 , Ahsan Ahsan6 , Indri H Susilowati7 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Educational Program on Nurses-Midwives’ Preventive Measures about Puerperal Sepsis at Baghdad Maternity Hospitals <p>Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the educational program on nurses-midwives’ preventive<br>measures about puerperal sepsis.<br>Method: quasi-experimental study design carried among 60 Nurses and Midwives chosen by non-probability<br>sample (purposive sample) at maternity hospitals. The data collected by the observation checklist Pretest<br>and posttest after the implementation of the educational program. Data were analyzed using descriptive<br>statistical data analysis approach of frequency, percentage, mean, mean of scores, a total of scores, range<br>and standard deviation and inferential statistical data analysis approach T-test, multiple linear regressions,<br>person correlation coefficient, and analysis of variance (ANOVA).<br>Results: (35.3%) of them at age 20-29 years old, (75%) of them had secondary nursing school graduate level<br>of education and (35%) of them had 11-15 years of services in the nursing field. there is a highly significant<br>difference at P &lt; 0.01 between the initial period of Pretest and posttest of the study sample preventive<br>measures toward puerperal sepsis. The grand mean at pretest was (1.69) and at posttest (2.38). There is a<br>statistically significant difference between years of service and preventive measures at posttest and Pretest<br>of the educational program at (p-value &gt; 0.05).<br>Conclusion: there is an improvement in the nurses-midwives’ preventive measures level at the periods of<br>tests after the implementation of the educational program.</p> Anwar Saad Qasim1 , Shukriyia Shadhan Chyad2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Skin Penetration of Topical Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) as an Alternative Agent for Photoaging Prevention <p>Photoaging is skin aging, that especially caused by chronic exposure of ultraviolet radiation. Photoaging<br>impacts to patients’ quality of life. Many substances, such as green tea, had been tried to be alternative<br>agents for photoaging prevention. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant component in<br>green tea. The requirement of topical substance to be able to work and give benefit to the skin is the skin<br>penetration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin penetration of EGCG. The back part of the male<br>Wistar mouse was shaved carefully, then topical EGCG cream 5% and 10% were administered to mouse<br>skin. After 1 week administration, the animal was terminated and the skin biopsy was done. The mouse skin<br>was extracted and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) examination was performed to evaluate<br>the skin penetration of topical EGCG. The result of HPLC examination of 2 ppm, 4 ppm, 6 ppm, and 8 ppm<br>EGCG level, showed the curve peak at 3.295, 3.296, 3.295 and 3.293 second. The basic curve showed R2 of<br>pure EGCG powder used in this study was 0,9999. The result of HPLC examination in this study showed,<br>the curve peak of extracted mouse skin after EGCG cream 5% and 10% administration were between 3.2-3.7<br>second. The result of HPLC examination in this study showed that EGCG cream could penetrate into Wistar<br>mouse skin after EGCG cream application for 1 week.</p> Damayanti1,2, Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa2 , Djoko Agus Purwanto3 , Anang Endaryanto4, Widjiati Widjiati5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Methods for Determination of Reactive Metabolites of Thiopurines <p>Background: This Review Represents A Critical And Constructive Analysis Of Literature In The Content<br>Of Methods For Determination Of Reactive Metabolites Of Thiopurines. The Review Is Generated Through<br>Summary, Classification, Analysis And Comparison Of Already Existing Material And Researches On Field.<br>Methods: Databases As Scopus, Pubmed, Medline And Web Of Science Were Used To Extract Data For The<br>Review. Search Terms Like “Methods For Determination Of Metabolites”, “Thiopurines” And “Reactive<br>Metabolites” Were Used. Out Of 160 Research Articles Screened, 20 Most Relevant Studies Are Included<br>In This Review.<br>Conclusion: Determining Thiopurine Metabolites Level Is Crucial On Improving Patients’ Safety, Quality<br>And Efficacy Of Treatment, Measure Patients’ Adherence To Therapy, Optimize Thiopurine Dosage By<br>Either Finding Safer/Higher Doses If Remission Is Not Achieved, Or By Determining Dose Reductions<br>When Adverse Treatment Outcomes Occur.<br>Thiopurine Metabolites Are Measured By High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (Hplc), Through<br>Determining Metabolites’ Concentration In Hemolysate. Thioguanine Nucleotides (Tgn) And The<br>Methylated Thioinosine Derivatives Are Not Measured Directly, Rather The 6-Thioguanine (Tg) For Tgn,<br>And 4-Amino-5-(Methylthio) Carbonyl Imidazole (Amtci) For Methylated Thioinosine Derivatives Are<br>Measured.<br>There Is A Misconception Among Patients And Healthcare Providers, That Determining Thiopurine<br>Metabolites Level Provides Assurance On Optimal Dosing Which Can Be Used To Prevent Adverse<br>Thiopurine Treatment Outcomes. Despite This Assumption, Clearly Most Of The Thiopurine Adverse<br>Effects Are Not Directly Related To Their Metabolites As 6-Tgn Or 6-Mmp Levels. Clinical Experience Has<br>Demonstrated That Infections Associated With Thiopurines Do Not Regularly Correlate With Leukopenia,<br>And Elevated Transaminases Can Occur Despite Normal 6-Mmp Levels.</p> Dardan Dreshaj1 , Flaka Pasha2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Inhibiting Factors as a basis for Formulating Strategies to Tackle HIV/AIDS in Tulungagung Regency, Indonesia <p>Based on the overall assessment, Indonesia has anticipated the epidemy of HIV/AIDS. However, the<br>number of HIV/AIDS cases in Tulungagung District has increased a bit massively year by year. The total<br>cases of HIV/AIDS from 2006 to 2018 were 2320 cases. In the last three years, the number had an increase<br>of 295 cases, 324 cases, and 431 cases in 2016, 2017, and 2018 respectively. The high number of HIV/AIDS<br>cases showed that some obstacles still exist to combat the HIV/AIDS in Tulungagung District. To identify<br>the constraints as the basis of formulating strategies for the HIV/AIDS in Tulungagung District. We used<br>a qualitative and descriptive method with an in-depth interview. Based on the in-depth interview, the<br>inhibiting factors for HIV/AIDS prevention are divided into 3 factors. First, HIV/AIDS patients are still<br>closed and reluctant to do medical check-ups and treatment in health facilities. Second, in terms of health<br>care, health personnel still think that HIV/AIDS is an infectious disease that they keep away. Third, from<br>society’s perspective, the social stigma about HIV/AIDS sufferers often exists. By knowing the obstacles<br>that occur in Tulungagung District, the right strategy can be made to accelerate HIV/AIDS prevention in<br>Tulungagung District.</p> Desy Puspitasari1 , Farida Handayani1 , Mamik Hidayah1 , Ratna Dwi Wulandari2 , Agung Dwi Laksono3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relation between Serum Lipids and Thyroid Hormones in Hypothyroidism Patients <p>Background: Hypothyroidism is a condition that occurs as a result of a malfunction in the thyroid glands<br>that leads to a decrease in the secretion of their main hormones. Thyroid hormones are known to be have<br>an important role in the regulating metabolism of lipids; thus, any impaired in the thyroid function causes<br>a significant change in the levels of lipid. Objective: To evaluate the changes occurs for lipid levels in<br>hypothyroidism patients and determine the correlation between lipids parameters and some thyroid hormones.<br>Materials and Methods: The study included 45 healthy control subjects and 52 hypothyroidism patients<br>who visited private doctors’ clinics in Basra, Iraq. Thyroid hormones and serum lipids were measured for<br>both healthy subjects and hypothyroidism patients. Results: The study indicates an increase in the thyroid<br>stimulating hormone (TSH) values for hypothyroidism patients as compared to the healthy control group<br>while there is a slightly difference in the values of each of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) between<br>the two groups. There is a significant increase in the mean values of all lipids except for high density<br>lipoprotein (HDL) in the hypothyroidism patients compared to that in healthy control subjects. The study<br>presents that there is a positive correlation between TSH and all lipid parameters except for HDL which<br>gives negative relation (r = - 0.20). There is a moderate correlation between TSH and non-HDL (r = 0.42)<br>while the other lipids appear weak correlation (TC(r=0.14), TG (r=0.19). LDL (0.16), VLDL (0.17), and<br>LDL/HDL (0.17)). There is no correlation between T4 and TC (r = 0.03), LDL (r = 0.07). non-HDL (r =<br>0.04), and LDL/HDL (r = 0.06), HDL (r = - 0.02) while TG and VLDL appears weak correlation (r = -<br>0.11 to each one of them). Conclusions: The study found that the abnormal change in the levels of lipids<br>during hypothyroidism may increase the likelihood for occurrence of arteriosclerosis and the emergence of<br>cardiovascular disease in hypothyroidism patients. There is a moderate positive relationship between TSH<br>and non-HDL levels, as this indicates that non-HDL should be added to lipid profile tests as evidence of<br>measuring cardiac risk in patients with hypothyroidism</p> Dheyaa Shinyar Hamad Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Storage Length to Blood Component Platelet Concentrate Quality in the Blood Bank, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia <p>Storage of Platelet Concentrate (PC) can cause changes in thrombocyte quality that affect thrombocyte<br>viability and decrease hemostatic function. All biochemical, structural and functional changes to platelets<br>during storage in the Blood Bank are known as platelet storage lesions. To analyze the effect of storage<br>length on changes in thrombocyte morphology and function as well as the metabolic parameters of platelet<br>concentrate bag components. This was an analytical study with time series design. Sampling was done<br>consecutively. Samples were new PC bags which were processed and stored at room temperature with<br>agitation during June-July 2019 in the Blood Bank of the Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya.<br>Examination of platelet count and MPV were performed to determine morphological changes and metabolic<br>parameters like pH, pCO2, and pO2 on day 1, day 3, and day 5th. Data were analyzed by using Shapiro-Wilk<br>test, Paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. There were significant changes in MPV, pH, and pCO2<br>values during storage (p &lt;0.05). However, there were no significant changes in platelet count and pO2<br>value. Metabolic changes in PC bag were obtained but there was no decrease in platelet count so that the PC<br>component was still feasible to be given to the patient. Further research is needed for other parameters that<br>can be affected by the storage process.</p> Dhinasty Armenia1 , Betty Agustina Tambunan2,3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pediatric Biliary Atresia: Prenatal and Postnatal Risk Factors <p>Background: Biliary atresia is the most common cause of cholestasis in infants caused by intrauterine<br>and neonatal inflammatory process leads to progressive biliary tract obstruction and fibrosis. Risk factors<br>are expected to contribute in the disease type. Many studies have been done to determine the risk factors<br>of biliary atresia. Yet, there is still limited information about risk factors in Indonesia. This study aims to<br>determine the risk factors contributing to biliary atresia in East Java, Indonesia.<br>Methods: This cross-sectional study collected 219 medical record data of cholestasis patients during January<br>2010 to April 2017 that met the inclusion criteria. 85 of them were diagnosed with biliary atresia. Selected<br>prenatal and postnatal risk factor were evaluated and analyzed.<br>Result: There were significant results in maternal age on pregnancy (p= 0.009), parity (p= 0.035), and<br>gestational age (p= 0.005) among 85 patients which were diagnosed with biliary atresia. The regression test<br>showed significant result on those 3 factors.<br>Conclusion: Maternal age on pregnancy, parity, and gestational age are the prenatal and postnatal risk<br>factors that contribute to the biliary atresia incidence. These results are expected to be used as one of the<br>providing information regarding prenatal and postnatal risk factors for pediatric biliary atresia in East Java,<br>Indonesia</p> Dina Aristiya Sumarno1 , Sjamsul Arief2 , Bagus Setyoboedi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Distribution of Snail Mucous Extract (Achatina Fulica) on the Number of Wound’s Basal Epithelial Cells in Rats of Wistar Strain <p>Background: Acharan sulfate, a new glycosaminoglycan isolated from Achatina fulica, obtained from Kediri,<br>East Java, Indonesia, plays a big role in wound healing process, because it can promote re-epithelialization.<br>Purpose: This study aims to prove that extract of Achatina fulica mucous will increase the number of basal<br>epithelial cells of the wound incision in the back of white male rats of wistar strain. Method: This research<br>was done by an in-vivo experimental laboratory, using 14 white male rats of wistar strain that given an<br>incision injury in the back with a length of ± 2 cm and depth of ± 2 mm. They were divided into two treatment<br>groups, that are control group which is the incision wounds were given saline solutions; and treatment group<br>which is the incision wounds were given an extract of Achatina fulica mucous with crude acharan sulfate<br>level is 86,74%. This treatment is given 3 ml once a day for five days. On the sixth day, biopsy was carried<br>out to make a histological specimen, then evaluate under a microscope to account the number of basal<br>epithelial cells of the wound incision. Then statistical analysis was conducted by using independent samples<br>t-test with ?=0,05. Results: There were significant differences between two treatment group, that are the<br>number of basal epithelial cells in control group and treatment group (p&lt;0,05). Conclusion: Extract of<br>Achatina fulica mucous with crude acharan sulfate level is 86,74% increase the number of basal epithelial<br>cells of the wound incision in the back of white male rats of wistar strain.</p> Dina Karimah Putri1 , Titiek Berniyanti 2, Edhi Jularso 3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Do Turbans Provide Protection Against Cranial Trauma in Two-Wheeler Accidents? A Review of the Indian Medical Literature <p>The wearing of turbans or head scarves is mandatory for practising Sikh men and women. Religious mandates<br>stipulate that nothing may be placed on top of the turban (scarf), thus making it impossible for practicing Sikhs to<br>wear protective motorcycle helmets. To honour the freedom of religious expression, many jurisdictions, including<br>India, have exempted Sikhs from mandatory helmet laws. Despite studies into the efficacy of protective helmets<br>while riding ‘two-wheelers,’ little is known about the protective potential of turbans. This paper represents a review<br>of Indian literature (277 studies) related to head injuries sustained in road traffic accidents involving two-wheelers.<br>This review shows that the extant literature is of limited value when trying to understand the extent of the protective<br>potential of turbans and that systematic, evidence-based epidemiological studies derived from hospital admissions<br>and forensic examinations are required.</p> Dirk HR Spennemann Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Baby Spa Toward Growth and Development Rough and Smooth Motoric Babies, Age 3 – 12 Months in the Subdistrict Lapongkoda Disrict of Tempe Wajo Regency <p>Background. Baby Spa can fulfill three basic needs of babies that is physical needs biological needs,<br>emotional needs, affection needs, stimulation needs. This baby massage contains touch substances such as<br>affection voice or talking, eyes contract, action and spa. Baby spa is also one of stimulation substances which<br>will stimulate structure development as well as the function of working the cores in brain. This research aims<br>to analyze the influence of baby spa toward growth and development rough and smooth motoric babies<br>who have age 3 – 12 months in the subdistrict Lapongkoda disrict of Tempe Wajo regency. Material and<br>Methods. The type of research used was an quasi experiment study design. The sampling method uses<br>simple random sampling. The study was conducted in July – August 2019. The number of sampling was 32<br>people. The population and research sample are babies in the subdistrict Lapongkoda disrict of Tempe Wajo<br>regency. The data analysis technique used in this is T-test. Results. The result of research indicates that there<br>are influences of babies weight growth after doing baby spa p (0,000) &lt;p (0.05), influences of development<br>rough motoric after doing baby spa p (0,000) &lt;p (0.05), influences of development smooth motoric after<br>doing baby spa p (0,000) &lt;p (0.05). Conclusion. These findings showed growth and development motoric<br>babies, age 3 – 12 months, can be improved by providing baby spa treatment. It is recommended that the<br>Efforts that need to be considered for health workers are developing baby spa promotion and education as<br>well as baby massage to baby’s parents so that the needs regarding increasing baby’s motor growth and<br>development can be met.</p> Een Kurnaesih1 , Ariesty AR 2, Masriadi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Working and Resting Period based on Inclination, Loads, and Lift Methods on Manual Material Handling in Mining Environment <p>This study assessed working period and resting period in handling return roll (RR) in laboratory. Deliveries<br>of a RR involve a shoulder/elbow-mode of carriage. Workers usually prefer the Carry On Shoulder (COS)<br>(Gendong), or Carry On Elbow (COE) (Manggul) modes. The objective of the research are to measure<br>Working Period (WP) and Resting Period (RP) that converted into heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake<br>(VO2). Eight healthy male subjects performed shoulder/elbow-mode carrying. The type of research was a<br>experimental study. Lifting with the shoulder method feels lighter and takes distance much longer. The rest<br>period for the shoulder method has shorter rest periods because the work is lighter while carrying a longer<br>rest period based on ANOVA test on the effect of inclination, load and lifting methods on Working and<br>Resting Periods.</p> Eko Nurmianto1 , Udisubakti Ciptomulyono2 , Suparno3 , Sudiyono Kromodihardjo4 , Hari Setijono5 , Nur Ahmad Arief6 , Abdul Rohim Tualeka7 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Care Colostrum Effect on Preterm Infants Fecal Immunoglobulin A Secretory Level <p>Objective To evaluate whether oral care colostrum can increase fecal secretory immunoglobulin A levels in<br>preterm infants.<br>Methods Thirty-eight infants who met the inclusion criteria were randomized. Twenty colostrum oral care<br>infants and eighteen control control infants. Colostrum oral care by giving as much as 0.1 ml of colostrum<br>on each buccal mucosa for approximately 2 minutes on one side. The procedure is repeated every 4 hours<br>for 3 days. Fecal secretory immunoglobulin A levels are taken from the first faecal after birth and 72 hours<br>after colostrum administration. Fecal retrieval must first install a urine device so that the urine does not wet<br>the sample.<br>Result Fecal secretory immunoglobulin A level before treatment in the treatment group were 0.0633 ±<br>0.0037 mg/g feces higher than the control group 0.0166 ± 0.0139 mg/g feces, statistically there were no<br>significant differences (p = 0.595). Fecal secretory immunoglobulin A level after treatment in the treatment<br>group amounted to 1,1007 ± 0.2458 mg/g feces higher than the control group 0.6045 ± 0.2358 mg/g faeces,<br>statistically there were no significant differences (p = 0.09 ). Difference in increase in secretory fecal<br>immunoglobulin A levels after and before treatment in the treatment group 1.0374 ± 0.2575 mg/g feces is<br>higher than the control group 0.5879 ± 0.2385 mg/g feces, statistically there were no significant differences<br>(p = 0.09).<br>Conclusion Oral care colostrum has been shown to increase secretory immunoglobulin A levels in preterm<br>infants before colostrum oral care, and colostrum oral care has the potential to increase faecal secretory<br>immunoglobulin A level than controls in preterm infants.</p> Eko Wahyudi1 , Martono Tri Utomo2 , Risa Etika2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Toluene Safe Concentration, Malondialdehyde and Glutathione Levels in Osowilangun Shoe Home Industry Workers <p>Introduction: Toluene is the main organic solvent found in adhesives used for shoe production in<br>Osowilangun Shoes Home Industry. Exposure to toluene that exceeds the threshold value can cause the<br>emergence of free radicals which eventually increase the concentration of malondialdehyde and reduce the<br>concentration of glutathione in the body. The purpose of this research is to study the safe concentration of<br>toluene with levels of malondialdehyde and glutathione in Osowilangun shoe home industry workers.<br>Methods: This is an observational study using cross sectional design and quantitative approaches. There<br>are 25 people were taken as sample by using accidental sampling technique. Data analysis used Pearson<br>correlation test.<br>Result: The average safe concentration value in this study was 1.1088 mg / m3 with an average value of<br>malondialdehyde of 7,784 MU and glutathione of 35,655 ?g / L. Pearson correlation test showed the safe<br>concentration of toluene and malondialdehyde level was p=0.685 (p&gt; 0.05), with relationship between safe<br>concentrations of toluene and glutathione was p = 0.808 (p &lt;0.05).<br>Conclusion: This study shows that there was no significant relationship between toluene safe concentration<br>and levels of malondialdehyde and glutathione.</p> Emilia Yoanita Rachma1 , Abdul Rohim Tualeka2 , Juliana Jalaludin3 , Syamsiar S Russeng4 , Pudji Rahmawati5 , Ahsan Ahsan6 , Indri H Susilowati7 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Causes of Death Mother and Efforts to Reduce Mother Death Numbers in Luwu District, South Sulawesi Province <p>This study aims to analyze the indirect causes of maternal death. This type of research is qualitative with a<br>case study approach. Data collection was carried out by document search, community visits, and interviews.<br>The results showed that the total number of maternal deaths in Luwu district totaled 19 were spread across 13<br>sub-districts, and maternal deaths generally occurred during labor and the puerperium. The indirect causes<br>of maternal death can be seen from the close and far determinants. The close determinants were reviewed<br>from three too late and four too, infectious diseases, far more determinant nutritional status in terms of<br>distance, and the presence of obstetricians in obstetric emergencies. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality are<br>the main focus on the prevention of complications, immediately make referrals when maternal conditions<br>are still optimal. Empowering mothers and families.</p> Erni1 , Muhammad Syafar2 , Irwandy3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Proactive Personality, Professionalism, and Work Engagement on Performance among Village Midwives in Neonatal Complication Management Using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness <p>Approximately 15% of newborns grow with neonatal complications. The percentage of neonatal<br>complications in Probolinggo from 2015 to 2017 has not reached the target of 80%. The number of neonatal<br>complications still achieved 68.68% of the minimum service standards target.<br>This study analyzed the effect of proactive personality, professionalism, and work engagement on<br>performance among village midwives in managing neonatal complications by using an integrated strategy<br>management of childhood illness. Proportional random sampling was in use to collect 180 village midwives<br>as the sample. The research was conducted in Probolinggo Primary Healthcare Center, Indonesia from<br>March to May 2018. The data collected through questionnaires were analyzed with a linear regression.<br>The results showed proactive personality influenced work engagement (p = 0.00). The higher the village<br>midwives’ proactive personality is, the higher the level of work engagement is. Besides, professionalism<br>influenced performance (p = 0.01). The higher the level of professionalism is, the higher the level of<br>performance is. This study also revealed work engagement influenced performance (p = 0.00). The higher<br>the level of work engagement is, the higher the level of performance is. However, proactive personality did<br>not affect performance.</p> Farouk Ilmid Davik1 , Fitri Widyacahya1 , Muhammad Ardian Cahya Laksana2 , Nyoman Anita Damayanti1, Dewi Retno Suminar3 , Ratna Dwi Wulandari1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Causative Factors of Increasing Prescription Drug Abuse based on Transcultural Nursing Theory <p>Prescription drugs abuse in society is becoming a serious problem in the world. This case is caused by a<br>variety of factors both internal and external, especially cultural factors. Various efforts have been done to<br>reduce this problem but have not showed optimal results. This research was conducted to analyze the factors<br>related to drug abuse in the society based on transcultural nursing theory. This research was conducted in<br>two villages in the South Kalimantan Province of Indonesia, using a correlational research design with a<br>cross-sectional approach. A total of 125 respondents suspected of abusing prescription drugs, were examined<br>using a questionnaire. The sample selection using simple random sampling technique. Prescription drug<br>abuse behavior was measured using a screening test CAGE-AID. The collected data was tested using a<br>logistic regression test. Religious and philosophical factors (p = 0.035); kinship and social factors (p =<br>0.038); cultural and lifestyle factors (p = 0.038); political and legal factors (p = 0.031); and economic<br>factors (p = 0.015) have a significant relationship with the behavior of drug abuse in the society. Meanwhile,<br>technological factors (p = 0.092) and education (0.062) have no relationship with these behaviors. Easy<br>access to drugs and the acceptance of this problem in the society have led to the higher cases of prescription<br>drugs abuse. Counseling related to the use of prescription drugs as well as an increase in rehabilitation and<br>religious programs need to be improved to prevent further abuse.</p> Ah Yusuf1 , Muhammad Tarmizi2 , Makhfudli3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Synergistic Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Selenium on Serum Testosterone in Restraint Stressed Rats <p>The present study aimed to determine the synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and selenium on serum<br>testosterone level in male rats exposed to restraint stress . Wistar rats weighting 175±25 grams were divided<br>randomly into four equal groups (n=10), some were supplemented with ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg bw/day)<br>orally, the second group was supplemented with selenium (0.02 µg/kg bw/day) orally, third group was orally<br>supplemented with both ascorbic acid and selenium , the control included ten rats .Blood was collected<br>on 20th days of experiment, and serum testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by<br>enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results for 20th days showed that supplement of rats<br>with ascorbic acid has highly significantly (P&lt;0.001) increased serum testosterone to be (5.18 ± 0.1 ng/<br>ml compared to stressed rats which recorded (2.37 ± 0.16 ng/ml) and showed that supplement of rats with<br>selenium has highly significantly (P&lt;0.001) increased serum testosterone level to be (5.28 ± 0.15 ng/ml)<br>compared to stressed rats, and showed that supplement of rats with (ascorbic acid+ Selenium) has highly<br>significantly (P&lt;0.001) increased serum testosterone level to be (5.78 ± 0.09 ng/ml) compared to stressed<br>rats which recorded (2.37 ± 0.16 ng/ml). It is probable that there is a synergistic effect of ascorbic acid and<br>selenium in relieving effect on restraint stress on male rats and enhancing testosterone levels .</p> Alaa K. M. Al-amery1 , Ali A. Al-Fahham2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Test of Midazolam Hydrochloride Stability in Different Storage and Temperature Container <p>Background: Midazolam hydrochloride is an injection form of benzodiazepines and included in the high<br>alert category in the Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Surabaya, Indonesia.<br>Nowadays, the technical preparation of midazolam drugs in the ICU room by doctors and nurses was<br>performed by reconstituting drugs in the injection syringes to be stored for a while in the room. Objectives:<br>To evaluate the preparation process for midazolam hydrochloride injection which has been analyzed in<br>Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital. Methods: Physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of 1 mg/mL<br>midazolam hydrochloride in aqua pro injection solvents have been evaluated at points 0, 8, 12, and 24 hours<br>after preparation, as well as a comparison of stability in storage conditions at room temperature compared<br>to refrigerator temperatures. Results: The results showed all the preparations were no foreign particles<br>in the sample container. The midazolam did not experience precipitation in both room and refrigerator<br>temperatures. The pH of midazolam solution during storage proved that the preparation was relatively stable<br>(pH 4.3–4.5). There were no significant differences of midazolam levels in both storages which was in range<br>of 95%. The Miccrobiology Stability Test showed negative germ growth after 24 hours incubation in both<br>storage. Conclusion: This study showed no changes in physical, chemical, or microbiological stability in the<br>midazolam injection samples up to 24 hours after the manufacturing process.</p> Anang Endaryanto1 , Andang Miatmoko2 , Mela Dwi Wulandari3 , Novi Aryanti3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship of Age, Work Period, and Education Level with Occupational Accidents in the South Borneo Coal Industry <p>Research Background: Occupational health and safety (OHS) is an effort to create a working atmosphere<br>that is safe, comfortable, and the ultimate goal is to create the highest productivity. The higher level of<br>production in the coal industry will be in line with the dangers and risks of work accidents in the coal<br>industry. Occupational accidents are influenced by 2 (two) direct causes namely unsafe action (unsafe action)<br>and dangerous condition (hazardous condition) Research Methodology: The research design used in this<br>study is observational analytic with the cross-sectional approach with a large sample of 80 respondents who<br>in the South Borneo coal industry. Data analysis used the statistical test Chi-Square (? = 0.05). Result: From<br>the results of the bivariable significance test using the Chi-Square test showed that the significant value of<br>age (p= 0.604), years of service (p= 0.544), level of education (p = 0.578) &gt; 0.05. Discussion: There is no<br>significant relationship between the variables of age, years of service, education level with work accidents<br>in the South Borneo coal industry</p> Arahnca Sevanya Tanaya1 , Tri Martiana2 , Zikri Fathur Rahman3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of SafMannan on Local Iraqi Laying Hens Performance <p>Phase one laying hens diet were included of two levels of yeast cell wall (YCW) called SafMannan from<br>Phlio-USA company. A total of 81 Iraqi laying hens 14 weeks’ old were distributed into three treatments.<br>Each treatment has 27 hens were distributed into 27 individual cages (one hen per cage). First group hens<br>were fed on basal diet without supplement (CON). Chicks in second and third group were fed on 250 ppm<br>(Saf 250) and 500 ppm (Saf 500) SafMannan respectively. Body weight were weighted weekly from 14-34<br>weeks; while, egg weight was numbered weekly from 20-34 weeks. Results revealed that body weight were<br>enhanced significantly (p?0.05) in (Saf 250) and (Saf 500) respectively as compared with the control group<br>(CON). The highest egg weight was found in the group was received (Saf 250). Egg weight were increase<br>significantly (p?0.05) in groups were received SafMannan (Saf 250) and (Saf 500) respectively as compared<br>with the (CON). In conclusion, adding of SafMannan as a prebiotic in the poultry hens diet at 250 ppm were<br>enhanced the egg weight and body weight of local Iraqi laying hens.</p> Yasser J. Jameel1 , Mohannad M. Alrekabi2 , and Nihad A. Ali3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro measurement volume of the neonate thyroid gland <p>Measurement and replacement fluid methods to estimate the thyroid gland volume. Because there is wideranging of variation in the volume of the thyroid gland in healthy individuals of different geographical<br>location, ages, gender, and races.Objectives: To estimate normal neonate thyroid gland volume it can throw<br>light to help clinicians deal better with the gland during neonatal age besides providing native standard<br>data. Period: From Sept 13, 2018, to Mar 22, 2019. Material &amp; Methods: Total of 48 subjects were<br>included, 24 male and 24 female. The neonate thyroid gland collected and inspected grossly and taken all<br>measurements, then use these measurements for finding volume thyroid gland. Also, the volumeis taken by<br>using replacement fluid. Results: The mean aggregate thyroid gland volume of measures method for male<br>subjectsstudy was 250.53 ± 4.37mm3<br>, while a female was 246.31 ± 3.42 mm3. The mean volume thyroid<br>gland of replacement fluid method for male subjects study was 295.71 ± 4.41mm3, while the female was<br>291.43 ± 4.04. The mean thyroid volume of the male is expressively larger than female in both methods but<br>statically non-significant variation. The difference between both ways statistically highly significant (p&lt;<br>0.01). Conclusion: according to results that achieved by two methods, we should use another correction<br>factor, higher than 0.749, until getting the nearest value to replacement fluid. Working out different ages to<br>establish average data.</p> Atyaf Mohammed Ali1 , Anas Hamed Musleh1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 X-Chromosome Markers Used in Deficiency of Paternity Case <p>Cases of deficiency paternity, characterized by missing of the alleged father, are a task for forensic genetics.<br>Recently these cases were determined using sets of extremely polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeats<br>(STRs), which indicate to powerful likelihood ratios (LR). Some difficult cases emerge whenever the kinship<br>highly remote or if the another hypotheses are not properly formulated because of the absence of information.<br>In these situations, beyond the routinely used marker set, laboratories usually enlarge the number and/or the<br>type of markers analysed. A set of 14X-STRs is further advantageous than 21 autosomal STRs (AS STRs)<br>biallelic markers. Furthermore, the utility of X-STRs was also appear in cases shows that in father–daughter<br>duos and merely a close family member of the alleged parent (father or mother) is existing for testing. Here<br>we present a cases with biological daughter of the alleged father and her mothers and putative grandmother<br>was the genotyped relative are available for reconstructing his haplotype . Aiming to increase the Paternity<br>Index (PI), Probability of Paternity (PP), and obtain more reliable results. The result of X STR showed that<br>the missing person (father) share 50% genotype with the donors (daughter)and (his mother) at each locus,<br>there are no alleles in any one of these 13 loci conflict with the alleles inherited from her father and Posterior<br>Probability of paternity was (99.999958%) that is mean the missing person was biological father for this<br>donor daughter.</p> Azzah Bahaa Abdulazeez 1,2, Ismail Hussein Aziz 1 , Mohammed Mashni Farhan 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Insulin Resistance <p>Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive<br>age women where insulin resistance plays an important role. Insulin resistance makes the first line treatment,<br>clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment, become ineffective. Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is believed to be an<br>alternative treatment for CC-resistant PCOS. Objectives: The aim of the study is to understand the effect<br>of ALA in Insuline receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) expression, Glucosa transporter 4 (GLUT-4) expression,<br>and folliculogenesis in insulin resistant PCOS rat model. Methods: This was an experimental study with<br>randomized posttest only control group design. 30 females rat injected with testosterone propionate (TP)<br>1mg/100gram bodyweight for 28 days then divided into 3 groups. Negative control group receive no other<br>treatment, positive control group receive a placebo for 14 days, and treatment group receive ALA for 14 days.<br>IRS-1 and GLUT-4 expression is evaluated with immunohistochemistry, while folliculogenesis is evaluated<br>by counting the number of follicle in each stage. Results: Mean IRS-1 expression in muscle in treatment<br>group is significantly higher than other groups (4.28±1.05; 3.02±1.03; 1.86±0.83, p &lt;0.01 respectively).<br>Mean GLUT-4 expression in treatment group is significantly higher than other groups (4.28±0.91; 3.20±1.14;<br>1.40±0.55, p &lt;0.01 respectively). Mean number of follicle in each stage in treatment group are significantly<br>reduced than other groups (all p &lt;0.05). Conclusion: ALA increase the expression of IRS-1 and GLUT-4,<br>and also reduce the number of follicle in each stage of folliculogenesis.</p> Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Women’s Knowledge Concerning Hydatidiform Mole at Maternity Hospitals in Baghdad City <p>Hydatidiform mole results from abnormal fertilization. It is the most common disorder of gestational<br>trophoblastic diseases can be partial or complete. Early detection of molar pregnancy and monitoring can<br>reduce complication particularly coriocarcinoma. The fetus typically dies, and a miscarriage often occurs.<br>Objectives: To assess women’s knowledge concerning Hydatitiform mole and find out the association<br>between women’s knowledge with their study variables.<br>Methods: Descriptive study was conducted from November 2019 to February 2020 at maternity hospitals<br>in Baghdad city. Non probability (purposive sample) was used to collect the data from (100) women who<br>attending outpatient clinics at maternity hospitals. A questionnaire was constructed about knowledge<br>assessment tool were designed and prepared by the researcher. A pilot-test is conducted in order to determine<br>the reliability of the questionnaire in a sample of (20) women who were excluded from the study sample.<br>Data was analyzed through the use of SPSS version 20.<br>Results: The main results revealed that the highest percentage (41.6%) of women’s age was (20-29) years.<br>More than half of them (60 %) are graduated from Secondary Nursing School. They have inadequate<br>knowledge. There are no statistical significant differences between level of knowledge and women’s age or<br>educational level.<br>Conclusion: This study shows that the knowledge of study sample concerning Hydatitiform mole was<br>inadequate.<br>Recommendations: It is important to design a booklet or pamphlet about Hydatitiform mole risk factors,<br>signs and symptoms, screening, to reach for all women over the country in order to early detection and<br>prevention.</p> Fatima Fadel Benyian Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Adherence and Satisfaction of Deferasiroxversus Deferoxamine in Transfusion-Dependent Beta-Thalassemia <p>Objectives: The present study was aimed to compare the adherence and satisfaction with deferoxamine<br>(Desferal®) versus deferasirox (Exjade®), a novel oral iron chelator, in patients with transfusion-dependent<br>beta-thalassemia.<br>Patients and Methods: In this cross?sectional, single-center study, 108 homozygous ?thalassemia major<br>patients aged between 3-21 years old were enrolled. They were on regular blood transfusions and iron<br>chelators (either deferoxamine or deferasirox) for about three months. Another fifty-six apparently healthy<br>non-thalassemic subjects were enrolled as a control group. Results: Adherence and satisfaction wereassessed<br>byusing a simplequestionnaire establishedduring an interviewwithpatientsortheirparents.The serumferritin<br>level was measuredbythe ELISAmethod.<br>Our findings showed that adherence and satisfaction in the deferasirox group were more than that with<br>deferoxamine group patients. Serum ferritin level in the deferasirox group was significantly lower than in<br>the deferoxamine group at (p?0.001). while the control group was significantly lower than both patients<br>groups at (p?0.001). Patients on deferasirox had lower adverse effects than the deferoxamine group since<br>deferoxamine produce irritation and pain at the injection site for the patients.<br>Conclusion: Our findings concluded that deferasirox is an effective iron chelator as deferoxamine but with<br>better adherence and satisfaction than deferoxamine. Deferasirox can be used as a preferred iron chelator<br>therapy in iron-overload patients with beta-thalassemia.</p> Mustafa Al-Khyate1 , Zeina A.Althanoon2 , Nasih A.Alkazaz3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Treatment of UTI in Rats Induced by Pathogenic E. Coli <p>The present study objective was to evaluate the therapeutics effects of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin on UTI<br>induced experimentally by E. coli in rats. Forty female rats were divided into two groups, infected (30 rats)<br>and control (10 rats). The infected group were inoculated intraurethral by 108<br>suspension of E. coli. Then the<br>infected group subdivided into 3 subgroups, G1 which serve as control positive, G2 which inoculated by E.<br>coli and then treated by ciprofloxacin 50mg/kg, G3 were inoculated by E. coli then treated with gentamicin<br>40 mg/kg.Treatment with antibiotics started 24 hours after bacterial inoculation and finished 72 hours after<br>the initial therapy. The length of antibiotic medication was chosen for both antibiotics as a short-term 3 days<br>therapy.The animals were monitored for presence of signs. E. coli urine bacterial demonstration were done<br>at 1 week before infection and 24hrs., 48hrs, 96hrs, 6 days, 12 days and 24 days after infection. There was<br>significant increase (P&lt;0.05) in E. coli viable count in all infectedgroups, in addition the result of optical<br>density (OD) by using spectrophotometry record increased threshold of the OD of the urine culture of all<br>infected groups after (24 hrs.) of infection compared with control group, The current results showed that<br>UTI symptoms and bacterial isolation were decreased after treatment by both ciprofloxacin and gentamicin<br>as compared with G1 group.<br>In conclusion, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin can alleviate the symptoms of UTI after single dose.</p> Wissam Qadry Mutaab Alqaissy1 , Thaar Mohammed Najim2 , Bahjat Fakhri Mahmood Al-shammari1 , Mustafa Salah Hasan2 , MarwaRaad Jead3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Artemesiaannua L. Silver Nanoparticles Exhibit Anticancer Activity by ROS mediated apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 Cells <p>Aim of this study was to investigate the growth inhibitory effect of Artemesisannua L. silver nanoparticles<br>(A.annuaAgNPS) on human triple negative breast cancer tumor cell line MDA-MB-231. Cells were<br>cultured and treated with A.annua water extract and A.annuaAgNPS to determine the half inhibitory<br>concentration (IC50). Oxidative stress was determined using lipid peroxidation (LPO), ROS generation and<br>by determining the levels of antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH).<br>Further, the mechanism of apoptotic induction was assessed by DNA fragmentation analyses. We observed<br>that A.annuaAgNPS significantly caused growth inhibition by increasing levels of LPO and ROS, in a dose<br>dependent manner with reduced level of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Increased shear in genomic DNA<br>from MDA MB231 cells treated with A.annuaAgNPS shows apoptosis to be the cause of cell cell death. We<br>conclude that A.annuaAgNPS can be useed as a therapeutic agent against breast cancer.</p> Renugadevi Karthikeyan1 , Julius Amaldas2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Implant Screw Breakage: A Review Article <p>Dental implants have revolutionized the treatment for edentulous and partially edentulous patients, and<br>successful implant integration has been well documented for patients with those clinical conditions. With<br>the high rate of implant success for edentulous individuals, the concept of osseointegrationhas become a<br>predictable treatment modality[2]. Yet this cutting-edge treatment modality is not without its own set of<br>adversities. Implant failures are as common as implant success. The types of implant failures are 1) loss of<br>integration, 2) positional failures 3) soft tissue defects, and 4) biomechanical failures. In this article we come<br>to the conclusion that the mechanical stability of the implant is a multi-factorial aspect.</p> Vijay Ebenezer Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Fate of Immediate Implants Vs Single Tooth Implants: A Review Article <p>Dental Implants have over the decades become one of the most versatile treatment techniques with good<br>survivability rates. They have come a long way and have advanced further and further, improving all qualities.<br>A more recent technique of implant placement is Immediate Loading Implants. Yet it has not yet become the<br>go to technique for day to day treatment of edentulous cases as it has a significant chance of failure.<br>Methodology: Pubmed database was searched for the keywords “IMMEDIATE IMPLANTS”, “DELAYED<br>IMPLANTS”, “FATE OF IMPLANTS” 158 articles were found.<br>Out of the 158 articles, the non dental articles were excluded to get 38 articles.<br>The duplicates were excluded to get 4 articles<br>These 4 articles were then reviewd and data for this Review Article was obtained.</p> Balakrishnan1 , Vijay Ebenezer2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Maxillary Sinus Lift Procedure Efficacy and Adversities: A Review Article <p>Sinus lift procedure is a procedure used to augment bone thickness of the maxillary sinus for better<br>survivability of dental implants. The maxillary sinus floor augmentation was 1st done by Oscar Hilt Tatum<br>Jr, in 1974. Since then the procedure has been refined and revised over the years. Yet it has a few adverse<br>effects such as perforation, tearing of the antral lining and haemosinus. In this article we see that sinus lift<br>surgery is as versatile as the surgeon is and in some cases if not done properly, can result in severe morbidity</p> Balakrishnan1 , Vijay Ebenezer2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Tilted Implants: An Alternative to Conventional Fabricated Dentures <p>Rehabilitation of patients with completely edentulous maxilla and mandible with implant becomes difficult<br>because of less bone quantity, poor bone quality, maxillary sinus in posterior maxilla and mental foramen and<br>mandibular canal in mandible. Sinus lifting procedure and bone augmentation procedure were required to<br>treat such patients, prior to implant placement. This article reviews on an alternative treatment procedure in<br>which two posterior implants are placed at an angle eliminating the need for sinus lift or bone augmentation<br>procedures.</p> Vijay Ebenezer1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Tramadol in Oral Surgery – A Literature Review <p>Elimination of pain is one of the most important duties of a doctor. A surgeon has to come across more<br>number of cases where management of pain becomes a handful. Thus proper use of analgesics both systemic<br>and local are an integral part of any successful surgery. For decades NSAIDs has been the go to drug for<br>management of pain and administering anaelgesia. But recent pharmacological advancements have opened<br>up a new way of administering anaelgesia in the form of synthetic opiods. This review article aims at finding<br>out the efficacy of local administration of TRAMADOL in maxillofacial surgeries.</p> Balakrishnan1 , Vijay Ebenezer2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Beginner’s Guide to Surgical Treatment Objective – An Orthodontist’s Point of View <p>Visualising the result of any proposed treatment, not only guides us in each part of the journey toward<br>the final result but also to assess if the treatment objectives are met. Any adverse effects can be easily<br>determined, before the start of the treatment, and necessary alterations to the treatment plan can be made.<br>Various methods in which the result of an orthognathic surgery can be visualised are – overlay tracing,<br>template tracing, cephalometric prediction tracing, computer prediction, feasibility mock surgery, etc. How<br>to carry out these predictions are discussed in detail in this article.</p> Diana Ashok1 , Thulasi Ram E2 , Kannan M S.3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Twin Block and Its Modifications <p>Twin block, one of the most commonly used functional appliances has many advantages over other functional<br>appliances like comfort, esthetics and function. But using the same appliances for all clinical situations<br>limited its use in various cases. To overcome such limitations of twin block appliance, various researchers<br>have come up with various modifications. This article gives an overview of the different modifications of<br>twin block appliance.</p> Jeenu Raj1 , M.S Kannan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Key Stone Entity in Paediatric Dentistry: Tell Play Do <p>The child behaviourmanagement in paediatric clinic is the way by which the dental health care team effectively<br>and efficiently performs treatment for a child. To provide dental care for children good communication<br>skills are necessary.Dental fear is a common, essential, and inevitable emotion that appears as a response<br>to the stressful situation, which raises children’s anxiety level, resulting in reduced demand for paediatric<br>dental care. Behaviour management is widely agreed to be a key factor supplying dental care for children.<br>TSD technique was modified into Tell?Play?Do (TPD) technique, using the concept of learning by doing in<br>reducing children’s fear and anxiety to dental treatment and promoting adaptive behaviour.</p> Sabari Lavanya, PonnuduraiArangannal, Jeevarathan J, Amudha S, AarthiJ, Vijayakumar M Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Naturally Available Transport Medium For Avulsed Teeth- A Review <p>Tooth avulsion or exarticulation is a traumatic injury of dental tissue characterised by complete displacement<br>of the tooth out of its socket. Successful treatment outcome is dependent on the survival of the viable<br>periodontal ligament cells attached to the tooth root surface. This review discusses various storage/ transport<br>media for avulsed tooth obtained from natural sources. The knowledge of availability and accessibility<br>of such natural storage media would increase the awareness among the healthcare providers and would<br>therefore improve the prognosis of the treatment protocol by reducing extra-oral dry time of the avulsed<br>tooth</p> Ramya Chellammal1 , Jeevarathan J2 , PonnuduraiArangannal3 , Vijayakumar M4 , Amudha S5 , Aarthi J6 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Gymnema Sylvestre - A Review <p>Many people suffering with diabetes mellitus with increased risk of complication which affects the quality<br>of day today life style this increases the mortality rate of the people. To reduce the people financial burden<br>and to prevent the side effects of diabetes mellitus, an extract of plant called Gymnemasylvestre’s shows<br>a potential effect in reducing the sugar level.Gymnema leaves have the mixture of bioactive constituent’s<br>tri-terpenes, glycosides and saponin property which represents the antidiabetic property. Theleaves of<br>gymnema sylvestre are used in herbal medicinal preparation. Theleaves of Gymnema sylvestre contain both<br>antidiabetic and hypolipedemic properties. Here the review of such plant is discussed in this paper</p> Arumugam Rajalakshmi 1, 2, Govindarajan Sumathy3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Methods for Distalizing Molar – A Review <p>The extraction or non extraction debate from the Angle era to the present day orthodontics does not define<br>an absolute indication for a specific treatment plan One of the non-compliance therapies and fairly recent<br>concept is the MOLAR DISTALIZATIONwhich has been effectively used in the correction of malocclusion.<br>Advances in mechanotherapy and changes in treatment concepts have reduced or minimized the need for<br>extraction in severe discrepancies. Various techniques are currently employed in non-extraction therapy in<br>the treatment of a malocclusion</p> B Raghavendra1 , E.thulasi Ram2 , Harini R1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Frozen Section-A Short Review <p>rozen section is a specimen of tissue that has been quick-frozen, cut by microtome, and stained immediately<br>for rapid diagnosis of possible malignant lesions. A specimen processed in this manner is not satisfactory for<br>detailed study of the cells, but it is valuable because it is quick and gives the surgeon immediate information<br>regarding the malignancy of a piece of tissue. Frozen section plays an important role in the management of<br>surgical patients yet it must be used prudently to avoid the indiscriminate usage of this important technique.<br>As it is subjected to many limitations compared to the paraffin embedded tissue sections, this review<br>highlights the important concepts and principle of intra-operative frozen section consultation as well as<br>discussing the limitations of this technique.</p> Ryhanath Gulshan1 , N. Aravindha Babu2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Potential Triggers of Lichen Planus: A Review <p>Oral lichen planus (OLP) is mucocutaneous and chronic infl ammatory disease of unclear pathogenesis. OLP<br>usually affects the mucous membrane of oral cavity. It is an autoimmune disorder araising from several<br>etiological factors like genetics, stress, virus, dental restorative materials, drugs and systemic diseases. It is<br>a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease usually encountered by dentists and dermatologists. Although much<br>work is being done on this disorder, there is still uncertainty over the specifi c etiopathogenesis and treatment.<br>Because there is a risk of reported malignant potential with this disease, the patient needs early diagnosis and<br>proper management. This article reviews mainly the etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms through which this<br>unique disorder occurs along with the aspects of clinical, histopathological and treatment.</p> E.P. Sridevi Anjuga1 , N. Aravindha Babu2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis for Dental Practitioners <p>Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the frequent clinical oral diseases causing painful ulceration<br>in the oral cavity. It is easy to define the clinical features and characteristics of this disease, etiology and<br>pathogenesis remains unclear. As a result, the treatment options are still inadequate with the ability to reduce<br>the duration, healing time, rate of recurrence and conclusive intervention. The review article aims to discuss<br>the pathogenesis, clinical features, different treatment modalities and updates that are currently available and<br>offer the clinician a clear and detailed picture of how to deal with RAS in an appropriate manner.</p> E.P. Sridevi Anjuga1 , N. Aravindha Babu2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Holistic or Biologic Dentistry : Future Alternative or Not <p>Holistic dentistry is also called Progressive dentistry, biologic dentistry, or biocompatible dentistry. Holistic<br>dentistry is a new alternative branch of traditional dentistry where it deals with the unrecognized impact<br>of oral health on the overall health of the person. This new idea of dentistry strongly opposes some of<br>the treatment modalities of traditional dentistry. Although the concept and practise has brought about a<br>revolution but some of the complementary methods followed by holistic dentists under criticism.</p> Sudakshina Mukherjee1 , N. Aravindha Babu2 , E. Rajesh3, K.M.K.Masthan4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Viral Lesions of Oral Cavity <p>Oral examination is an integral part of general dentistry. So it is not uncommon to come across various viral<br>diseases in the oral cavity. The clinical diagnosis of these viral lesions sometimes become confusing due<br>to similar clinical presentations, confusion leads to misdiagnosis and eventually the treatment.This article<br>discusses about the viral lesions, their clinical presentation, diagnosis and appropriate management which<br>are usually manifested in oral cavity that will eventually provide the general dental practitioner with an up<br>to date guide for better diagnosis and management.</p> Sudakshina Mukherjee1 , N. Aravindha Babu2 , E. Rajesh3, K.M.K.Masthan4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Endodontic-Periodontic Relationship - A Short Review <p>The relationship between periodontal and endodontic disease has been a matter of speculation for many<br>years. The endodontium and periodontium influence each other during health, function and disease. This<br>review gives a fair knowledge about several aspects of endo-perio relationship. Their exist three main<br>pathways of communication between the pulp and periodontium. They are the apical foramen, the accessory<br>canals and the dentinal tubules. The apical foramen and the lateral canals come under vascular pathways<br>whereas the dentinal tubule comes under the tubular pathway. The pulp and periodontal tissues are derived<br>from highly vascular mesenchymal tissues of the tooth germ. The apical foramen and lateral canals maintain<br>the vascular connection between these tissues throughout the tooth development.</p> Ravindranath Megha1 , Alagarsamy Venkatesh2 , Nagarajan Geethapriya3 ,Balasubramaniam Anuradha3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Cracked Tooth Syndrome <p>Cracked tooth syndrome(CTS) remains a big challenge to dentist because of its variable, bizarre clinical<br>presentation, unpredictable symptoms and diagnostic dilemma. Based on the severity of the symptoms and<br>depth of tooth structure involved, the treatment planning and management of CTS varies from one case to<br>another or from one tooth to another in the same individual. The prognosis of such tooth continues to be<br>questionable and needs continuous analysis. This article aims to resolve some of the confusion surrrounding<br>tooth cracks diagnosis and different treatment options.</p> Loganathan Saatwika1 , Venkatachalam Prakash2 , Dhakshinamoorthy Malarvizhi2 , Arunajetasan Subbiya3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Lateral Canthopexy in Lower Blepharoplasty: A Review Literature <p>Background: Lower eyelid malposition is a known complication of lower (lid) blepharoplasty surgery.<br>The prevention of this complication is easier than its treatment. Over the past 10 years lot of patients have<br>had lower blepharoplasties with a canthopexy procedure and in some cases a tarsal strip canthoplasty. The<br>criterion for a lateral tarsal strip canthoplasty was a lid distraction distance greater than or equal to 10 mm.<br>Lid distraction distance is the distance the eyelid can be pulled away from the globe after the initial skin<br>incision has been made and measured with calipers. If the eyelid can be pulled away from the globe less than<br>10 mm, then a canthopexy is performed, which occurred in 98% of cases. Patients had lateral canthopexies<br>regardless of age or preoperative assessment. Herein, we describe a simple method of canthopexy that can<br>be performed on most patients having a lower blepharoplasty, to not only achieve a cosmetically superior<br>result but also to prevent eyelid malposition or ectropion.<br>Conclusion: We have described a simple prophylactic canthopexy suturing technique that all surgeons<br>performing lower blepharoplasty can do to prevent rounding or ectropion. Naturally, the more cases that are<br>done, the more accurate will be the eyelid position and adequacy of eyelid tension achieved. Lateral tarsal<br>strip canthoplasty is also used in more advanced cases of lid laxity.</p> Balakrishnan Ramalingam Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Proanthocyanidins (PC) - A novel approach <p>An ever increasing number of pharmacological effects have become known through the discovery of new<br>plant flavonoid with variations in chemical structure and related derivatives. A new group of phytochemicals<br>that has been attracting much attention from both the general public and health professionals isa novel drug<br>proanthocyanidins. This review emphasize various properties of proanthocyanidin, pertaining to various<br>diseases of proanthocyanidins.</p> Jayamathi Govindaraj1 , Keerthidaa Govindaraj2 , S.Raghavendra Jayesh3 , Kesavaram Padmavathy4 , Mathangi Ramalingam5 , Vidyarekha U6, Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Nutrition in Oral Health <p>There is a mutually beneficial relationship present between the well being of oral tissues and nutrition in our<br>body. The health of the oral tissues, the quality of saliva in mouth, the count of oral tissues and the extent<br>of the taste relies on the consumption of nutrients. Oral health denotes the kind of food that has been taken<br>and also the level of nutrients. A review of literary study was made to describe briefly about this mutually<br>beneficial relationship.</p> Aravindha Babu.N1 , Nishanth.G2 , B. Krishna Prasanth3 , K.M.K.Masthan4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Breast Cancer Awareness among Female Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital <p>Breast cancer accounts for 19-34 % of all cancer cases among women in India. There is a high mortality<br>associated with breast cancer due to late stage diagnosis, as patients usually present at an advanced stage<br>of the disease. This can be attributed to factors like lack of awareness among the patients and non-existent<br>breast cancer screening programs. This study highlights the need for awareness about breast cancer among<br>women, propagation of valid information regarding the disease and promotes early detection of breast cancer</p> B. Kanchana, N. Sundharrajan2 , B. Krishnaprasanth3 , N. Aravindha Babu4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Auditory Hallucination in Hearing Loss Patient: A Case Report <p>Hallucination occurs in different modalities (olfactory, tactile, gustatory, visual, and auditory). Auditory<br>hallucination is the most common among them. It is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds<br>without external auditory stimulus. It is most common among people with psychotic disorder (schizoprenia).<br>It is also seen in people with hearing impairment. Hallucinations may also be present in 10–15% of normal<br>healthy individuals. This case study discuss about an adult female of 88 years who reported with a complaint<br>of auditory hallucination for the past 2 years and focuses on the rehabilitation provided and highlights the<br>use of amplification devices on tinnitus and similar disorders.</p> Cibi Siddarth 1, Aarthi Anbalagan1 , Deepthi Pragadeeswaran1, Krishna Prasanth.B2 , Aravindha Babu.N3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Accuracy of Goodsall’s Rule in Perianal Fistulas – Correlation with Mr Fistulogram <p>Introduction: Perianal fistula is one of the common gastrointestinal pathology with significant morbidity.<br>Goodsall’s rule states that the posterior perianal fistulas have the fistulous tract that opens into the anal canal<br>in the midline posteriorly, sometimes taking a curvilinear course and anterior perianal fistulas will have a<br>radial fistulous tract.<br>Objectives: To assess the accuracy of Goodsall’s rule in perianal fistulas on comparison with Magnetic<br>Resonance (MR) fistulogram findings.<br>Materials and Methods: A total of 45 cases with perianal fistula underwent pre-operative MR Fistulogram<br>assessment. Fistulas were divided into anterior and posterior fistulas based on MR Fistulogram findings.<br>Accuracy of Goodsall’s rule in all the perianal fistulas visualised on MRI was assessed.<br>Results: Out of 45 patients, 10(22.2%) patients had anterior fistulas and rest of 35(77.8%) patients had<br>posterior fistulas. Goodsall’s rule was valid in 28(62.2%) patients. Seventeen (37.8%) patients did not follow<br>Goodsall’s rule. Goodsall’s rule was found to be more accurate in anterior fistulas than posterior fistulas.<br>Conclusion: MR Fistulogram has high accuracy of detecting perianal fistulas. Goodsall’s rule may not be<br>valid in all the cases of perianal fistulas. Goodsall’s rule is more applicable in anterior fistulas. Posterior<br>fistulas do not strictly adhere to Goodsall’s rule with many of them showing linear tracts. This information<br>is useful for pre-operative planning of fistula treatment.</p> Pavan Kumar N1 ,Venkatraman Indiran2 , Ramachandra Prasad3 , Prabakaran Maduraimuthu4 ,Krishna Prasanth5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment and Management for Speech in Facial Palsy: A Review Study <p>Facial nerve palsy is the common problem of facial muscles weakness and facial appearance, mainly resulting<br>of temporary or permanent damage of any structures innervated by the facial nerve. It can be congenital or<br>acquired. About 45 to 75 % of unilateral facial nerve palsy cases are still idiopathic. Facial palsy impairment<br>significantly affects swallowing, articulation, and lip sufficiency. Diminished facial expression can pose<br>challenges in face-to-face communications that affects their psychological consequences which lead to<br>negative impact on the quality of life. This article reviews on the assessment and management for the<br>communication and quality of life. Speech-language therapy in facial paralysis aims in the rehabilitation of<br>oral functions such as verbal and non-verbal communication, swallowing and vegetative skills.</p> Sherly.K1 , Ambar Gupta1 , Aishwarya.P1 , Krishna Prasanth2 , Aravindha Babu.N3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Awareness of Audiologists and Speech Language Pathologists among Doctors <p>Aim: The purpose of this study is to survey the awareness of Audiologists and Speech Language Pathologists<br>among Medical Professionals (Doctors, Postgraduate students and Undergraduate students) and to report the<br>preliminary survey results.<br>Method: A survey was carried out by administering questionnaire consisting 20 questions. The questions<br>are designed to explore and investigate the field of Audiology and Speech Language Pathology (ASLP). The<br>participants were divided into two groups A and B, where group B is below 35 years and group A is 35 years<br>and above.<br>Result: The result of the study revealed that the overall awareness of ASLPs among Medical Professionals<br>varied between fairly adequate knowledge to inadequate knowledge. Age does not have any influence on<br>significant awareness on ASLPs.<br>Conclusion: Hence the knowledge and awareness for audiologists and speech-language pathologists need to<br>escalate among medical professionals. Future surveys should be conducted to reduce the lack of awareness of</p> Jamuna Dayalan1 , Suman Maji1 , Jerusha Biju1 , Subhashini Dhandayutham2 , Krishna Prasanth3, Bhuminathan.S4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Barodontalgia:- Revealing the Unreveaing <p>Barodontalgia is a pain due to pressure difference. Here in this review article, pathophysiology, manifestation,<br>associated conditions and treatment guidelines of this rare symptom have been discussed. It is often a flare<br>up of preexisting sub clinical oral diseases. Deep sea divers, air crew members especially of fighter jets often<br>suffer from these due to frequent altitude difference and with it the pressure difference. This often pose a<br>great challenge to dental surgeons who sometimes fail to found the exact ill tooth of problem so management<br>becomes problematic.</p> Aravindha Babu.N, Sudakshina Mukherjee2 , N. Anitha3 , K.M.K.Masthan4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Osseo Densification - A Comprehensive Review on Novel Approach <p>Success of a dental implant depends on osseointegration which is the direct structural and functional<br>connection between the dental implant and the alveolar bone. Successful osseointegration requires both<br>primary stability (mechanical stability) between the implant and the bone and secondary stability (biological<br>stability) which occurs during bone remodelling during healing.</p> Vijay Ebenezer1 , Balakrishnan Ramalingam2 , M.Elumalai3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Attitude of Pediatricians with Regard to Emergency Management of Dental Avulsion- A Survey <p>Dental trauma is a very significant problem encountered in both primary and the permanent dentition.In<br>preschool children the trauma rate is as high as 18% of all injuries. Among all facial injuries, dental injuries are<br>the most common of which avulsions occur in 1–16% of all dental injuries. Among dental traumatic injuries,<br>avulsion results in major functional and esthetic disturbances for patients. Epidemiological studies revealed<br>that children from 8 to 12 years often suffer a dental injury.The teeth most commonly avulsed in both the<br>primary and the permanent dentition are the maxillary central and lateral incisors. The longer the avulsed<br>tooth is out of its socket, the less likely it will remain in a healthy functional state after replantation. The<br>prognosis of replanted permanent teeth depends primarily on (i) prompt and appropriate first care, commonly<br>provided by non-health professionals at the site of the accident, (ii) the storage media of the avulsed tooth<br>prior to replantation, and (iii) the viability of periodontal ligament remnants on the root surface. Research<br>has shown that immediate replantation is the best and most appropriate treatment for the traumatically<br>avulsed permanent teeth.<br>The aim of this study is to assess the basic knowledge of dental trauma and its management among<br>pediatricians</p> AmudhaS1 , Vijayakumar M2 , Shankar P3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Demineralization – An Overview of the Mechanism and Causative Agents <p>Various tissues in the body like bone, enamel dentin and cementum are composed of inorganic material<br>and they are exposed to multiple cycles of Demineralisation and remineralisation. Understanding these<br>biological mechanisms are necessary for developing treatments for these mineralisation related diseases and<br>specifically dental caries as far as dentistry is concerned. This article focuses on the mechanism and rate of<br>demineralisation and discusses in detail the causes of demineralisation.</p> Suresh Mitthra1 , Manasa Narasimhan2 , Ragupathy Shakila2 , Balasubramaniam Anuradha3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Silorane composites in Dentistry- an Overview of the Composition and Properties <p>Siloranes are a class of composites introduced in dentistry, introduced by Weinmann et al in 2005. The<br>term silorane is derived from siloxane and oxirane. The combined form of these two chemical compounds<br>forms siloranes, which are biocompatible and hydrophobic in nature. The polymerization mechanism of<br>silorane composites is described as a cationic ring opening polymerization reaction that causes opening and<br>expansion of the polymeric chain. This reduces the volumetric shrinkage when compared to methacrylate<br>based composites. This article highlights the composition and properties of silorane composites.</p> Suresh Mitthra1 , Regunathan Hema2 , Balasubramaniam Anuradha3 , Tirpuravaram Vinay Kumar Reddy3 , Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphologic Aberrations of Mandibular Premolar with two and Three Canals: Case Report <p>The mandibular premolars are more prone to aberrations of canals. They include bifurcation and trifurcation<br>of canals which makes it difficult to diagnose and manage. The failure to treat them leads to re-infection<br>and persistence of infection in the tooth. Hence, it is of utmost importance for the clinician to know the<br>morphologic variations. The present case report is aimed to give a clinical insight of such aberrations.<br>The first case presents with mandibular first premolar with 2 roots and 2 root canals and second case is a<br>mandibular second premolar with 1 root and 3 canals which was diagnosed with CBCT. Both the cases were<br>treated endodontically and successfully managed.</p> Sahithi Reddy1 , Venkatachalam Prakash2 , Ramachandran Tamilselvi3, Arumugam Karthick4 , Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Dental Health and Pregnancy – An Overview <p>Pregnancy is a physiological state with significant changes in a woman’s body. Pregnant women are more<br>prone to gingival diseases due high levels of fluctuating pregnancy hormones.The aim of this article is to<br>bring to light the changes in oral cavity during pregnancy, the consequences of not treating them and the<br>current recommendations for dental management of pregnant patients in different trimesters.</p> Balasubramaniam Anuradha1 , Narasimhan Manasa2 , Suresh Mitthra3, Balasubramaniam Anuradha1 , Narasimhan Manasa2 , Suresh Mitthra3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Influencing Ledge Formation and Its Management in Endodontics <p>Endodontic treatment can be predictable, successful, and relatively easy to perform if every individual<br>step is performed appropriately. Hasty mechanical and chemical manipulation of the root canal system can<br>lead to procedural error. Procedural accidents during endodontic treatment occurs either due to inadequate<br>attention to the details. Removal of canal wall structure on the outside curve in the apical half of the canal<br>due to the tendency of files to restore themselves to their original linear shape during canal preparation may<br>lead to ledge formation and possible perforation.</p> Ramachandran Tamilselvi1 , Veronica Aruna Kumari2 , Ilango Porkodi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Technologies of Regenerative Endodontic Therapy – A Review <p>Regenerative treatment is a recently advancing field in Endodontics. Newer treatment protocols and<br>technologies are being put forward in this regard. This review is about some of the important aspects in<br>technologies of regenerative Endodontics.</p> Ravindranath Megha, Alagarsamy Venkatesh2 , Dhakshinamoorthy Malarvizhi2 , Arunajatesan Subbiya3 , Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 100 Years of Calcium Hydroxide in Dentistry: A Review of Literature <p>Ever since the introduction of calcium hydroxide in 1920, it has been widely used in dentistry. This is due<br>to the therapeutic properties of calcium hydroxide imparted by its high pH and dissociation to form ions<br>Ca+2 and OH?. This makes it a remineralizing agent, a bactericidal or bacteriostatic agent based on the pH<br>concentration and also an anti-inflammatory agent. It is being applied for various purposes in dentistry like<br>intracanal medicament, pulp capping agent, root canal sealer, cavity liner, apexification, pulpotomy, canals<br>with exudate, perforation management and root resorption. This review article aims to describe in detail the<br>various properties of calcium hydroxide and applications marking 100 years of its use in dentistry.</p> Sahithi Reddy1 , Venkatachalam Prakash2 , Arunajatesan Subbiya3 , Suresh Mitthra4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Light Activated Bleaching of Discoloured Non-Vital Tooth: A Case Report <p>Trauma and pulpal infections are part of the routine of the dental practice. Common consequences in<br>these cases are alterations in dental color, compromising patient’s esthetics and his interaction in social<br>environment. Bleaching aids to preserve dental structure as compared to full coverage crowns and also<br>show immediate esthetic results. This clinical case shows a bleaching technique in devitalized teeth using<br>bleaching agent with 35% hydrogen peroxide activated by LED light. The technique is simple to perform<br>and also shows satisfactory results.</p> Sahithi Reddy1 , Alagarsamy Venkatesh2 , Newbegin Selvakumar Gold Pearlin Mary3 , Paramasivam Vivekanandhan4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nanotechnology and its Application in Restorative Dentistry: A Review of Literature <p>Norio Taniguchi, in 1974 coined the term ‘nanotechnology’. It includes the processing of separation,<br>consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule. Nanotechnology has paved<br>path for enhancing many material properties. Similarly so in dentistry it has led to enhancement of many<br>traditional restorative materials such as dental composite and GIC which has made it possible to use these<br>restorative materials in almost every region of the tooth. The aim of the present review article is to provide<br>insights into recent developments in the field of restorative dentistry favored by nano technology such<br>as, nano-composites, nano-bonding systems, nano-GIC, nano-varnish and sealants. It can be an aid to the<br>dentist in clinical practice or in research field.</p> Sahithi Reddy, Dhakshinamoorthy Malarvizhi2 , Alagarsamy Venkatesh2 , Paramasivam Vivekanandhan Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Brief Review on Haematoxylin: An Irreplaceable Tissue Stain <p>Haematoxylin is the most popular nuclear counterstain used in routine histopathogical techniques for<br>staining tissues. It is derived from the tree Haematoxylum Campechianum (H.campechianum). The history<br>of haematoxylin reveals centuries of war, strife and discovery dating from the Mayans and Aztecs who<br>used it as an ink and fabric dye to the war resulting in the invasion of Mexico by European countries.<br>H.campechianum was later named as logwood and block wood by the invaders that used it to generate<br>haematoxylin crystals to be utilized in textile industry. The recognition to introduce haematoxylin as<br>biological stain goes to Waldeyer. But later Bohmer introduced the technique of coupling a mordant to the<br>dye making it colorfast and thus, haematoxylin remains a very unique and vital stain in histology till date.</p> Niva Mahapatra1 , N.Aravindha Babu2 , Shyam Sundar Behura3 , E.Rajesh4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Aloevera: The Miracle Plant and Its uses in Dentistry – A Review <p>Aloevera has been in used by humans since times immemorial. Its health benefits are well known. Ancient<br>Greeks and Egyptians used it in their daily routine and in battle fields due to its many miraculous properties.<br>Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-fungal and wound healing properties<br>of aloe vera plant. Recently it has garnered a lot of interest regarding its use in dentistry as it is completely<br>natural and there are no side effects reported with proper usage. This paper gives an overview of the uses of<br>this wonder plant in various departments of dentistry</p> Malvika Raghuvanshi1 , E.Rajesh2 , Shruti Sinha3 , N.Aravindha Babu4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Alternative Medicines in Covid 19 – A Review <p>Emerging in China in late 2019, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection epidemic is growing<br>rapidly and new cases are reported around the world. The first cases were linked to a wet market, and<br>subsequently, the virus has spread rapidly in China through human-to-human transmission, and the universal<br>impact of the COVID-19 virus is now spreading worldwide. The disease originated from COVID19 is a type<br>of viral pneumonia that is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).<br>Currently, no clinically approved antiviral drugs have been introduced for SARS-CoV-2 infection.Identifying<br>the mechanism of action of the virus and its interaction with the immune system will help prevent and treat<br>the disease.There are various researches and studies reporting the use and effect of AYUSH in SARS-CoV<br>treatment. This review article gives a detailed overview of alternative treatment modalities for COVID 19.</p> K.M.K.masthan1 , E.P. Sridevi Anjuga2 , N.Aravindha Babu3 , E.Rajesh4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Artifacts in Histopathology – A Review <p>Histopathological examination is considered to be the gold standard technique for making a definitive<br>diagnosis of various human body lesions. The handling of tissue specimens consists of extensive procedures<br>from the stage of surgical removal to the microscopic parts stained and placed. Owing to defective procedures,<br>defects are normal in the tissue parts. These defects are known as artefacts. In histopathology artefacts<br>may cause serious errors and misdiagnosis. The precision of the histopathological diagnosis is based on<br>removing or reducing the artifacts in histopathological section.This article discusses the common artefacts<br>found during slide analysis alongside the remedial steps that can be performed to distinguish between an<br>artifacts and the constituent tissue.</p> N. Aravindha Babu1 , E.P. Sridevi Anjuga2 , K.M.K.Masthan3 , E.Rajesh4 , Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Artifacts in Histopatholohy – A Microscopic View <p>Histopathological examination is considered a gold standard procedure for reaching a final diagnosis of<br>various human body lesions. However, it is limited by a number of changes in normal morphological<br>and cytological characteristics that occur as a result of presence of artifacts. The purpose of preparing a<br>biological specimen for microscopic studies is to obtain sufficient and reliable diagnostic knowledge which<br>is a true representation of the specimen, whether it is for study or diagnosis. These objects may occur during<br>procedures for surgical removal, fixation, tissue processing, embedding, and microtomy, and staining and<br>mounting.They contribute to misinterpretation of the diagnosis of histopathology but often they bring the<br>limelight into the diagnosis. This article discusses the common artifacts which we commonly encountered<br>during slide examination</p> E.P. Sridevi Anjuga, N. Aravindha Babu2 , K.M.K.Masthan3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Management of Biomedical Waste in Hospital and Health Care Organizations- A Review <p>Bio-Medical Waste (BMW) is a global concern. In common parlance BMW means any waste generated<br>in the process of diagnosis, treatment, immunization and research related to human beings and animals.<br>Due to improper or poor waste management practicesa huge risk is posed to the health of public, patients,<br>professionals and also cause environmental disturbance. The Union Ministry of Environment and Forests<br>under the provision of Environment [protection] act, 1986 which brought the focus back on this issue. These<br>rules apply to all the people who are connected to generation, collection, receiving, storage, transportation<br>and handling or biomedical waste in any form. This article aims to highlight the categories, segregation and<br>management protocols by various government and non- government organizations and spread knowledge<br>about the same</p> Shruti Sinha1 , N.Aravindha Babu2 , Shyam Sundar Behura3 , E.Rajesh4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Blood Transfusion and Its Effects <p>Sometimes blood transfusion causes adverse reactions. Better prognosisis obtained by understanding the<br>clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions.Current clinical practise involves better and<br>newer blood screening methods to reduce the complications. Selecting leukoreduction of red blood cells<br>(RBCs) and male donors for plasma and restriction of RBC storage avoids infectious complications.</p> A.M. Sherene Christina Roshini1 , L.Malathi2 , E.Rajesh4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Corona Virus- An Overview <p>Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly communicable and pathogenic viral infection caused by<br>the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has developed in Wuhan, China<br>and spread all over the world.Genomic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically associated<br>with severe, acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) bat viruses, so bats could be the primary reservoir<br>possible. The intermediate source of origin and human transfer is unknown, but the accelerated human to<br>human transmission has been widely confirmed.Maximal precautionary steps and resources have also been<br>put forwardby most nations to mitigate transmission and decrease mortality rates.</p> N. Aravindha Babu1 , E.P. Sridevi Anjuga2 , N.Anitha3 , L.Malathi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Corona Virus – Dentist’s Perspective <p>A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) contributes to human-to - human transmission. The COVID-19 has been<br>recently identified in infected patient’s saliva. Transmission of COVID-19 via contact with droplets and<br>aerosols generated during clinical dental procedures is predicted. There is a need to start up investigations<br>into the identification of COVID-19 in oral fluids and its effects on the transmission of this virus, which is<br>necessary for improving successful preventive strategies, in health care professionals particular for dentists<br>who perform aerosol-generating procedures.In addition to the standard precautions, some special precautions<br>that should be implemented during an outbreak have been raised in this review.</p> K.M.K. Masthan1, E.P. Sridevi Anjuga2, N.Aravindha Babu3 , E.Rajesh4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Infection Control During COVID – 19 (Corona Virus) <p>The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has developed into a global pandemic, with its early roots<br>from Wuhan city in China. Many warring nations have placed forward maximum precautionary steps and<br>tools to reduce transmission and decrease fatality rates. Infection control measures are required to prevent<br>the infection and to avoid further spread of the virus and to help control the infection. Restrictive steps such<br>as social distancing, lockdown, case identification, isolation, contact tracing and quarantine of exposed had<br>identified the most effective efforts to monitor the spread of the disease.The risk of cross-infection between<br>patients and dental practitioners may be high due to the characteristics of the dental settings. Strict and<br>reliable guidelines on the prevention of infections are urgently needed for dental practices and hospitals in<br>areas (potentially) affected by COVID-19. This article provides a detailed overview of general and relevant<br>preventive interventions, methods and prevention of infections in the healthcare and public settings.</p> N. Aravindha Babu, E.P. Sridevi Anjuga2 , E.Rajesh3 , N.Anitha3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Health in Dementia-A Review <p>Dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the cognitive and motor skill of the patients. It can be<br>reversible and irreversible. People with dementia lose their ability to do basic procedures to maintain oral<br>hygiene thus poor oral hygiene and its associated oral diseases are not an uncommon findings in these<br>patients. In this review we will be discussing about various oral conditions faced by these patients.</p> Sudakshina Mukherjee, E.Rajesh, N2 , Aravindha Babu3 , L.Malathi4 , Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Lipomas- Rare Conditions in Oral Cavity, A Review <p>Oral lipomas are rare benign lesion. Though soft tissue lipomas are not uncommon oral lipomas are relatively<br>less in number. Mostly goes asymptomatic and are rarely comes to dental professionals either by accidental<br>findings or complaint from a patient due to aesthetic reasons. Various histological variant of lipomas are<br>there but most common is classical lipoma followed by fibrolipoma. Prognosis of these benign intraoral<br>lesions is good. In this review article we will discuss about etiology, theories regarding pathogenesis, clinical<br>features, Histological variant of Oral Lipomas.</p> N.Anitha1 , Sudakshina Mukherjee2 , N. Aravindha Babu3 , L.Malathi4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Lymphoma- A Short Review <p>The malignant neoplasm of the lymphocyte cell lines are lymphomas. They are mainly classified as Hodgkin’s<br>or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL).The etiology is still unknown. Various treatment modalities causes<br>acute and longer-term side-effects affecting the clinical decision-making for dental treatment. Therefore,<br>people with lymphoma should have regular follow-up.</p> Ryhanath Gulshan.F1 , K.M.K.Masthan2 , N.Aravindha Babu3, N.Anitha Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Pigmented lesions- A Short Review <p>Pigmentations can be commonly found in the mouth which are presents in various clinical patterns ranging<br>from physiological changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Oral pigmentation<br>can be focal,multifocal or diffuse. Oral pigmentation can be exogenous, endogenous, physiological and<br>pathological. Oral pigmentation is more likely to have a multifactorial etiology</p> Ryhanath Gulshan1 , K.M.K.Masthan2 , .N.Aravindha Babu3 , L.Malathi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome : Its Impact on Periodontal Disease <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age<br>affecting various health systems. This review literature explains pathophysiological mechanisms connecting<br>PCOS and periodontal disease . Furthermore studies are needed to establish a clearer and stronger association<br>between the two disease.</p> A.M. Sherene Christina Roshini1, E.Rajesh2 , N.Anitha3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of AgNORs in Oral Lesions-A Review <p>The biologic behavior of the oral lesions can be determined by their active phases of cell division, cells<br>entering the cell cycle and their proliferation. AgNORs (argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions) staining<br>is the one of the cytochemical technique used to evaluate the cell proliferation of oral lesions. Tumor cells<br>in premalignant and malignant conditions usually exhibits a rise in synthesis of abnormal proteins and<br>proportionately there is a increase in the AgNOR material. The aim of this study was to review the concepts<br>of proliferative activity of cells of malignant and premalignant conditions through the AgNORs staining<br>procedure and thereby proving the usefulness of AgNORs in diagnosing the oral lesions.</p> R.Hariharan1 , N.Anitha2 , E.Rajesh2 , AravindhaBabu3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Hormone on Tissue Health <p>Endocrine system regulating hormonal function is one of the most important system of the body. Dysregulation<br>in which can directly affect the oral cavity. Their systemic involvement also sometimes affects the oral<br>health. Though other than diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders rest of the hormonal diseases are rare but<br>not non-existent. So a proper knowledge about the clinical presentations should be kept by the dentists to<br>avoid any risks and difficulties regarding their diagnosis. Conditions like burning mouth, dry oral cavity,<br>and altered tastes can also be an after effect of menopause should be ruled out by dentist before coming to a<br>definitive diagnosis. Careful counseling of the patients especially women regarding their conditions should<br>be done by keeping in mind the psychological stress they undergo during that stage of life. So this review<br>circulates around the oral manifestations due to hormonal imbalance in a human body and post menopausal<br>women.</p> Sudakshina Mukherjee1 , L.Malathi2 , N. Aravindha Babu3 , N.Anitha4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Infected Sac in the Mandible – A Case Report. <p>Dentigerous cyst is the second most common cyst. It is usually associated with the impacted third<br>molars, canines and premolars. Clinically they present with asymptomatic swelling, bony expansion and<br>radiographically they are well defined and the larger cyst leads to destruction of bone later leading to<br>pathological fracture. They are chances where this cyst can be misdiagnosed when seen only clinically<br>withan infected tooth. Radiographic investigation is the gold standard in diagnosing the lesion and its extent<br>for treatment planning. The protein content of the cyst fluid also helps in the diagnosis. Here is a case where<br>the patient complained of a decayed tooth along with swelling in the left side of face and how the diagnosis<br>changed after proper history and radiographic investigation.</p> Harshada Ragunathan1 , Sankar Narayanan R2 , Nalini Aswath3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Parathyroid Hormone Related Protein - A Skeletal Biomarker – A Review <p>The discovery of Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was through its structural and functional<br>homology with parathyroid hormone. It is secreted by cancers and it interacts with parathyroid hormone<br>receptors in kidney and bone to cause humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and paraneoplastic syndrome and<br>plays an important role in cellular differentiation and proliferation, embryonic development, transepithelial<br>calcium transport and in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Its intracrine, paracrine and endocrine<br>modes of action play a central role in organogenesis and drives numerous physiologic and pathologic<br>conditions.It is initially translated as a preprohormone which is posttranslationally processed to yield a<br>family of mature secretory forms. The aminoterminal portion of the molecule is homologous to parathyroid<br>hormone.As PTHrP plays a vital role in the regulation of endochondral bone development it was surmised<br>that it could also serve as an ideal biologic skeletal maturity indicator to detect peak pubertal growth spurt.</p> A. Arif Yezdani, Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Principles of Tooth Preparation - Review Article <p>Adequate tooth preparation is essential for the fit of fixed prosthodontics. Insufficient tooth preparation<br>appears to be responsible for premature failures due to biological aspects, such as caries and endodontic<br>or periodontal disease complications. The purpose of a fixed prosthodontic therapy may vary from the<br>restoration of a single tooth to the rehabilitation of the complete occlusion. Successful preparations can<br>be obtained by systematically following these steps. It is important to critically evaluate each step before<br>proceeding to the next step to ensure an optimal quality final restoration, which will serve the patient for a<br>long time.</p> Ganesh Ramesh1 , Sanjna Nayar2 , S.Chandrakala3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Review on Occlusal Plane Analysis in Dentulous Patients <p>The position of the occlusal plane forms the basis for the ideal teeth arrangement. Incorrect records of the<br>occlusal plane would hamper aesthetics, phonetics, and mastication. It may affect the stability of a complete<br>denture and ultimately result in alveolar bone resorption.Because the term plane refers geometrically to a flat<br>surface, it is not entirely correct to describe the occlusal surface as following a true plane.<br>The form of the occlusal plane is directly related to specific functional requirements. In addition to the<br>alignment of teeth in relationship to the arc of closure for best resistance to loading, it should permit ease<br>of access for positioning of the food on the occlusal surfaces. This article is a review of the simple methods<br>of analysing the occlusal plane in dentulous plane and correcting the occlusal problems in these patients.</p> S. Chandrakala1, Ganesh Ramesh2 , Sanjna Nayar3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Dental Articulator – Hanau Wide Vue <p>The articulator plays an important role in Dentistry, since it allows adequate diagnosis and treatment planning<br>to promote the oral health of our patients. The Semi adjustable, Fully adjustable articulator reduces the<br>intervention of Prosthodontists; when well employed, it simplifies the daily clinical routine, reducing the<br>number of sessions, chair time and need of interventions in the patient’s mouth, besides allowing more<br>accurate procedures, consequently without damages to the stomatognathic system.Dental articulators<br>are instruments that reproduce jaw movements to varying degrees of accuracy. This article aims to give an<br>overview of Hanau wide vue and describe their applications and limitations.</p> Monika.D1 , Sanjna Nayar 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Occlusal Plane Analysis in Edentulous Patients <p>Aim: The Purpose of the present review was to determine the occlusal plane in edentulous patients.<br>Objective : Occlusal plane orientation is an important factor in the construction of a complete denture.<br>Occlusal plane could be oriented using landmarks in the maxillary arch as well as the mandibular arch .<br>Many methods have been used to establish the occlusal plane in complete dentures , but no method seems<br>to be fully acceptable. So it is always challenging for the prosthodontist to restore the existing occlusal<br>condition with a suitable prosthesis.<br>Materials and Methods : : An electronic search engine without time/ language restrictions was taken from<br>Google Scholar .<br>Conclusion: This article reviews different techniques to determine and correct occlusal plane. HIP was<br>parallel to the occlusal plane , Ala-tragal line passing through lower part of the ala of the nose to inferior<br>position of the tragus was relatively parallel to maxillary residual ridge. Therefore, this may be a viable<br>reference in complete denture prosthodontics.</p> Lakshmi.S1 , Sanjna Nayar2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nano Modification of Titanium Dental Implants- A MetaAnalysis <p>This meta-analysis presents the comparison of nanostructured/nanoparticles as Ti-based implant materials to<br>control and improve the implant success rate with a focus on enhanced osseointegration.<br>Materials and Methods: A literature review of articles was conducted by using MEDLINE PubMed<br>database and google scholar restricted to 2000 – 2019.<br>Results: Source: PubMed and Google scholar<br>Independent screenings of the abstracts were done to identify the articles related to the question in focus 97<br>studies were selected out of which 10 articles were further excluded.Finally 11 articles were included.<br>Conclusion: Based on the results, it was found that there is a significant difference between the uncoated<br>and nano-coated titanium dental implants, concluded that the nano-coated titanium implant surface increases<br>bone-implant contact thereby enhances osseointegration.</p> Monika D1 , SanjnaNayar 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnosis and Treatment Modalities of Open Apex – A Review <p>Immature tooth with an open apex is encountered by a clinician from time to time. Proper diagnosis and<br>treatment planning is necessary to save the tooth and for continued root development. This review is about<br>diagnosis and treatment options available for cases of open apex.</p> Ravindranath Megha1 , Newbegin Selvakumar Gold Pearlin Mary2 , Arumugam Karthick3 , Paramasivam Vivekanandhan3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Recurrent Case of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma <p>More than 90% of all oral cancer is Oral Squamous cell carcinoma. Exposure to environmental factors such<br>as tobacco, betel quid and areca nut in combination with genetic predisposition leads to gene mutations and<br>carcinogenesis. They often manifest as ulcerated exophytic masses or tumor in the oral cavity. A combination<br>of surgical procedure, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is implemented in the management of Oral Squamous<br>cell carcinoma. However it is associated with high rate of recurrence which may be more aggressive and<br>invasive in nature. This article discusses a case of recurrent oral Squamous cell carcinoma, its manifestation<br>and therapeutic approach.</p> Hemalatha V.T1 , Sindhu P2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Oral and Perioral Piercing and Its Implications on Hard and Soft Tissues <p>Oral and perioral piercing is a ritual that involves the insertion of jewellery into the tongue, lip, cheek,<br>frenum, uvula or other parts of the mouth. This habit has been practiced for religious, tribal, cultural, sexual<br>or identity reasons. These factitious injuries often injure the oral soft tissues and hard tissues. They pose<br>diagnostic and management problems for the dentist.</p> Aravindh Swamy Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Short Communication -Orodental Perspective of Substance Abusers <p>Substance Abuse is the habitual taking of illegal drugs by an individual or a group of people. Most<br>commonly used these kind of drugs are Marijuana, Cocaine, Amphetamines, Heroin, Hallucinogens etc….<br>The oral cavity reflects, the deleterious effects of these drugs. This short communication attempt to highlight<br>the various clinical manifestations of these drugs seen in oral cavity.</p> S.Angelinteena, Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Laboratory Diagnosis of Covid 19 – A Review <p>The novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with its early origin in China has grown into a global<br>pandemic.The infection occurs as a mild flu to severe acute respiratory infection and spreads from person to<br>person through droplet infection.Diagnostic testing has been and will continue to be a big part of the 2019<br>(COVID-19) coronavirus pandemic. Early diagnosis is the key to timely case management and control of the<br>spread of the virus. This article provides a clear understanding of the COVID19 biosafety steps, specimen<br>collection, storage and transportation guidelines.It also addresses steps that can be taken by cytology<br>laboratories to work during the pandemic and reduce the risk to their employees, trainees and pathologists.</p> Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Lingual Thyroid- A Review <p>Lingual thyroid as the name suggests it is an ectopic positioning of thyroid gland which is a rare developmental<br>anomaly. Thyroid gland is usually located in the same level as that of cricoids cartilage in human body.<br>Ectopic occurrence of thyroid gland can be seen anywhere from tongue to diaphragm though in ninety<br>percent of reported cases it is generally seen in base of tongue. Lingual thyroid mainly seen as a result of<br>the inability of thyroid gland to descend to its normal anatomical position during embryogenesis. Generally<br>it takes its origin from the epithelial tissues of non-obliterated thyroglossal duct. From infancy to adulthood<br>mostly faced problems by the patients are dysphagia, dysphonia, upper respiratory tract obstruction. So<br>this review is entirely about the pathophysiology, clinical manifestation and diagnostic criteria along with<br>treatment modalities for a better understanding of the dental professionals.</p> G. Nishanth, N.Anitha2, N. Aravindha Babu2 , L.Malathi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nutrigenomics and its Role in Periodontal Health – A Review <p>Nutrigenomics is an emerging form of science involving tools that assess the benefit of diet and nutrition<br>in various disease conditions at molecular and genetic level. Nutrigenomics investigates the relationship of<br>nutrient regimen in maintaining health. This article reviews the role of nutrients in maintaining periodontal<br>health and the use of nutrigenomics in understanding genotype, phenotype diet interactions on periodontal<br>health of an individual and the effect of dietary modification on periodontal disease progression.</p> Shyam Sundar Behura1 , E.Rajesh2 , Abinash Patra3 , N.Aravindha Babu4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Syndromes of Head and Neck – A Quick Review <p>The aggregate of signs and symptoms associated with any morbid process and constituting together the<br>picture of the disease and related to each other anatomically, biologically and physiologically. A group of<br>deformation and malformation sequence etc that occurs together due to some identifiable underlying cause.<br>The aim of this review is to describe a collective knowledge about various syndromes associated head and<br>neck- A dentist point of view</p> Sangeetha Priya.P1 , Aravindha Babu2 , K.M.K.Masthan3 , N.Anitha4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Yoga in Dentistry- A Review <p>Each individual plays out a few or other type of occupation or work to procure business and to remain<br>intellectually and truly in sound wellbeing. Each occupation is related with a few or opposite symptoms<br>alluded to as word related risk. Dentistry as a profession is an exceptionally demanding and challenging. To<br>gain accessibility and better deceivability dental specialist achieve physical stances which are inconvenient<br>to their wellbeing. Among the various symptoms of dentistry musculo-skeletal issues is one of the most wellknown dangers influencing the dental specialist. Yoga which started in India is a type of physical, mental and<br>spiritual practice. In present day the physical stances of Yoga is utilized to mitigate medical issues, diminish<br>pressure and make the spine graceful in contemporary occasions. There are various yoga poses which have<br>impact on the musculo-skeletal tissues and which when preceded as prompted have the ability to invalidate<br>the musculo-skeletal disorders. Yoga poses which have most extreme impact on musculo-skeletal tissues are<br>a lot simpler to perform, less tedious and are ideal for dental specialist to follow. Musculo-skeletal disorders<br>among dentist is a settled certainty and yoga postures or exercise may be the quality restoration degree to<br>stop the equivalent.</p> G. Nishanth1 , L.Malathi2 , N. Aravindha Babu3 , E.Rajesh4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Use of Agar as a Dental Impression Material <p>Agar hydrocolloid was the first successful elastic impression material to be used in dentistry. It is an organic<br>hydrophilic colloid extracted from certain types of seaweed. It is a reversible impression material because of<br>its property of reversing their physical state, which is reusing the impression material for multiple number of<br>impressions. It was initially known as “Negacol”, later termed as “Dentacol” when introduced into dentistry</p> Niha Naveed1 , Kishorekumar S2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bone Morphogenetic Protein-1 and Its Regulation - A Review <p>Bone morphogenetic protein 1, also referred to as BMP1, is a protein encoded by the BMP1 gene in humans.<br>There are seven protein isoforms created through alternative splicing.It leaves the C-terminal propeptides<br>of procollagen I, II and III. It induces cartilage and bone formation. It may participate in dorsoventral<br>patterning during early development by cleaving chordin (CHRD). It is also responsible for the proteolytic<br>activation of lysyl oxidase LOX.</p> Niha Naveed1 , Kishorekumar S2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Curing Techniques of Composite Resin: Continuous or Intermittent? <p>While composites have continued to be refined, significant differences between the available systems in<br>physical and mechanical properties, and clinical performance have minimized. Nevertheless, with all the<br>changes, there is one constant: it is necessary to light-cure direct composites. Clinicians need to understand<br>the importance of light curing principles because unbound monomers are cytotoxic and poorly cured<br>composites are less biocompatible. Four techniques are currently available for light-curing composites.<br>The clinician will consider multiple factors once the light source is chosen to ensure that the composite is<br>satisfactorily cured. This article analyses the various current technologies, their strengths and weaknesses,<br>and the importance to ensuring proper polymerization by following such protocols.</p> Niha Naveed1 , Kishorekumar S2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Clear Aligners in Correcting Anterior Open Bite- A Systematic Review <p>Objective:The aim was to systematically search the literature and assess the available evidence regarding<br>theclinical effectiveness of clear aligners in correcting anterior open bite.<br>Materials and Methods:PubMed, PubMed Central, MEDLINE, Embase, National Library of Medicine,<br>Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge, and LILACS were searched electronically to identify all peerreviewed articles till date potentially relevant to the review.The reference lists of all eligible articles were<br>examined for additional studies. Additional manual search was also conducted in many orthodontic journals<br>of interest, and unpublished articles were also searched for. To rate the methodological quality of the selected<br>articles, a grading system described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care was<br>used.<br>Results:Ten relevant articles were selected to be included in this systematic review. According to the SBU<br>tool, among the selected studies, the methodological quality was moderate for four studies and limited for<br>the others. Thus, conclusions with a limited level of evidence could be arrived at from the review process.<br>The most recurrent sources of bias were related to the study design, lack of blinding procedure, the sample<br>size, and the lack of control group. However, there was substantial consistency among studies that clear<br>aligner therapy is a viable option to correct anterior open-bite.<br>Conclusion:No definite conclusion could be derived due to the heterogeneity of the studies. Due to the<br>limitations of this study, further clinical and experimental research is needed to statistically assess long-term<br>stability of occlusion and skeletal relationships in treated open-bite cases.</p> Niha Naveed1 , Kishorekumar. S2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In Situ Hybridisation-A Review <p>In situ hybridisation (ISH) depends on the integral blending of labelled DNA or RNA probes with typical<br>or irregular nucleic acid arrangements in intact chromosomes, cells or tissue segments. Compared with<br>other molecular techniques appropriate to anatomical pathology, ISH appreciates better compatibility with<br>histopathologists in view of its closeness to immunohistochemistry. It has the exceptional preferred position<br>over other techniques to a great extent dependent on probe hybridization with nucleic acid removed from<br>homogenized tissue probes - of permitting localization and representation of target nucleic acid sequences<br>inside morphologically recognizable cells or cell structures. In spite of the fact that ISH is to a great extent<br>an examination apparatus, it is as of now making solid advances into demonstrative histopathology. Other<br>than recognition of infective specialists, it likewise permits localization of destinations of contamination,<br>explanation of systems of infection transmission and spread also, examination of the connection between<br>viral specialists and malignant growth. Sex composing, localization of qualities on chromosomes and<br>recognition of basic and mathematical chromosomal changes in tumors are among different utilizations of<br>ISH.</p> E.Rajesh1 , R.Hariharan2 , N.AravindhaBabu3 , L.Malathi4 , Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Manifestations of Hyperparathyroidism and Its Management-A Review <p>Endocrine system is the important system of human body responsible for maintaining the homeostasis and<br>some other physiological functions by releasing hormones from the endocrine gland. Parathyroid gland<br>is one of the important endocrine glandproducing parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone plays an<br>important role in maintaining the calcium and phosphorous metabolism and has a direct influence over<br>the mineralization of bone and teeth. Disorders in parathyroid gland such as hyperparathyroidism and<br>hypoparathyroidism causes altered levels of secretion of parathormone which may cause various symptoms<br>including the oralmanifestations such as brown tumor, loss of bone density, increased caries occurrence<br>rate, high risk of bone fracture etc. The aim of this article is to creating the awareness among the dental<br>professionals about the risk and preventive measures in treating the patients with hyperparathyroidism.</p> R.Hariharan1 , N.Anitha2 , L.Malathi2 , N. Aravindha Babu3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Socioeconomic and Working Status of the Parents on the Incidence of their Children’s Dental Caries <p>Dental caries, or tooth decay, is an infectious process involving breakdown of the tooth enamel.Children are<br>susceptible to caries as soon as the first teeth appear, which usually occurs around age 6 months.It is known<br>that socioeconomic status affects the health-related quality of life of children.Family income, occupational<br>status, and educational achievement are socio-economic status indicators that have been found to affect the<br>life opportunities of an individual.</p> Niha Naveed1 , Kishorekumar S2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Recent Advances in Cytology-A Review <p>In olden days, specificity and sensitivity of oral cytology is poor. Utilizing traditional oral cytology for the<br>conclusive diagnosis of malignancyand premalignant lesions. But with the recent cytological techniques<br>paves cytology to conclude a final diagnosis. This reestablished interest is somewhat because of the<br>presentation of a specific brush that gathers a full-thickness epithelial sample and not simply sloughed cells,<br>just as examination of that sample with computer support and analysis. There is an assortment of adjunctive<br>strategies have been acquainted with possibly upgrade the finding of the cytologic examples including DNA<br>examination, immunocytochemistry, molecular analysis, and liquid based preparations. An expansion in<br>sensitivity (&gt;96%) and specificity (&gt;90%) of the oral brush biopsy with computer support, diagnosis has<br>been accounted for detection of malignant and premalignant lesions. Brush cytology is significant to forestall<br>misdiagnosing suspicious oral lesions.</p> R.Hariharan1 , N.Anitha2 , E.Rajesh2 , N.AravindhaBabu3, Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Sterilization and Disinfectants Used in a Dental Office- a Review <p>As dentists, we must disinfect and clean all equipments and countertops between patients with a recommended<br>hospital-grade bactericidal product. Nonvisible blood and saliva does not mean it is absent on environmental<br>surfaces. Blood and saliva are present throughout dental treatment. If a patient becomes ill as a result of<br>an exposure to a pathogen or a bacterium that is later found in our dental office surfaces, the employer and<br>or dentist is at risk of being responsible for the patient’s illness and associated compensatory damages.<br>Understanding and recognizing the risk of disease will drastically reduce patient illness, practice liability<br>and employee illnesses. Dentists cannot pretend that this is only a theoretical problem. Therefore the dental<br>community needs to stay updated of the rapidly evolving standard of care and do its best to comply with the<br>standard of care in daily practice</p> S.KishoreKumar1 , T.Shoba2 , Prashanth Sreenivasan3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Evaluation of Internal Fit and Marginal Fit of Zirconia Copings Obtained From Impression and Die Fabricated using CAD-CAM an In Vitro Study <p>Aims: To evaluate and compare the internal fit and marginal fit of zirconia copings fabricated using CADCAM from impressions and model.<br>Material and Methods: Using a standardized die, 15 impressions group 1and 15 models group 2 were<br>made with standardized protocol. All impressions and models were scanned and virtual models were made.<br>Using the CAD data, zirconia copings were fabricated and cemented using silicone under finger pressure<br>and standardized sections of the silicone were made and thicknesses were measured at eleven specific points<br>under stereomicroscope.<br>Statistical analysis used: ANOVA<br>Results: Mean Internal gap value of Group 1was 292.4µ ± 23.48 and Group 2 was 258.54 µ ± 22.83 µ, Mean<br>Marginal Gap value of group1 was 252.64µ ± 11.86 µ and group2 was 232.18 µ ± 06.24 µ, ANOVA test<br>showed statistical significance with p value &gt;0.05<br>Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, mean marginal gaps of both the groups were within<br>clinically acceptable range. Group 2 copings demonstrated comparatively smaller values. Hence fit of the<br>restoration is better in Group 2 (copings fabricated from scanned models)</p> Tamizhesai Balavadivel1 , Raghavendra Jayesh2 , Sanjna Nayar3 , Venkateshwaran Rajendran4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study to Determine the Dimensional Accuracy of Different Impression Materials <p>Background: The accuracy and dimensional stability of dental impression materials are of great importance,<br>since a material which shrinks, expands or warps during or after removal from the mouth will result in an<br>inaccurate model and potentially, a badly-fitting prosthesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the<br>dimensional accuracy of the impression materials immediately after setting and also to determine the change<br>in dimensional accuracy after 24 hours.<br>Materials and Method: Four impression materials were selected among which two were hydrocolloids<br>and two were elastomers. Fifteen samples of each were experimentally tested immediately and 24 hours<br>after sample preparation. Data obtained were subjected to t-test and analysis of variance for statistical<br>comparisons at a 5% level of significance.<br>Results: The linear difference in measurements were recorded immediately and 24 hours after setting.<br>The changes in dimensional accuracy with respect to time were statistically analysed and it showed no<br>statistically significant difference between the materials both immediately and after 24 hours.<br>Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study,<br>It can be concluded that there were similar results for dimensional accuracy for all the materials tested<br>immediately after sample preparation but there was considerable disparity with the same tested after 24 hrs<br>for hydrocolloids and not much of difference was noted for elastomers.</p> S. Chandrakala1 , Ganesh Ramesh2, Sanjna Nayar3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immediate Denture – A Case Report <p>Esthetics is an important consideration for patientsundergoing dental treatment. Patients always want an<br>immediate prosthesis beforeintervening any treatment option. Hence a fabrication of denture placement<br>immediately after the extraction of teeth is precise one. Immediate denture is the best option for functional,<br>esthetics purpose as well as patientsneed.</p> Praveen P1 , Ragavendra Jayesh2 , Sanjna Nayar3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Goethite Nanofibers as Bio-Fillers in Dental Composite Resin <p>Composite resins represent an important member of biomaterials family that have been evolving due to<br>the needs in biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Fillers in a variety of forms and types have been<br>evaluated and the impact of fillers to improve the performance of the dental composites have been studied<br>in vast. Various composite resin fillers tested had revealed its own strengths and weaknesses. Bio polymers<br>when they are reinforced with biofillers can produce novel biocomposites. The biocomposites with the<br>biofillers will replace and be a substitute for synthetic fibre-reinforced composites. In recent years, natural<br>bio-fibres have gained attention as suitable reinforcements in polymeric matrices. These bio-fillers possess<br>high specific strength and can be effectively used for dental composites resin. The most commonly occurring<br>natural bio-fibres are the teeth of limpets. The teeth of limpets have a distinctive composite nanostructure<br>which comprises of high-volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibers to provide mechanical integrity.<br>The limpet tooth is effective at resisting failure to abrasion. The goethite nanofibers are expected to be<br>significant for novel dental biomaterials with extreme strength and hardness.</p> Dhanasekaran Sihivahanan1,Vidyashree Nandini2 , E.Rajesh3 , N.Anitha3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Radiographic Methods as a Adjuvant Guide to Oral Pathologist in Diagnosis of Oral Cancer <p>The management of oral cancer is a multidisciplinary endeavour, as each patient presents the treating<br>clinicians with a unique set of challenges the management of which impacts on both survival and quality<br>of life. This article focuses on the different radiographic methods used in the diagnosis of oral cancer.<br>Imaging techniques have become an important element in the field of oral oncology. Continued research<br>has led to technical progress in the existing modalities and addition of newer, exiting and highly accurate<br>techniques. Although this is a boon, it has created differences of opinion regarding the ideal choice of<br>imaging techniques. Inappropriate choice of imaging modality can result in delay in diagnosis and treatment<br>thereby inducing more suffering for the patients.</p> Sangeetha Priya.P, N. Aravindha Babu2 ,E.Rajesh3 , Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biodentine as a Perforative Repair Material- A Review <p>Perforations are anomalous communications between the root canal system and the external dental surface<br>that connects the pulp cavity to the periodontal tissue. Current advances in biomaterials has made the recovery<br>of tooth structure and function possible even in the most complicated cases. Ideally, perforations should be<br>immediately repaired with a biocompatible material to seal the communication between the perforation site<br>and the gingival sulcus in order to achieve a more favorable prognosis. This review article is focussed on<br>Biodentine as perforative repair material, and has found to provide good biocompatibility, bioactivity, high<br>compressive strength and a short setting time.</p> Niha Naveed1 , Kishorekumar S2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Esthetic Replacement of Missing Antetior Tooth with All Ceramic Restoration (IPS E.max Cad) – A Case Report <p>In Dentistry, ceramic restoration has become more popular among other dental restorative material, because<br>of its superior esthetics, good biocompatibility as well as excellent mechanical and physical properties.<br>Among dental ceramics -Lithium Disilicate (LD) glass ceramics and Polycrystalline Zirconium Dioxide<br>Ceramics are used as a dental biomaterial and also the material of choice for esthetic replacement of<br>missing anterior teeth.These materials exhibit better esthetics, color stability, biocompatibility as well as<br>better strength. Theyact as a most promising restorative materials because it has favourable mechanical and<br>physical properties compared to other restorative materials.</p> Praveen P1 , Ragavendra Jayesh2 , Sanjna Nayar3 . Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Platform Switching in Success of Dental Implants- A Meta-Analysis <p>Aim: To analyze through systematic review and meta-analysis of implant failure rates, marginal bone<br>loss (MBL) in patients who received platform-switched implants and platform-matched implants and to<br>determine literature based evidence.<br>Materials and Methods :<br>Data: Search terms used in combination are dental implant, platform switch, platform mismatch, switched<br>platform, implant – abutment design.<br>Sources : An electronic search engine without time/ language restrictions was taken from Google Scholar,<br>Pubmed.<br>Clinical Significance: Platform switching for maintaining peri-implant bone levels has gained popularity<br>over last few years. As philosophies of treatment alter over , a periodic review of different concepts are<br>necessary to refine techniques thereby forming a basis for optimum treatment.</p> Lakshmi.S1 Post graduate student, Sanjna Nayar 2 MDS Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Microbial Etiology of Acute Diarrheoa in Children Under Ten Years of Age in Diyala, Iraq / Hospital-Based Study <p>This study was conducted in the Al Batool Teaching Hospital in Ba’aqubah in Diyala city, from August 2019<br>to December 2019. In children under 10 years patients suffering from diarrhea with different gastrointestinal<br>complaints, Stool samples were collected from each patients use for microscopic examination and Culture<br>and sensitivity test. Diarrheal diseases are major problem of developing countries. Though precise data on<br>childhood mortality associated with diarrheal diseases in Iraq is not available, it has been estimated that<br>approximately 25% of child death are associated with diarrheal disease, particularly acute diarrhea. The<br>purpose of this study was to detect causative agent of acute diarrhea in children less than 10 years of age.<br>With the study of sensitivity to certain antibiotics. Bacterial pathogen infected cases 30 (60%) male and<br>20(40%) female, among the total enrolled cases the Escherichia coli was 30(60%), Klebsiella species was<br>17(34%) and kluyvera ascorbate species was 3 (6%).also the study detected that bacterial infection was<br>found to be of highest percentage, 26(52%) in the age group less than 1year, The least infection2 (4%) was<br>found in group between7-8. There were no detectable cases of bacterial infection among the age group of<br>9-10 years in this study.Amikacin showed efficacy in 26(96.6%) isolates of E.coli species, also showed<br>efficacy in 16(94.1%)isolate of Klebsiella spp.Amikacin,cefepime,meropenem,gantamicin showed efficacy<br>in 3(100%)isolate of Kluyvera ascorbate</p> Adawia Fadhel Abbas Alzubaidi1 , Mustafa Ali Abbas2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Sesame Oil on Physiologic and Histopathological Changes in Alloxnized Male Guinea Pigs <p>The current study was to investigate the effect sesame oil (Sesamum indicum L) on glycosylated hemoglobin,<br>blood glucose, Malondialdehyde, semen and hormonal parameters, in addition the histopathological<br>changes on pancreas in diabetic pigs. The physiological indices were examined in control, diabetic and oil<br>treated diabetic pigs. Eighteen male pigs were randomly assigned into three groups, group one as control,<br>group two diabetic as positive control and group three diabetic treatment with sesame oil at dose (1ml/kg)<br>orally, after 30 days whole blood samples were collected to measure the hemoglobin A1c and other samples<br>were separated into serum for blood glucose and MDA and hormonal assays. Epididymal taken for sperm<br>parameters examined, all animals were sacrificed and pancreas was taken for histological study. Outcomes<br>of this study indicate that significantly reduction in serum Malondialdehyde level in associated with lowered<br>levels of blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c, While, significantly elevation in serum testosterone, FSH<br>and LH levels accompanied with the improved spermatogenesis were observed in group treated with the<br>sesame oil. In addition, the a significant islet langer hans restoration was notable. Conclusion: The oil has<br>antioxidant and ameliorated effects on pancreatic function and markedly improved sperm profile.</p> Ahlam A. AL-Rikaby1, Mitham A. AL-Rikaby2 , Saleh K.Majeed3, Researcher/Hussein S. AL-Jaberi1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Determinants of unfavorable Maternal and Neonatal Outcome in Term Premature Rupture of Membrane <p>Aim of study: To determine the prevalence of maternal and fetal outcomes in PROM among term pregnant<br>women and to discover the risk factors that increase the rate of PROM.<br>Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study included 80 pregnant women diagnosed with term PROM<br>(after 37 weeks of gestation) and gave birth in the hospital or attended to labor ward with leaking of<br>liquor before onset of labor and delivered at our labor ward. Information about maternal age, occupation,<br>gestational age, residence, parity, mode of delivery, antenatal care visits, duration of PROM, and postpartum<br>complications as sepsis or hemorrhage. Information regarding neonates’ Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes,<br>birthweight, admission to neonate intensive care unit.<br>Results: In this study, 35% of them showed unfavorable outcome, 16.3% of mothers complained from<br>postpartum hemorrhage; 21.2% of neonates were admitted to NICU; and 15% of babies were weighing &lt;<br>2.5 kg. The highest prevalence of unfavorable maternal outcome in this study was seen among women living<br>in rural area (45.5%), in those who didn’t receive ANC (31.6%), and in those who had PROM for 24 hours<br>or more (29.4%). Unfavorable fetal outcome in this study was seen among women who didn’t receive ANC<br>(36.8%), and in those who had PROM for 24 hours or more (33.3%).<br>Conclusion: Unfavorable maternal or fetal outcome is not uncommon among women with PROM.<br>Prolonged duration of PROM and lack of ANC visits were a significant associated factors. So, an early<br>accurate diagnosis of PROM is essential for favorable outcome in pregnancy and thus it decreases the<br>maternal and fetal morbidity</p> Israa Kamal Qasim1 , Ilham Ali Salman2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of the Genetic Diversity and the DNA of Some Species of the Cruciferous Family (Brassicaceae) using the RAPD-PCR Markers <p>The current study aimed to uncover the genetic diversity of eight local species of the Brassicaceae plants<br>by using RAPD markers, where the genetic relationship was determined, the genetic dimension was found<br>between the studied species and the genetic finger print of some of these species was identified. (DNA)<br>was extracted from the young leaves of the cruciferous family plants using the method Ready (Kit). The<br>concentration of the extracted DNA ranged from 148.35-165.3 ng /µl with a purity of 1.53- 1.82. The results<br>obtained from the study showed that 307 band were all differentiated (100%), higher in number than bands<br>(38) with (12.38%) in the primer (MQ10), lower in number than bands (21) and with (6.84%) in the primer<br>(MQ6). The highest molecular volume (pb2500) was characterized by (B1) in the primer (MQ7), while the<br>less Molecular volume (100bp) in the two species (B3 and B5) was distinguished by the primer (MQ8). The<br>results of the genetic dimension showed that the lowest value is for the genetic dimension (0.260) appeared<br>between the two species (B2 and B3), and the highest value of the genetic dimension was (0.975) appeared<br>between the two types (B4 and B5). The phylogenetic tree was drawn between the studied species and the<br>species were divided into two major groups. The first group included the species (B1, B2, B3 and B4) and<br>the second group included the species (B5, B6, B7 and B8).</p> Qusay Ahmed Olaij1 , Abdul Majeed Abdul Aziz Humadi2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Bacterial Infections Associated with Infection with Cytomegalovirus in Anbar Governorate <p>Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the largest type of herpes virus DNA virus, called the CMV because<br>it amplifies infected cells as it reproduces gradually inside those cells . The study included collecting 110<br>blood samples for sick women and we visited Al-Ramadi Teaching Hospital with ear , nose, tonsils and<br>eye swabs. Also urine samples were taken, the media of Blood Agar and MacConkey Agar were grown<br>with Smears and swabs .The findings of the current study showed that 89 women out of a total of 110 were<br>infected with CMV virus at a rate of 80.6 % by virus-specific IgG antibody, which is proof that the infection<br>is old while 21 women were not infected by a 19 % percentage of CMV virus due to the absence of IgG and<br>IgM antibodies .Results showed that 78 were positive for bacterial infection among the 89 women living<br>with CMV, 87.6 %, while 11 among 21 women without CMV were positive for bacterial infection. The 87.6<br>% proportion of bacterial infections associated with virus infection is high as compared to the 52.3 % ratio<br>of people without this virus, and this suggests the growing role of infection in the system. The study findings<br>also found that the highest incidence of CMV virus infection was 82.3 % in the age group of infected women<br>(21-30 years) and that the highest incidence of CMV virus infection was 92.6 % in pregnant women who<br>had no abortion, while the lowest rate of CMV infection was women who had three miscarriages, 46 % .</p> Saddam Hussein Ali1Jamal1 Abdul Rahman2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Pollen Type on Some Fruit Traits and Production Quantity of Date Palm Trees Phoenix Dactylifera L. For Agricultural Cultivar Al-Ibrahimi <p>The study was conducted during the agricultural season 2019 in one of the orchards of the district of Heat,<br>Al-Hassania (Shamiya) Village in Al-Anbar Governorate, know the effect of different pollen male grains<br>type (Ghanami Ahmar, Ghanamy akhdar, samesmi , Khikri adi ) on some fruits traits and the amount of<br>production the date palm of the agricultural cultivar AL-Ibrahimi, The results indicated that the best pollen<br>used to pollinate the agricultural cultivar Ibrahimi it is for grains of the vaccine Khikri adi, characterized<br>by giving the best qualitative qualities of fruits Average weight fruits and diameter in the Khalal stage<br>and average diameter and weight stromal layer in the stage dates (11.59 g , 2.36 cm , 1.77 cm , 9.96 g)<br>respectively , the Ghanami Ahmar vaccine was distinguished by giving the best quantitative fruit qualities<br>the average of percentage for fruits contract and raceme weight (86.60 % , 16.87 Kg ) respectivel .</p> Uday Hatem Khaeer Abed1 , Abed-Almajeed Abed-Alazeez2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Molecular Detection of Salmonella Infantis from Milk and Children with Gastroenteritis in Babylon Province, Iraq <p>Two hundred and ten samples were included in this study. The samples encompassing of 90 cattle milk<br>samples obtained from local markets, and 120 stool samples obtained from children with gastroenteritis<br>of age less than 12 years from both genders who were attending to the Babylon maternity and children’s<br>hospital. The samples were collected during the interval from February to August 2018 in Babylon province.<br>All these 210 samples were subjected to many tests for isolation and identification of Salmonella species by<br>using bacterial culturing, biochemical tests, and API20E test system. The results showed that the prevalence<br>of identifying Salmonella isolates were 69 (32.9%) out of 210 samples, distributed as (25/90) (27.8%) market<br>milk and (44/120) (36.7%) stool samples. The identified Salmonella isolates were subjected to serotyping by<br>monovalent antisera. It was found that 4 out of 25 isolates (16%) in market milk samples and 16 out of 44<br>isolates (36.4%) in stool samples that belong to Salmonella infantis. PCR technique was achieved to identify<br>invA and invF virulence genes in Salmonella infantis strains. All 20 isolates of Salmonella infantis in market<br>milk and stool samples were examined. The results revealed that, invA gene was detected in all strains of<br>Salmonella infantis isolated from the market milk and stool samples, while the invF gene was present in<br>2 strains of the market milk Salmonella infantis, but existing in all strains of the stool Salmonella infantis.</p> Niran Kadhim F. Al-Rubaey1 , Alyaa Mohammed H. Al-Tabtabai2 , Khaleid Yassen Al-Zamily3 , Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation Study of Different Techniques in Diagnosis of Acute Leukemia in Adults and Children Patients <p>Cytomorphology and cytochemistry are combined with immunophenotype by flow cytometry (FCM) to<br>diagnosis and management the acute leukemia. The present study was designed to compare between the<br>cytomorphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotype by flow cytometry at diagnosis and classification of<br>acute leukemia to suggest a number of antibodies that can be adopted in the diagnosis by flow cytometry.<br>The study included (160) cases were newly diagnosed (100 adults, 60 children). Morphological analysis<br>was depended on peripheral blood smears examination by Leishman stain, cytochemical analysis with PAS<br>and SBB stains and immunophenotype analysis used multiparameter. the results of this study shown that<br>60% of adult cases were AML, and 40% ALL. The mean age of adults was 48.45 years for AML cases and<br>was 32.59 years for ALL adult cases. In children AML the mean age was 5.23 years and was 6.44 years in<br>children ALL cases. Our Conclusion Also that the B.ALL was more commonly than T.ALL in both adults<br>and children cases. Immunophenotypic detection by flow cytometry recorded (100%) successfully diagnosis<br>in ALL cases, but it was successfully in (75%) of detected the subtypes of AML cases.</p> Rash Hamid Ayub1 , Ayad Hameed Ibraheem2, Najwan Salih Nima3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Blood Spot in the Crime Scene in Relation to the Environmental Parameters <p>This study was designed to evaluate the analysis of blood samples in crime scene under different environmental<br>conditions. Samples are divided into four main groups depending on the source of bloodspot: Soil, Stone,<br>Ceramic, and Water sample. Each group consisted of two sub-groups depending on weather temperature in<br>Iraq in winter and summer: 8 °C groups and 45 °C groups. Each group consisted of 32 samples. Samples<br>were collected after different time (0, 2, 6, and 24) hours.<br>The results of the current study showed variation in the ability to extract DNA depending on the surface type.<br>In addition, DNA can be extracted from bloodstains on soil, gravel, ceramics, and water when extracted<br>immediately after exposure to the surface. The difference in the ability to extract DNA from bloodstains<br>on different surfaces after two hours at 8 °C temperature, where the success rate of extraction is (25, 7.5,<br>100, and 100%) for soil, stone, ceramics, and water samples Respectively. The ability rate to extract DNA<br>after two hours at 45 °C temperature, where (25, 7.5, 87.5, and 100%) for soil, gravel, ceramics, and water<br>samples respectively. The ability rate to extract DNA after six hours at 8 °C temperature, where (0, 12.5,<br>37.5, and 100%) for soil, gravel, ceramics, and water samples respectively, while it was (0, 12.5, 25, and<br>100%) for six hours samples at 8 °C temperature. After 24 hours, only water samples showed the ability to<br>extract DNA from all samples, while no DNA was obtained from the rest of the samples.<br>PCR amplification of the FIF2AK3 gene showed products when the DNA extracted immediately after their<br>adhesion to the surface of the soil while showing no products for other age groups. Also, the PCR products<br>can be obtained when DNA isolate immediately after exposure to the stone surface, whereas the rate PCR<br>amplification products of DNA isolated after two hours was (37.5%) for both groups 8 °C and 45 °C., while<br>other age groups showing not products.<br>The agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products showed the possibility of FIF2AK3 gene amplification<br>when blood samples were taken immediately after exposure to the surface, whereas the ability to obtain<br>amplification products was (100 and 87.5%) for groups 8 °C and 45 °C respectively. No products were<br>obtained after 6 and 24 hours. In water samples, all isolated DNA gave the product.</p> Nesreen Muneam Yaseen1 , Ayad M. J. Al-Mamoori2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of IL17 Plasma Levels and IL-17A gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis <p>Aim: The present study aims to determine whether the level of serum interleukin -17 and IL-17 receptors (<br>IL-17A) gene variant increases or decreases susceptibility to Allergic Rhinitis. Method: In this case-control<br>study fifty patients with rhinitis and fifty apparently healthy persons as a control in Babylon province /<br>Iraq were enrolled in this study. Results: the results of this study were shown significant difference in<br>frequency of IL-17 A (rs2275913) A&gt;G polymorphism between Rhinitis patients and controls .Also , there<br>were significant difference in frequency of IL-17A (rs 2275913) between rhinitis patients and controls and<br>there were significant increase in patient compared with control. Conclusion: The bpresent study suggests<br>that patients with AA allele for IL-17A (rs2275913) have increased susceptibility to rhinitis compared with<br>GG allele , Also the present study suggests that IL-17A (rs2275913) is considered risk factor for Allergic<br>Rhinitis. This study suggests that the level of IL-17 patients with rhinitis highly significant compared with<br>healthy.</p> Mohammed D. D. AL-Beagy1 , Thanaa M. Jouda2 , Safaa H. Alturaihy3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Activity of Extract Seed Moringa Oleifera on Gene Expression of (EFB1) Gene in Candida dubliniensis Isolated from oral Candidiasis to Cancer Patients <p>Gene expression of EFB1 gene in yeast Candida dubliniensis isolated from oral candidiasis in cancer<br>patients was detected using by R-time PCR for some isolates before and during the yeast infection of the<br>epithelial cells. The results showed a high rate of gene expression of T2 ( 42.104 ± 6.533) and a significant<br>difference at the probability level P&gt;0.01 compared with the treatment was c (1.034 ± 0.126 ) and the use<br>of the Moringa oleifera extract was 25% to evaluate its effect on the gene expression (ALS1) before and<br>during yeast infection of epithelial cells. The results showed that the gene expression of T1 was decreased<br>by ( 0.129 ± 0.021) compared to (C) value (1.034 ± 0.126) .<br>As for the T2 treatment was gene expression at a rate (42.104 ± 6.533) high Compared with T3 treatment in<br>which gene expression dropped at a rate (22.143 ± 4.176 ) and with a significant difference at the level of<br>the probability of P ? 0.01.</p> Zahraa Khudhair Abbas Al-Khafaji1 Farqad Abdulelah Ali AL-Janahi2 , Al-karrar Kais abdul Jaleel Duaibel3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Reducing the Environmental Impact of Cork Waste by Improving Natural Asphalt as Water Proofing Material <p>This research is concern with two principles, a) the environmental pollution which is the global problem b)<br>the economic benefits as a result of reusing of waste material such as corks to produce new reusable material<br>like Modified-Asphalt. In this research cork has melted by benzene and mixed with Hit Natural Asphalt to<br>get good paste with weight percentages of 0%, 10%, 20%. The properties of Modified –Asphalt have been<br>studied after and before adding coke. The results revealed that adding coke by 29% can make the Modified<br>–Asphalt meets the international specifications (ASTM D312) and Iraqi specifications (88-1196) as a Waterproofing material.</p> Bashar Abdulazeez Mahmood1, Majid Ahmed Mohaisen 2 , Adil Hasan Mahmood3 , Saadoon O. Eyada4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment the Effect of Lactobacillus Acidophilus on Escherichia Coli Serotype O157:H7 with Detection of Some Virulence Factors <p>Aim: To evaluation the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)<br>serotype O157:H7 with detection of some virulence factors.<br>Methods: Two hundred and fifty specimens (stool) from children under five years for both sexes were<br>collected from some hospitals. All isolates were diagnosed according to morphological characteristics,<br>biochemical tests. Monoplex pattern of PCR was used also for detection different genes in (7) Escherichia<br>coli )O157:H7 (isolates; include 16SrRNA, eae, lifA, Stx1,Stx2 that encoded for ribosomal RNA, intimin,<br>lymphocyte inhibitory factor, shiga toxins. Three types of probiotics strains were obtained, Lactobacillus<br>fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC4356). Minimum inhibitory<br>concentration (MIC) of cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus acidophilus was determined by employing<br>different dilutions (1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32), to detect the concentration of probiotic that will inhibit E.coli<br>(O157:H7) growth.<br>Results: Results showed, 210 (84%) samples were identified as E.coli from 250 samples. The result showed<br>(7) isolates were identified as Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 and showed all<br>isolates of O157:H7 were positive for 16SrRNA gene with (213bp) and eae with (741bp), lifA with (712bp),<br>only Stx1 gene appeared in all isolates with (446bp) and no bands with Stx2. Current result showed only cell<br>free culture supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus has inhibitory activity against all E.coli (O157:H7)<br>isolates with different dilutions (1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32), while Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus<br>plantarum have no effect against E.coli (O157:H7). The result showed the bacteriocin has inhibitory effect<br>against E.coli (O157:H7), while organic acids and hydrogen peroxide haven’t any role in inhibition. The<br>(MIC) value was (1/8) which inhibits the bacterial growth of isolates.</p> Mokhtar Jawad AL-Imam1 , May Talib Flayyih2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Conocarpus Erectus Extraction on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters on Male Rats <p>The present study was conducted to evaluated some of physiological and biochemical parameters ,we used<br>eighteen of males rats divided randomly to three group ( six in each ), group one considered as control<br>,group two the animal treated with 250 mg /kg and group three treated with 500 mg /kg .The result show<br>non-significant appeared in RBC , Hb, PCV ,MCH , MCV and MCHC ,while the WBC , lymphocytes and<br>granular show increased significantly . The biochemical test show increased significantly in liver enzyme<br>concentration ALT ,AST and ALP also the result of lipid profile appeared decreased in al parameters<br>exception the HDL which appeared increased significantly .</p> Adel M. Al Zobidy Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synergistic Effect of Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin on pelA and algD Genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa <p>Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important pathogen in both hospital and community-acquired<br>infections, it is a classical opportunistic pathogen, and this organism does not normally attack healthy<br>tissue, and rarely causes infection in the general population. It is possess various virulence mechanisms<br>to adhere, colonize and biofilm formation. Samples were collected from different hospitals in Baghdad,<br>samples were collected and categorized in to two main groups: eighty clinical samples and forty as an<br>environmental samples. Forty one isolates were identified as P. aeruginosa by using conventional methods<br>and confirmed by VITEK-2 compact system, biofilm were detected by three methods: congo-red agar, tube<br>method and microliter plate. Synergistic Effect of Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin on biofilm formation were<br>detected phenotypically by using microliter plate and genetically by Real-time PCR for pelA and algD<br>Genes which are responsible for biofilm formation. The results shows an obvious differences in biofilm<br>formation phenotypically and genotypically for the treated isolates</p> Wathiq Abbas Hattie Al-draghi1 , Rami Abd Al-Kareem Saeed2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 CA 27-29: A Valuable Marker for Breast Cancer Management in Correlation with CA 15-3 <p>Background: Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women, and second main cause of<br>cancer death in women after lung cancer. Tumor markers that showed evidence of clinical utility and were<br>recommended for use in practice include CA15-3, CA27-29 and Carcinoembryonic.<br>Aim of the study: This study was designated to measure the levels of CA15-3, CA27-29 and CEA and<br>evaluate their clinical significance in metastasis and non- metastasis patients with breast carcinoma,<br>comparing their sensitivity and specificity.<br>Patients, Materials and Methods: Serum levels of (CA27-29) and (CA15-3) were measured in 62 patients<br>(40 in non-metastasis and 22 in metastasis patients). The age of patients was from (30 to 90) years old.<br>Samples were collected from the Oncology Teaching Hospital in Baghdad Medical City.<br>Results: The levels of CA15-3, CEA were significantly higher in metastasis group compare to non-metastasis<br>group. while the levels of CA27-29 were no statically significant difference between the two groups.<br>Conclusion: In this study, measurement of CA15-3 and CEA correlated with disease activity especially<br>in the metastatic setting. on the contrary, CA27-29 did not show such clear correlation. CA15-3 was more<br>sensitive in follow up of breast cancer patients followed by CEA and then CA27-29.</p> Hiba Sarmad Kamal AL-Azzawi1 , Manal Kamal Rasheed2 , Manwar AL-Naqqash3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Incidence of Mumps in Anbar province, West of Iraq during the Period 2009-2018 <p>Background: Mumps (infectious parotid gland) is an infectious viral disease mainly affects children and<br>adolescents characterized by enlargement of parotid and salivary glands, other epithelial tissues may be<br>affected, in some cases it is accompanied by serious complications. In recent years many mumps cases in<br>Anbar province have appeared in people who have been vaccinated with Mumps vaccine and for reasons<br>that are not clear<br>Objective: To Show the annual mumps incidence with age groups and sex for those affected in Anbar<br>province<br>Methods: A Descriptive cross-sectional study of the electronic archives of mumps patients who were<br>immediately registered in Anbar Governorate hospitals, during the period from 2009 to 2018. The<br>questionnaires regarding year of infection, gender, and age of mumps patients included in the study. Mumps<br>incidence has been calculated through dividing the number of annual cases of infection by population size<br>multiplied by 100,000. SPSS software version 24 were used for data analysis.<br>Results: Of 2924 Mumps patients registered at Anbar province hospitals, 1715 (58.7%) were males with 12.1<br>± 4 years mean age . The incidence rates of Mumps in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015,2016,2017<br>&amp; 2018 were (0.50, 0.20, 0.70, 0.80, 1.70, 0.00, 0.00, 7.20, 97.90&amp; 59.00) / 100,000 respectively with<br>statistically variance among males &amp; females; p value = 0.000 &amp; annual incidence ratio was 21.00 / 100,000.<br>Annual Mumps incidence ratio from 2009-2018 confirmed one peak in 2017-2018 &amp; a rare 2009-2016,<br>Majority of them were in the age group 5 to14 years old.<br>Conclusion: Mumps incidence had been increase during the last 2 years mainly in the age group 5 to14<br>years old with a marked increase incidence in male in Anbar province, Iraq</p> Mothana Ali Khalil1 , Hekmat Ahmed Owaid2 , Shehab Ahmed Lafi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Insecticide “Maxxthor” on Some Hematological and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Male Albino Rats <p>The present study was designed to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Maxxthor on some<br>hematological and oxidative stress parameters in male albino rats.Twenty male rats with age of 6-8 weeks and<br>weight of 200-250gm were equally divided into four groups as follow:G1 treated with normal saline as control<br>group,while G2,G3andG4groups were treated with(0.01,0.1,1)mg\kg body weight of Maxxthor respectively<br>for 40 days.The following hematological parameters were measured: red blood cell(RBC),hemoglobin<br>(Hb),white blood cell(WBC), platelets(PLT),malondialdehyde(MDA),glutathione(GSH),catalase and<br>vitamin E. The hematological parameters results revealed highly significant(p&lt;0.01)decreasein RBC and<br>H,while a highly significant(p&lt;0.01)increase in WBC and PLT in all treated groups as compared with control.<br>The oxidative stress parameters results revealed highly significant(p&lt;0.01)increase in MDA level,while<br>highly significant(p&lt;0.01)decrease in GSH,catalase and vitamin E level were noticed in all treated groups<br>as compared with control .</p> Entesar A. Essa1 , Layla J. Mohammed2 , Jabbar H. Yenzeel3 , Sahar A. H. AL-Sharqi4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Using Probiotics, Antibiotics and their Combinations to Eradicate Biofilms Formed by Four Pathogenic Klebsiella Pneumoniae Strains <p>Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen leading to nosocomial infections with production of<br>biofilm. In the present study, 73 samples were collected from patients of different ages and both genders<br>suffering from burn and wound injury that referred to four Hospitals in Baghdad from Aug. to Nov. 2019.<br>All Klebsiella isolates were subjected to the primary identification; first by describing colonies grown on<br>MacConkey agar and second microscopically after Gram staining of their cells. Then the isolates were<br>identified by Vitek 2 system which insured that 60 of the isolates were found to belong to Klebsiella<br>pneumoniae. All identified isolates were screened for ability to produce biofilm by using the Microtiter<br>plate assay and the Congo red agar method, and the results showed that only 4 isolates (3 of wounds and<br>1of burns) were able to form biofilms. For the importance of these four isolates as the only ones able to<br>produce biofilm, they were subjected to the 16S rRNA gene amplification test by using PCR technique.<br>Results insured that they are new strains Klebsiella pneumoniae to be discovered for the first time in this<br>study. They were verified and documented by the “National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)”<br>and registered as; KPWIQ25, KPWIQ49, KPWIQ51 and KPBIQ19 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae. When<br>the probiotic filtrates and antibiotics combination were investigated for eradication of biofilms formed by<br>the four pathogenic strains, results showed that such combinations had great efficiency in the eradication.</p> Omer N. Abbas1 , Abdulwahid B. Al-Shaibani2,3, Ahmed A. Mhawesh2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study and Assess the Occupation Hazards to Health Workers in the City of Kut/ Wassit <p>Background: Occupational hazards are a major medical, social, economic problem and a leading cause of<br>morbidity and mortality for health workers. The aims of this study was to identify the types of occupational<br>hazards and risks that health workers are exposed to in the study area. In addition, to measure risk level of<br>occupation hazards. This is a cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among health workers in two<br>hospitals located in Kut city in Wasit governorate. The period of the study extended from October 2019, until<br>the end of March 2020. Data collected by using questionnaire form. The occupation hazards dimensions,<br>which include four domains: physical hazards, chemical hazards, biological hazards, and psychological<br>hazards. The statistical methods used included Chi-square and Fisher exact test. A statistical significant<br>association (p&lt;0.05). The main findings of the current study indicate that the commonest occupational<br>hazards among the health workers in Al- Kut hospital was noise (58.6%), and the second hazard in this<br>category was fire (51.9%). While in Al-Karamah hospital the commonest occupational hazards among the<br>health workers was noise (57.9%) . Conlusively, the study was found that health workers in Al-Karamah<br>hospital had experienced light, heat, noise, psychological, and chemical hazard higher than health workers<br>in Al-Kut hospital. In addition , the health workers in Al-Karamah hospital had experienced biological lower<br>than health workers in Al-Kut hospital.</p> Fatima Haran Daham1 , Alaa Kadhim Jasim 2 , Khalied Yassen Zakair3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Associated Factors of Adulthood Overweight/Obesity among Pharmacy Department Students in Al-Rafidain university College / Iraq <p>Youth people overweight or obesity has become a main public health concern globally because of its<br>adversarial health outcome and escalating prevalence. The aspects of disease conditions demonstrated during<br>early older life commonly originate in youth stage of life. Iraq after wars is went through a transition where<br>they started to go under-nutrition and co- exists with obesity. even though, there is a lack in documented<br>information on college life and being overweight or obesity in Iraq. our study was carried out to documented<br>for the first time the prevalence and associated factors of adulthood overweight or obesity among pharmacy<br>department student in Alrafidain university college. Data were collected using a structured self-administered<br>questionnaire from February 2019 to December 2019in grades 1–5 students of pharmacy department in<br>Alrafidain university college<br>Height and weight measurements of 300 students were taken and BMI- for-age-sex was calculated using<br>WHO AnthroPlus. Based on that, participants were divided to three groups as normal weight (BMI 20–25),<br>overweight (BMI 26.0–30), and obese (BMI &gt; 31.0).<br>Participates response rate is 81%. Age of students take a part in the current study was 21.43 ± 3.81 years. The<br>category of students were 96 students (32%) overweight student 90(30%). The significant different P&lt;0.05<br>among groups were found of particular questions included eating outside their home.</p> Samer Shukur Mohammed1 , Wael Waleed Mustafa2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Serological, Culture and Urea Breath Test for Detection of H. Pylori in Gastric Ulcers Patients <p>Helicobacter pylori t is the causative agent of duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers, thus, it is very important<br>to determine the most appropriate system used to diagnose it. The current study use invasive and noninvasive process for diagnosis of H. pylori. Culture of H. pylori is one of these invasive systems, and the<br>results revealed that 35% of specimen was culture positive ( 62.5% in male and 37.5 in female) While, the<br>non-invasive method like UBT and ELISA IgG and IgA show 67.1% and 71.5% , 29.2% positive results<br>respectively. The distribution of positive test results between male and female by UBT was (41.3%) male<br>and (58.7%) female) while, the distribution of positive test results between male and female by ELISA IgG<br>and IgA were (61.4%) , (26.3%) in male patients and (78.75%) , (31.25%) in female patients respectively.<br>The results of UBT were increase with age, (34 positive patients in age group 51-60 years old). Serological<br>test of ELISA IgG shows that great % of H. pylori infection (74%) found in patients with group age (41-50)<br>yr.O. and the lowest percentage (39%) was found with age group (&lt; 20 ) years old while, percentages of<br>positive cases of ELISA IgA in young age below 20 years old was 79% related to low % with ages increase.</p> Nktel Faaz AL-Saad1 , Nadhim M.H2 , Nawar H.Y2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Low Pollution Emission to Purify Fuel Cell Technology Comprehensively: A Review <p>In recent decades, scientists have been urged to build the new energy resources by depleting fossil fuel,<br>high-energy demand and pollution. Being one of the principal alternative power devices, Thanks to the<br>high energy conversion efficiency, the fuel cells have attracted growing attention, simple operation and<br>low pollution emissions. This paper surveys the historical backdrop of the power devices, the energy unit<br>activity, and sorts of energy units, their points of interest, inconveniences and applications.</p> Muhaned Mohammed Eteya1 , Hayder Saleh Mahdi2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Major Histocompatibility Complex gene Polymorphism in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients <p>The major histocompatibility complex (MIC) is one of the MHC class I related genes which related with<br>autoimmune diseases , the present study aims to investigated association between MIC gene polymorphism<br>class I in systematic lupus erythrymatous patients within Hilla city, the present study implemented using<br>whole blood genomic DNA and single strand DNA conformation polymorphism (SSCP) for detection gene<br>polymorphisms and haplotypes frequency, The results of present study show that 183 bp of MIC gene and it<br>has three haplotypes (A, B, and C) each of these haplotypes consist of two bands, non-significant differences<br>between patient and control in haplotypes frequency, B haplotype was more frequent in patinas than others<br>(20%) while A was more frequents in control than others (22.8%). The present study concluded that MIC<br>gene may be contributed in immune response of SLE and can be used in pre diagnosis of disease. This study<br>was one of the serious investigators deal with several immune genes in this disease in Iraqi SLE.</p> Zahraa Haleem Alqaim1 , Methak J. Al-Jboori2 , Mona N. Al-Terehi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Oral Contraceptive Pills on Levels of Calcium and Vitamin D in women in Al-Najaf province <p>Background: Combined oral contraceptives comprise of the steroid hormone oestrogen in combination with<br>a progesterone, occupied principally to prevent pregnancy. Combined oral contraceptive pills commonly<br>refer to pills in which an oestrogen and a progestogen are given concurrently in a monthly cycle. Materials<br>and methods: The current study was undertaken over a period of six months from 2019/10/1 till 2020/3/1<br>in Al-Najaf province. Thirty women that take oral contraceptives pill participated in the study, Their ages<br>ranged from (20-38) years divided into three groups(10/group) according to the ages (20-25, 26-31,32 -38)<br>years. Results: Results of this study revealed, oral contraceptives pill cause no effect on serum levels of<br>calcium in women that intake it at different age groups in compare with controls groups, and also causes a<br>significant decrease in serum levels of vitamin D in women that intake it at different age groups in compare<br>with controls groups. On the other hand, the results obtained there aren’t apparent difference in these<br>parameters when compared between age groups and group that use it for long period (3,6 and 9 year).<br>Conclusion: The present study concluded that oral contraceptives pill cause no effect on serum levels of<br>calcium in women and little effect on vitamin D in women.</p> Alaa Abd Kadim1 , Suha Hussein Mohammed1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Some NKG2 gene Family and it’ s Polymorphism with Pulmonary Tuberculosis <p>The case-control study was aimed to evaluate the effect of NKG2D and NKG2F, gene polymorphism on<br>susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Babylon province.<br>The polymorphism of NKG2D gene at (rs1049174) and (rs2255336) were detected for 60 PTB<br>cases and 60 of control. For rs1049174, allele frequency for patients and control were significant<br>(P&lt;0.05) and the C allele represent the risk allele for PTB patients with odd ratio (95% CI) of 2.04<br>(1.16-3.57) while G allele represent protective allele for control group with odd ratio (95% CI) of 0.49 (0.28-<br>0.86), (P&lt;0.05). The genotype (C/C, G/C, G/G) were (61.7, 30, 8.3)% respectively for PTB patients and<br>(36.7, 50, 13.3)% respectively for control with significant association with disease (P&lt;0.05). On the other<br>hand, the SSCP and sequencing results of rs2255336 revealed that there were no gene variation in rs2255336<br>among patients and control subjects.<br>The polymorphism of NKG2F gene at (rs1841958) was also detected for 60 PTB cases and 60 of control.<br>For rs1841958, allele frequency between patients and control were insignificant (P&gt;0.05). The genotypes<br>(C/C, A/C, A/A) were (38.3, 40, 21.7)% respectively for PTB patients and (36.7, 40, 23.3)% respectively for<br>control with insignificant association between these genotype and PTB (P&gt;0.05).</p> Nktel Faaz AL-Saad 1 Mohammed A.K Alsaadi 2 Ali Hmood Al-saadi 3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Breast Cancer Molecular Profile in Old Age Patients in Comparison to Young Age Patients <p>Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy of females all over the world and the second<br>leading cause of death due to malignancy among females. Breast cancer is regarded as a unique disease in<br>oncology and the specific markers such as ER, PR, HER-2/neu and others are used to predict the prognosis<br>and the treatment response to guide the therapeutic plan.<br>Aim of the Study: To clarify if there is any significant difference in the intrinsic molecular profile of breast<br>cancer in old age patients in comparison to young age patients.<br>Material &amp; Methods: Samples of primary carcinoma of breast, obtained from 211 female patients with<br>breast cancer. The patients are divided into two group. Immunohistochemical analysis was done for the<br>specimens by using Envision method for detection of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Her2/neu.<br>Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS. In which we use frequency, percentage and mean as descriptive<br>statistics while chi square and Yates corrected chi square as analytic statistics.<br>Result: We found molecular intrinsic breast cancer subtypes have a significant difference in distribution<br>of elderly breast cancer compared to their younger counterparts where elderly patients more frequently<br>Luminal A and Luminal B tumor subtypes and less frequently HER2+ and basal molecular subtypes.<br>Conclusion old age breast cancer patients have better prognosis in comparison to young age patients<br>according to the biological profile, histopathological type and Immunohistochemical prognostic parameters.</p> Zahraa Ali Saleh AL-Taee1 , Asaad A. Al-Janabi2 , Ahmed Muhsin Yousif AL-Mayali3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Some Histogenetic Aspects of Methotrexate Associated with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) Treatment Doses <p>A total of (36) mice in the age of (1-3) weeks were selected to evaluate the methotrexate effect on some<br>histogenetic aspects of kidneys. Treatment lasted for three months, and results showed marked hemorrhage,<br>cortical tubular basophilia, necroses, and degeneration in the autopsied organ of animals with low oral<br>hydration. Besides, changes in the DNA methylation pattern were noticed in the RAPD-PCR profile upon<br>analysis with agarose gel electrophoresis.</p> Asal A. Tawfeeq1 , Sundus M. Taifoor2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Seroprevalence of Syphilis among Iraq’s Blood Donors and Their Relation with Blood Group and Rh Factor <p>Aim of Study: to detect the frequency of syphilis disease among healthy blood donors and if there’s<br>association with ABO Blood groups and Rh factor.<br>Methods and Material: this study performed in Iraq National Blood transfusion in Baghdad city, collection of<br>blood samples obtained from apparently healthy blood donors for a 12 month period (Jan.2018 toDec.2018).<br>Blood group for the volunteers was determined by forward and revers grouping method. Detection of<br>syphilis performed by using ELISA technique (fortress,BXE0995C, united Kingdom) for detect antibodies<br>in the human serum. Syphilis test on of the routine test applied in the blood donor bank in Iraq.<br>Result: a total of 178966 healthy volunteers included in the study, all were blood donors, age 18-60 years,<br>with mean age of 39 years. Only 1233 (0.69%) appeared infected with syphilis, 1208 (98%) were males while<br>25(2%) were females; 444(36%) seropositive was blood group A, while blood group O and blood group B<br>seropositivity was 366(29.7%) , 333(37%) respectively, The lowest percentage recorded for blood group AB<br>at 90(7.3%). The prevalence of syphilis with Rh factor was as following: 1147(93%) of seropositive was Rh<br>+ve whereas 86(7%) was Rh -ve. Conclusion: blood group A and O are the most prominent blood groups<br>among voluntary donors and the prevalence of syphilis is equal compared with other countries.</p> Suad Azeez Hassan1 , Eman S. Nassir2 , Aseel I. Ibrahim1 , Luma Tareq3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Histomorphological Study of Kidneys in Pigeon (Columba livia) and Starling Birds (Sturnus valguris) <p>This paper is focused application on the histomorphological and morphometrical differences of the kidneys<br>of two species (Sturnus valguris and Columba livia ) belong to different orders varied in climate. Our study<br>used 30 birds divided into two equal groups; first was 15 starling birds (Sturnus valguris) and the second<br>group consisted of 15 pigeon (Columba livia). The current study showed morphological results of kidneys<br>in both birds, where appeared differences between kidneys. In starling’s kidney was described square shape<br>with fused left and right kidneys, either pigeon’s kidney was divided in to three lobes (cranial, middle<br>and caudal) with elongated-like. The present study was revealed Mean measurements. The study recorded<br>length of starling’s kidney was (4.43±0.12cm), while weight and volume were recorded (3.75±0.05g) and<br>(2.28m±0.04cm³) respectively, while in pigeon was kidney length (5.45±0.12cm), weight of kidney was<br>(4.85±0.02g) and volume about (2.21±0.06cm³). Microscopic results were included in two species, the renal<br>cortex which made up the majority of the kidney, while small region of kidney called medulla. Our study<br>was different impatience between starling’s bird and pigeon kidney about renal corpuscles, where the study<br>showed the bowman’s space in starling bird was wide from pigeon. The study observed significant statistics<br>analysis. Mean measurement was (10.64±0.02µm) and (8.65±0.04µm) in bowman’s space, while mean of<br>the glomerulus capillaries and renal corpuscles of pigeon was a larger than starling’s bird (47.54±0.11µm),<br>(26.60±0.12µm),(56.55±0.12µm) and (37.41±0.11µm) respectively. Also the present work was recorded<br>significant statistics analysis during calculation the number of renal corpuscles in 1 mm² in starling bird<br>kidney was more than that in the kidney of pigeon (20.25 ± 0.23µm) and (16.42 ± 0.01µm).</p> Suhaib A. H. AL-Taai1 , Riyadh H. Nasif1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-Legal Perspective on Renewing the Law Order In New Normal Situation of Covid-19 Pandemic <p>Covid-19 pandemic is a reality that has a big impact on all aspects of people’s lives, whether economic,<br>social, cultural, or legal elements. In the face of this extraordinary situation, social change becomes an<br>inevitable necessity. However, this big challenge is not something that is easy to deal with. Various problems<br>in the community arise and become anxious together as a nation. Through this study, an understanding is<br>obtained that to face the Covid-19 pandemic situation in the midst of this new normal order, to deepen the<br>role of Indonesian social capital of Pancasila. The study of legal sociology is deemed capable of revealing<br>legal reality, social changes in the pandemic era and how we renew law in the middle of a pandemic will be<br>well read and produce good judicial choices in the midst of Covid-19 pandemic.</p> Yusriyadi1 , Aditya Yuli Sulistyawan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Variation of 16SrRNA gene for Some Nosocomial Bacteria Isolated from Ramadi Teaching Hospital for Women and Children <p>The aim of this studsy is to diagnose bacterial strains in hospitals by the 16SrRNA gene and to know the<br>variation of the nucleotide sequence. The study of bacteria in hospitals is of great importance to identify the<br>extent of change in these species and their resistance to antibiotics. This indicates that these bacteria have the<br>ability to change or obtain new variants to be able to resist antibiotics. In this study, samples were taken from<br>different locations of the Ramadi Teaching hospital for women and children and were cultured on different<br>media. They were also stained and examined under light microscopy and some biochemical tests were<br>conducted. Pure colonies were obtained after re-culture and then extracted the DNA from the 16 isolated<br>samples and measuring its concentration. Using the specific primer for 16SrRNA genes, the samples were<br>amplified by a PCR and the size was shown to be 1500 bp. The unknown bacteria were sent to the sequence.<br>Some samples showed variations in comparison with the data presented by NCBI. This is evidence of some<br>variations shown by bacteria to overcome antibiotics and increase their severity and spread in hospitals,<br>whether in kitchens, emergency or preterm infants, as well as laboratory staff and lab equipment.</p> Saade Abdalkareem Jasim1 , Sumaya Ayad abdulrazzaq1 , Saba ‚a Muhsen Farhan1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Knowledge and Performance Regarding Triage Among Nurses Working in Emergency Unit-Al Dawadmi General Hospital: A Cross Sectional Study <p>Five experts validated the contents of the tools and tested for reliability, using Cronbach’s alpha, the<br>tool correlation coefficient was 0.79. The majority of participants (74.46%) were in the age group of &lt;<br>30 years. More than half of the studied subjects (59.57) are male. The majority of them have BSc and<br>about 70.21% work experience for more than five years. Only 72.34% of them had not attended any form<br>of workshops about Triage. 70.2% of them knowing the purpose of triage, 91.2 % know color used in<br>nonurgent situations, while 91.5% not know the time of Triage.93.6% of them not know the importance of<br>urine analysis in the triage unit. The majority of them (80.90 %) strongly agree that hospital Triage is good.<br>knowledge about triage is a key in triage decision making. The study findings revealed that there were still<br>deficits in the triaging knowledge and skills of nurses.</p> Walaa Ahmad Eisa1 , Awatif Alhmeidi Alenizi2 , Entesar-makhlouf3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Orally-administered Silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on Some Biochemical Parameters in Kidney of Rats <p>The research evaluated the oral administration of silver nanoparticles on the tissue morphology and<br>biochemical parameters of kidneys in rats, using (0.2 and 0.4) mg/kg B.W for four days and 0.08,0.008 mg/<br>kg weight For 30 days . The result showed significant increase in the level of serum creatinine and serum<br>urea for animals treated with silver nanoparticles relative to the control at the dose of (0.08 and 0.008) mg/kg<br>B.W for 30 days. As for the histological study of kidneys showed sever changes at the dose (0.08 and 0.008)<br>mg/kg compared with the dose 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg for 4 day which include infiltration of inflammatory cells<br>,haemorrhage, and degenerated and necrotic changes in renal tubules epithelium.</p> H. Kh. Ismail 1 , A. A. AlKshab2 , A. A. AL-Baker2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of a Mentoring Program on Competition Orientation for Football School Athletes <p>The research problem was centered in the fact that despite all the efforts made by the training staff to<br>assist the players in raising their technical level, the researchers with their personal experience because they<br>worked in the field of arbitration and arbitrated many of the matches that took place for the players of the<br>specialized school in the province of Babel note that there are some players They do not carry a positive<br>attitude towards competition and this is enough to affect the level of their performance, and therefore they<br>are born with weakness in perseverance and dedication to sports competition, and this leads to a low level of<br>performance due to the lack of a positive orientation of the players towards competition, which is reflected on<br>his performance Inside the stadium, so the researchers adapted to study this problem by knowing the reality<br>of the competitive orientation of the players and building an indicative program with special exercises to<br>raise the level of their competitive orientation in football. The researchers used the realistic treatment method<br>as one of the psychological methods to improve these variables because it deals with them realistically, and<br>the objectives of the research were to build an indicative program With special exercises for the players of<br>the specialized school in the province of Babylon, football, to identify the effectiveness of the pilot program<br>with special exercises in the orientation towards competition among the players in the province of Babylon<br>football, the researchers used the experimental method in the complex method And the two controlling and<br>experimental equivalents with pre and post-test for their suitability to the nature of the research problem on<br>the players of specialized schools in the middle Euphrates football who are under (17) years old and whose<br>total number is (175) players, The researchers concluded that there is an effect of the pilot program with its<br>exercises In flat lift The competitive orientation of football with the experimental group, and real differences<br>emerged in the level of competition orientation between the control and experimental research groups and<br>in favor of the experimental group, and the use of realistic guidance commensurate with raising the level of<br>competition towards the players of the experimental group in the specialized school of football.</p> Sarmad Abdul Ridha Abdul Hussain Al Hussaini 1, Mohamed Abdel-Reda2 , Khaled Mohamed Reda3, Haider Naji Habash Al-Shawi 4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Synergistic Effect of Combining Some Antibiotics with Powder of Silver NPs, Copper NPs and Titanium NPs <p>Routine antibiotics susceptibility testing still relies on standardized cultivation-based analyses, including<br>measurement of inhibition zones in conventional agar diffusion tests.The sensitivity of the bacterial isolates<br>causing Clinical isolatest results showed that all the isolates subjected to this study showed varying resistance<br>to the antibiotics used. The effect of nanoparticles combined with different antibiotics was investigated<br>against multi resistant Clinical isolates bacteria using disk diffusion method. The inhibition zones diameter<br>(mm) around various antibiotic discs (Trimethoprim, sulphamethaxazol, Azithromycin, Aztreonam,<br>Ceftriaxone, Gentamycin, Tetracyclin, Nitrofurantoin) with/without nanopatrticles against isolates were<br>measured. The antibacterial activities of some antibiotics have been increased in the presence of nanoparticle<br>against all isolates while others showed no effect. The highest antibacterial activities of antibiotics combined<br>with nanoparticle were observed against E.coli isolates for Gentamycin, Trimethoprim-sulphamethaxazol<br>,Azithromycin ,Tetracyclin ,Nitrofurantoin. while A. baumanii appeared sensitive to Gentamycin,<br>Trimethoprim sulphamethaxazol and Azithromycin compared with antibiotics alone. K.pneumoniae became<br>sensitive to Gentamycin, Tetracyclin and P.aeruginosa to Ampicillin,Trimethoprim sulphamethaxazol,<br>Azithromycin and Gentamycin. nanoparticle showed no effect on antibacterial activities of all antibiotics<br>except Gentamycin against gram positive bacteria S.aureus.</p> Raghad N. Shihab1 , Ali M. Al-Dahbi2 , Saif Ali Mohammed Hussein3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phylogenetic Tree Analysis of First Psychrobacter Sp. Strain From Blood of Iraqi Patient; A Case Report <p>Psychrobacter spp. are a Gram negative bacteria, aerobic, non-motile, small, with coccobacilli shape.<br>Originally isolated from seaweed samples and marine environments. Recently considered as rare<br>opportunistic human pathogens. Sixty –five years old women admitted to hospital with diabetic mellitus<br>and stage 4 pressure ulcers (PU) with seizure and mild fever 37.9 °C. A gram staining of blood culture<br>revealed gram negative bacteria have a cocobacilli shape. The VITEK2 system (bioMérieux) misidentify the<br>isolate as Acinetobacter bumannii complex with low discrimination. The submission of the bacterial isolate<br>to the GenBank BLAST search tool revealed that the Iraqi isolate show 100% homology with Psychrobacter<br>sp. From china with accession number ID: MK205167.1, the next matches with Uncultured Psychrobacter<br>sp. ( ID: KF859544.1 China) Psychrobacter pulmonis(ID: KU364058.1, India), Psychrobacter pulmonis<br>(ID: MH550129.1, China)with 99% similarity for each one. This Psychrobacter sp. was the first isolate from<br>bacteremia patients in Iraq. The identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequence for precisely identify this<br>bacteria that misidentified by VITEK2 system</p> Nuha S. Jassim1 , Sameer Abdul Ameer Alash2 , Najwa Shihab Ahmed2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analytical Evaluation Study of Some Characterization of Potable water for an Old Well in Baghdad City <p>This study involved measuring seventieth tests five of its physically ,temperature, color, turbidity, electrical<br>conductivity and pH and remaining tests were chemical ten of them for heavy metals ,the chlorine and fluorine<br>were also investigated for water of old well in Baghdad city close to tiger river weekly for six months ,this<br>study showed validity of this well to drink and domestic use within the limit of the properties and elements<br>studied only ,through the tests ,all the samples were found to be transparent and non-colored ,there was<br>nothing left after her leaving ,and the pH ranged from (7.655-7.920) , conductivity (821-908µsemens/cm)<br>and temperature (19.68-23.36ºC) ,the concentrations of elements were (0.031-0.044), (0.038-0,053), (0.009-<br>0.015), (0.019-0.025), (0.004-0.006), (0.009-0.011), (0.029-0.035), (0.108-0.112) ,(0.003-0.005), (95-111),<br>and (0.424-0.571) µg/ml for lead ,cadmium, iron, copper, antimony, cobalt, chromium, zinc, manganese,<br>chlorine and fluorine respectively ,as for nickel, it is not registered, all the tests have been subject to the local<br>and international standards except lead and cadmium, according to international standard only</p> Analytical Evaluation Study of Some Characterization of Potable water for an Old Well in Baghdad City Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Hepatitis B, C and HIV Viruses among Hemophiliac Patients in Al-Anbar Governorate <p>Background: People with hemophilia (factor VIII and IX deficiency) and those with other clotting factor<br>deficiencies are particularly at risk of acquiring blood-borne hepatitis virus infections and HIV through<br>transfusion with unscreened blood and blood products.<br>Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B, C, and HIV among hemophiliac patients in the AlAnbar governorate.<br>Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study carried out between October 2014 and March 2015 was<br>done to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B, C, and HIV among hemophiliac patients. Forty hemophiliac<br>patients were recruited to this study, who were documented to have hemophilia A and B by factor assay.<br>Patients’ surveillance for hepatitis B, C and HIV were done by the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay<br>“ECLIA” by using Cobas e 411-immunoassay analyzer.<br>Results: Forty hemophiliac patients with age ranged between 6 months and 22 years with mean age 9.9 ±<br>5.4 years were recruited to this study, 5 patients were mild hemophilia, 6 patients moderate hemophilia and<br>29 patients with severe hemophilia.<br>The prevalence of hepatitis C among the 40 hemophiliac patients was 5%, while for hepatitis B and HIV was<br>0%. Six patients (15%) showed immunity to hepatitis B due to successful vaccination.<br>Conclusions: This study showed that the prevalence of hepatitis B and HIV is zero, while for hepatitis C<br>5%. Hepatitis C infection was more in severe hemophilia A, advanced age and an increasing number of<br>blood and blood products transfusion. Only 6 patients (15%) among hemophiliac patients were seropositive<br>for hepatitis B vaccine immunity.</p> Hussein Ali AL-Enzy1 Fakhri Jamil Al-Dalla Ali2 , Adnan M Jasim3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Quantitative Genetics Analysis of Autism According to Sex Hormones <p>The present paper applied the light on 46 rats models induced with autism to prove the relationship among<br>sex hormones and both of aromatase and RORA. After six practical steps, the results explain a negative<br>relation of testosterone opposites with positive one for estrogen for their relations on aromatase and<br>RORA. As testosterone rise significantly 3.015±0.321 ng/mL, estrogen declined significantly too to record<br>0.033±0.0011 ng/mL. on the quantitative genetic levels we concluded that both sex hormones affecting the<br>physiological mechanisms of aromatase reaction and RORA synthesis.</p> A-S. U. Hassan1 , Najat Mohammed Flyyih2, Suhaib Khalid Ibrahim3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association Between Carbamazepine Toxicity, Liver Bile Duct Injury, Granuloma and Inflammatory Cells Infiltration in Female Mice <p>The liver is an important organ in the body that can be affected by many drugs and toxins. The hepatotoxins<br>can cause oxidant stress that lead to activation of inflammatory cells and cause liver damage. Drug induced<br>bile duct injuries are related to drug toxicity, multiple drugs have been known to cause the development of<br>liver granulomas. Carbamazepine (CBZ) among other antiepileptic drugs is believed to cause hepatic injury.<br>In this study we investigated the effect of (CBZ) 20mg/kg/day on female mice liver after 14 and 30 days<br>of treatment. The histological findings showed that (CBZ) can cause histological alterations in the liver<br>components such as bile duct proliferation, biliary hypertrophy, ductopenia, inflammatory cells infiltration<br>and granulomas.</p> A.T. Nawar R. Jaber1 , Nahla A. Al-Bakri2 , A.T. Ola Al-Bhadly3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Program for Developing Locally Food Supervision to Support Sanitary Monitoring Work <p>Food supervision in Iraq is the responsibility of the Ministry of Health and Environment, which conducts<br>food supervision to all food establishments worked in Iraq by the department of sanitary monitoring in<br>Baghdad city as well as all directorates of health in Iraqi provinces. As a result of increasing the number<br>of food businesses national wide in last years, increasing the number of consumers, Iraq’s openness to the<br>international market, and using the policy of random import. Due to the mentioned reasons, many problems<br>related to consumer’s health has appeared, this matter pushed the Iraqi Government to establish committees,<br>organized seminars, and workshops related to this subject to resolve problems effected in consumer’s<br>health. This problem requires more effort from researchers and specialists in food supervision and sanitary<br>monitoring in Iraq to protect consumer’s health especially from foodborne diseases. The proposed program<br>is the start of the way towards new food safety policy in Iraq and it will be considered as the essential base<br>of reorganization food control authorities in Iraq and updating national food regulations and legislations.</p> Mahmud Abdullah Jasim Alkhafaji Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and Biological Activities of New 1,2,3,4- Tetrahydroquinoline Derivatives Using Imino Diels-Alder Reaction <p>This research contains the preparation of some novel derivatives of tetrahydro quinolone. First step, include<br>prepared new Schiff’s bases compounds (I1-I5) were prepared by the direct condensation between diamine<br>compounds and aromatic aldehydes substituted by different groups. Tetrahydroquinoline derivatives<br>compounds (I6-I10) were prepared through imino Diels-Alder reaction using the derivatives of Schiff base<br>with cinnamic acid, and Boron tri fluoride ethyl etherate (BF3.Et2O) as a catalyst. The prepared compounds<br>were identified by infrared spectra, 1<br>H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. Antibacterial activity of the prepared compounds<br>was measured by using three pathogenic microorganisms including Staphyloccus haemolyticus, Klebsiella<br>pneumonia,and Candida albicans. Also, a comparative study was achieved to study the biological activity<br>of these prepared compounds using Agar Diffusion method.</p> Muhammad Abd Kadhum1 , Mariam Abdul Jalil Abdul Razak Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phenotype Detection of Genetic Enzymes B- Lactamase Isolation of Patients with Urinary Tract Infections Bacteria Escherichia Coli <p>Background: the main cause of multidrug resistant bacteria is the production of ?-lactamase enzymes. The<br>objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotype of Escherichia coli spp. isolated from<br>nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTI). Methods: In a cross-sectional study from May 2019 to January<br>2020, mid-stream urine specimens were collected from 210 patients presented with acute urinary tract<br>infections whom attending Al- Shahid Ghazi and Al-Hariri Hospital in Medical City/ Baghdad. Samples<br>were cultured for E. coli isolation. Antibiotic sensitivity test and the prevalence of resistance enzyme<br>producing gen were investigated. Results: A total of 210 E. coli were isolated, multidrug resistance strain<br>of E coli (92.85%) was reported by this study. PCR technique indicated that 88.57% of ESBL-producing<br>isolates possessing blaTEM, 30% blaCTX-M genes and 20.48% blaSHV genes between isolates and E. coli<br>still the less resistant to carbapenem due to low expression of KPC gen. Conclusion: ESBLs and KPC were<br>the higher prevalent genotype of multidrug resistant E. coli in urine sample.</p> Ali Hassoun Hammadi Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Apoptotic Proteins Expression in Liver and Spleen after Treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis: An Experimental Study <p>The cellular immune response and apoptotic pathways are closely related dose dependent responses against<br>Echinococcus granulosus antigens. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cellular expression of Bax,<br>Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 in both liver and spleen of experimentally cystic echinococcosis mice treated with<br>Oxfendazole, Oxfendazole +Praziquantel, Oxfendazole +Albendazole and Albendazole +Praziquantel of<br>experimentally mice model of cystic echinococcosis. After 2 months of treatment, mice were sacrificed and<br>both liver and spleen were processed for immunohistochemistry staining protocol using specific primary<br>antibody against mouse Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 proteins. The results showed that E. granulosus infection<br>able to induce apoptosis in both liver and spleen tissues after induction of cystic echinococcosis mice model,<br>treatment with Albendazole in combination form gives better results because of attenuation of apoptosis<br>pathway and restore of normal cellular behavior. In conclusion, this study describes the involvement of<br>apoptosis in the pathogenesis of cystic echinococcosis.</p> Talib Waseen Hussein1 , Waheeda Rasheed Ali1, Haider F. Ghazi2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge of the Mothers toward Sanitation and Hygiene in relation to Childhood Gastroenteritis in Babylon Province <p>The negative impact of gastroenteritis in those aged 5 or less in Babylon Province in Central Iraq cannot be<br>underestimated as it is a serious impediment to the wellbeing and cognitive development of children and<br>a cause of unnecessary death in this resource-strained region of the Middle Eastern country. In this region<br>diarrhea is an important clinical presentation at primary health care institutions and other health affiliated<br>centres, stands out as a leading cause of admission to many of the emergency hospital wards in Babylon,<br>and a serious and ironically, often reversible cause of loss of precious lives. Regional attitudes in the Middle<br>Euphrates Region about causes that lead to childhood gastroenteritis vary from rural and urban localities and<br>even from townships, a cultural issue that is true for most provinces of Iraq.<br>Aim of the study: 1-To study the social and demographic aspects related to sanitation and personal hygiene<br>regarding childhood diarrhea in Babylon Province.<br>2- To determine the local knowledge, of women and care givers about childhood diarrhea.<br>Patients and methods: This cross sectional work was carried in Babylon Province, Iraq. A total 408<br>respondents attending primary health care institutions and pediatric clinics for treatment of diarrhea , during<br>the period from first of January 2019 to the first of May 2019.<br>Results and Conclusions: In Babylon Province outbreaks of diarrhea tend to be noticed early in life prior<br>to first year of life despite the fact that around three quarters of infants who contracted gastroenteritis were<br>in compliance with Rota Vaccine timetable schedule. Seven out of ten women were fully knowledgeable of<br>the importance immunization against Rota virus and its vital role in reduction of the risk of gastroenteritis.<br>When their children contract diarrhea, a percentage shy of 66% said that they would seek paediatric medical<br>attention .<br>Respondents whose infants were affected tend to be mostly urban, in their teenage years and lacked<br>proper education. There is a remarkable lack of adequate knowledge about ways of contracting childhood<br>gastroenteritis.</p> Sijal Fadhil Farhood Al Joborae1 , Fadhil Farhood Mekki Al Joborae2 , Sura Falah Abdul Hadi Al-Jubbawi3, Ihab Raad Abbas Abid Ali4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Expression Studies of the Cancer Drug and Its Effect on Angiogenesis-Promoting Genes in Cancer Cell Lines <p>Objective: Being a member of RNA binding proteins, Human Antigen R (HuR) is considered as an acute<br>factor to mediate the proangiogenic factors causing the angiogenesis amongst tumor cells. All through the<br>anoxic conditions and inflammation, the cytokine IL-1 activated the HuR which further downregulated or<br>upregulated the hypoxia inducible factors (HIF1?). Current study was conducted to observe the correlative<br>impact of Decetexal (Taxotere) cancer drug on HIF? and HuR expression levels while utilizing the cell line<br>HeLa.</p> Salam Abbas1 , Noor Harith AL-Hamid Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bacillus cereus in Meat Products: 16S rRNA Phylogenetic Tree analysis and Antimicrobial Investigation of Nisin A, Rosemary Essential Oil and Tetracycline <p>In view of the importance of human food poisoning, this study was aimed to isolate B. cereus from meat<br>sources that is economically problem affects both manufacturers and consumers. 16S rRNA was used<br>to identify bacteria as well as for constructing phylogenetic tree. The activity of different antimicrobial<br>agents (nicin A, Rosemary essential oil and tetracycline) were determined using well diffusion method.<br>16S rRNA analysis was successfully identified the three studied isolates from meat as B. cereus as well as<br>the phylogenetic tree results observed that bacteria source in meat might be the soil. Rosemary essential<br>oil at concentration 2000 µg/ml was more effectively then nisin A at 32 mg/ml. In conclusions, the 16S<br>rRNA sequences analysis was efficient for identification of B. cereus. Also, the higher antibacterial effect<br>of Rosemary essential oil against B. cereus need further studies to be used as preservative agent for meat<br>products.</p> Sana MH AL-Shimmary 1, Ghusoon A. Abdulhasan2 , Mais E. Ahmed3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Measurement the Chemical Composition and Topography of Copper Nickel Titanium Arch Wires at Dry and Wet conditions (An In-Vitro Study) <p>Background: The characteristics surface, such as, topography, and rigidity of orthodontic arch wires are<br>essential determining factor of the effectiveness,of arch wire-guided tooth movement. They also affect,<br>in the potential of corrosion,and the aesthetics,of orthodontic components. This study was considered to<br>evaluate the chemical composition and topography of Cu-NiTi arch wires from different companies in,dry<br>and,wet condition( acidic and,neutral artificial saliva). Materials and methods Three,types of CuNiTi<br>orthodontic,archwires from,different brands were,used: CuNiTi (Ormco brand),, CuNiTi (IOS brand)<br>and,CuNiTi (Orthotechnology brand).,They were rectangular,(0.018*0.025 inch) in cross,section and cut<br>into pieces,of 20 mm in length.,30 pieces,from each,company were separated into 3 groups; one group was<br>left dry condition,and other,2 groups, ten pieces,for each group were submerged in,artificial saliva,(pH=6.75<br>± 0.015) and,(pH=3.5 ± 0.015) at 37ºC ,for 2 months. The SEM and EDS was used to assess surface analysis<br>of wholly samples.,Results: After soaking period, CuNiTi wires from orthotechnology brand,exhibited the<br>highest change in chemical composition and topography among the study groups. Instead, the least change<br>in chemical composition and topography surfaces were CuNiTi wires from Ormco brand,when compared<br>to,analogous arch wires. Conclusion: The CuNiTi arch wires from Ormco brand were the greatest and the<br>most appropriate alignment in orthodontic archwires in term of the least changes in surface of Cu-NiTi<br>initially and during the course of this study period.</p> Saba Ammar Mohammed1 , Abeer Basim Mahmood2 , Mohammed Nahidh2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Teratogenic Effect of Carbamazepine Drug on the Histological Structure of Testes in the Albino Mouse (Mus musculus) <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the side effect of Carbamazepine on the histological structure of the<br>testis in white mouse males.<br>A total of 24 male of Swiss white mice were divided into three groups, treated with Carbamazepine Drug<br>for (30) days. Within each treatment period, animals were assigned into three subgroups each of eight mice;<br>control treated with vehicle and the others treated with 200, and 300mg/kg of Carbamazepine, The required<br>dose of the drug was dosed orally for all mice once per day for one month (30 days) for two concentrations.<br>At the end of treatments, all mice were sacrificed; Testes was removed and weighed then kept in buffered<br>formalin solution for microscopic examination.<br>The results of this study showed that animals that were injected with Carbamazepine caused a change in the<br>shape and thickness of the wall of the somniferous tubules, where the appearance of the irregular, and also<br>observed the occurrence of an embolism in some germ cells and collected in the center of the cavity of the<br>somniferous tubules in addition to the observation of Vaculation and necrosis in most areas of somniferous<br>tubules.<br>The results of the current study suggested the possible time and dose-dependent disrupting potential of<br>Carbamazepine Drug on the Histological Structure of Testes in the Albino Mouse.</p> Thekra Atta Ibrahim1 , Mohammed Ali Mohammed2, Ibtisam Khalaf Abd ali3 , Mohammed Nsaif Abbs4 , Suaad Abbas Hussien1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Continuous Flow Injection Analysis,Turbidmetric and Photometric Determination of Methyldopa Using a New Long Distance Chasing Photometer (NAG-ADF-300-2) <p>A specific, sensitive and new simple method was used for the determination of methyldopa in pure and<br>pharmaceutical formulations by using continuous flow injection analysis. This method is based on formation<br>of ion pair compound between methyldopa and potassium hexacyanoferrate in acidic medium to obtain a<br>yellow precipitate complex using long distance chasing photometer (NAG-ADF-300-2). The linear range<br>for calibration graph was 0.05-35 mmol/L for cell A and 0.05-25 mmol/L for cell B, and LOD 1.4292 µg<br>/200 µL for both cells with correlation coefficient (r) 0.9981 for cell A and 0.9994 for cell B, RSD% was<br>lower than 0.5 % for n=8 for. The results were compared with classical method UV-Spectrophotometric at<br>? max=280 nm and turbidmetric method by using the standard addition method via the use of t-test, at 95%<br>confidence level. The comparison of data explain that long distance chasing photometer (NAG-ADF-300-2)<br>is the choice with excellent extended detection and wide application.</p> Nagam S. Turkey1 , Elham N. Mezaal2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Surface Roughness of Nickel Free Orthodontic Brackets and Archwires (An In Vitro Comparative Study) <p>Objectives: Orthodontic appliances may cause many side effects, one of these is inducing nickel<br>hypersensitivity as a result of nickel content of these appliances, therefore, it is essential to choose a<br>bracket and archwire that are nickel free and have a better surface characteristic to be more efficient for the<br>orthodontic treatment. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the surface roughness of nickel free metal<br>brackets and archwires.<br>Materials and Method: Two types of nickel free brackets were used (Ni free SS brackets and Co-Cr<br>brackets), a 0.022-inch slot, and three types of nickel free archwires of 0.018 x 0.025 inch were used (Ni<br>free SS, TMA, and rhodium coated SS archwires). These brackets and wires were examined for their surface<br>roughness by the atomic force microscope (AFM) using the roughness average parameter (Ra). For the<br>statistical analysis Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the brackets, while, KruskalWallis test was used for the comparison among the archwires (non-parametric tests) at level of significant<br>0.05, by using SPSS software version 23.<br>Results: Regarding the brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the surface<br>roughness of the two brackets types, while, regarding the archwires, there was a statistically significant<br>difference between the as received archwires; as the nickel free stainless steel wires had the lowest value of<br>roughness average, while, the TMA wires had the highest value of roughness average.<br>Conclusions: Ni free SS wires considered the best choice as a working wire for patients with nickel allergy</p> Dina Hamid Obaid1 , Dhiaa J. Nasir AL-Dabagh2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Workplace Violence against Health Care Providers in Emergency Departments: an Underrated Problem <p>Background: Staff employed in emergency departments (EDs) in the hospitals are excessively prone to<br>workplace violence (WPV) in comparison to individuals working in other departments. Such thing lead to<br>slight or serious injuries to these employees. In addition, it may cause physical injury and disability, low<br>performance at job, and finally an uncomfortable working setting for the staff.<br>Materials and methods: A descriptive study was applied to assess the prevalence of WPV and related<br>factors. This study was conducted at the EDs of four teaching hospitals in Al-Nasiriyah city. Study sample<br>was drawn from emergency physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and laboratory technicians. Both genders staffs<br>were included.<br>Results: The results involved answers from 426 employee in the emergency department. The most reported<br>form of violence in the staff in the past year in this research was emotional violence, which is reported by<br>78.5% of the sample, then physical abuse (14.3%) and sexual abuse at last (5.2%).<br>Conclusion: This study exhibited many findings on a group of WPV cases, in addition to the features and<br>issues related to exposure to violence. The findings undoubtedly prove the priority of considering this issue<br>in Iraqi hospitals and the importance to develop urgent and appropriate interventions.</p> Ali Talib Hameed1 , Amer Abdullah Sachit2, Hussein Abdulmohsin Dabis3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Gaseous Ozone (O3) on Artificial Population and Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavus in Stored Whole Cinnamon in Iraqi Markets <p>Stored whole cinnamon can become contaminated with aflatoxins.For public health requirements cinnamon<br>should be produced free of AFB1or bellow EU legislation limit (5µg/kg), soin this study, examined the<br>efficacy of different concentrations (0, 300 and 600 ppm) of ozone on fungal populations (CFU) and AFB1<br>production of A.flavus on stored whole cinnamon at three aw levels (0.92, 0.94&amp;0.96 aw) at 25?C and exposure<br>time (60 min). In general, the results presented in this study showed that the populations AFB1 produced of<br>A.flavusin artificially contaminated whole cinnamon were significantly affected by O3treatment.</p> Diyaa Aljaza Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Fibroblast Growth Factor with Severity of Asthma <p>To evaluate the level of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in serum of asthmatic Iraqi patients and to generate<br>relationship between FGF2 and pulmonary function in serum of all member. FGF2 was determined in seventy<br>Iraqi subjects; 30 diagnosed with asthma and 40 healthy subjects were registered in the revision. The age of<br>patients and control ranged between (25-55) years. The level of FGF2 was assessed in serum by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The levels of FGF2 displayed significantly increase in<br>asthmatic group associated with control group (p &lt; 0.01). Among asthmatic Iraqi patients, increase level of<br>FGF2, indicate the significant relationship between fibroblast growth factor 2 and asthma.</p> Afaf K.Shuwaikh1 , Hiba Resheed Behayaa2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Local Anesthesia on Wound Healing <p>Different local anesthetics produce multiple effects on wound healing, although this effect did not<br>demonestrated clearly in experimental study. This study aimedto evaluate the effects of several local<br>anesthetics (lidocaine, articaine, mepivacaine) on healing of oral mucosal wound healing in experimental<br>rabbits by histological examination.The study was conducted on eight healthy adult male New Zealand<br>white rabbits which divided into four group(n=2) control group which received no treatment group two<br>(received lidocaine 2% with adrenalin) group three (received mepivacaine) and group four (received<br>articaine 4%). oral mucosal wound were initiated experimentally in all group and each group received their<br>treatment by local application one time daily for six day(except control group) in the third day half of the<br>animal were sacrificed in each group and histological examination for the wound area were conducted , the<br>remaining animal were sacrificed in the sixth day of treatment and histological examination were made for<br>the wound area to compare the result between the four group. The mepivacaine group produce better result<br>(enhance healing of the oral mucosal wound) followed by atricaine and lidocaine group compared with<br>control one. This study showed that different type of local anesthesia produces different effects on wound<br>healing manufisted histologically and clinically.</p> Maha T. Al-Saffar1 , Abdulsattar Salim Mahmood2 , Mohammed Salih Sulaiman3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacological Study of Weight Losing of Liraglutide Loaded within Layered Double Hydroxide Carrier <p>The anti-diabetic drug liraglutide was loaded within LDH nanoparticles using the Fe+3, Al+3, Fe+2 and Ni+2<br>ions, the preparation of LDH was carried out via the titration of 2M of NaOH with trivalent and divalent ions<br>in presence 0.5M HCl, the prepared compounds of liraglutide with LDH were tasted with selective groups<br>of rats.<br>The compounds were characterized with Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD),<br>Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Zeta potential and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM).<br>The animals that injected with weekly dose of the prepared compounds shows the weight reduction<br>comparative with that of the animals injected daily dose of pure liraglutide.</p> Sevan A. Dushan1 , Ashuor H. Dawood 2, Mustafa G. Alabassi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and Study the Biological Activity of New Heterocyclic Compounds Derived From Hydrazide Derivatives <p>The work involves synthesis of new compounds derived from 2-substituted-3-thio- acetohydrazide1,2,4-triazin. The subsituted hydrazine thiocarbothioamide [IV] was obtained via reaction of hydrazide<br>compound [III] with ammonium thiocyanate and HCl. The cyclization of compound [IV] in 4% NaOH led<br>to formation 1,2,4-triazoles [V], which were refluxed with chloro-ethylacetate in ethanol and sodium acetate<br>to give compound [VI]. Condensation of ester-compound [VI] with hydrazine (80%) led to formation new<br>hydrazide compounds [VII]. Ring closure reaction of compound [VII] with 4-aminbenzoic acid in POCl3<br>give 1,3,4-oxadiazoles [VIII]. Compound [VIII] wasreacted with sub. benzaldehyde to form compounds of<br>Schiff bases [IX]a-d. The synthesized compounds were diagnosed via IR, Mass and 1HNMR spectral data.<br>Many of synthesized compounds were examined against activity of antibacterial: gram (+) (Bacillus subtitis,<br>staphylococcus aureus) and gram (-): (E.coli bacteria) and candida tropicalis fungial. To ensure the safety of<br>the synthesis compounds the toxicity was examined.</p> Wasan M. Abd-AL Hameed1 , Jumbad H. Tomma2, Rajaa K. Baker3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Selective Cytokines in the Pathophysiology of Patients with Celiac Disease <p>Background and Aims: Inflammatory cytokines levels may be elevated in patients with celiac disease<br>(CD). But little known about the association of these cytokines and some immunological parameters used<br>for diagnosis of celiac disease. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of some inflammatory cytokines in<br>patients with celiac disease and compare it with healthy individuals and then their association with some<br>immunological markers used for diagnosis of celiac disease.<br>Methods: A total of 60 patients with celiac disease and 40 healthy persons were enrolled in 2019. The<br>levels of Anti-tissue transglutaminase levels were measured for patients and healthy groups, also Tumor<br>necrosis factor Alpha (TNF-?), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay techniques. Then compare these parameters between groups and the correlation<br>between these parameters were assessed.<br>Results: The mean levels of Tumor necrosis factor Alpha (TNF-?), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8<br>(IL-8) give a highly significant difference between patients and healthy groups. Anti-tissue transglutaminase<br>levels correlated and were show statistically significant with these cytokines.<br>Conclusions: TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8 play a role in the pathophysiology of celiac disease.</p> Murtadha M. Jawad1 , Ahmed Abbas Hasan1 , Hassan A. Farman2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association between Vitamin D Receptor Gene Foki Polymorphism and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus among Iraqi Pregnant Women <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the association between vitamin D receptor gene FokI polymorphism<br>and gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM) among Iraqi pregnant women.<br>This study included 40 women with GDM, 30 pregnant women without GDM, and 30 non-pregnant women<br>as a negative control. Age (years), body mass index (BMI), Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), total cholesterol,<br>triglycerides (TG), and lipid profile of the patients and control groups were compared (Table 1). DNA<br>sampling was purified and amplified by using PCR. The FokI genotype was evaluated using restriction<br>fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).<br>The results revealed that the age, BMI, FBG, HbAIc, insulin hormone, insulin resistance, and lipid profile<br>except HDL-C were significantly increased with an increased GDM risk compared to women with normal<br>pregnancies. In contrast, no significant alterations were observed in concentrations of IGF1 hormone,<br>vitamin D and FokI (F and f) alleles frequency between GDM and control groups.<br>This study suggests that there was no significant correlation between the VDR FokI polymorphism and<br>GDM patients among Iraqi pregnant women.</p> Raya Hatem Al-Mawla1 , Hameed Hussein Ali2 , Wajeeh Younis Al-Ani2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Using Paper Waste and Local Bacterial Isolates to Produce Biomass and Cellulase Enzyme- A Study Waste Recycling <p>The study aims to isolate the cellulose-degradation bacteria that produce the cellulase enzyme as well as the<br>production of SCP protein from Ramadi city soils and to obtain efficient local bacterial isolates in production<br>and efficient isolation was selected in the production of cellulase enzyme and single cell protein which is<br>Bacillus subtillis bacteria tested the efficiency of the isolated isolation to produce the enzyme and single cell<br>protein. The cell using local media contains the paper waste available in the environment and contaminated<br>with it. Initial transactions were made for this paper waste and these factors included (heating to boiling<br>point, dilute sulfuric acid and dilute sodium hydroxide). The paper waste used included the white cardboard,<br>yellow cardboard and white paper Which was used as a single source of carbon and energy, after testing<br>the waste paper used, it was found that the white cardboard treated with heating gave the best production of<br>the cellulase enzyme and single-cell protein. The bacterial isolation used showed the best growth and gave<br>the highest production of the enzyme and the single cell protein at pH 7, while the best temperature for the<br>production of the enzyme was 45 ° C. The optimum temperature for the production of the single cell protein<br>was 40 ° C. As for the carbon concentration, which is the white cardboard treated with heating, it was better<br>to produce than Concentration is 2%. As for the production of single cell protein, the highest output at<br>concentration was 4%. The best bacterial vaccine size for enzyme production was 3 ml / 100 ml medium. As<br>for the production of single cell protein, the size of the inoculum gave 1.5 ml / 100 ml the best production.<br>The addition of the organic nitrogen source (urea) gave a clear increase in enzyme production and single<br>cell protein, and when adding 0.5 g urea / 100 mL medium. Finally, the results showed that the best period<br>duration to obtain the highest cellulase enzyme production was after 96 hours, while it was found that the<br>best production of single-cell protein was after 24 hours incubation.</p> Suhad Dali Abd –Al Hussien1 , Dhafer Fakri Alrawi2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Foliar Application with Nano-Organic Fertilizer and Proline Acid and their Interaction in Leaf Content of Antioxidants and Vitamin D3 for Moringa oleifera <p>A potted pot capacity 15 kg experiment was carried out during the agricultural season 2019 in one of the<br>private nurseries of Al-Ramadi / Anbar Governorate, to study the effect of foliar application of nano-fertilizer<br>and proline acid on the content of antioxidants and vitamin D3 for Moringa oleifera leaves using sandy mix<br>soil. The experiment was designed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The<br>study included three concentrations of nano-organic fertilizer (0, 50, 100) mg-liter-1 and three concentrations<br>of the amino acid proline (0, 100, 200) mg-1 . after 150 days from the date of seed germination the leaf<br>content of vitamin C was measured and phenols using the least significant difference LSD at 0.05 probability<br>level. Qurcetine flavonoids, Rutine flavonoids and vitamin D3 were measured according to the T test to<br>test the differences between the averages of the treatments. The results showed that the nano-fertilizer at<br>concentration100 mg L1 achieved the highest antioxidant level that included vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid<br>quercetin, flavonoid routine and achieved the highest average vitamin D3 content. And that treatment with<br>proline acid at a concentration of 200 mg / L -1 achieved the highest antioxidant content (vitamin C, phenols,<br>Qurcetine and Rutine flavonoids) in addition to vitamin D3. The interaction between the study two factors<br>had a positive effect on most of the rates of the studied traits. The plants which treated with (100 mg-liter-1<br>nano organic fertilizer and 200 mg-liter-1-proline acid) gave the highest rate of leaf content of vitamin C,<br>phenols, Qurcetine, and Rutine flavonoids, while treatment with ( 100 mg-liter-1 nano organic fertilizer and<br>100 mg-1-proline acid) has achieved the highest leaf content level of vitamin D3 .</p> Faten Khalifa Kareem1 , Mahmood A. Al Shaheen2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting Success of Corneal Grafting : An Observational Study <p>This is an observational study of 32 corneal implantation cases performed by the researcher. It shows that<br>Younger patients (below 60 years) show more improvement. Female patients show more improvement.<br>Corneal dystrophy cases show more improvement followed by Keratoconus followed lastly bullous<br>keratopathy. Donors aged below 60 years give results that are more positive. There are mild results that are<br>more positive if the time between death and transplant is less than 5 days. Trephine size more than 7.5MM<br>shows more improvement. Punch size of 8.25MM shows most improvement. Using General anesthesia<br>shows more improvement</p> Saif Al-Shamarti Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Some Hormones Levels and Insulin Resistance in Some Infertile Men in Samarra City <p>The study aimed to evaluate levels of some hormones and insulin resistance in infertile men in Samarra city.<br>The study group include 25 infertile men and control group of 10 healthy men. The hormonal and biochemical<br>assays include testosterone, E2, insulin, IR and fasting blood sugar (FBS). The results was a significant<br>increase at (P?0.05) in E2 and FBS concentrations, while testosterone show significant decrease at (P?0.05)<br>in infertile men compared to control group. Insulin and IR didn’t show any significant difference between<br>both groups.</p> Aseel Mokdad Hatam AbdulWahed1 , Mostafa Ali Abdulrahman2 , Mahmood I. M. Alkanaani1 , Atheer N. B. Alhamad4 , Saif Mohammed Wagaa4 , Ghanim Talal Ghanim4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation the Relationship between Oral Contraceptives Containing Drospirenone with Dyslipidemia and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases among Women in Al-kut City <p>Chronic and prolong use of oral contraceptives (OCs) may lead to appearance of undesirable effects in<br>women who used these drugs. There are many types of contraceptives, some contain estrogen and the other<br>contain progesterone, or combination of them in the same drug. This work was performed in a population of<br>adult females to study the relationship between the chronic use of OCs with dyslipidemia and the threat of<br>cardiac diseases. A total 163 volunteers were participated in this study, and, their aged between 21-42 years<br>old. In addition, all women were free of heart disease, dyslipidemia and any hormonal disturbance according<br>to their health records. They were categorized into three differnt groups, the control group included 52<br>unmarried women and does not use any OCs, group A: included 57 women took OCs (combination pill<br>estrogen and progestin) for less than 6 months, and group B contained 54 women used OCs for more than one<br>year. We meassued lipid profile, and blood indices of cardiovascular disease, like Creatine Kinase-MB (CKMB), insulin, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) albumin, leptin and HbA1c test. In addition, we determined the<br>coronary risk index, atherogenic Coefficient, and an atherogenic index . Our results recorded a significant<br>increase in total cholesterol, LDL, coronary risk index (TC/HDL), LDH and HbA1c in group2 compared<br>to compared to control group. Furthermore, our data demonstrated no clear differences in Triglyceride,<br>leptin hormone, TG, HDL, insulin, albumin and CK-MB in group2 compared to control. Moreover, the<br>data indicated a significant elevation in the concentration of leptin hormone, LDH, HbA1c, TC, TG, LDL,<br>coronary risk index , atherogenic Coefficient and Atherogenic index, and significant decline in HDL and<br>albumin in group B compared with control group. Therefore, we concluded that oral contraceptive could<br>deter the lipid profile status and some enzyme related to the cardiovascular system. These alterations convey<br>a possible risk for the development of cardiac diseases. Routine screeing of lipid tests would be measured in<br>women used OCs for long periods to avoid any potential risk of cardiac diseases.</p> Haider Hafudh Humaish1 , Amer Alasadi2 ,Intithar Aldafae3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ability of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from Meningitis Patients to Biofilm Formation <p>A total 248 clinical samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected from meningitis patients, for the<br>period of July to October 2018 from the Child Protection Teaching Hospital in the Medical City Compound<br>in Baghdad. All isolates were identification depending on macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical tests<br>and definite with Vitek-2 compact system. The results showed a growth in 42 samples. Sixteen isolates of<br>Staphylococcus spp. were obtained from samples. The number (percentage) of isolates according to species<br>as follow: 7/16) 44%) of S. epidermidis, 3/16 (19%) of S. hominis, 3/16) 19%) of S. haemolyticus, 2/16<br>(12%) of S. aureus, 1/16 (6%) of S.warneri. These isolates were tested for ability to biofilm formation by<br>using Luria Broth and Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) supplemented with 0.25% and 2% glucose. The ability<br>of the isolates to form biofilm with Luria Broth, for S.epidermidis, S. aureus, S. haemolyticus, S.hominis and<br>S. warneri were 7/7 (100%), 1/2 (50%), 2/3 (66.66%), 1/3 (33.33%),1/1 (100%) respectively not forming<br>biofilm.As for using a TSB supplemented with 0.25% glucose, S.epidermidis, S. aureus, S. haemolyticus<br>and S.hominis were 6/7 (85.71%), 2/2 (100%), 2/3 (66.66%) and 3/3 (100%) respectively were weakly<br>biofilm formed and when using TSB supplemented with 2% glucose, showed that all Staphylococcus spp.<br>(100%) were positive for the test..The study showed the effect of minimum inhibition concentration(8 ?g/<br>mL) and minimum bactericidal concentrationand (16?g/mL) of Erythromycin on biofilm of Staphylococcus<br>spp. Staphylococcus spp. isolated from CSF showed weak ability to biofilm formation and depending on the<br>host content of sugars . This study showed also weak biofilm forming of Staphylococcus spp. was resistence<br>to erythromosin.</p> Abbas Hameed Sh. Al-Wandawy1 , Luma Abdulhady Zwain2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Role of High Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treated with Omega-3 Fatty Acids <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a significant health problem affecting women during the reproductive<br>age and characterized by hormonal disturbance resulting in irregular menstrual periods and infertility.<br>Adiponectin is a protein produced by adipocytes and involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. This study<br>included the evaluation of two doses of omega-3 (300 and 600mg/day for 14 weeks). Age, body mass<br>index (BMI), fasting blood glucose level, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), lipid profile, luteinizing<br>hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, estrogen and HMW adiponectin levels were<br>evaluated. Our data showed no significant differences between control group and treatment groups in BMI,<br>age, sex hormones, fasting blood glucose, and HOMA levels. However, the level of HMW adiponectin was<br>significantly higher in women treated with 600mg/day for 14 weeks (p &lt; 0.0001) but not 300mg / day of<br>Omega-3 fatty acids for the same period.</p> Fadhil A. Nasser Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Levels of Leptin and IL-6 With Some Biochemical Parameters in Iraqi Obese Children <p>Obesity in children is attended by increased circulating leptin concentrations. Girls have higher leptin<br>Concentrations than boys. IL-6 levels related positively with BMI and percent fat mass (PFM).<br>The Objective: Was to detect the serum IL-6 and levels of leptin among girls and boys as obese and other<br>biochemical parameters related with obesity. Methodology: This study involved 60 children were classified<br>into 2 groups; 30 obese ones (fifteen girls and boys fifteen) and 30 control (fifteen girls and fifteen boys)<br>with years of seven- fifteen old who attended to the Obesity Research and Treatment Unit/ Al kindy Medical<br>College, during the period January 2017 – July 2017. A clinical examination and diagnosis were done for<br>each patient by the consultant medical staff and the biochemical laboratory examination results (FBS, blood<br>urea, serum creatinine, lipid profile, serum GOT, serum GPT, SCa and uric acid) were as a routine work.<br>They compared with 30 healthy children with approximate age with patients. The sera were assessed for<br>IL-6 and leptin by an ELISA kit. Results: Showed no significant differences among obese children (boys<br>and girls) except the GPT and GOT were both higher significantly (P&lt;0.05) in male (42.46±34.27 and<br>33.3±13.6) than in girls (53.6 ±75.1 and 29.9±14.1). Whereas, obese girls revealed a significant increasing<br>in (STRIG 120.3±26.7 P?0.01, SLDL 89.3±25.5 P?0.05, GOT 33.1±13.6 P?0.01, GPT 29.9±14.1 P?0.01<br>and LIPTIN 2758.4±539.1 P?0.001) in comparison to the control girls. Similarly, for boys highly significant<br>increasing appeared in (SLDL 90.92±18.1, GOT 42.46±34.27, GPT 53.6±75.1 and LIPTIN 2883.93±512.7<br>P?0.001), as well as in STRIG .69±.13 P?0.05 then normal boys. Inversely, it has been shown that (BURIA<br>26.7±5.3 P?0.05, SCREAT .69±.13 P?0.01 and SVLDL 20.15±6.3 P?0.01) were decreased significantly.<br>In boys IL-6 showed significant positive correlation with BMI, while leptin revealed strong associated was<br>with IL-6 Conclusion: Obesity associated with elevated blood leptin and IL-6 levels. Leptin and IL-6 play<br>keys role as a biomarker for childhood obesity, and can help in the prediction of get weight in obese children<br>as well as its important interrelationship with other parameters.</p> Asmehan Adnan AL- naqeeb1 , Salwa Gahzi Turki2 , Zahid Jasim Muhamed2, Wesam Hameed Ahmed3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Histopathogic Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Some Parenchymatous Organs of Male Rats and Under Alphalipoic Acid <p>This study was designed to evaluate the histopathogical effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on the some organs<br>of rats , for this reason group of rats (15) were I/P inoculated with 1.5 mg /Kg .B.wt . daily for 30 days other<br>group( 15 rat) treated with 100 mg/kg.B.wt of alphalipoic acid and ATO ( 1.5 mg/ kg.B.wt) for 30 .The<br>results was revealed that the extensive pathological lesions in the liver , kidney , spleen and testes in all rats<br>exposed to arscenci trioxide due to the pathotoxic effect of ATO and decreased lesions were in the group<br>treated with the alpha lipoic acid .100 mg / kg .B.wt) for 30 days as ameliorative or protective effect against<br>pathotoxicity of ATO .</p> Khalil H. Aljeboori 1 , Khalil Gzar2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Claudin is an Immunohistochemical Changes Associated with Experimental Infection of White Mice with 0111 – of non – 0157 Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli <p>Immunohistochemical stain for the tissue sections prepared from experimental infection of mice with 0111 –<br>of non 0157 of shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli .The immunohistochemical changes revealed that the<br>shiga toxin produced by 0111 –STEC effect on epithelial tight Junction ,The IHC stain was directed to detect<br>the claudin ( the structural protein of tight Junction ) revealed absence of this protein in the paracellular sites<br>with discohesion of the epithelial cells in the intestine and endothelial cells in the brain blood vessels which<br>was responsible for induction of diarrhea and nervous signs</p> Khalil H. ALjeboori1 , Mukhald A. Ramadhan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles on The DNA Yield of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis MTB <p>The objective of this research study whether nanoparticles of gold (Au NP) and nanoparticles silver (Ag NP)<br>have an effect on the yield of DNA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in this experiment when it was<br>extracted DNA from MTB using gold and silver nanoparticles at different concentrations (l0?l, 50?l and<br>100?l) then showed a significant impact on the yield of DNA, especially gold nanoparticles compared with<br>DNA extracted without any of the Using a graph obtained from the REALTIME qPCR,<br>which became very clear when the control sample (MTB without any nanoparticles) showed a high value for<br>the Ct (cycle threshold), which meant that low quantities of DNA. While samples containing nanoparticles<br>were low in Ct which meant a high yield of DNA was shown. Ct values also decreased when the concentration<br>of nanoparticles increased, eventually we conclude from the above experiment that nanoparticles showed<br>high yield of MTB DNA. These results are likely due the interaction of the nanoparticles utilized with the<br>cell wall and cell membrane of bacterium, which has facilitated the yield of DNA. Further refinement can be<br>to the above said method and the nanoparticles could possibly use as an effective component of Nucleic acid<br>extraction kits for molecular diagnosis and research so that a superior yield is obtaine.</p> Zaid Mohammed Joodi Al- Janabi1 , Arshed H.Yaseen2 , Raghad Abdullah Hassan3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Investigation of fliC and blaTEM1 Gene among Clinical Isolates of Salmonella Typhi <p>This study aimed to isolate and diagnose Salmonella typhi by flic gene and investigated the presence of<br>blaTEM1 gene by using PCR technique and electrophoresis systems in Najaf Province includes 40 clinical<br>specimens blood for both sexes with an age ranged between )5-60) years old .The study result by using a flic<br>gene was detected in 30 of the 40 isolates of S. typhi isolated from typhoid patients , which was conducted in<br>the diagnosis of bacteria concluded that the technique PCR are the most sensitive in the detection of S. typhi<br>compare with other way, blaTEM-1 was detected in 16 of the 40 isolates from S.typhi . The conseder the bla TEM<br>gene encoding TEM-1 b-lactamase is think to give resistance only to penicillins and early cephalosporins;<br>thus , the spectrum resistance of TEM-1 descendants may extend to second, third and fourth-generation<br>cephalosporins.</p> Hala Ridha Abbas Al-Fahham Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 CD14 C(-260)T Polymorphism and Blood Levels of the Soluble Endotoxin Receptor CD14, their Association with Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Iraqi Populations <p>Background: Stroke is a main cause of death and adult long-term disability worldwide, and stays as an<br>enormous burden for society due to lack of illustrated etiology and effective treatments. Aim: the present<br>study was conducted to investigate the association of CD14 genotype and plasma levels of soluble(s) CD14<br>with risk of ischemic stroke. Methods : A total of 40 patients with ischemic stroke were included in the study<br>who were admitted to hospital from the period between March to August 2019, and other groups consist<br>of 40 apparently healthy individuals. A five ml of blood samples were collected, 2 ml of each sample for<br>polymerase chain reaction amplification and detection of CD14 technique. The remaining (3ml) for CD14<br>monocyte count by Flow cytometry technique. Results: CD14 C(-260)T genotype was not significantly<br>associated with increased risk of IS (P= 0.367). However, sCD14 plasma levels were higher in subjects with<br>TT genotype compared with those with CT or CC genotype (P= 0.013). The count of CD14 Monocytes,<br>in Ischemic Stroke patients was significantly higher than that of healthy control group. Conclusion: a<br>significant correlation between CD14 genotype and sCD14 levels were higher level in subjects with TT<br>genotype compared with those with CT or CC genotype.</p> Manal M. Kadhim1 , Ali S. Shakir2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Cytotoxicity Effect for the Crude Extract of (Cyperus Esculentus) Tubers on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MCF-7) in Vitro <p>The study aimed to identify the aqueous and alcoholic extract of Cyperus esculentus tubers in affecting<br>human breast cancer (MCF-7) Michigan Cancer Foundation,preliminary diagnosis chemical groups in these<br>extracts showed the presence of (Tannins, Terpenoids, Resins, Steroids, Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Glycosides<br>and Phenols). The effect of cellular toxicity of crude aqueous and alcoholic extract of Cyperus esculentus<br>tubers in vitro was tested in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) through the use of six concentrations<br>(midterm scares) (31.25,62.5,125,250,500,1000 ) ?g /mL and for periods of exposure (24, 48, 72) hours.<br>Using the MTT Test. The study found that there is a toxic effect of the crude aqueous and alcoholic extracts<br>of the grain of Cyperus esculentus tubers in cancer cells (MCF-7) and of all the concentrations used, The<br>highest percentage and a significant difference (P ?0.01) for the average of the inhibitory average of cancer<br>cell growth (IR) was 68, 73 (%) for the aqueous extract and alcoholic extract, respectively, at the highest<br>concentration of 1000 ?g / mL and after 72 hours of exposure.</p> Zainab Abd Amir Mezher1 , Liqaa H. Saqban2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bacteriological Study and Investigation of Some Virulence Factors of Proteus mirabilis Bacteria Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection Patients in Ramadi City <p>Twenty isolates of Proteus mirabilis were diagnosed with 8.33% of the total of 240 samples that were isolated<br>from urinary tract infections of patients returning to Ramadi General Teaching Hospital and Women’s and<br>Children’s Hospital, after conducting biochemical tests and confirming them with VITEC 2, the results of<br>the qualitative investigation of the UreR, ZapA, and MrpA genes showed that all isolates (20) of P. mirabilis<br>had these three genes with a percentage of 100%. The results of the nitrogenous bases sequences confirmed<br>the agreement of the diagnostic results of P. mirabilis isolates with the isolates recorded in NCBI using<br>the( MEGA7) program with 100% match for each of the MrpA gene isolation number( 17) and ZapA gene<br>isolation number 12, as for the ZapA gene, isolation number (2), seven mutations of the type of equivalent<br>transition were shown, and one mutation, a type of non-equivalent substitution, transversion, with a match<br>ratio of 98%, while for the UreR gene for isolates No.( 5 )and No.( 7), it showed four mutations equivalent<br>to the same sites and for the same Sequence ID. With a similar ratio of 99%, it can be inferred in principle<br>that the ZapA, UreA, and MrpA genes were found in the same genus but in other species and strains with the<br>same sequence of nitrogenous bases.</p> Nada Ali Attallah1 , Muthana Badeea Farhan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular and Parasitological Study on Selected Opportunistic Intestinal Parasites in Immunocompromised Patients <p>The common opportunistic parasites which cause morbidity and/or death in immunocompromised<br>populations are predominantly gastrointestinal ones. This study explained the molecular and parasitological<br>aspects on selected opportunistic intestinal parasites in selected groups of immune compromised patients<br>from Al-Anbar hospitals and private laboratories.<br>In the current study, were taken (130) stool samples from immune compromised patients divided into three<br>groups (50) chemotherapy recipient, (40) chronic renal failures, (40) diabetic Mellitus, and (30) samples<br>apparently healthy as control. A questionnaire was filled out on each subject including all personal and<br>medical history. Stool samples were collected from all groups for detection of the parasites.<br>The results were displayed the ratio of opportunistic parasites in (55.3)% of patients, and healthy control<br>was (3.3)%. The results showed that the highest group had parasites in those with chemotherapy (64)%,<br>chronic renal failure (57.5)%, and diabetic (42.5)% individually. The highest rate of infection appeared with<br>Blastocystis hominins(26.1%), Cryptosporidium(22.3%), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (8.4%). The age of<br>the patient was ranged between 4-66 years, the Mean was 47.5 and deviation was± 9.12, also, the weight<br>of the patient was ranging between 14-85, the mean was 70.3 and deviation ± 8.07. Three cases of mixed<br>infection were detected.</p> Mahmoud Shehab Al-heety1 , Sarab Fawzi Al-Ani2, Maher Ali Jasem3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immunocytochemistry of In vitro produced mucin from HT29- MTX cell line <p>Mucus represents the first line of defense against pathogens and damage in the human intestine. the major<br>components of mucus are mucins which are high molecular weight glycoproteins providing potential binding<br>sites for both pathogenic and commensal microorganisms. To study host-enteric pathogen interactions,<br>human intestinal cell models are widely used. Epithelial cell lines derived from human colon carcinomas<br>providing useful experimental alternatives as getting normal intestinal cells is not easily applicable.<br>In the current study, we described a condition enhances HT29-MTX cells to produce continuous mucus<br>layer. Immunocytochemistry was used to visualize Muc 2, the most secreted mucin from HT29-MTX cells<br>using anti Muc2 antibody.<br>The results showed that incubation of HT-29 MTX cells with shaking and providing cells with fresh medium<br>once to twice daily for three weeks can be the best way to mimic the natural behavior of the intestine which<br>enhanced the seeded cells to produce the mucin in vitro.</p> Immunocytochemistry of In vitro produced mucin from HT29- MTX cell line Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Toxoplasmosis Seroprevalence and Serum Level of Interleukin-10 in Iraqi Breast Cancer Women <p>Background: Toxoplasmosis is regarded as one of the most important global life-threatening diseases in<br>immune-compromised people. The intracellular protozoon Toxoplasma gondii is the causative pathogen of<br>toxoplasmosis. Aim of this study is to investigate the possible association between T. gondii infection and<br>breast cancer (BC) in Iraqi women, also to assess the effect of T. gondii on interleukin 10 (IL-10) of the<br>immune response. By ELISA method, blood samples from 81 women with breast cancer and 60 apparently<br>healthy women have been examined for presence of anti-toxoplasma antibodies, also the levels of serum<br>IL-10 were estimated in these subjects. Results showed that women with BC had the highest prevalence<br>rate of toxoplasmosis. The anti- T.gondii antibodies was 38.27% for IgG and 4.93% for IgM, while in<br>the control group it was 26.66% and 0.0% respectively, with no significant difference for IgG (P =0.148)<br>and IgM (P = 0.081). A highly significant difference was found in the level of IL-10 between BC women<br>with toxoplasmosis (10.24%) and BC women without toxoplasmosis (3.6%). These findings suggest that<br>incidence rate of T. gondii infection is higher in breast cancer women and higher level of IL-10 than their<br>cross-matched control subjects. Therefore, we recommend the inclusion of a screening test for toxoplasmosis<br>and the level of IL-10 in BC patients as in their routine workup.</p> Maysoon Abdul-zahra Merdaw1 , Zeina Anwar Jaffar2 , Zahraa Mohammed Ali3 , Heba Hashim Khalil4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Spectrophotometric Determination of Ampicillin with Sulfanilic Acid by Oxidative Coupling Reaction <p>Sensitive, economic, simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for estimation of ampicillin in bulk<br>and dosage form is described. Ampicillin was oxidized by sodium hypochlorite and coupling with sulfanilic<br>acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide to obtain a stable yellow colored chromogen which exhibit a<br>maximum absorption (?max) at 400 nm. The optimum conditions were carefully evaluated .<br>Plot of absorbance against concentration was linear over the range (50-300 µ This method was applied to<br>the estimation of ampicillin in pure drug and commercial formulations successfully.</p> Samar Ahmed Darweesh1 , Hamsa Muneam Yaseen2 , Ruaa Muayad Mahmood3 , Rokayia Samir Al-Khalisy4 , Husam Saleem Khalaf5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Smoking Effect on Some Liver Functions, Blood Pressure and Some Haematological Parameters in Smokers in Al-Muthanna Province <p>The aims of this study was to investigate the changes that occurred on some liver functions and some<br>haematologicl parameters and blood pressure of smokers. The current study is carried out in in Al- Muthanna<br>province.The study included 200 men, (100) smokers and (100) non smokers (control ).the smokers and non<br>smokers divided to two group according to age. the ages were between (25-46)years.The results for liver<br>function indicate a significant increase at(P&lt;0.05)in Glutamate Oxaloacetae Transaminase(GOT),Glutamate<br>Pyruvate Transaminase(GPT) and Alkaline Phosphatase ( ALP) levels of smokers comparing with control<br>group in two age groups ,but non-significant differences at (P&lt;0.05) in Serum Total Bilirubin (STB) of<br>smokers comparing with control group, While the results for haematological parameters showed a significant<br>increase at(P&lt;0.05) in white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells(RBC), hemoglobin(Hb) and Mean Cell<br>Volume(MCV)of smokers comparing with non-smokers in two age groups, but non-significant differences<br>at(P&lt;0.05) in PLT of smokers comparing with non-smokers in two age groups. the results for blood pressure<br>showed a significant increase at(P&lt;0.05) in in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in all age groups of<br>smokers comparing with non-smokers.</p> Duaa Hamad Hamza1 , Wafaa Abdulmutalib Naji2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of Creativity and Its Relationship to Speed and Accuracy of Futsal Soccer for Female Students <p>Achieving success in the futsal soccer game also depends on the good potential in the accuracy and speed<br>of implementing basic skills through the superior ability to accuracy and speed of passing the soccer (futsal)<br>to the researchers as well as teachers and lecturers in this game within the scope of the lesson in the third<br>and fourth stage, there is a weakness in most Female students in basic play skills, including the skill of<br>handling, because they need to play to the speed and accuracy of performance and weakness, according to<br>the researchers ’opinion, lack of training on them requires awareness, thinking, focus and awareness that the<br>game needs physical and mental effort to master it, which the researchers decided to go into this problem, the<br>researchers used the curriculum Descriptive Basloubi survey and correlations because it fits with the nature<br>of the research problem. The research community was determined by the students of the fourth stage in the<br>College of Physical Education and Sports Science in the effectiveness of football halls for the academic<br>season 2018-2019 and the number (14) students, which were completely chosen for the experiment, in a<br>simple random way ( Lottery) and by 100%. The researchers used the scale of creating awareness of the<br>researcher (Wahb Razzaq), where a scale consists of (28) items that the examiner answers according to five<br>alternatives, which are (always, sometimes, rarely, never) and grades are given (1,2,3,4,5) on Respectively,<br>as the highest score on the scale was (140), the lowest score is (28), the name of the test - receipt, and either<br>the handover pass test toward players - the goal of the test - measuring the speed and accuracy of passing<br>them - the conclusions are - distinguished students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Science<br>at the University of Kufa In the fourth stage, a good reality of awareness and creativity also characterized<br>by a good reality in the performance and speed of the skill of handling the futsal football. There is a real<br>correlation between the awareness of creativity and the speed and accuracy of the skill of handling futsal<br>football. The researchers recommend that it is necessary to focus on psychological matters that increase the<br>students ’motivation to think and awareness about creativity and help them in achieving self and forming a<br>personal sporting identity for each of them using encouraging educational methods to develop the skill of<br>speed and accuracy of the passing skill of students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Science<br>while practising practical lessons and performing sports skills Various specials, futsal soccer skills.</p> Mohsen Mohamed Hassan1 , Nidaa Falih Hassan2 , Ali Muhammad Jawad Al-Sayegh3, Hayder Naji Habash Alshawi4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect Esthetic Factors in Complete Dentures Wearers Acceptances <p>Objected: This essay has shown esthetics to be a salient factor for successful complete dentures. Complete<br>denture esthetics can no longer be regarded as a method of tooth selection and arrangement alone or the colors<br>and contours of the denture bases and forms of the denture bases. Denture feel must likewise incorporate<br>those whole face for which those expressions from claiming inward feelings, personality, comfort, image,<br>well-being, and recognitions about previous dental encounters need aid constantly on precise obvious. Both<br>those patients and the dental specialist must comprehend this interrelationship for ideal victory.<br>Purpose: evaluate hard and soft components that contribute to Creating an effective finish successful<br>esthetical denture stylish rebuilding<br>Material and Methods :The sample was selected from Baghdad University, College of Dentistry. A total<br>of 100 Iraqi adult Dental patients were clinically examined ( females and males). Each person was seated<br>in the Dental chair and was asked to look straight ahead and the measures have been taken according to the<br>case sheet prepared previously.<br>Result : the results obtained from case sheet analysis using SPSS computer program (version 23) and<br>shown significant statistic results in some criteria of determining aesthetic by facial measurement and other<br>shown some unaesthetic result which may be due to clinical or laboratory error during the construction of<br>complete denture.<br>Conclusion : A large portion of significant attention throughout finish denture development is those<br>rebuilding from claiming keep going feel. esthetic dives substantially further over the negligible placement<br>of the teeth on the occlusal rims, size, shape, color about simulated teeth and denture bases need aid essential<br>On the development of a stylish denture. Distinctive individuals have communicated different assumptions<br>for settling on tastefully pleasing dentures.</p> Osama A. R. Alheeti 1 , Ghasak H. Jani2 , Jassim A. Al-E’nizy3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genotypic, Phenotypic Identification and Antibiogram Assay of Mrsa Isolated from Healthy Individuals in Wasit Province <p>Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming, coagulase -positive<br>bacterium. the Methicillin resistance is mostly mediated by the presence of mecA gene acquisition of mecA<br>gene leads to altered penicillin binding protein (PBP), called PBP2a, with low binding affinity to methicillin.<br>A total of 52 S. aureus strains were analysed. Antibiogram assay for 52 healthy carriers of MRSA isolates by<br>using Vitek 2 system to examine 16 different antibiotics.Methicillin resistance was confirmed by presence<br>of the mecA gene by PCR. Of 52 S. aureus samples, 52 isolates of them were MRSA confirmed by targeting<br>mecA gene using PCR. Aims of this study detect methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nose of<br>healthy individuals in Wasit province and confirming that by PCR to detect mecA Gene.</p> Haneen Saad Farhan1 , Zainab N. Al-Saadi2 , Jassim Fatehi Ali3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Elevation of Fibrinogen level in Plasma Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Babylon Governorate <p>Objective: The incidence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 has increased dramatically worldwide in the<br>past 20 years. Type 2 diabetes is probable to increase further in the future owing to the increase in obesity<br>and the lack of exercise. This may rise the danger of unindustrialized cardiovascular illness in patients<br>with type 2 DM. It may be because fibrinogen has an important role in the increased risk of cardiovascular<br>disease. The aims of current study to find out the level of fibrinogen and its relationship to the level of blood<br>glucose in patients with type 2 DM. Methods: The study contain 50 patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 as<br>patient group and 50 adult apparently healthy as control group. All plasma samples were collected from all<br>subjects. The age for both groups concerning (43-75) years. The collected data include measures, plasma<br>fibrinogen and HbA1c. Results: The present study revealed a significant increase in plasma fibrinogen,<br>HbA1c concentration in patients compared with control group (p&lt;0.01). Conclusion: The results of this<br>study reveal a significant increase in fibrinogen level in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 without<br>cardiovascular disease.</p> Khawla A. Shemran Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Echocardiographic Epicardial Fat Thickness and Different Body Fat Distribution <p>Background : Obesity is a worldwide complicated health problem. It is connected with an amplified<br>cardiovascular mortality and morbidity result from obesity itself on one hand and concomitant with other<br>medical conditions like (diabetes , hypertension, , sleep apnea syndrome, insulin resistance) on other hand.<br>obesity result in multiple functional and structural cardiac changes which may cause heart failure, these<br>changes detected by developed cardiac imaging methods, one of these methods is Echocardiography which<br>is simple, accurate, non-invasive, sensitive diagnostic tool for evaluation of important cardiac changes<br>related to obesity .<br>Objectives: The study is aimed to determine the consequences of obesity on echocardiographic value for<br>epicardial fat thickness in adult and middle age Iraqi persons .<br>Patients and Method: The study was a case-control, based on a non- randomized selected samples from<br>both gender from Basrah city, carried out on 150 subjects aged 20-55 years, persons were grouped according<br>to body mass index to: 1- 50 obese (no history of cardiovascular disease) (BMI?30kg/m2) , 2- 50 obese<br>having ischemic heart disease (BMI?30kg/m2) , 50 control apparently healthy (BMI 18.5-24.9) Iraqi<br>subjects all persons underwent transthoracic echocardiography to measure the epicardial fat thickness, this<br>value was stated as mean and standard error. This study was done between December 2018 till April 2019 at<br>the Echocardiography Unit in Basrah Teaching Hospital .<br>Results: There was a significant increase in epicardial fat thickness in addition to some anthropometric<br>indices among obese subjects as compared to control group , but waist / thigh, waist/hip and conicity index<br>looked unchanged significantly.<br>Conclusion: Obesity is positively interconnected with increase in epicardial fat thickness in addition to<br>some anthropometric indices that support obesity and can predict cardiovascular risks .</p> Noora Ibrahim Mustafa1 , Abbas Fadhil Abd-Alwahab2 , Abdulameer Abdulbari Abdulhame3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biofilm production by E. Coli Isolated from Filter Water System <p>E. Coli is recognized as part of humans and animals microbiota and also an important opportunistic<br>pathogen, responsible for a variety of diseases. A total of 10 E. coli were isolated from filter water system<br>at different sites from Baghdad city and investigated for their ability to form biofilm by using 96-well<br>microtiterplate. The result showed strains with high coherent to PVC. The antimicrobial resistant of four<br>antibiotic against E. Coli were determined in vitro and the highest resistant was to ?-lactam antibiotics.<br>The biofilm in environment, are vital for the existence of many microorganisms, and provided pathogenic<br>microorganisms with a ways of persisting outside of the host to represent means for susceptible population<br>to be repeated infection</p> Afrah Fahad Abdulkareem1 , Mohammed Khammas Abdul Kareem2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antioxidant Effect of Beta-glucan Extract from Saccharomyces Cerevisiae <p>Natural compound extracted from microorganism is one of the important compound used for treatment<br>many diseases in the world ? -glucan is one of these compound that extracted from yeast Saccharomyces<br>cerevisiae by acid alkaline method used by Biron. The glucan was analyzed by FTIR ,HPLC, molecular<br>weight was determined and antioxidant effect of ? -glucan was tested . The result showed high compatibility<br>between the sample of glucan and the standard by FTIR, ? -glucan showed high purity of extraction as<br>compared with standard of glucan by using HPLC.</p> Hiba K. Ibrahim1 , Mayaada S. Mahdi1 , Biologist/ Afnan A.2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Survey study of the Factors Determining Culex pipiens Mosquitoes Residing Strategy in Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University Campus <p>The present study surveying more than 1909 mosquitoes with their nests arounds all the campus areas and<br>borders through using of both nets and adhesive papers for collection purposes. Data analysis showing a<br>significant effects by each of agriculture (60%), rubbish and sewage puddles factors (16%)in the spreading,<br>reproduction and distribution of Culex pipiensspp. in the campus region within probability of P&lt;0.05 as an<br>dependent significant result.<br>Conclusion of our project predicting that the location of campus building will ruled and controlling the<br>percentage of bug’s net spreading and reproduction capabilities.</p> Hamza Ahmed Aziz Al-Aaraji Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of Cooperative Learning Strategy on Sensory Modeling on the Performance of Some Essential Skills for Female Students’ Basketball <p>The study aimed to identify the preference for sensory modelling among fifth-grade middle school students<br>and to identify the impact of cooperative learning strategy according to the sensory preference for some basic<br>skills in basketball among fifth-grade middle school students and identifies the current research community<br>of school students for the fifth middle school, the research sample was chosen in a way Random, as using<br>this method means that each member of society has an equal opportunity to choose him in the sample. This<br>research included the application and poll of (48) students (Al-Imam Al-Rida School, peace be upon him<br>/ Basra). The researchers concluded that the cooperative learning strategy according to sensory modelling<br>Its positive impact on teaching some skills for fifth-grade students preparatory for experimental groups in<br>all tribal and post-tests, and the curriculum used by the teacher has a positive effect on teaching some of<br>the skills capabilities of fifth-grade students preparatory for the group controlling in all pre and post-tests<br>if to use a cooperative learning strategy according to modelling Sensory has positively affected some skills<br>of the experimental group as compared to the total The control group in the test had the least significant<br>difference for the experimental groups compared to the control group. The use of cooperative learning<br>strategy according to sensory modelling has provided more time that can be used to achieve the objectives<br>of the lesson without the critical time that can be used to correct and repeat more.</p> Zahraa Abdul-Jabbar Habib1 , Hassan Saleh Mahdi Al-Okbi2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Special Exercises on the Most Superior Mental Processes and the Performance of Some Offensive Skills for Table Tennis Beginners <p>The research aims to prepare special exercises in developing some mental processes and performance<br>Offensive skills of table tennis for players and learn about the impact of special exercises in developing<br>some mental processes and performance of offensive table tennis skills for players. The researchers used<br>the experimental approach in a way (equal groups) on the young players in the specialized school of table<br>tennis in the province of Najaf for the season (2018-2019) and adult the number of them is (20) players.<br>The researchers concluded the effect of special exercises prepared by the researchers, permissions that it<br>was effective in developing the mental processes under discussion and performing basic table tennis skills<br>for players, which makes it clear in the level of skill performance of the members of the experimental<br>group. The researchers took into account the characteristics of the players It has achieved positive results<br>in increased capacity to develop for mental operations and the performance of basic table tennis skills<br>for players. The researchers recommended that special exercises should be used from the stomach before<br>researchers’ developmental processes and perform basic table tennis skills for players.</p> Muhammad Salman Jaber Al-Khuzai1 , Haider Flayeh Hasan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Relationship of Some Psychological Skills to the Leading Personality of Police College Students <p>The performance of the policeman is usually achieved when it is fine-tuned and trained in order to reach<br>the graduation of policemen who are able to defend the country and the security and comfort of citizens,<br>and that leadership is a valuable characteristic of the character that must be met by the men of the Internal<br>Security Forces who are assigned leadership tasks in The future after their graduation, and because the police<br>college students are the protectors of the homeland in the future, and through the researchers ’meeting with a<br>number of police college students’ trainers, there has appeared weakness or lack of interest in the leadership<br>aspects during training that affect students ’performance and the extent of their impact on their personality<br>after graduation, so the researchers saw knowledge Do some psychological skills have a relationship in<br>the formation of the leadership personality of the police college students, and the research objectives were<br>to identify some psychological skills (the ability to focus attention, the ability to relax, the ability to face<br>anxiety among the police college students and to reveal the relationship between psychological skills and<br>the leadership character of Students of the Police College, and knowing the level of leadership personality<br>among students of the Police College. As for the research assumption, there is a moral correlation between<br>some psychological skills and the formation of the leading personality of students Police College The<br>researchers used the descriptive approach in the style of survey studies to suit the nature of a problem. As for<br>the research sample, the students of the Police College, through the results of the research, the researchers<br>concluded that the leadership personality was greatly affected by relaxation, and this was evident during<br>the results of the research, and the leadership personality was affected Great concern and this was evident<br>through the search results.</p> Marwa Tariq Kazem1 , Shaima Ali Khamis2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnosing the Mutations and the Effect Concentration Chromium Cr (VI) in KRAS gene in Exon1 for lung Cancer Patients in Najaf Governorate <p>The importance of the current study lies in investigating the mutations in the exon1 of the KRAS gene as<br>oncogenes, the presence of mutations associated with lung cancer and the lack of response to chemotherapy.<br>As well as to know the relationship between diagnosed mutations and concentration of chromium . These<br>study was conducted at AL-Furat AL-Awsat oncology Center In Najaf for period from December / 2019 to<br>April / 2020 , on the study included 60 patients who were diagnosed with lung cancer and 22 healthy people<br>where used as control group . the diagnosis of mutation in both patients and healthy subjects has been studied<br>and compared. Then revealing the relationship between mutations and health status to see the effect of<br>mutations on them. The present results showed that there were many mutations found in KRAS gene exon1,<br>42 genetic mutations in the KRAS gene were detected in exon1 , and these mutations appeared in varying<br>proportions in both patients people, as is evident in In exon1, the frequency of mutation were rs104894361<br>SNP were in 11(18.33%) , rs121913236 SNP 13 (21.7%) and rs104894366 were 18 (30%) , distribution in 24<br>patients . more frequency mutations appeared in four patients ( 2,17,27,42 ) (6.7%) where found three types<br>of mutations (rs104894361 SNP , 21913236 SNP and rs104894366 ) those patients have highest recurrence<br>of (1.330, 1.153, 1.224 -1.490) Respectively. While 10 patients (16.7 %) (21,46,9,34,35,30,12,37,14, 39)<br>have only two mutations with distribution in three types also , and 10 patients(16.7 %) were have just<br>one mutation. We found correlation between high Chromium (Cr) concentration in serum of patients with<br>lung cancer compared to healthy. The results of the study showed that there were significant differences<br>(P=0.0001) between the presence of mutations and concentration of chromium, which indicates a relationship<br>between the of mutations and concentration of chromium in the serum the of patient of lung cancer. DNA<br>was extracted from the blood samples by several DNA extracts and mutations were detected by sequencing<br>analyzing after amplification by PCR technology</p> Farah Khalid H. AL-Mayali 1, Mohammad Jaber M. AL-Zeyadi 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Incorporation Kappa-Carrageenan Powder on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of the Heat-Cured Acrylic-based Soft Denture Lining Material in Clinical Use <p>Background: Soft denture relining materials have been introduced to prosthetic dentistry since long time<br>to improve the patient’s acceptance to dental prosthesis. However, with the growing need to provide the<br>patients with dentures that have improved comfort and masticatory efficiency, there is a growing demand to<br>improve several features of the denture lining materials. Therefore, the aims of this study was to evaluate<br>the effect of incorporation kappa-carrageenan powder as antifungal agent on the hardness and peel bond<br>strength of the heat-cured acrylic-based soft denture lining material.<br>Materials and Methods: Two percentages of kappa-carrageenan powder (1.5wt.% and 2wt.%) have been<br>selected based on the pilot study that produced the best antifungal effect. A total of sixty samples were<br>prepared and divided into three equal groups groupA:0.0wt.%, groupB:1.5wt.%, groupC:2wt.% of kappacarrageenan powder additive. Each group was further subdivided into two equal groups for shore-A hardness<br>test and peel bond strength test. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed to<br>investigate if there is any chemical reaction between the soft lining material and the kappa-carrageenan<br>powder, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to determine the distribution of kappa-carrageenan<br>powder in the soft liner matrix.<br>Results: All the resulted data were analysed using “one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Dunnet<br>T3 post-hoc test at a significance level of p&lt;0.05”. The result of shore-A hardness test revealed significant<br>increase (P&lt;0.05) in the values of hardness of both experimental groups (B and C) when compared with the<br>control group(A). Peel bond strength test revealed non-significant decrease (P&gt;0.05) in the values of peel<br>bond strength for experimental group(B), while there was significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) for the experimental<br>group(C) when compared to the control group. FTIR analysis showed no difference in the spectra between<br>control group and experimental group this means that there is no chemical interaction between the two<br>materials. SEM test results showed a degree of agglomeration of the kappa-carrageenan powder into the soft<br>liner matrix.<br>Conclusion: Adding kappa-carrageenan powder to the soft liner affected the physical and mechanical<br>properties of the lining material and the most adverse effect was noted for the group C(2 wt.%) but all effects<br>was in the acceptable range for clinical use.</p> Hiba A. Salih1 , Faiza M. Abdul-Ameer2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Functional Variables and Enzyme (CPK)to Skill of The main and Alternatives Players in Football (comparative study) <p>Football is a type of sport that attracts people’s attention. So, it is necessary to look for everything that<br>can improve its reality and develop it. The importance of this research paper is to have a look on the<br>impact of competitions on functional devices, enzyme (CPK), aspects and the skills for the main players and<br>compared with the substituted players in football. The study aims at identifying the level of some functional<br>variables, enzyme (CPK) and the skills for key players and substituted players in football; identifying the<br>differences in some functional variables, enzyme (CPK) and the skills of the key and substituted players<br>in football. Descriptive method is used by researchers in a comparative way to solve the problem of the<br>study. The number of sample is fifteen players distributed to two groups, the first group is the key players<br>[9] and the second group is substituted players [6]. Also, the researchers used the SPSS statistical system<br>to extract the results of the tests. The most important conclusions are: (1) competitions play an active role<br>in developing the performance level, whether at the functional level or enzyme CPK or skills. (2) The role<br>of CPK enzyme has increased after performing high physical effort and for a long time for the key players<br>as a result of competition effort. Moreover, the following is the most important recommendations that the<br>study has reached into: (1)It is necessary to participate all players in the competition, even periodically, so<br>that substituted player can sense the atmosphere of competition and his active role in the development of<br>functional and skills of the player .</p> Majed Sabar Mohammed1 , Ali Sabar Mohammed2 , Emad Khadim Abed Al-kaabi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Glycodeline-A , PlGF Together with ?hCG as Prognostic Markers in First Trimester Pregnancy Loss for Iraqi Women <p>Objective: estimate the scale of Glycodeline-A,PlGF, together with ?hCG in first trimester pregnancy loss<br>in Iraqi women .<br>Methods: A subject:patients and control study, begining in April 2019 and finish the work at March 2020,<br>study include 85 women,45 of them as healthy control which haven,<br>t any complication at the first trimester<br>stsrting from the first day of LMP , 40 of them as patients which have abortion at the same time,tests<br>included evaluate the scale of ?hCG,Glycodeline-A,PlGF By ELISA method.<br>Results: scale of ?hCG are significantly higher in healthy controls than in patients , while scale of<br>Glycodeline-A , PlGF was significantly lower in healthy control than in patients,and there is significant<br>correlation among each of ges.age with ?hCG and PlGF P &lt;0.05.<br>Conclusion: This study suggest that the significant role of Glycodeline-A,PlGF in etiologies of first trimester<br>pregnancy failed and some of them was related to ?hCG in this time and the age of patients wasn,<br>t effect on<br>all of these parameters.</p> Mohammed H Dawood1 , Halla G Mahmood2, Afraa M Nedawi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Fim H Gene from Uropathogenic E.coli <p>Background: Urinary tract infection is defined as presence of microbial pathogens in the urinary tract with<br>associated symptoms. The infection affects both lower and upper urinary tracts and is known as acute cystitis<br>and polynephritis respectively. This study done to detect the variation of single nucleotide in FimH gene and<br>its correlation with the pathogenicity of uropathogenic Escherichia coli caused the urinary tract infection.<br>Materials and Methods: The study group included 150 patients with Urinary tract infection. There were<br>120 (80%) female and 30 female (20%) their age ranges between (5-55) years, seen in Al-Hussein Teaching<br>Hospital for the period from January 2019 to March 2019. The dominant form (48.39%) of patients with<br>urinary tract infection caused by UPEC was found in the age group of 24-39 years old. Urine samples<br>were collected from the patients. Bacterial isolation was identified by microscopic examination and culture<br>characteristic on selective media MacConky agar, Eosin Methylene Blue and Chrome agar. Then the isolated<br>were diagnosis by Vitek®2 system.<br>Results: Bacteriological results showed that 62(41.3%) isolates were characterized as Escherichia coli.<br>Genomic DNA was extracted from the bacterial culture for further molecular study to reveal C640T and<br>T591A fimH gene Polymorphism. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism<br>(PCR-RFLP) technique was used for this purpose and digestion of the amplified DNA products by<br>ScarFI1390I and BsrI endonuclease respectively gave fragments with different molecular sizes which<br>express certain genotypes. This study detected that the prevalence rate of single nucleotide polymorphism<br>C640T FimH was (85.48%), endonuclease enzyme only affects the C allele sequence and it does not have<br>any influence on the T allele sequence. The prevalence rate of single nucleotide polymorphism T591A<br>fimH gene was (80.64%), endonuclease enzyme only affects the T allele sequence and it does not have any<br>influence on the A allele sequence.<br>The result show only 62 isolates (41.3%) were given typical morphological characteristics and biochemical<br>tests related to E. coli, while the rest 88 isolates (58.6%) belonged to pathogenic bacteria from different<br>genera.</p> Sabreen Fleih Neno Al-Fatlawi1, Laith Abdul Hassan M. Jwaid2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact Of Child Abuse and Neglect on Oral Habit among 10-11 Years Old Primary School Students in Baghdad /Iraq <p>The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of child abuse and neglect on oral habits among 10-<br>11 years old primary school students in Baghdad/Iraq. This observational study included 600 students<br>distributed to 373 male and 227 female at different economic and social levels with age 10-11 years old of<br>fourth and fifth class of the elementary schools in the Karkh city. Information on child abuse and neglect and<br>presence or absence of oral habits was obtained from a structured, self-administered questionnaire from the<br>students who were willing to participate in the study and their parents. The data was collected, summarized<br>and statistically analyzed. The child abuse and neglect had effect on presence of oral habits in children.</p> Wasan Muwafaq Almirhij1 , Ban Sahib Diab2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Study of the Effect of the Toxoplasma gondii on Somatic Cells of the Bone Marrow in Female Mice and a treatment Attempt by Laurus Nobilis Leaf Extract <p>This study aimed to find out the ability of T. gondii parasite to induce genetic changes in the bone marrow<br>cells of female mice and to try therapeutically for it using bay leaf extract. The parasite was extracted from<br>(23) placentas for aborted women and injected into the 42 mice with an average weight of (20-30) gram. It<br>was divided into six groups at a rate of (3 females) per group. The first group doses the oil only as a negative<br>control, the second group was infected with the parasite as a positive control, while the four study groups<br>dose the plant extract of the bay leaves for (14) days and at doses of (15, 10, 5, 1) mg. for Kg after a period<br>of infestation with the parasite for 14 days. The results of the chromosomal changes showed the type of<br>chromatid fracture among the females injected with the parasite + the extract and with all its concentrations<br>significantly reduce the level at (P &lt;0.05). The concentration was 15 mg/kg, the lowest as the results reached<br>(9.33 ± 1.33) compared to the control of the parasite (44.00 ± 2.30), while the centromere fracture showed<br>All concentrations showed a significant decrease at the level of (p&lt;0.05) and showed concentrations 15<br>and 10 more decreases with a result of 2.66 ± 1.33 for both concentrations compared to the control of the<br>parasite, As for the annular chromosome, all concentrations showed a significant decrease at the level of<br>(p&lt;0.05) for females injected with the parasite extract, and the concentration was 15 mg/kg, the lowest was<br>(6.66 ± 1.33) compared to the control of the parasite.</p> Ghfran Shihab Ahmed Al-badri1, Aysir Salih Mohammed2 , Omar Raheem Khalaf2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic evaluation of rs36513 SNP of UIMC1 and Biochemical Parameters in Early Menopause in Babylon City, Iraq <p>Premature menopause or Early menopause (POF) is a condition charecterised by amenorrhea,<br>hypoesteronigism, and elevated serum gonadotrophin level in women younger than 40 years old. This work<br>aimed to evaluate the association of candidate genetic polymorphism in called trans membrane protein 150<br>B (TMEM150B ) and ubiquitin interaction motif containing 1 (UIMC1) also the hormonal changes with<br>POF in one district of Iraq (province of Babylon) by enrolling Arab ancestors. The genetic variants that<br>would be studied in this project were carefully selected according to the recent findings in this field, and by<br>employed several specialized databases . The selected variant are transmembrane protein 150B (TMEM150B<br>) and ubiquitin interaction motif containing 1 (UIMC1) and their relation with premature ovarian failure.<br>This study include (200) females , their ages between (35-40 years) and body mass index in normal and<br>overweight, (50) of them were with amenorrhea for 6 months, and the other (150) apparently healthy as<br>control group. Concerning rs365132, the genetic association with POF showed that there was no significant<br>allelic or genotypic association recorded (P &gt; 0.2 ) , except that the patients group was significantly deviated<br>from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium exact test (P=0.023). For rs11668344, the genetic association with POF<br>showed that there was no significant allelic or genotypic association recorded (P &gt; 0.2 ) , except that the<br>patients group was significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium exact test (P=0.023). The<br>hormonal results of the present study showed significant increase in FSH in patients compared with controls<br>group. (P &lt; 0.0001) and this study showed significant decrease (p? 0.001) in EST in patients compared with<br>controls group. As a conclusion , the study conclude that rs365132 and rs11668344 genes variants do not<br>represent genetic factors which can modulate the development of POF in Arab population from Babylon<br>province .</p> Rana A. M. Shaker1 , Maha F. Mohammed2 , Bushra j. Al-Rubaey3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Campylobacter Species in Diarrheal Samples of Children Less than 10 Years <p>Introduction: Campylobacter spp. is one of the most common causes of diarrheal diseases all over the<br>world, with a rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance.<br>Objective: Detect the frequency of Campylobacter species in diarrheal stool of children under ten years by<br>conventional and molecular methods, and detect the bacterial ability to produce biofilm.<br>Methods: A total of 200 children presented with diarrhea had been enrolled in this study. Campylobacter<br>was isolated and diagnosed primarily by characteristic features on Gram stain, culture media, biochemical<br>tests, and tested against 13 antibiotics by disc diffusion method. The ability of biofilm production was<br>tested by crystal violet quantitative ELISA microtiter plate assays. Then Campylobacter spp was detected<br>by Multiplex PCR using species specific genes.<br>Result: The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 17% by conventional methods and 15% by molecular<br>method. The results of antibiotic susceptibility test showed that, there is complete resistance (100%)<br>to cephalothin, ampicillin, and clindamycin for both species, full resistance (100%) to trimethoprimsulfamethoxazol and erythromycin by C.coli, and high resistance (92.3%) to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol<br>and erythromycin by C.jejuni, while the lowest resistance was to nalidixic acid and amikacin (7.7%) by<br>C.jejuni, and (12.5%) to tetracyclin, amoxicillin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin by C.coli.<br>The frequency of biofilm production in all positive Skirrow’s culture was (35.29%) as 12 out of 34 positive<br>isolates, ranging from mild to severe biofilm formation. By PCR assay, 64.7 % (22 of 34) positive Skirrow’s<br>culture were also positive based on hipO gene specific for C.jejuni, while the prevalence of asp gene was<br>(23.5%).<br>Conclusion: The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 17% by conventional methods and 15% by molecular<br>methods, most of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates were MDR, and sensitive only to<br>limited number of antibiotics, many Campylobacter isolates produce biofilm, there was highly significant<br>correlation between hippurate hydrolysis results and molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. depending<br>on hipO and asp genes.</p> Ghada N. Khalaf 1 , Thaanaa R. Abdulrahman² Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Evaluation of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis and Its Correlation with Helicobacter Pylori <p>Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a disorder distinguished by ulcers restricted to the oral mucosa. Because of<br>the histological similarities between peptic ulcers and recurrent aphthous stomatitis and the identified role<br>of Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer, the possibility of bacterial involvement in the progression of aphthae<br>has been suggested. Helicobacter pylori are one of the most common, well-known pathogenic agents in the<br>development of peptic ulcers. Some investigators have shown a relationship between Helicobacter pylori<br>and recurrent aphthous stomatitis. However, this relationship is controversial. The aims and objectives of<br>this study were 1- Clinical evaluation of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.2- Determination of the<br>association between Helicobacter pylori and recurrent aphthous stomatitis using the urea breath test.<br>Eighty-five subjects were participated in this study; they are divided into two groups. Fifty patients with<br>recurrent aphthous stomatitis, which at least occur four, or more times per year, thirty-five healthy subjects<br>of the same age group as controls.<br>The results showed that ,the mean age of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis lie around 3rd decade<br>and the percentage of female with recurrent aphthous stomatitis was higher than male,the clinical findings<br>showed that the number of patients with minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis was higher than patients with<br>major and Herptiform recurrent aphthous stomatitis , No difference between the number of patients who had<br>single recurrent aphthous stomatitis and number of patients who had multiple recurrent aphthous stomatitis<br>was found . According to the site of ulcers, the result founded that the number of patients who had RAS on<br>the non-keratinized mucosa was higher than patients who had RAS on the keratinized mucosa and those who<br>had recurrent aphthous stomatitis on keratinized and non-keratinized oral mucosa.<br>Regarding the laboratory findings, the percentage of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis who urea<br>breath test positive was higher than percentage of control group,also the mean value (Delta Over Base) of<br>urea breath test in recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients was statistically higher than that of healthy controls.<br>By these results we concluded that there was a correlation between recurrent aphthous somatitis and H.pylori<br>by using urea breath test in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis when compared with controls.</p> Shaimaa A. Saeed1 , Taghreed F.Zaidan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of An Educational Curriculum According to (K.W.L) Strategy on Some Mental Abilities and Learning Some Basic Football Skills for Students <p>The research problem was centered in the fact that the student usually cares about playing without using the<br>mental abilities in the skill and what is known about the skill and what he wants to know and what he learned<br>from it, and through the experience of the researchers, they found that it is necessary to review the strategies<br>and methods of teaching used and the introduction of modern educational methods based on the needs of<br>students and their inclinations And their psychological desires and needs, and one of the most important<br>modern strategies is the (KWL) strategy that works to stimulate students ’previous knowledge and make it<br>a starting point for linking it with new information to renew the meaning of learning and increase student<br>confidence and his ability to plan, monitor and strengthen He did his work, as well as developing mental<br>abilities that are one of the main goals in education, as traditional methods that focus on preserving and<br>retrieving study material only do not necessarily lead to developing mental abilities, and that the research<br>problem manifests itself in identifying the impact of using the KWL strategy in Some mental abilities,<br>cognitive achievement, and learning some basic skills of football for students. The research objectives were<br>to prepare a teaching strategy (KWL) for students and to identify their effect on mental capabilities and in<br>some basic skills for football for students. The researchers assumed that there were no significant differences<br>in Mental abilities and learn some basic football skills for students.</p> Ali Mahdi Hassan1 , Yousef Abdul Karim Yousef Abu Ghneim2, Hayder Naji Habash Alshawi 3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular and Phenotypic Detection of Some of the Coded Genes for Virulence Factors in Mrsa and Mssa Isolated From Different Clinical Cases <p>The current study included the collection of 100 clinical samples obtained of patients reviewed in<br>the laboratories of Ramadi hospital for women and children and Hit General Hospital and some civil<br>laboratories within the city of Ramadi, including Bacterimea samples, Urine, abscesses, heart inflammation,<br>wounds, rhinitis, osteoporosis, otitis ,Laryngitis, sputum (35, 20, 5, 6, 7, 5, 8, 7, 4, 3) samples respectively<br>to investigate the presence of staphylococcus aureas . The results of diagnosis of bacterial isolates showed<br>that there were 55 bacterial isolates belonging to the S.aureus bacteria after they were grown on the culture<br>media and examined microscopic as well as the use of some of the tests on the chemical, and the diagnosis<br>was confirmed using the Vitek2-compact system .The diagnostic results were confirmed by the use of<br>genetic diagnosis. The results of the phenotypic investigation were identical to the results of the genetic<br>investigation using the polymerase chain reaction technique in terms of possessing isolates producing both<br>hemolycin , on the HlA encoding genes for the production of type and hlB encoded for type<br>production, For plasma blood on the co-a gene, and the resistance isolates of methylation on the mecA gene.</p> Noora Hamid Ibrahim1 , Ahmed Mohammed Turki2 , Jamal Abd Al-Rahman3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histological Changes Induced by the Fusarium Graminarum Silver Nanoparticles in Some Organs of Male Albino Mice <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on male albino mice of the histological change of<br>Fusarium graminarum, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and the traces of these nanoparticles in the liver,<br>kidney, and small intestinal. The experiment consisted of 40 mice divided into two groups, the first group of<br>20 mice was considered to be the control animals and the other group was 21 days of treatment with a dose of<br>AgNPs (0.1ml / day). Microscopic examination of the liver showed disturbed structure of the hepatic lobule,<br>hepatocyte hypertrophy with severs infiltration of inflammatory cells, kupffer cell proliferation, coagulates,<br>necrosis and hydropic degeneration. In addition, the kidney section showed lobulated glomeruli, a large area<br>of hemorrhage, congested blood vessels that showed thickening in their walls, changes in degeneration and<br>inflammatory cell infiltration.</p> Sahar A. H. AL-Sharqi Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Seroprevalence of HTLV-type-1 and type-2 among Blood Donors in Some Iraqi Provinces <p>Context: Human T-cell lymphotropic viruses Type 1&amp;2 (HTLV-1&amp;2) screening test is endemic in some<br>Iraq’s provinces. HTLV-1&amp;2 test is not performed in routine screening tests of Iraqi blood donors banks.<br>With my thought it represent essential test to prevent complications the virus in our country and other<br>neighbour countries in Middle East. The results of the following study do not included all Iraq’s provinces<br>but only seven provinces (Baghdad, Karbala, Al-Qadisiyyah, Al-Najaf, Al-Muthanna, Al-Basrah, Wasit).<br>Aims: to review prevalence of HTLV-1&amp;2 infections among Iraq’s blood donors. Settings and Design:<br>The study where performed in Iraqi National blood bank in Baghdad city and national companies for<br>blood donation in Karbala and Najaf provinces, the study included 15239 blood donors. Methods and<br>Material: ELISA (Murex HTLV 1&amp;2 Ab, USA, LOT: D3101210) 480.T was used for HTLV screening<br>for detection antibodies to HTLV-1&amp;2 in the serum of human followed by accurate confirmatory test<br>CMIA (Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay) architect plus for confirmatory. Results: The study<br>included 15239 blood donors, thirty nine of him appeared seropositive for HTLV-1&amp;2, and the prevalence<br>of HTLV-1&amp;2 was appeared in some provinces of Iraq country highly prevalence of HTLV-1&amp;2 were seen<br>in Baghdad 24(61.5%), then Karbala 5(12.8%), Al-Qadisiyyah 4(10.2%), Al-Najaf 2 (5.1%), Al-Muthanna<br>2 (5.1%), Al-Basrah1(2.5%), and Wasit province1 (2.5%) respectively. Conclusions: first study conducted<br>in Iraq in 2015 appeared the prevalence of HTLV-1&amp;2 infections among blood donors only in six provinces<br>and not included all Iraq’s provinces. So another study is requested for determination the distribution of<br>HTLV-1&amp;2 in all Iraq’s provinces, districts and areas.</p> Aseel I. Ibrahim1 , Yakhob A. Al-Musawi2 , Aruba I. Abdullah3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Occurrence of Rodotorula Mucilaginosa among Immunocompromised Patients with Different Infections <p>Rhodotorula genus contains 37 species, only three species have been caused human infections. These three<br>species are R. glutinis, R. minuta and R. mucilaginosa. Infection with Rhodotorula is much less common<br>than other yeast causes. Nevertheless, the number of infections has clearly increased during the last few<br>years. The objective was to occur of Rodotorula mucilaginosa Among Immunocompromised Patients with<br>Different Infections<br>One hundred five specimens were collected from immunocompromised patients with (Oculomycosis,<br>Onychomycosis and Otomycosis) who attended Baquba teaching hospital for a period of 14 months.<br>The yeast cultures were monitored using Sabouraud´s dextrose agar (SDA) and identified depended on<br>macroscopic and microscopic examinations.<br>Cultured Colonies of R. mucilaginosa on Sabouraud´s dextrose agar showed orange to pink in color and<br>are smooth to mucoid colonies. The percentage of R. mucilaginosa was 19.3% (92 out of 150) specimens.<br>According to the findings, it can be concluded that males are most suffering from Rodotorula mucilaginosa<br>infection among Oculomycosis and onychomycosis. Also, it is more prevalent in age group (41-60) years.</p> Abbas M. AL-Ammari1 , Anaam Fuad Hussein2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Socio-Demographic Characteristics on Quality of Life Among Dental Students in Iraq <p>The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of socio-demographic factors on quality of life among<br>dental students in three governorates in Iraq.<br>This observational study included 1364 dental students aged 18–22 years from three governorates. Information<br>on socio-demographic and quality of life was obtained from a structured, self-administered questionnaire<br>from the students who were willing to participate in the study. The data was collected, summarized and<br>statistically analyzed. The percentage of fair scores for the four domains was higher among dental students.<br>Socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender and smoking status) were closely associated with quality of<br>life except the area of residence showed no statistical significant differences with quality of life.<br>The socio-demographic characteristic had some effect on quality of life of dental student</p> Jenan Othmaan Almaas1 , Ban Sahib Diab2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation Study of Human Spermatozoa Proteome <p>The current study has been conducted on health human sperm to identify the different types of amino acids<br>and entire proteins of sperm. Two methods have been applied to characterise of human sperm, firstly extract<br>lysate of sperm, then digest and run it in mass spectrometry, secondly, total sperm lysate was run in SDS<br>page gel and bands were stained with coomassie, then band was cut and digest to extract of whole amino<br>acids and also was run in mass spectrometry. Result revealed that sperm have several proteins, which were<br>involved with different binding proteins, soluble proteins, and glycoproteins, transmembrane proteins.<br>Current result was displayed that mass spectrometry can be used to recognise data of proteins of sperm<br>and detected types of it. This technique was applied on whole lysate and gel bands of sperm and created<br>database of sperm proteins which can be investigated and consider more interesting for researchers. This<br>study is concluded that human sperm have important transmembrane, enzymes, glycosylated proteins,<br>glycoproteins and uncharacterised proteins which might be answered many theoretical aspects of biological<br>and biochemical sperm migrations before and after fertilization.</p> Morteta H. Al-Medhtiy1,2, Hutheyfa Al-Salih1 , Hazem Almhanna1 , Ahmed H. Al-Dabhawi1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of CTX-II , Dyslipidemia ,Vitamin D in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome <p>This study aimed to study the serum measurement of clinical value of type II collagen (CTX-II) in syndrome<br>of polycystic ovary in women and indicter as osteoarthritis disease marker analyzed in future levels with<br>a recent available immune enzyme-linked sorbent assay (ELISA) kit. For increasing sensitivity test, the<br>protocol was modified. Levels of CTX-II increased significantly as well total protein, while decrease vitamin<br>D and difference in lipid profile were practical between the patients compared with healthy women’s. The<br>obtained results suggested the monitoring interest of the serum CTX-II for the OA development in patients<br>of polycystic ovary syndrome in women and the relevance of the analysis of multiple time point for this<br>biomarker.</p> Samah Amer Hammood1 , Alaauldeen S. M. AL-Sallami Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Correlation Between Tumor Necrosis Factors-Alpha (TNF-? ) and Resistin in Obese Iraqi Women <p>Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a<br>negative effect on health. The current study aimed to study the correlation between resistin and Tumor<br>Necrosis Factors-alpha (TNF-?) in Obese Iraqi women. The group of patients contain twenty five women<br>with Obesity and apparently thirty healthy women were present as a control group. Estimation of sera<br>resistin and Tumor Necrosis Factors-alpha (TNF-? ) were done by using “enzyme-linked immunosorbent<br>assay” (ELISA). Sera levels of resistin was increase significantly in women with obesity group compared<br>with control group (p&lt;0.01). Also the results show positive correlation between Tumor Necrosis Factorsalpha (TNF-? and resistin. In women with obesity, depending on present findings, resistin is implicated in<br>pathogenesis of obesity related with Tumor Necrosis Factors-alpha (TNF-? ) .</p> Zinah Abbass Ali1 , Khawla A. Shemran2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antitumor Activity of ?-glucan Extracted from Pleurotus Eryngii <p>Pleurotus eryngii, a type of edible mushroom that exhibit various pharmacological properties, including<br>antioxidant and anticancer effects. In the present study, extracted ?-glucan from the P. eryngii was tested as<br>an antioxidant and anti-tumor factor. ?-glucan was extracted and analyzed by HPLC and FT-IR. Analytical<br>results showed more than 90% similarity in chemical structure and purity. Potential antioxidant activity of<br>?-glucan was examined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and compared with ascorbic acid.<br>?-glucan confirmed a potential scavenging activity. The anticancer activity of the ?-glucan was assessed<br>using different concentrations (6.25 to 400 µg mL-1) on MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines. P. eryngii ?-glucan<br>exerted a dose-dependent reduction in MCF-7 and HepG2 cell viability with an IC50 of 280.00 and 539.5<br>µg mL-1, respectively. At the same time, no significant effect was recorded on normal cell line WRL 68. The<br>obtained results are expected that could be used to develop P. eryngii ?-glucan as an antitumor drug.</p> Ali Z. Al-Saffar1 , Noora A. Hadi2 , Hadeel Mohamed Khalaf2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Multiple Glass Bead Sterilization Cycles On Cyclic Fatigue of AF BLUE S one File <p>Introduction: Sterilization represent an important and essential aspect, now days Most of the dentists<br>usually use the endodontic files for many times before they discard it, this could increase the need for<br>reliable and fast sterilization method, but without affecting the physical properties of the endodontic files.<br>Aim of the study: This study discusses an economic method of sterilization (glass bead) and its effect<br>on the fracture resistance of the AF Blue S one file (Fanta) with multiple reuses of the system. Method<br>and materials: A total of 75 AF BLUE S one NiTi Rotary files (FANTA) #25 size with 0.04 taper and 25<br>millimeter length, were used in this study, divided into three groups to test their cyclic fatigue resistance<br>after multiple sterilization cycles. Result: The results were statically analyzed using (SPSS) software, Anova<br>test showed a statically high significant differences between the groups. Conclusions: Within the limitation<br>of this study, it can be concluded that AF Blue S one file with 4 time glass bead sterilization cycle was the<br>most fatigue resistant compared to zero and two sterilization cycle.</p> Bassam Alsheekhly1 Marwah M. Adnan2 Fudhla Sadoon Al- Zubaydi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Mortality Acanthopagrus Latus Fish in Iraq <p>This study was conducted in Iraq in Karbala during the winter period in December and January of each year.<br>The study aimed to know the causes of fish death in large numbers. Acanthopagrus Latus By investigating<br>the most important causative factors by taking random samples of infected fish in Lake Razazah, it was<br>noticed through a study of the appearance of these fish that they have severe laceration with clear redness in<br>the abdominal area and specifically near the opening of the complex, which extends to the dorsal area near<br>the gills cover Over time, in some of the studied samples, the tissue culture of the affected area indicated<br>the presence of a fungus Aspergillus Niger Which may be one of the causes, our conclusion caused by the<br>death of fish Acanthopagrus Latus In addition, someone has approximately (12) types of yeasts found in<br>these infected fish.</p> Ali Balash Jebur1 , Rasha Abdulameer Jawad2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Heritability of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Population of Western Region of Iraq <p>Heritability of ambulatory blood pressure parameters in western population has been well described, there<br>is no information on Iraqi population. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate genetic<br>influences on intra-individual variation, by performing heritability analysis on an Iraqi population (Anbar<br>province).<br>A total of 389 individuals, constituting 93 families were ascertained. Most of the parents included in the<br>study were in their 5th and 6th decade of life, and the siblings included in the study were in their 2nd and 3rd<br>decade of life.<br>To define the portion of difference of variables that is due to genetic and non-genetic influences, full sib<br>analysis was used to estimate heritabilities of blood pressure parameters systolic, diastolic, mean and pulse<br>pressure were estimated during the morning and evening. Heritabilities were estimated in narrow sense<br>which were ranged from 28 % for morning systolic blood pressure to 84% for morning systemic pulse<br>pressure.<br>The finding of modest narrow sense heritability indicates the significant role of non-genetic factors affecting<br>morning systolic, evening systolic and diastolic, and mean blood pressure, whereas the high estimate of<br>heritability for morning diastolic and pulse pressure indicate the significant effect of genetic.</p> Louay M. Alani1 , Huda M. Mahmood2 Bilal J. M. Aldahham3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation Ship between Some Hematological Parameters and Smoking for Students <p>This study including collected 172 blood sample from AL-Kafeel University college, these samples including<br>102 sample to male and 70 sample for female in which students samples were 53 for smoker and 119 nonsmoker , to evaluate some of parameters such as ABO , RH , blood pressure and clotting time .<br>The results showed blood group A+ was more frequent which represent 33.7 % followed by O+ blood group<br>which represent 25.6% while B- was the last ,in other results displayed AB- and RH + was more frequent than<br>RH -<br>. Systolic and diastolic pressure examined was demonstrated there were mild hypertension in blood<br>pressure between samples of studied, while result gloating time was exhibited range 30 sec to 3 minute .</p> Manar Kareem Alquraishy1 , Alia Hussein Al-Mousawi1, Ahmed Adnan AL-Khafagi2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Digoxin on Endocrine Glands in Male Rats <p>This study is performed to provide the pathological changes of thyroid gland, pancreas and adrenal gland<br>that occurred due to exposure to the digoxin drug. The study uses twenty four adult male rat randomly<br>divided into 3 equal groups as follows: G1 control group treated with distilled water, G2 dosed with 0.3mg/<br>kg digoxin and G3 dosed with 0.9mg/kg digoxin given orally by gavage daily for 60 days. All animals were<br>sacrificed at the end of experiment and organs were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological<br>evaluation. Result reveals dilation of thyroid follicles with flattened follicular epithelium which increase<br>with high dose group digoxin in comparison with control. Adrenal gland showed moderate atrophy of<br>cortical layers especially zona reticularis with hyperplasia of medulla cells probably of digoxin like ouabainproducing cells, on the other hands pancreas doesn’t reveal remarkable changes except congestion of vessels<br>in high dose group compared to control.</p> Abbas A. Khudhair 1 , Kassim F. Abdulkareem2 , Muhsin S.G. Al_Mozie’l 3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study Some Biochemical Parameters in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients in Males and Females Adults in Baghdad <p>Our study aims to investigate in levels of Ferrtin and IL-23 in beta-thalassemia major patients (males and<br>females), and compared with the control group (healthy individuals). The total number of samples were<br>(88) blood samples, beta-thalassemia major patients (44) and healthy individuals (44). All the samples<br>submitted to ELIZA test to determination Ferrtin and IL-23 in blood samples (males and females) (patients<br>and healthy group). According to our results, showed there are significant difference in and males with betathalassemia major and females with beta-thalassemia major in Ferrtin concentration as compared with the<br>control group at (P&lt;0.01). In addition, Our study showed no there are significant difference in and males<br>with beta-thalassemia major and females with beta-thalassemia major in IL-23 level as compared with the<br>control group at (P&lt;0.01). Finally, there is a high increase in Ferrtin concentration of blood samples in<br>males and females, while there are little changes (non-significant) in IL-23 concentration of blood samples<br>in males and females.</p> Rusul Yaareb Hameed1 , Sanad Baqir Mahammad2 , Bassam Francis Matti3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biological Activity of Complexes of Some Amino Acid: Review <p>Schiff bases (SBs) based on amino acid derivative stand for multipurpose ligands that formed by condensing<br>amino acids with carbonyl groups. They are significant in pharmaceutical and medical areas due to their<br>widespread biological actions such as antiseptic, antifungal, along with antitumor actions. Transition<br>metallic complexes resulting from SB ligands with biological activity were extensively experimented in the<br>literature. In this article, we review, in details, about synthesizing and biological performances of SBs along<br>with its complexes.</p> Lekaa K. Abdul Karem, Israa M. Radhi, Suhad S. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Measuring of Interleukin -22 and IL -17a Levels in Seropositive and Seronegative Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients <p>Background: “Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease leading to joint disruption”. The<br>instant study designed to detect serum markers in RA that could discriminate between seropositive (SP) and<br>seronegative (SN) by evaluating levels of IL- 22and IL -17a in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods:<br>In this cross-sectional study, a total of sixty Rheumatoid arthritis (RA ) patients’ age and sex-matched with<br>healthy controls were involved in the present study. The serum IL- -22 and IL -17a levels were measured<br>using an ELISA kit. Results: The mean ±SD age in seropositive and seronegative was (37.22± 11.29 and<br>34.28±20.3 years, respectively), while in control group was (27.14±9.33 years). Furthermore, serum IL- 22<br>and IL -17a level was significantly higher in seropositive and seronegative RA patients compared to healthy<br>controls (P&lt;0.001). There was no significant variation in serum IL -22 and IL -17a level according to the<br>seropositive and seronegative in RA patients (p&gt;0.05), but there was a positive correlation between them<br>ROC test representing a highly sensitive and specific . Conclusion: The present study exhibited higher<br>serum IL- 22 and IL -17a levels in seropositive and seronegative in RA patients compared to healthy controls.<br>Therefore, IL- 22 and IL -17a can be considered as a biomarker for RA disease, with high sensitivity and<br>specificity but these cytokines couldn’t be used as discriminated between SP and SN in RA patients.</p> Suhad Hassan Aubaid1 , Ekhlas Saddam Falih2 , Zeina Anwar Jaffar3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of B1 Gene in Toxoplasma Gondii and the Role of Interleukin 2 in Abortive Women Infected by this Parasite <p>The study included 80 blood and serum samples of aborted women with Toxoplasma gondii infection<br>and healthy, uninfected and non-aborted women in the control group. For the period from August-2018<br>to June-2019, in collaboration with the Falluja teaching hospital for women and children and the Ramadi<br>teaching hospital for women and children, the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), also to the<br>Toxoplasma gondii (B1) gene, the Nested polymerase chain reaction technique are used. The results of the<br>study showed by that Elisa Toxoplasma gondii, IgG infection (50%), IgM infection (12.5%), and IgG &amp; IgM<br>Infection (12.5%), were mean (108.16±47.02) (99.02±31.47) (96.45±20.68) respectively compared with the<br>control group (25%) (0.94±0.93) and Interleukin-2 shown in IgG group (48.66±12.01) and control group<br>(14.28±6.84) decreased compared to IgM (81.19±9.66), and IgG &amp; IgM (80.71±9.18) group. Nonetheless,<br>using nested PCR, the B1 gene showed just (12.5%) of all study samples in IgM and IgG&amp;IgM alone and<br>all IgG negativly</p> Hanan Mohammed Saied Jassam1 , Thaer Abdulqader Salih2 1 Post graduate/Department of Biology/ College of Science/ University of Anbar/ Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bacteriocin Production in Bacillus cereus Food Isolates with Molecular Detection of cerA gene <p>Sixty-three Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food samples. All strains were subjected to DNA<br>sequencing for 16S rRNA for identification. 15 strains were registered at GenBank of NCBI and given<br>new accession numbers. 41.26% of the isolates showed bacteriocinogenicproduction activity against four<br>bacterial speciesviz,Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. Presence<br>of cerA gene coding for cericidine(a type of bacteriocin) was detected in 7.69% of the isolates that produced<br>bacteriocin. Bacterionwas precipitated by ammonium sulphate and purified by dialysis. Antimicrobial<br>activity of precipitated bacteriocin against the four types of bacteria showed the effect on Bacillus cereus and<br>Staphylococcus aureus growth but not on Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.The produced bacteriocin<br>has a molecular weight ranging from 47-54 KDa.Estimation of the concentration and physical and chemical<br>properties of bacteriocin were also investigated.</p> Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Diagnostic Efficacy of Visually Enhanced Lesion Scope (Velscope) In Identifying Benign , Dysplastic and Cancerous Oral Lesions <p>Background : Visual inspection by conventional oral examination (COE) has been the backbone of oral<br>cancer and precancer detection. More recently, several commercially available diagnostic adjuncts have<br>been developed to aid clinicians in the early detection of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and squamous cell<br>carcinoma (SCC), such as OralCDx, Toluidine coloring, ViziLite machine, Identafi machine, and VELscope.<br>VELscope is a technology based on the principles of autofluorescence mechanism imaging. This device<br>offers in-vivo, real-time, direct visualization of tissue autofluorescence, termed direct visual fluorescent<br>examination (DVFE). It is currently marketed as an oral cancer screening tool to be used with all new and<br>recall dental patients and as an aid for surgeons in tumor margin delineation.<br>Aim of the study :was to obtain auto fluorescent data on variety of histopathologically distinct oral lesions<br>and assessment of direct auto fluorescent examination validity in identifying dysplastic (premalignant)<br>and malignant oral mucosal lesions using VELscope and judgment with histopathological examination.<br>Materials and methods: Routine oral examination of fifty patients having suspicious oral lesions followed<br>by direct autofluorescent examination by VElscope and then histopathological examination.<br>Conclusion : VELscope can be considered as an adjunctive device to enhance the visualization of oral<br>mucosal abnormalities, but not as a tool for risk stratification.</p> Suroor Ali Jabbar1 , Fawaz Aswad2 , Ameena Ryhan. Diajil3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Test Some New Media for Cultivation of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria <p>Possibility of using the wastes of used paper to prepare a culture medium for bacterial growth was carried<br>out in this study, five experimental culture media (paper waste extract agar, glucose paper waste extract agar,<br>yeast extract paper waste extract agar, NaCl paper waste extract agar and GYN paper waste extract agar)<br>that made from the extract of used papers were prepared to cultivation two species of Gram positive bacteria<br>(Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp.) and two species of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia<br>coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in comparison with readymade media (nutrient agar and brain-heart<br>infusion agar). Heavy growth of bacteria was appeared on yeast extract paper waste extract agar and GYN<br>paper waste extract agar media, while no growth was happen on the other three experimental culture media.<br>The results of statistical analysis found that there is no significant different at P?0.05, using LSD test among<br>yeast extract paper waste extract agar , GYN paper waste extract agar and nutrient agar or brain-heart<br>infusion agar media .These results indicate likelihood of using two experimental culture media instead of<br>nutrient agar or brain-heart infusion agar to cultivation of bacteria.</p> Firas Nabeeh Jaafar1 , Wala’a Shawkat Ali2 , Nadia Kamil Bashar1 , Rayim Sabah Abbood1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Blood Lymphocytes Detection in Iraqi Diabetic Type 2 Patients Infected with Chronic Toxoplasmosis by Using Flow Cytometry <p>Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate parasite infects different species of mammals as intermediate hosts while<br>infects number of family of cats as definitive hosts. It has three morphological types: tachyzoites, bradyzoites<br>and sporozoites. It causes (H.I.) humoral immunity and (C.M.I) cell mediated immunity response which is<br>measured one of the most characteristic immunological types of this parasite infestation. Diabetes mellitus<br>(DM) is considered as a heterogeneous group of metabolic abnormalities with hyperglycemia due either to<br>a reduction of insulin biological function or absolute insulin deficiency. Researchers discovered that long<br>term infection with T. gondii may be dangerous agent for DM type 2, and there is no relation between<br>toxoplasmosis and DM type 1. The aim of this study include detection of CD3 in Iraqi diabetic type 2<br>infected with chronic toxoplasmosis by using flow cytometry. This study included 100 blood samples were<br>collected from Iraqi diabetic type 2 patients and 50 blood samples of healthy volunteers with age range<br>(15-75) years and mean 49.9±12.8 from Al – Imam Ali general hospital during May 2018 until August in<br>the same year. Diagnose of toxoplasmosis infection was done by using rapid diagnosis test/ cassette and by<br>Toxo IgG antibodies immulite torch assay while diabetes diagnosis by fasting glucose tests in addition CD3<br>were detected by using flow cytometric method. Diabetic patients a group infected with toxoplasmosis have<br>the highest level of blood blood sugar in comparison with other groups. Forty – five samples of diabetic<br>type 2 infected with chronic toxoplasmosis by detection IgG antibody in highly level 106.2± 90.2 with<br>highly significant differences in comparisons with other groups ( diabetic patients 3.6± 1.2 and control group<br>4.0±0.6 ) while any results for IgM Abs didn’t found in this study. Seventy – five samples studied in flow<br>cytometry method which include twenty – five samples for each group. Diabetic patients with toxoplasmosis<br>recorded highest CD3 its mean 30.7± 14.51 pg /ml flowed by diabetic patients group has 24.84±9.47 pg /ml<br>and control group has 20.03± 9.42 pg /ml with significant differences.</p> Israa Kasim Al-Aubaidi1 , Sarah Ali Saeed1 , Ahmed Issa Jaaffar2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immunohistochemical Assessment of Tumor Infiltrating T Cells and Serological Evaluation of Apoptotic Markers in Prostate Cancer Patients <p>PCa is abnormal transformed growth in glandular prostate tissue of male reproductive system. Occasionally,<br>it is slow growth, but some progressed rapidly. This corss-sectional study aims to evaluate the differences in<br>counts of tumor infiltrating immune cells (CD3 &amp; CD8), and serum soluble Fas and Fas ligand concentrations<br>between malignant and benign PCa. Total of (17) patients with PCa were included, their ages ranged from<br>(38-88) years. The patients visited urological surgery unit in Hilla Teaching Hospital during the period<br>(November 2018 to October 2019). The samples comprise biopsy for estimation of tumor infiltrating CD3<br>&amp; CD8 by IHC technique, and 3 mL of blood for sFas and sFasL evaluation by ELISA technique for each<br>patient. The results showed the differences of CD3+ &amp; CD8+ PILs counts between BPH and malignant PCa<br>are non-significant (P value &gt; 0.05), sFas concentrations of malignant PCa are significantly higher (P value<br>&lt; 0.05) than those of BPH, whereas no significant difference (P value &gt; 0.05) in sFasL concentrations. It<br>was concluded that prostate tumor type affects serum levels of sFas, but both CD3+ &amp; CD8+ PILs rates and<br>sFasL levels are not affected.</p> Ifad Kerim AlShibly1 , Ammad Hasan Mahmood2 , Fouad Qasim Jubair Al-Zayadi3 , Hadeel Karbel4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Anti-Diabetic Activity of Vinca Rosea Extract on Induced Diabetic Mice <p>Background and Objective: Vinca rosea is a medicinal plant that has been investigated and applied as an<br>alternative treatment for disorders. This study aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic<br>extract of Vinca rosea on induced diabetes in mice.<br>Methods: Forty male albino mice were randomly divided into four groups, including control that was<br>administered a standard physiologic saline and served as control, diabetic group, Streptozotocin &amp; Vinca<br>rosea, and only Vinca rosea; each group contained ten mice.<br>Results: No significant lesions were observed in pathological sections of the control; however, the lesions in<br>diabetic group showed massive lesions in the islets of Langerhans and reduced dimensions of islets due to the<br>damage of beta-cells. Furthermore, the Pancreas in Streptozotocin &amp; Vinca rosea demonstrated a moderated<br>vacuolation and Langerhans of islet cells. In contrast, the histopathological sections of the pancreas, which<br>treated by ethanolic extracts of Vinca rosea, illustrated increasing number of beta-cells hypercellularity. The<br>values of blood glucose were increased in the diabetic group; however, the significant decreases (P&lt;0.05)<br>in blood glucose detected in treated by ethanolic extract as represented by increased Beta-cells. While, the<br>blood glucose levels were tolerated in treated Streptozotocin &amp; Vinca rosea; thus, these values were closely<br>for the control results.<br>Conclusion: The Vinca rosea extracts induced a significant impact on diabetic mice, and they can improve<br>and protect pancreatic cells in diabetic mice. Therefore, ethanolic extracts of Vinca rosea could be beneficial<br>for the diabetes.</p> Eman H. Altaee1 , Abdulkarim J. Karim1, Mohammed M. Dakheel2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study Some Physico-Chemical And Bacterial Properties of Wastewater for Ramadi Teaching Hospital and its Impact on the Euphrates River <p>Physiochemical and bacteriological characteristics of Euphrates river water were examined monthly to assess<br>the possible impacts of wastewater discharged from Ramadi Teaching hospital for the period from August<br>2019 to January 2020. The obtained results showed that air and water temperature mean values varied from<br>12.0 ±11.3 to 40.0 ± 11.3 C ° and from9.1.0 ±3.12 to 33 ±9.5 C° respectively. Also, turbidity values were<br>found to range from 14.0±8 to 144 ±9.6 NTU. while EC value was situated between 567.0±44.67 ?S/cm<br>and2899 .0±274 .3?S/cm. The current results have shown that total hardness mean values were very high<br>and ranged between 252.0±27.5 and1114.0±96.3 mg/l while chlorides mean values ranging from92.0±62<br>to 588 ±104 mg/l, but nitrate mean values were found with the range of 1.2 ±1.86 and 50 ±4.5mg/l.The<br>BOD mean values were found to range from1.0 ±1.2 to 34 ±6.5 mg/l, while DO mean values varying from<br>1.7 ±3 to 11.1 ±1.3 . This study has shown that the total bacterial count (222 to 1800000 cells/1 ml), Total<br>Coliform (61 -170000 cells/100 ml), Fecal Coliform (0-58000 cell/100 ml), and Fecal Streptococci (18<br>-9200 cells/100 ml).</p> Ali Ibrahim Edan1 , Mohammed Muslih Sharqi2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Characterization of Selected Genera of the (Apiaceae) Family using SSR Molecular Markers <p>The conducted study which included the study of a few selected races from canopy plants from the chemical<br>perspective which included Apium graveolens L, Anethum graveolens L, Coriandrum sativum L, Petroselium<br>crispum L, cyminum Cuminum L, Foeniculum vulgare L, Pimpinella anisum L, Daucus carrot L and Ammi<br>majus L. The DNA was detected and extracted and Conducted molecular tests on the DNA using (SSR<br>Simple Sequence Repeats) using the polymerization device (PCR) and electrophoresis process on Agarose<br>Gel.<br>Five selected and specific prefixes were used which approved its effectiveness in giving multiple shapes<br>(Polymorphic) among the studied plants of 95%, as packs were obtained from a total number of 14 out of<br>53 different pack with an arithmetic average of 2.8 for each prefix. Cluster analysis and phylogenetic tree<br>have shown that there is a genetic affinity between 0.84615-0.125 according to the two variables data (1-0)<br>the genetic similarity using cluster analysis (UPGMA)has allowed to draw the portfolio diagram among<br>the studied races, It can be said that the SSR Simple Sequence Repeats can be an effective technique for<br>studying molecular characterization and can be used to separate the genetic relations in the plant world.</p> Raad Al-Taif Jassim1 , Ashwaq Talib Hameed2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of Instant Feedback on Performance at the Digital Level on Discus Effectiveness <p>The problem of the research was that those in charge of the educational process try to achieve a high success<br>rate and results by delivering the material to be taught, whether practical or theoretical, to students. In order<br>to achieve this, they try to use various means of assistance, including the desired nutrition of all kinds. In<br>arena and field games, the discus-throwing activity is one of the activities that are taught for the first stage<br>in the Faculties of Physical Education and Sports Science and its results are determined by the technical<br>performance of the throwing stages and measuring the distance of performance, and in order to achieve<br>good learning and results in a faster time and to support and stabilize the learned response, the researcher<br>decided to study the effect of one type of nutrition The feedback is immediate knowledge of performance<br>results at the digital level in discus throwing activities, and the aim of the research was to identify the<br>effect of immediate knowledge of performance results at the digital level on discus throwing activities. The<br>researcher used the experimental method on (55) students from the first stage of the College of Education for<br>Girls / Department of Physical Education And sports sciences at the University of Kufa for the 2019-2020<br>academic season, ConclusionsImmediate knowledge of performance results provides the learner with a type<br>of feedback that helps improve his performance.</p> Mayasah Abd Ali Kadhim Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship of Some Anthropometric Measurements With The Explosive Strength of the Upper and Lower Extremities with the Rhythmic Gymnastics of Female Students <p>Identify the relationship between some anthropometric measurements and the explosive power of the upper<br>and lower extremities of female students in rhythmic gymnastics. The research sample consisted of students<br>from the University of Kufa / College of Physical Education and Sports Science where the research sample<br>underwent field tests to measure the explosive power of the upper and lower extremities and after conducting<br>statistical treatments and presenting the results and analyzing and discussing the researcher reached To a set<br>of conclusions, including there is an inverse correlation between age and the explosive force of the upper<br>and lower extremities, and there is a direct correlation between body length and the explosive force of the<br>upper and lower extremities.</p> Hala Razzaq Mudalloul Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnosis of Coronavirus using Biochemical and Hematological Methods for Patients in Anbar Governorate <p>In view of the great importance of this virus and the major health problems it causes that may reach death<br>and the importance of early diagnosis of this virus, which works to reduce deaths, this study came for the<br>early diagnosis of this virus, as we relied on biochemical and blood methods for the speed of diagnosis and<br>the low cost compared to the rest of the tests Where many tests were tested, including ferritin, LDH, and<br>Di dimer, where there was a significant increase in the concentration of these tests compared to the control.<br>No significant differences were observed between men and women. As for the hematological tests, which<br>included WBC count, Neutrophiles, Lymphocytes. There is a significant decrease in the number of white<br>blood cells and lymphocytes in comparison with the control. We conclude through the study that infection<br>with Corona virus increases many biochemical and hematological variables, including a significant increase<br>in ferritin, a significant increase in LDH and Di dimer, in addition to a decrease in the total number of white<br>and lymphocytes</p> Ban Hamid Khalaf1 , Qasim Khlaif Abdullah2 , Oqbah Abdul Halim3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Salivary ?- Amylase Enzyme Activity in Smoker and Peptic Ulcer Patients affected by Periodontitis in Relation to Clinical Periodontal Parameters <p>Objectives: To investigate the activity of salivary ?-amylase (SA) in subject affected by periodontitis alone<br>or associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with or without smoking.<br>Methods: The study population was divided into control group (C), study groups; periodontitis (G1),<br>periodontitis+ PUD+ smokers (G2), periodontitis+ PUD+ nonsmoker (G3). The clinical periodontal<br>parameters including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical<br>attachment level (CAL) were recorded.<br>In addition, unstimulated whole saliva was collected from these<br>patients for analysis of SA level.<br>Results: Analysis showed that PI and GI showed significant difference among study groups versus controls.<br>G2 exhibited significantly higher PPD and CAL as compared with G1 but not with G3. For SA activity, G2<br>and G3 showed significantly higher activity as compared with C and G1 groups. Yet, no significant difference<br>was seen between C and G1 and between G2 and G3. Activity of SA was positively and significantly (P&lt;<br>0.05) correlated with increasing PPD in all study groups and with CAL measurements of G2 only.<br>Conclusions: The results suggested that SA could be used as a marker for the diagnosis of PUD in subjects<br>affected by periodontitis with or without smoking.</p> Nada Kadhim Imran1 , Omar Husham Ali1 , Maha Abdulaziz Ahmed1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histophysiological Considerations Deals Damaging of Rat’s Kidney by Examined Doses of Heroin <p>Scientific gain after treating about 100lab rats with heroin of several doses to examine the quantitative<br>physical, clinical chemistry and histopathological tests. Accompanied bymodern statistical analysis, the<br>results explain an obvious differentiation (p&lt;0.05) for urine creatinine, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance,<br>24-hour proteinuria, protein/creatinine ratio and urea; at the same time as other parameters showed slight and<br>concealed splendour achievements results recorded ups or downs reported below for Weight, food intake,<br>water intake and urine volume.<br>Judgment based on reasoning were proving the negative effects of heroin on the kidneys of the lab rats<br>successes an acute damages on the histopathological levels.</p> Abdul-Samad Uleiwi Hassan1 , Shatha Atta Abeed2 , Ashwaq Kadhem Obeid3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Environment Factors on Life Cycle of Forensic Entomology: A Review <p>Pests play an important ecological part in organic matter decomposition. As a natural means of survival,<br>sarcosaprophagous fly usually prefers to locate and consume a food source such as a cadaver as a natural<br>means of survival. Sarcosaprohagous fly larvae are frequently encountered by judicial entomologists<br>during post mortem investigations. The most relevant colonizers are the oldest individuals derived from<br>the first eggs placed on the body. The stage of the oldest maggots provides the accurate estimate of post<br>mortem interval. Judicial entomology is predictable in numerous countries as a serious tool for forensic<br>investigations. Judicial entomology requires extensive information on the local pest population, is subject<br>to many environmental factors (temperature being one of the principle variables), and they need access to<br>the bodies. The maggot fly crawling on the dead bodies are broadly considered to be just another disgusting<br>element of decay and are not collected at the periods of autopsy. This paper reviews several methods of PMI<br>assessment, this procedure comprises the aggregation of convenient information for the growth of the types<br>of pest at a variation of pertinent temperatures and contemplation of the extra living things and nonliving<br>things aspects that can disturb evolving average.</p> Nassreen N. Mzhr 1 : Zaid Raad Abbas2 , Zaid Naji Hassan3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Attitude of Prime-Pregnant women toward Normal Vaginal Delivery in Southern of Babylon Governorate <p>Normal vaginal delivery occurs when the mother birth of the fetus through vaginal canal, during this kind<br>of birth mode, gravid women take special classes about labor and delivery process, how to prepared for<br>it and learn the ways that lead to cope with the fear, anxiety and pain. Descriptive study cross sectional<br>design, the study carried out to identify the attitude of prime-pregnant women regarding normal vaginal<br>delivery in southern of Babylon governorate in Iraq. The results show (39.5%) as a highest percentage of<br>study sample at age ranging between (19-22) and more of them (33.0%) with secondary school as level<br>of education, also the assessment of response rate for prime pregnant women regarding overall domain of<br>normal vaginal delivery was (Positive) for attitude regarding physiological delivery at mean of score (2.46)<br>and attitudes regarding perceived behavioral control of normal vaginal delivery at mean of score (2.39)<br>while the assessment of attitudes regarding personal and practical choice and sources of motivation was (Not<br>sure) at mean of score (2.12).</p> Maryam Abd Al-Kareem1 , Salma Kadhum2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimate the Serum Level of IL-17A and TGF-?1 1 in Iraqi Generalized Vitiligo Patients <p>Vitiligo is an acquired idiopathic skin disease characterized by white macules result from the destruction of<br>melanocytes. Several cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, keeping this in view<br>the current study aimed to evaluate the serum levels of IL-17A and TGF-?1 in 25 patients with generalized<br>vitiligo and compared them with healthy individuals in order to investigate whether these cytokines<br>imbalances plays a role in the pathogenesis of this depigmentary disorder. Results of the present study<br>showed that the serum level of IL-17A in vitiligo patients was increased significantly (p? 0.05) while the<br>serum level of TGF-?1 was decreased significantly (p? 0.05) as compared with healthy control. According<br>to the gender of patients, males had a slightly non-significant increased (p&lt;0.05) in the level of IL-17A and<br>TGF-?1 as compared with females. Patients with early onset vitiligo had non-significant increased (p&lt;0.05)<br>in the level of IL-17A and TGF-?1 as compared with late onset vitiligo patients. No significant differences<br>(p&lt;0.05) were detected in the levels of IL-17A and TGF-?1 in patients regarding the clinical types of vitiligo,<br>family history and Koebner phenomenon. Patients with active disease had a significant increase (p?0.05) in<br>the level of IL-17A, though a significant decrease (p?0.05) in the level of TGF-?1 was noticed as compared<br>with both patients with stable disease and healthy control groups. Serum levels of both IL-17A and TGF-?1<br>have been shown to be negatively correlated with the disease duration (r=-0.174, p=0.405) and (r=-0.057,<br>p=0.788) respectively</p> Shatha F. Tariq Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of Firearm Discharge Residue on Cotton Cloth Substrate to Determine the Range of Firing by 7.65mm Caliber of Country Made and Standard Firearm: An Original Research Study <p>The main purpose of the study was to collect a data related to country made and standard firearm from close<br>range on cotton cloth substrate to determine the range of firing, type of firearm used i.e standard or country<br>made firearm as limited data are available for such lethality in india. The range of firing is very difficult to<br>investigate by dispersion pattern of Gun Shot Residue in close range firing by country made pistol. This<br>study was done to overcome that deficiency.<br>Method- This study over a period of 3 years was carried out on live cases brought to ballistics division of<br>CFSL/CBI/New Delhi. Total No. of 180 samples were collected, from three different close range i.e., 4”, 8”<br>and 12”on cotton cloth substrate. 90 samples were collected by 7.6mm country made pistol and 90 samples<br>were collected by 7.65mm standard pistol.<br>Result – Among 180 firing samples during study period, 30 firing has been done from each close range, from<br>standard as well as country made pistol. The result showed the large variation in dispersion pattern of GSR<br>from 4” range. At 4” distance, from country made pistol, the inner dispersion area of GSR was calculated<br>i.e. (7-19 cm2 app.), outer dispersion area of GSR was (30-70 cm2 app.) whereas in case of standard pistol,<br>the inner dispersion area of GSR was (10-15 cm2<br>app.), outer dispersion area of GSR was (40-70 cm2 app.) .<br>Conclusions- It is found that large variation in dispersion pattern of GSR pattern has been observed, when<br>firing has been done from country made pistol and standard firearm at 4” range. This study must be helpful<br>in estimation of exact range of firing fired from close range by 7.65mm country made pistol and standard<br>pistol by analyzing the dispersion pattern area of Gun Shot Residue.</p> Komal Yadav1 , Prashant Agarwal2 , NB Bardhan3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histological and Physiological Study of the Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on Liver of Female Rats Exposed to Formalin in Drinking Water <p>Aim: The presented study was established to evaluate the impact of formalin (FA) on the blood levels of<br>superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid profile, total serum protein and serum albumin in female rats. Materials<br>and methods: The animals were assigned randomly into groups of six; control group, and treated other five<br>groups as follow, first group exposed to formalin at 200ppm (F200 group), the second exposed to formalin<br>at 400ppm (F400 group), third group exposed to formalin at 200ppm plus melatonin at 10mg/kg (F200M<br>group), fourth group exposed to formalin at 400ppm plus melatonin at 10mg/kg (F400M group), and the<br>fifth exposed to melatonin at 10mg/kg (M group). Samples of blood from the rats were collected at day one,<br>day and day 30 of the experimental period that was continued for 30 days. Results: Using immune-based<br>techniques, the SOD activity, it has been here-resulted in significant (p?0.05) after-formalin-exposuredecreases in the blood samples of female rats from F200 and F400 groups, especially, when compared<br>with the control group. The total cholesterol levels revealed significant (p?0.05) increases in the blood of<br>the tested animals of the F200 and F400 groups. These increases affected the rates of LDL, VLDL, and<br>triglycerides in the blood of the studied rat-females of both F200 and F400 groups when compared with<br>the control animals. Interestingly, low levels of HDL were noticed in the blood of the animals of the F200<br>and F400 when comparisons with control animals. The concentrations of the LDL, HDL, and triglycerides<br>in the serum of the formalin-exposed females showed significant (p?0.05) low levels when compared with<br>control animals. For day-30 collection, albumin concentrations revealed significant (p?0.05) elevation in the<br>blood of the F200 and F400 animals.. Histological examination revealed that the liver of female rats exposed<br>to 200ppm or 400 ppm of formalin for 30 days have been adversely affected. Whereas, the histological<br>examination of the liver of animals treated with melatonin and formalin were less affected due to formalin<br>exposure. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the formalin high toxic effects on the hepatic tissues can<br>be overcome by the use of exogenous melatonin.</p> Rana Jafer Abid Khadim AL-Mayahi1 , Mutashar JaddoaAL-Shewaily2 , Ali Fayadh Bargooth2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Methotrexate on Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Iraqi Patients <p>Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered as an autoimmune disease which influences the joints. It usually<br>results in a warm, enlarged, and painful joints. Stiffness and Pain typically amplify once relaxation.<br>Frequently, the hands and wrist are involved, with similar joints naturally involved on both sides of the body.<br>The syndrome might additionally have an impact on the other parts of the body. Adenosine Deaminase is an<br>enzyme (EC used with the metabolism of purine. It is essential for the analysis of adenosine from<br>nutrition and the revenue of nucleic acids in soft tissue. Its chief purpose in humans is the immune system<br>growth and preservation. On the other hand, the complete physiological role of ADA is so far not known.<br>This study carried out at Al-Kadima Teaching Hospital, during the period fr6-om September 2014 till the<br>end of October 2015. Patients who have any other disorders conditions are excluded. Subjects accepting<br>treatment with medications within 7-9 months. A total of 66 patients with Rheumatoid arthritis were<br>enrolled in this study: thirty-five of them were newly diagnosed to have Rheumatoid arthritis who receives<br>no therapy for Rheumatoid arthritis (group A); the remaining thirty-one patients were with Rheumatoid<br>arthritis who receive by methotrexate 500 mg for 7-9 months as the (group B). Twenty-six healthy subjects,<br>as controls(group C ). The results show a significant elevation in the ADA activity in group A and group B.<br>The study concluded that the level of ADA was higher in Iraqi RA patients than in healthy control subjects</p> Ammal Esmaeel Ibrahim1 ; Taha Shawi Morad2 ; Shatha M. Hasan1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Atrial Fibrillation among Jordanian Patients <p>To estimate the rate of atrial fibrillation (AF) among Jordanian patients, and to identify the clinical data of<br>signs and symptoms, diagnostic criteria, complications, prognosis and management. A cross-sectional study<br>involving total- 126-AF patients who admitted to Prince Hamzah Hospital with diagnosis of AF. The study<br>was begun from January 2018 to July 2019. A non-probability (Convenience) sample of (126) patients with<br>atrial fibrillation who are admitted to the cardiac unit at Prince Hamzah Hospital. A special standardized<br>question form is designed and to be filled by researcher after patient signing his consent paper. The study<br>included (126) Atrial Fibrillation Jordanian patients. The result find the age is important risk factor for atria<br>patient. The high percentage of patients distributed among old age group. AF was associated with chronic<br>diseases, such as hypertension (73.01%). In spite of the fact that atrial fibrillation is expected to be an<br>epidemic disease within the next 20-30 years, no clear preventive programs especially for those who have<br>high risk like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and overweight regarding education<br>and changing lifestyle to reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation.</p> Mohammad Alkubaisi1, Mohammed Hakim Shamran 2 , Faisal Al-Obaidi 3 , Azhar Alsalhi 4, Abdulelah Shdiefat5 , Ajeel Alajeel6, Asem Alchalabi 7 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ctrophotometyric Determination of Heavy Metal (Lead) in Cosmetics (Lipsticks) in Commercial Markets <p>In the recent years an significant rise were occurred due to exposure human being of heavy metal . There are<br>no escaping from exposure to toxic chemical and heavy metal . The aim of this study was to determine and<br>evaluate the risk heavy metal in lipstick on the public health, so we selected one heavy metal (lead) in the<br>randomly selected lipstick samples from local markets . We determine lead in 28 lipstick products samples.<br>Cosmetic products have a wide number of forms and uses ,many of them contain chemical compounds<br>that may passé through the skin. High concentration of heavy metal in lipsticks which could form potential<br>health risk on public health , especially we know this lead accumulate in biological system . we used to<br>determine lead spectrophotometer technique . The samples were analyzed based on international standard<br>by using (HNO3 ; H2O2) method . The concentration of maximum lead in random samples was (1.4) ppm<br>, while the minimum lead was (0.02)ppm .This results were below the recommended limits of the united<br>state Food and Drug Administration .In manufacturing of lipsticks must be monitoring the components<br>and chemicals used . Also quality control take place to check the concentration of heavy metal in lipstick<br>products in each country .</p> Adil Mohammed Hashim 1 , Ali Mohammed Abd-Alameer 1 , Ahmed Hameed Rashed1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Solubility and Dissolution Rate Enhancement of Ketoprofen by Nanoparticles <p>Reduction in particles size cause increase in effected surface area of drug particle. So as dissolution<br>occurred at the surface of solute, rapid increase in dissolution rate due to large surface area. Ketoprofen<br>belong to class II according Biopharmaceutics Classification System in which has low solubility and high<br>permeability.the aim of study was to enhance solubility as well as dissolution rate of Ketoprofen when<br>preparation of Ketoprofen nanoparticles by solvent evaporation method. Different formula of Ketoprofen<br>nanoparticles were prepared using different type of polymers (pvpk15,HPMCK15, MCA4C,and CMC 30) .<br>All of the prepared Ketoprofen nanoparticles formulas showed a particle size result within nano-range with<br>entrapment efficiency ranged from (85.7% to 98.3 %). The average particle size of Ketoprofen nanoparticles<br>was observed from (55 nm to 995 nm). The selected formula was investigation for DSC, PXRD, FTIR,<br>SEM, entrapment efficiency and invitro drug release. The invitro dissolution study showed a significant<br>(p&lt;0.01) enhancement in dissolution rate of nanoparticles formula as compared to pure Ketoprofen (drug a<br>lone) and physical mixture(drug and stabilizer), at 10 min. 75.7% of drug release from nanoparticles, while<br>only 15.2%, 22.7% for pure ketoprofen and PM(drug: stabilizer), respectively.</p> Fatimah Mohammed Hussein Wais Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Prevalence of Pathogenic Bacteria from Different Clinical Samples, Northern Part of Iraq <p>Background : Bacteria are prokaryotic which causes a wide range of diseases in human and animals as well,<br>thus, early diagnosis of bacterial infection is an important step for their management. The vast majority of<br>bacteria are harmless to human and some strains are even beneficial. However, some strains cause infections<br>including pneumonia, meningitis and urinary tract infection…etc. The present study aimed to describe and<br>determine the prevalence rate of pathogenic bacteria in different clinical samples from Duhok city,<br>Kurdistan region of Iraq, as there are no available data of bacterial infections.<br>Methods: Totally, 200 adult patients enrolled in the present study during July 2017-July 2018. We collected<br>different clinical specimens including (SFA, Bronchial Lavage, catheter, cerebrospinal fluid, body fluids,<br>blood, semen, stool pus, urine, sputum and ear swabs). Standard microbiological techniques used for<br>isolation and identification. All samples collected before antibiotic uses by specialized physician.<br>Results: The result reported that forty-six samples (23%) obtained from male and one hundred fifty-four<br>samples (77%) obtained from females. A high diversity of pathogens was found but Staphylococcus aureus<br>recorded the highest infection rate by (33.3%) which observed in 32 urine samples by and followed by E.<br>coli (27.3%) and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (25.3%), which observed in 36 and 29 urine samples,<br>respectively. Alternatively, Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa<br>were founded in few samples. Conclusion: The highest diversity of potential pathogens observed in urine samples was E.coi. Over all,<br>Staphlococcus aureus was predominant and recorded the highest prevalence rate by (33.3%) in 50 samples<br>which followed by E. coli recorded in 41 samples (27.3%) and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci observed<br>in 38 samples (25.3%).</p> Allaa M. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Psychological Risk Factors for Spontaneous Abortion at Maternity Wards in Baghdad City Hospitals <p>Objectives: To assess the psychological risk factors for spontaneous abortion. Methods: A descriptive<br>Analytical study has been conducted on Non- probability sample consisted of (160) women who are suffering<br>from spontaneous abortion in maternity wards from six hospitals at Al Rusafa, AlKarckh and Medical city<br>health directorate. Study has been implemented for the period of January 10th 2020 to March 10th 2020 . A<br>questionnaire used as a tool of data collection , the study instrument consist of Risk Factors (psychological,<br>depression and anxiety ). Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis are used to analyze the data. Results:<br>The study results shows that (60.6%) of women suffering from stress and anxiety during current pregnancy.<br>Only (1.9%) have depression, (8.1%) are reporting the presence of sad events during current pregnancy,<br>(8.8%) are reporting presence of death during current pregnancy, (26.3%) are experiencing a family problem,<br>(25.6%) are violated by their husbands, and (6.9%) are violated by their husband’s family. Conclusion: The<br>majority of women are experiencing mild depression during their pregnancy, and more than half of women<br>are experiencing moderate anxiety during their pregnancy.</p> Sarah Hashim Mohammed1 , Rabea Mohsen Ali 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of pregnancy - Related Health Problems among Less Than 18 Years Pregnant Women in Al- Nasiriya Maternity Hospitals <p>Objective: To assess the Socio-economic and Cultural Factors, Personal Behavior and Psychological<br>Factors, and Biological Factor. Methods: descriptive analytic study conducted in December 25th, 2019<br>to 10th March, 2020 at Maternity Hospitals in Al-Nasiriya city . Non-probability sample consists of (180)<br>pregnant women less than 18 years admitted to maternity hospitals suffering health problems. The study<br>instrument comprised of factors related to pregnancy ( Socio-economic and Cultural Factors, Personal<br>Behavior and Psychological Factors, and Biological Factor. Data collection is performed through the use of<br>the study instrument , after permission were obtained from the pregnant women . Data was collected through<br>interview techniques. Descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis approaches are used. Result: The<br>study results shows that (60%) of women’s current age is (17) years old, , (39%) primary school education,<br>(65%) living in extended families, (37.2%) of women were aged (16) years at their first pregnancy . The<br>results presents the factors related to pregnancy; the socio-economic and cultural factors that are significant<br>(lack of knowledge in sexual and reproductive health (91.1%), and biological factors in early body changes<br>and weight gain (43.9%). Conclusion: The study concludes there are lack of knowledge in sexual and<br>reproductive health, lack of knowledge for health problems, lack of knowledge regarding use of contraceptive<br>methods, Not having healthy food practice, stress and feeling of personal failure, and neglect of the special<br>needs. Recommendation: The study recommends that pregnant teenager to have appropriate antenatal care<br>as well as social support to avoid medical problems during pregnancy. Educational programs should be<br>emphasized to pregnant teenage mothers for increasing their knowledge about pregnancy.</p> Pregnant women , adolescent , pregnancy related Health, Personal Behavior, Biological Factor Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Relationship between Severity of Anemia and Nutritional Factors Determinant at Primary Health Care Centers in Baghdad City <p>Objective: To determine the relationship between severity of anemia and nutritional factors determinant<br>at Primary Health Care Centers. Methods: A descriptive study has been carried out at AL.Russafa Health<br>Directorate (Bab AL Muadham, and AL Mustanseria) ideal training health care center. AL-Karkh Health<br>Directorate ( AL-Salam) ideal training health care center. Non-probability sample consists of (76) anemic<br>pregnant women. questionnaire has been designed and constructed to be used as a means of data collection.<br>Data collection is performed through interview techniques, and the use of the study instrument after<br>permission were obtained from the pregnant women for the period 2nd January to 17th March 2020. Results:<br>The results of nutritional factors indicates that (consumption of dairy products, vegetables, eggs, and fruits)<br>are highly consumed per day (77.6%, 100%, 46.1%, and 92.1%) as indicated by high mean scores. While<br>(consumption of poultry meat, dates and nuts) are moderately consumed per weeks (55.3%, and 56.6%).<br>The remaining nutritional items are lower consuming that is (red meat products, fish, liver, and nutritional<br>plants). Sever anemia found in (6.6%), moderate severity of anemia in (61.8%), and mild anemia in ( 31.6%).<br>high significant relationships found among severity of anemia with consumption of red meat, consumption<br>of poultry meat, and fish consumption (p-value= 0.004, 0.001, and 0.005); the finding also show significant<br>relationship between severity of anemia and eating nutritional plants (p-value=0.007). Conclusions: the<br>study results concluded high significant relationships between severity of anemia with consumption of red<br>meat, consumption of poultry meat, and fish consumption and eating nutritional plants. Recommendation:<br>Teach women in pregnancy age to dietary habits as a part of an overall approach to health promotion,<br>Increasing level of awareness in women and their families about the risk of anemia on pregnancy.</p> Eman Abdul- Hamza AL-Khafajy1 , Rabea Mohsen Ali2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation The Iron Homeostasis and Erythropoietic Activity in Male Rats with Anemia Related with Induced Chronic Renal Failure <p>The present study conduct to evaluation the iron homeostasis and erythropoietic activity in male rats with<br>anemia related with induced chronic renal failure. Sixty adult male rats were divided into four groups, the<br>first group administrate with DMSO as a control negative, while second group administrate DMSO and<br>then moringa leaf powder, third group adenine were administrated only and fourth group adenine then<br>given moringaoleifera leaf powder the experiment were lasted for forty-four days. At the end of the study<br>, blood was collected via the heart puncyure and measured the following biomarkers ( Urea , creatinine ,<br>BBC count ,Erythropoietinerythoferrone ,, ferritin, Serum iron and hepcidin).The results revealed that the<br>rats treated adenine caused significant increase in (creatinine ,urea ,ferritin and hepcidin concentration), one<br>the other hand there was significantly decrease in RBC count ,PVC and HB in adenine group in addition<br>to Erythropoietin,erythoferrone and serum iron levels , however combined adenine with moringa results in<br>return these biochemical criteria to their normal levels in control group .</p> Afiaa Layth Darweesh1 , Wafaa Kadhim Jasim2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Iraqi People Practices toward Adherence of Government Strategies to Control of COVID19 <p>Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan. While the<br>flare-up in China is about over, this exceedingly irresistible sickness is right presently spreading over the<br>world. A poor practices and understanding of the disease among Iraqi population may lead to rapid spread<br>of the infection. Objective: the point of this think about was to survey practices of Iraqi population<br>regarding government strategies to control COVID 19 and to identify level of practices among different Iraqi<br>cities.Methods: Cross-sectional web-based research was carry out among Iraqi population about COVID-19<br>during the period from 15th April 2020 to 1st June 2020. 700 participants were share from Iraqi governorates.<br>The participants was collected from (7) cities (Baghdad, Basra, Najaf, Thigar, Misan, Karbala and Mosul).<br>From each city (100) participants were shares. The data was collected through the uses Google form. From<br>Iraqi governorate strategies and WHO recommendations concerning prevent of infection. The researcher use<br>SPSS version 20 for data analysis by using frequencies and percentages and mean of score were produced.<br>Mean of score rating: always=3, sometimes=2, never=1. Results: the majority of study samples (47.7%)<br>were within (20-29 years). More than half of participants are male (65.4%). Relative to the educational<br>level, the majority of study sample (65.9. %) were Secondary school graduate. Practices of Iraqi population<br>regarding COVID 19 controls at home in all items are inadequate and very low less than (1.33).also the<br>practices of Iraqi population regarding COVID 19 control out of home had low mean of score in all items.<br>However the average of means score (1.42). Conclusions: The study concluded that Iraqi community has<br>inadequate practices to prevent speared of COVID-19 because the population not respects ministry of Iraqi<br>health strategies. Health education should urgently be conducted focusing on hand washing, uses sanitizer,<br>social distancing, avoid crowded, uses mask and gloves.</p> Thani Asmar Radhi1 , Saad Sabri Shamkh2 , Mustafa Salim Abdulredha3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of an Educational Program in Nurses’ Knowledge toward Traumatic Head Injury during Golden Hour at Neurosurgical Hospital <p>Background: Globally, traumatic head injury higher mortality rate, and unpredictable outcome. Improvement<br>of nurses’ knowledge of how to deal with early periods of the traumatic head can improve patients outcomes.<br>Objectives: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of an educational program in nurses’ knowledge<br>toward traumatic head injury during golden hour.<br>Method: A quasi-experimental design was used in this study to assess 50 nurses’ knowledge regarding<br>constructed educational programs toward traumatic head injury during golden hour who works in critical<br>care units in Neuro-surgical hospital. The measurement of the effectiveness of educational program through<br>the nurses knowledge includes(54)items concern knowledge related Anatomy of the head and brain;<br>Physiology of intracranial pressure( ICP),cerebral perefusion pressureCPP and blood pressure( BP); Primary<br>and secondery survey; fluid supply; information about traumatic head injury during golden hour . Reliability<br>of instrument was determined through the use of test and retest and the instrument validity was determined<br>through a panel of experts.<br>Results: The study show a comparison significance association between study and control group during pretest and post-test regarding overall assessment, there are improvements in study group knowledge level, the<br>significant association for were P= 0.000. For the control group, there is no significant association between<br>pretest and post-test P= 0.733 p-value &gt;0.005.<br>Conclusion: The study concludes the current educational program effectively and can improve nurses<br>knowledge in critical care units and recommends to further study assess nurses practice regarding traumatic<br>head injury during golden hour, Adopting an educational program for all nurses and more involved in<br>continuous education lectures and workshops.</p> Sabah Abdullah Jaafar1 , Raja Ibrahim Abed 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation Activity of Boiled Aqueous Extract of Broccoli Flower Plant (Brassica Oleraceae L. Var. Italic) And Albendazole Drug Against the Protoscolices in Vitro <p>The present study aimed to testing the efficacy of the boiled aqueous extract of broccoli flowers and<br>albindazole drug against the viability of protoscolices In vitro. The results showed the percentage of viability<br>of the protoscolices were 94% at zero time then become (0%) after nine days after the start of the experiment<br>when using culture media of (Kreb ringers and the cyst fluid ) (4 : 1) respectively as control group for<br>comparison. . the aqueous extract of boiled for the flower of (Brassica oleraceae) with concentration of 300<br>mg / ml showed most effective in eliminating viability of protoscolices after 168 hours and the albendazole<br>drug after 120 hours at percentage 0 % for both.</p> Nabaa Zahid Sabri Shani Al-Hasnawi 1, Ahmed Khudhair Al-Hamairy2 , Huda Jasim M. Altameme2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of compound exercises on Some Kinetic Abilities in Some Bio kinematics Variables and the Characteristics of the Curve (Force - Speed) for hit/spike of High Volleyball for Youth Volleyball <p>The importance of the research is important to study the impact of compound exercises using light stimuli<br>and sound stimuli as well as the use of rubber ropes and some training aids and to develop some of the<br>kinetic abilities that help the athlete to integrate several kinetic skills in an orderly and sequential as well<br>as perform movements under changing conditions, to be able to face different Conditions and situations<br>experienced during the game and well, as well as the development of indicators and function (force - speed),<br>to reach the best mechanical conditions, and with the least decrease in speed and momentum, the researcher<br>used the experimental method design one group The research sample was determined in a deliberate manner<br>and they are players of Al-Shatra Club of the volleyball youth in the district of Shatra and the number of (6)<br>players. The results were analyzed by the analysis software using (SPSS, Logger Pro 3.10.1, Sigview v.2.8.0,<br>Kinovea 0.8.25) to obtain the values of the BioKinmatk variables of the study. Technique of the skill of high<br>hit/spike as a result of the development of internal strength using a The most important recommendations<br>were to emphasize the conduct of compound exercises, especially for muscles working on the joints of the<br>hips, knees and ankles, as well as on the muscles working on the joints of the shoulders, elbows and wrists,<br>as applied in the research for their importance in the development of some kinetic abilities and characteristics<br>of the curve. Power - speed.</p> Ali Naeem sultan1 , Ahmed Adnan Abd1, Asaad Flayyih Hasan 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hearing and Children with Autism Spectrum <p>Through the results obtained, we found that most of the families who had a child with autistic disorder were<br>residents of cities, with a percentage of 89.8%, while 10.2% who had a child with autism from rural housing.<br>The majority of children with autism had a weak physical condition of 74.5% percent, and 15.3% percent<br>had an average condition, while 10.2% percent had a good physical condition. Likewise, among the results<br>that we found that the best way to deal with a child with autism is care and treatment, and by 62.2%% and<br>31.6%% of mothers, the opinion was that the best way to deal with a child with the autism spectrum is care<br>only and by 6% of Among the mothers said that treatment is better than the way they deal with their children.<br>Likewise, between research, autistic children who are taken in the research suffer from a hearing disorder<br>and 82.7% of children respond when their names are heard, while 17.3% do not respond when calling their<br>names. It is noticeable that the proportion of children who suffer from hearing loss, 17.3% that they did not<br>respond when calling their names83.7.% of autistic children asked for help in their daily problems, while<br>16.3% of the children does not asked for help. 53.1% of the children find it difficult to express their wishes<br>when they want to ask for something, while, 46.9% of the children did not find it difficult to express when<br>they wanted to get something. The research also addressed the behavior of autistic children.</p> Shaima Abd Muhsin AL-Haboobi 1, Sadiq Sahib Hadi Hussain Al-Amin2 , Zainab Abed Muhsin AL-Haboobi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibiotic Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Wounds Infections in Babylon Governorate <p>This project has been carried out during a period of three months, September 2019 to November 2019. One<br>hundred swabs were collected from patients suffering from different wounds infections. Seven bacterial<br>isolates have been identified as Acinetobacter baumannii using traditional diagnostic methods. The<br>susceptibility of these isolates was determined towards seven antibiotics using disc diffusion test method.<br>It was found that all isolates (100%) revealed remarkable resistance against Ampicillin and Cloxacillin,<br>whereas the levels of resistance of those isolates were recorded at 71.4%, for each of Cefepime, clavulanic<br>acid, kanamycin and gentamycin. The isolates exhibited a moderate susceptibility towards Amikacin which<br>accounted for 57.1%. Azathromycin being more effective against Acinetobacter baumannii compared with<br>other antibiotics included in this project since resistance of isolates accounted for only 14.2%.</p> Zahraa A. Al-Ajeeli 1 , Habeeb S. Naher 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Under Epidural Anesthesia in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Diseases <p>Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become firmly established as a procedure of choice for gallstone<br>disease. The procedure usually necessitates general anaesthesia and endotracheal intubation to prevent<br>aspiration and respiratory embarrassment secondary to the induction of pneumoperitoneum. There is a<br>paucity of data in the literature on the procedure being performed under regional (epidural) anaesthesia,<br>especially in patients with coexisting pulmonary disease who are deemed high risk for general anaesthesia.</p> Thaer Ali Hussein Al Akam1 , Emad Mohammad Hussein1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Suggested Vision for Conducting of Electronic Supervision in the General Directorate of Education, Dhi Qar Governorate <p>The tremendous scientific and technological progress in various fields of knowledge is one of the most<br>important features of the era in which we live in its present and future, as the progress of this era requires<br>preparing a generation capable of dealing with this progress and changes in the modern technologies as well<br>as the rapid flow of information have left clear implications for education. That the information technology,<br>such as computers, the Internet and the attached multimedia, are among the most successful means of<br>providing a rich learning environment, as for teachers, by contacting to the global network enables the<br>teacher to access educational and general experiences that are difficult to access in other ways. So the<br>importance of the Internet lies in its ability to connect among people across enormous distances and between<br>different information sources. The use of this technology increases educational opportunities, extending<br>them to more than the range of departments, as this is known as the e-learning that distinguishes the school<br>of the future.</p> Zuhair Nadhem Khayoon Algabry1 , Ali Abdul Hussein Ali Al-Farjawi 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Over-Learning Exercises in Developing Some of the Optical Vision Capabilities and Shooting Skill from Jumping in Handball Game for Young Players <p>Through the following-up and noting by researchers of most of the educational units in the handball game,<br>they noticed that most of the educational units are almost walking at the same pace or following familiar<br>methods when learning to shoot, as this is clearly reflected by the fluctuating the performance of the players<br>during the match, so cases of unsuccessful shooting are sometimes seen, which is a major waste in the team’s<br>effort, that the aim of this study is to identify the effect of the exercises over-learning in developing some<br>capabilities of optical vision and shooting skill from handball jumping for young players. The researchers<br>have used the experimental approach with two equivalents (control and experimental groups) to suit the<br>nature of the research problem. Determining the research community which represented by the handball<br>center players in Dhi Qar, the youth category (15-17 years), whose number is (32) players, as the researchers<br>excluded (8) players for the following reasons: (6) players representing the sample of the exploratory<br>experience, and (2) Goalkeepers, for being this number of the individuals in the sample (24) players who<br>constitute (75%) which were divided randomly and by lottery method into two groups by (12) players for<br>each group, an experimental group that uses exercises over-learning and a control group depends on the<br>style of the coach. The researchers concluded the following: The experimental group showed a clear and<br>noticeable superiority to the control group in the optical vision capabilities and the shooting skill from<br>jumping in handball game.</p> Zuhair Nadhem Khayoon Algabry1 , Rashad Tariq Yousef2 , Bahaa Thiyab Faisal3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on Psychological Attitudes’ for Nurse Workers at Isolation Hospitals in Baghdad City <p>Objectives: to identify the effect of COVID 19 pandemic psychological attitudes for nurses’ workers at<br>Isolation Hospitals in Baghdad<br>Methodology: descriptive study conducted among 100 nurses selected by purposive sample. The data<br>collected by using electronic questionnaire related to psychological attitudes composed of 10 items and 3<br>items related to demographic characteristics.<br>Results: the result reflects that most of nurses are males and at age (20-29) years, also they are graduated<br>from high school of nursing and nursing college. Most of nurses’ psychological status effected by COVID,<br>they are feel anxiety stress depression and frustration due to un familiar area, lack of experience, un effected<br>treatment, COVID 19 bad news, long working time and isolation from friends. There is significant correlation<br>between nurses’ psychological attitude and level of education.<br>Conclusion: COVID 19 effect on the nurses’ psychological status. Therefore, it is important to initiate<br>training session to educate nurses about stress management, how to deal with psychological problems and<br>adapt with different situation</p> Ahmad Shihab Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of use of Dexmeditomidine Hydrochloride as an Adjuvant in General Anesthesia on Rate of Awareness <p>Background: Dexmedetomidine can be used as a safe and helpful adjunct in many clinical situations.<br>Objective: To evaluate the role of Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant in general anesthesia in relation to rate<br>of awareness.<br>Patients and Methods: This was a prospective quasi experimental study conducted at Al-Sadder medical<br>city during May to November 2016, included 400 patients, assigned randomly into two groups to receive the<br>traditional anesthesia regimen (group I) or traditional anesthesia regimen and Dexmedetomidine (group II).<br>Awareness was assessed via postoperative interview. Appropriate statistical tests were applied accordingly.<br>Results: The rates of awareness and possible awareness in group II were (0.5%) and (1.0%), respectively,<br>and were significantly lower than that of group I (3.5%) and 4.5%), respectively, (P&lt;0.05).<br>Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine can improve the outcome of general anesthesia by significant reduction of<br>rate of awareness during operation.</p> Nasser M. Meazher1 , Jaafar Hameed Mahboba2 , Zuhair Abdul Sada Dhahir3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Identification of Some Bacterial on the Eggs in Some Regions of Karbala Province <p>A total of 70 egg when collected from various regions in Karbala to identification to microorganism that<br>found on shell of the egg. After transported the eggs to laboratory and doing the important diagnostic steps,<br>the results showed the bacteria with gram positive (Staphylococcus) were predominantly found on eggshell.<br>The eggshells were also found contaminated with bacteria Escherichia. Coli, Bacillus, Streptococcus . Also<br>the results of this study showed that the Vancomycin have highly susceptible to the Staphylococcus isolates<br>while this isolates also showed over 90% resistant to penicillin. The presence of these microorganisms on<br>eggshells present a significant threat to consumers. Proper sanitation to reduce microbial contaminations of<br>eggs that usually occur after production through processing of eggs.</p> Hussein Mahdi Kadhim1 , Mustafa Abdul Kareem Hameed2 , Nawars M. Al-Khafaji3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Visfatin and Chemerin in Occurrence and Development of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnant Women <p>A case-control study was carried out in Kirkuk city from March to July 2019. The number of pregnant<br>women (with gestational diabetes) understudy were 50 whose ages were between 17-42 years old to estimate<br>the level of visfatin and chemerin in pregnant women with gestational diabetes. These patients attended to<br>Kirkuk General Hospital to gynecology unit for pregnancy follow up. The control group who were matched<br>to the pregnant women studied, included 30 healthy non-pregnant women. Blood was collected from each<br>patient and control enrolled in this study for assessment of HbA1c, blood glucose level, visfatin and chemerin<br>levels. The study showed no significant difference between studied cases and the control group regarding<br>patient age and gestational age at sampling and parity (P&gt;0.05) while there was a significant difference<br>between studied cases and the control group regarding systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The study<br>showed that the highest mean level of visfatin was found in pregnant women with gestational diabetes<br>comparing with healthy control ( 14.6±3.11 v.s. 7.81±3.01ng/ml) (P: &lt;0.01). The study showed that the<br>highest mean level of chemerin was found in pregnant women with gestational diabetes comparing with<br>healthy control (78.92±18.44 v.s. 78.92±18.44 ng/ml) (P: ?0.05). The study showed that the highest mean<br>level of visfatin was found in pregnant women who have elevated level of glucose and HbA1c (5.75±3.81<br>and 5.91±3.67 ng/ml) respectively, as compared with patients with normal level of glucose and HbA1c<br>(4.61±2.99 and 3.95±2.12 ng/ml) respectively (P: ?0.01). The study showed that the highest mean level<br>of visfatin was found in pregnant women who have elevated level of glucose and HbA1c (148.9±25.7<br>and 158.6±23.5 ng/ml) respectively, as compared with patients with normal level of glucose and HbA1c<br>(111.5±14.6 and 105.1±15.7 ng/ml) respectively (P: ?0.05). The study concluded that, there was a highly<br>significant relation of visfatin and chemerin with gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women</p> Jaklen Zaea Khoshaba1 , Rana Hadi Mosa1 , Samira Sherzad Hussien1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Preparation and diagnosis of Xerogel nanocomposites And Studying Their Effect on TNF-? Level before and after Loading Dexamethason in Male White Rats Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis <p>The current study aimed to evaluate the mechanism of reducing the effect of (RA) after it was induced in<br>male white rat with a Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) at TNF-? level by treating Xerogel Nanoparticles<br>and dexamethasone nanocompounded (Xerogel / Dexa) . The free Xerogel nanoparticle had a surface<br>roughness coefficient of 0.327 nm and the total percentage of volumes was 90% less than 130 nm, and the<br>results also indicated that induced rheumatoid arthritis causes Significant increase (p &lt;0.05) in the mean<br>concentration of neoplastic necrosis factor (TNF-?) in the blood serum of male white rats, as they reached<br>a concentration level (10.68 ± 461.80) Pg / ml in the positive control group (G2) for six weeks of treatment<br>compared with the negative control group G1)), as the concentration level in it reached (69.97±0.88) Pg /<br>ml for the same period, and there was also a significant decrease (P &lt;0.05) in the level of concentration of<br>TNF-? among members of the G5 group treated with the Xerogel / Dexa nanoparticle, as this concentration<br>reached (182.98 ± 6.99 ) Pg / ml compared to the positive control groups (G2) treated with the free Xerogel<br>(G3) and the group treated with free Dexa (G4) for a six-week treatment period in these groups as these<br>concentrations reached (461.80± 10.68, 483.74± 3.59, 300.32± 4.03) Pg / ml, respectively</p> Kiaser Abdulsajjad M.Hussain 1 , Ayser Ashour Khalaf 2 , Batool Abbas hussien 1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study Effect of Some Pakistan Oil Isolation of Yeast Candida albicans causing oral thrush children Who Visit Women Hospital and Children in Diwaniya <p>The aim of the study was to evaluate some of the essential oils of the candida albicans yeast causing<br>candidaiasis in children referred to the women hospital and children. The study included 108 oral swabs<br>from infants with candidiasis ,all samples were diagnosed by diagnostic methods and after initial isolation<br>of candida albicans 37.5% followed by species C.tropicalis 30% ,C.parapsilosis 12.38% as for C.krusei<br>and C.glabrata they were 9.4% .the results of the agar well diffusion method showed that the nigella sativa<br>oil was the most inhibited followed by cinnamon oil ,while garlic oil was the least inhibited compared with<br>the nystatin.</p> Nada Ahmed Fairooz 1 , Huda Ahmed Fairooz2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of Stylistic Discovery Directed and Programmed Education on teaching some football skills and understand the benefits of physical education and health <p>The guided discovery method is one of the teaching methods that work to engage the student in the discovery<br>process, and the essence of this method is the special relationship that arises between the teacher and the<br>student through which leads the successive questions that the teacher directs to reach the answers that the<br>student performs that correspond to these questions, if every question the teacher directs leads to one correct<br>response that the student will discover, and if the accumulation of this process occurs. the researchers used the<br>statistical bag (SPSS) through which the statistical methods were used, the most important of which were: (t)<br>test for the interlinked samples and the L.S .D test and through the results reached the researchers concluded<br>a set of conclusions, the most important of which : The use of the two methods of directed discovery and<br>programmed education and the method followed by the teacher have a positive effect in teaching some basic<br>skills in football, as well as the method of directed discovery over the style of programmed education and<br>the method followed by the teacher in teaching some of the skills under discussion.</p> Ahmed Zuhair Kattan 1 , Ahmed Hussein Abd 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Age and the Pretest Score on Critical Thinking and Using Concepts Maps in Learning the Skill Scoring of Football for Students <p>The world has witnessed in recent decades rapid developments, Including all areas of life, Prompting the<br>nations to strive to keep abreast of these developments and build their societies, and became human is the<br>main objective of those developments. Through the overlap of a variety of factors, including the method<br>chosen in the process of teaching and the specific way of teaching, and the characteristics of individuals 2 of<br>cognitive methods, which vary from individual to other, as a result of individual differences identified, and<br>took a lot of changes and development These developments were the result of the technological development<br>that covered all fields of life, scientific and practical in general and in particular 3 the sports field. Mind<br>mapping technology has an impact on football scoring skills for first-stage students. Taking notes using<br>concepts mapping technology helped the members of the expericoncepts group to plan their ideas fully. The<br>technology used in the current research (concepts maps) has contributed to the development of the dynamic<br>program of the members of the expericoncepts group, through the processes of remembering, retaining and<br>reviewing concepts mapping.</p> Hussein M. Tuama’a 1 , Mohammed Jabbar Munadi2 , Saif Hadi Minjal 3 , Ayad Rasan Jasim 4 , Heider Sadiq Maki5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Palliative Style Rhythmic Exercises on Some Physical Abilities <p>Plaque Leave exercises is one of the training means strength that can be used in a wide field to develop<br>muscle reactions and that inevitably leads to the production of various sports movements that can be used in<br>the field, especially in the field of sports training that has to do with the development of the special strength<br>of various sports, including the effectiveness of long jump, Where the body weight itself is a resistance that<br>the internal muscles overcome, especially when performing the jumping movements, which contain many<br>secondary rotational movements that occur in different parts of the body (arms, legs, and trunk), whether<br>these jumps on the ground with body weight or at different barriers of heights or On terraces or on boxes,<br>and the importance of research lies in the fact that percussion-style rhythmic exercises work to develop<br>strength for the lower limbs of people with disabilities and give fluidity and ideal performance in general. As<br>for the research problem, some coaches have not resorted to such modern and advanced methods of training<br>reflected negatively on the physical capabilities of a challenge Disability, as well as controlling the approach<br>steps and the correct use of the upgrade board, which leads to Increase the horizontal distance to achieve the<br>achievement.</p> Haider Sadiq Makki 1 , Ayad Resan Jassim1 , Hasan Abdullah Hnaihen1, Hussein Mhaibes Tuama2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological and Organizational Contexts for Handball Coaches from the Players’ Point of View <p>Importance of research came through the study of Organizational Fairness for handball coaches from the<br>player’s point of view as a modest contribution to the advancement of the handball game. The importance<br>of achieving Organizational Fairness in the distribution of duties and rights to the players equally by the<br>coach in the sports team as one of the small groups and this characteristic has a direct impact on the level<br>of players technically, skilled, physically and psychologically, and this indicates the cases of dedication and<br>the high effort to achieve the goals. As for the recommendations, it is the adoption of the current scale by<br>those interested to periodically uncover the level of Organizational Fairness for coaches clubs by hand in<br>training and competition and to benefit from the current scale as an objective research tool by researchers<br>and use it in their research and studies, and it is necessary to inform the trainers of the importance of<br>Organizational Fairness in the sports field when It has an impact on the level of team achievement and the<br>players ’performance in particular in training and competition in order to work on developing it for the<br>players.</p> Majid Mohammed Msaed1 , Muhammad Shabram Alwan1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of (I.P.A.G.A) Model in Reflection Thinking and Learning Spike Skill in Volleyball for Students <p>The aim of the current research is to prepare a scale of reflection thinking for students of the second stage,<br>College of Physical education and sports science, and also identify the effect of the ( I.P.A.G.A) model<br>on reflective thinking and learning spike skill of Volleyball for students. And identify the preference for<br>learning between the control and experimental groups. The researchers used the experimental method<br>and designing the equivalent, controlling and experimental groups with pre and post tests, the researcher<br>community included second-stage students in the College of Physical education and sports science – Al<br>Farahidi University for the academic year (2021-2020) and their number (201), chosen two division (A,C),<br>division (C) represented the experimental group and (A) the control group. And (30) students were chosen<br>as a sample of research, they were divided into two groups, experimental and control group, each group (15)<br>students, and (10) students, as exploratory sample also in a simple random way. The results showed through<br>the table that there are significant differences between the results of the pre- and post-test and in favor of<br>the post-test of the experimental group in the variables under study,(reflective thinking, accuracy test for<br>diameter spike, evaluation test for Technical performance of the diameter spike).</p> Muhanad Mohammad Kadhum1, Hayder Salman Mohseen 2, Rafid Saad3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Contribution Rates of Psychological Skills in Learning Some Basic Handball Skills in Secondary School Students <p>The research aims to identify ;the contribution rates of psychological skills (the ability to visualize, the<br>ability to relax, the ability to focus attention, the ability to face anxiety, self-confidence, motivation of sports<br>achievement) in learning the basic skills of handball (passing and receiving skill, skill jumping, skill The<br>main sample size was ( 65 secondary school students in the Republic of Iraq.The researcher connected that<br>there is a relationship and contribution rates for psychological skills (ability to visualize, relaxation ability,<br>ability to focus attention, ability).On the face of anxiety, th Self-Ge, sports achievement motivation) to learn<br>some basic handball skills (skill Altmrerwalastelam, Harrah&amp;#39;s Altntit, skill correction).</p> Fadhiltailb Sabbar Aljanabi Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Psychological Skills and Effect of an Educational Curriculum with a Model to Accelerate Thinking in the Arbitrary Performance of Students with Handball <p>The aim of the research is to identify the effect of the educational curriculum prepared with the model to<br>accelerate thinking in the arbitration performance of students with handball and the extent of their response.<br>Experimental approach used to design (two equal groups) with pre and post tests to suit the nature of the<br>research and its problem, and the researcher identified the research community with the fourth stage students<br>in the College of Physical Education and Sports Science / Dhi Qar University, who are (90) students for the<br>academic year (2019/2020) distributed On two divisions (A &amp; B), where the division (A) was identified as<br>a sample for research, (30) students were selected, including a sample for research and (10) students for a<br>survey sample Also in the simple random method, then the researcher designed a form for evaluating the<br>arbitration performance of students with handball and was presented to the experts and specialists, who<br>number (15) expert and specialist in handball game in order to determine the validity of the form paragraphs,<br>and appropriate statistical treatments were used to reach the results, then they were Presentation, analysis<br>and discussion of results.</p> ALaa Ihsan Ali alrikabi1 , Wissam Salah Abdel-Hassan1 , Abbas Abdulalhamza Kadhim3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Therapeutic Exercises of Degree and Severity of Tear Tendon Muscle Tendon Rupture and Some Physical and Functional Variables for Athletes <p>The research problem included in the injury of the rotator cuff tendon rupture and the study aimed at - the<br>number of therapeutic exercises severely and the degree of injury to qualify for the injury of the rotator cuff<br>tendon rupture and some physical and functional variables for athletes - knowledge of the effect of therapeutic<br>exercises severely and the degree of injury to qualify for injury to the rotator cuff tendon rupture and some<br>variables.As for the research method, the researcher used the experimental method and by designing the<br>experimental group with one pre-measured, middle, and dimensional measurement for its suitability and the<br>nature of the problem.</p> Ahmed Atshan Abdulradha Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Movement Exercises and their Effect on the Values of Some Physical Abilities for Youth and the Accuracy of Overwhelming Hitting From Position (1) on the Volleyball <p>The aim of this study is to identify the effect of movement training in some physical abilities of the skill of<br>overwhelming hitting of the volleyball for an experimental youth group. The researcher assumed that the<br>movement training has a positive moral effect on the physical abilities and the accuracy of overwhelming<br>hitting with volleyball for youth. The research community was identified by the researcher in the youth<br>volleyball center in Al-Shatrah district. The researcher subjected the research sample to experimentation<br>through the application of movement exercises where the researcher took into account the preparation of<br>those exercises scientific steps in the implementation and application of the independent variable, which<br>continued for eight weeks. The researcher dealt with the results obtained from the pre-test and post-test<br>tests by using the statistical bag. The researcher concluded that there is an improvement in the physical<br>capabilities of the experimental group in the post-test tests as a result of using them for movement exercises<br>in the experimental group in the dimensional tests because of their subject to training. As for the most<br>important thing the researcher reached, is the need to use movement training, as it works to develop some<br>physical capabilities for youth volleyball players</p> Amjad Abed Kadhim Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Using Some Teaching Methods on Learning the Skill of the Snatch Students <p>Included five chapters, as the first chapter contained the definition of research that includes learning the skill<br>of The Snatch using modern teaching methods. The research problem has been identified, which consists<br>in not using these methods in teaching the skills of The Snatch and Clean and Jerk and various within the<br>educational curriculum scheduled and followed for students of the first stage In the College of Physical<br>Education and Sports Science and the goal of the research to:- Knowing the effect of the researched methods<br>(inclusion, self-revision, and commanding) on learning the skill of The Snatch for students with weight<br>lifting. Exposing the best methods (inclusion, self-revision) has an impact on learning the skill of The Snatch<br>students. As for the second chapter, it contained theoretical studies that have a relationship with the teaching<br>methods that were used in the research, while the third chapter included the research methodology and its<br>field procedures if the researchers used the experimental approach to its suitability the nature of the problem<br>and the first experimental group used the method of self-review (self-examination) as for the experimental<br>group The second is the method of inclusion (containment).</p> Ali Sadiq Shaker Al-Sahlawi1 , Noha Youssef Hashim Al-Amiri2 , Bashar Abbood Fadel1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Reality of Drug Abuse Internationally Prohibited among Bodybuilders in the City of Nasiriyah <p>The aim of the research was to identify the most internationally prohibited stimulants used by bodybuilders,<br>and the researchers used the descriptive method and the field survey method and that As the search problem<br>suitability, was selected sample of bodybuilders in the city of Nasiriyah and the way random number of 89<br>players. Man tried to use medicinal drugs as a type of stimulant a long time ago and the goal in that period<br>was to raise and increase the tender and physical and athletic effort from the natural borders where the<br>ancient Spanish history indicated that the ancient (Pale Inca) where its members chew coca leaves and were<br>able to Then, from very long distances, hundreds of kilometers within several days. The sports circles in<br>our country witnessed in recent years the growing state of abuse of internationally prohibited stimulants in<br>various activities, especially those aimed at building the muscle mass in which the importance of research<br>lies in developing a scientific assessment of the status of stimulants to the research community and standing<br>on the ground for the extent of this phenomenon and the quality of the substances being used.</p> Muhammad Shabram Alwan1 , Kamal Abd Negm2 , Haider Mutar Jassim2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Functional Exercises in Some Biomotor Abilities and Metabolism Rate for Volleyball Young Players <p>The importance of the research is preparation functional exercises scientifically, researchers believe that<br>it affects in some biomotor abilities and metabolism rate, which is directly involved in the defensive and<br>offensive performance of Volleyball for young players. Through the experience of field researchers note<br>there is a noticeable decrease in the performance of defensive skills in matches where the level of technical<br>performance is very high or the game continues for longer periods of time, this decrease leads to a slow<br>moving to take the right place while performing these skills, researchers believe that the reason for this is<br>that these skills are not getting enough share from training in a way that suits the nature of its physical and<br>physiological performance , So the researchers felt that they should go into this experiment by preparing<br>functional exercises, the aim of this exercises is to make a positive impact in some biomotor abilities and<br>metabolism rate for Volleyball young players . As for the research methodology and its field procedures,<br>researchers used the experimental method to solve the problem of research, the research society was<br>determined by the Kufa Club Volleyball for youth, for the sports season 2019-2020</p> Mahmoud Nasser Radhi 1 , Sawsan Hadood Obaid2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of (Vertimax) Exercises on the Molecular Pressure of Oxygen, the Explosive Ability of the Two Legs, and the Accuracy of Scoring for Advanced Football Players <p>The research aimed to: Prepare (Vertimax) exercises for football players. Learn about the effect of exercises<br>(Vertimax) on the molecular pressure of oxygen and the explosive ability of the two men, as well as the skill of<br>scoring accuracy for advanced soccer players. This study examined several axes, including the introduction<br>to the research and its importance, which lies in the use of exercises (Vertimax), as the importance of<br>research lies in preparing these exercises through working with extreme intensity exercises and sufficient<br>rest periods, as these exercises work to develop the molecular pressure of oxygen and the explosive capacity<br>of the two legs. For advanced soccer players, in addition to developing the scoring skill of advanced soccer<br>players, as these exercises give the best possible opportunity to achieve the greatest gains in the ability to<br>jump, speed and explode in order to target the central nervous system (CNS) and activate all movement<br>modes and make them circulate To better and also improve the player’s ability to perform the scoring skill<br>better throughout the match time and thus the player’s performance is reflected in the team’s result.</p> Bashar Abbood Fadel 1 , A. Muhsin Muhammed Hassan 1 , Ali Sadiq Shaker 1 , Sura Irahim Luabi 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Circular Training According to the Style of Stations (Physical - Skill) in Developing Some Physical Capabilities and Aiming by Jumping in Basketball for Youth <p>The aim of the research is to identify the effect of circular training according to the stations’ method (physical<br>- skill) In developing some physical abilities and shooting skills from basketball jumping, the research<br>community included (28) players representing Al-Nasiriyah youth club basketball players (16-18 years old)<br>for the season (2018-2019). (20) players were chosen from them representing a sample The research was<br>divided into two groups randomly into two groups one What a pilot and another officer and by 10 players for<br>each group. . The researchers applied the circular training in a method (high intensity fatality) as it celebrates<br>special exercises to develop the distinctive strength of speed for the arms, legs, back and abdomen, and the<br>explosive ability of the arms and legs, as well as the development of correction skill from jumping by (18)<br>training units at a rate of (3) training units per week, concluded The two researchers in the experimental<br>group that applied circular training according to the style of stations (physical - skill) a marked superiority<br>over the control group in some physical abilities and the correction of jumping skill.</p> Rashad Tariq Yousef1 , Bahaa Dhyab Faisal2 , Hikmat Abdel Sattar Alwan3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Inverted Learning by the (Edmodo) Platform in Motivation Motor Performance of Some Skills of Artistic Gymnastics for Students <p>Inverted learning is one of the newly emerging forms of e-learning that is known as an educational model that<br>aims to use modern technologies and the Internet in a way that allows the teacher to prepare the educational<br>unit through video clips, audio files or other multimedia, for the learners to see at home or anywhere another<br>is to use computers, smartphones or tablets before attending the educational units. The objectives of the<br>research were determined in preparing the motivation measure for the motor performance of the artistic<br>gymnastics for players, as well as identify on the effect of inverted learning by the (Edmodo) platform<br>on motivation performance for some skills of artistic gymnastics for players. Based on these findings, the<br>researchers recommended several recommendations, including (the necessity of adopting inverted learning<br>by the Edmodo platform in the motor performance of the artistic gymnastics for players. Likewise, the<br>need to adopt inverted learning by the (Edmodo) platform to learning some artistic gymnastics skills for<br>players, and also the confirmation to using (Edmodo) inverted learning during educational units in the motor<br>performance motivation in some artistic gymnastics skills for players.</p> Khaled Nima Khudair 1 , Ali Abdul Hassan 2 , Mohamed Abdel-Sadah Hassan 3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Exercises by Metabolic Conditioning (MetCon) Style in Some Physiological Variables and the Speed Motor Response for Young Volleyball Players <p>Preparing exercises by Metabolic conditioning (MetCon) style for volleyball, and identify of the effect of<br>(MetCon) exercises on some physiological variables and the speed motor response of young Volleyball<br>players. researchers believe that it affects in some physiological variables and speed motor response that are<br>directly involved in the performance of motor skills of Volleyball for young players. Through the experience<br>of field researchers note there is a noticeable decrease in the performance of defensive skills In matches<br>when the level of technical performance is very high or the game continues for longer periods of time, this<br>decrease leads to a slow moving to take the right place while performing these skills, researchers believe<br>that the reason for this is that these skills are not getting enough share from training in a way that suits the<br>nature of its physical and physiological performance, so the researchers felt that they should go into this<br>experiment by preparing exercises by style of metabolic conditioning (MetCon), the aim of it is to make a<br>positive impact in some physiological variables and speed motor response for volleyball young players .</p> Mahmoud Nasser Radhi1 , Sawsan Hadood Obaid2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Both (Ballistic and Plyometric) Methods of Exercises in Protecting from Knee Joint Injury in Terms of the Most Important Muscles Working on it for the Handball Center Player <p>The knee joint injury is very common for the handball center player, because of his position, which depends<br>on the rotation on one of the legs to shoot on the goal with or without resistance from the opponent and<br>jumping, and this requires giving appropriate exercises to strengthen the most important muscles working<br>on this joint, which works to prevent injury in it through experimenting both (ballistic and plyometric)<br>training methods, and the aim of the research is to identify the effect of both (ballistic and plyometric)<br>methods in preventing knee joint injury according to the most important muscles working on the knee joint<br>for the handball center player, and to identify the best methods in preventing Knee joint injury according to<br>the most important muscles working on the knee joint for the research sample, and the researchers used the<br>experimental approach with two experimental equal groups, The research community was determined which<br>are the center players in Karbala governorate handball Clubs, in the youth age group (17-19) years, and they<br>were randomly and evenly divided into two experimental groups as a sample for research As the first group<br>used ballistic exercises, and the second group used plyometric exercises.</p> Eman Darweesh Jari 1 , Hasim Abdul-Jabar Salih 2 , Ali Hasson Jawad Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Effect. Extracts and Inhibitory Potency of Plant Capparis Spinosa on Breast Cancer Cells <p>The aim of this study is to analyze Capparis spinosa and the principal constituent substance in Iraq which is<br>recognized by NMR experimentations and the key constituent identified by NMR is Stachydrine. Capparis<br>spinosa is descended from the family (Capparidaceae) and is described as a herbaceous plant with simple<br>leaves together edge and forked ears and bear flowers on long necks and fruits pear shape. Capparis contains<br>bitter materials, claycosides, enzymes, mayonnaise, acetic acid, bric, soap and volatile oils with a smell<br>similar to the smell of garlic, as well as sulfuric klycosides. All parts of plants used as a treatment as roots<br>that are used as a diuretic and leg used as a dentin for diarrhea as well as fruit is used as a treatment for cancer<br>We observe measurements of significant decrease in the level of breast cancer cells at? 0.05</p> Amjed Abbawe Salih1 , Thamer Esmail Ahmed2 , Diaa Mahmoud Nigam3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Attitude about Sexual Transmitted Disease among Women in Reproductive Age in Al-Nasiriyah Governorate-Iraq <p>Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are group of disease primarily affecting sexually active<br>population and has led to a major public health problem in the reproductive age group (15-45 years), which<br>are largely acquired through sexual act or close contact with genitals leading to potentially devastating<br>effects.<br>Objectives: To assess knowledge and attitude about sexual transmitted disease among women in reproductive<br>age in Al-Nasiriyah governorate-Iraq.<br>Methods: Cross sectional study design based on community was conducted in in Al-Nasiriyah governorate<br>in Iraq on women at reproductive age. Data collected by predesigned and pretested instrument through face<br>to face interview.<br>Results: In general literates women were more aware about STDs compared to illiterates. A total of 180<br>women at reproductive age were recorded, of which 325(64%) regard blood transfusion as major method<br>of STD transmission and 206(40%) Through the open wound of the genitals. 384 (68.3%) women told<br>that vaginal discharge is common symptom, followed by Genital and mouth ulcers 194(34.5%). 310(61%)<br>women regard diagnosis of STD done by blood test.396(78%) opined abortion common complication<br>followed by 287(55%) infertility. 404(71%) opined that STDs can be prevented by abstinence from sex and<br>343(61%) it cannot be prevented.<br>Conclusions: Based on the results of the study, women’s knowledge about sexual transmitted diseases<br>that transmitted during sex is very low, so special programs must be provided for women that can increase<br>knowledge of women and awareness of sexually transmitted diseases in Iraq and published on television and<br>radio. As knowledge and awareness of diseases promote with education, special educational programs are<br>also effective for education of women in Iraq about STD.</p> Fatima K. Naeem1 , Suror H, Aneed2 , Amer A. Sachit2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Patients’ Perception of Mechanical Ventilation (Endotracheal Tube) and Intensive Care Unit Post Cardiac Surgery <p>Background: Treatment and mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit may get a variety of physical<br>and psychological discomfort for patients.<br>Objectives: To assess the perception of patients about the intensive care unit (ICU) and stressful experiences<br>about mechanical ventilation in ICU. And identify an association between patient perceptions with<br>demographic characteristics.<br>Methodology: a descriptive study (cross-sectional study) for the purposive sample of 80 patients of postcardiac surgery (hospitalized) in Ibn Albetar and Iraqi Center of Heart Disease (Gaze AL-Hariri hospital).<br>Data were analyzed to achieve the goal of the study have been a questionnaire prepared according to the<br>literature review, it is composed of 3 parts, first part demographic data and, the information related ICU, the<br>second parts, stressful experiences of adult patients who received mechanical ventilation (Endotracheal<br>tube) (ETT) at ICU, and third parts, patient perception related to the environment at ICU. The validity of<br>the questionnaire through a number of experts in the college of the nursing university in Baghdad.<br>Results: The study showed (47.5%) of the sample was within (50-59) years, 25% of them from primary<br>school or less, (85%) of them the residence area was urban, the study showed that the high percentage<br>(62.5%) of the cardiac surgery patient was the moderate level of stressful experience during mechanical<br>ventilation (Endotracheal tube) (ETT) at intensive car unite (ICU) while only (10%) of patients with a<br>low-level of stressful experiences. The results also showed the majority (90 %) of patients with a moderate<br>level of the perception of patients of the intensive care unit.<br>Conclusions: The majority of cardiac surgery patients where moderate levels of perception of mechanical<br>ventilation (Endotracheal tube) (ETT) and of the ICU.</p> Khalida Alwan Mansour 1 , Bassima Amir Naji 2 , Bushra Khairullah Khanjar3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of an Educational program on Teachers’ Knowledge Toward Chickenpox Prevention at Primary Schools in Al-Najaf Governorate <p>Chickenpox disease is one of a highly infectious disease caused by the virus called varicella zoster<br>.Chickenpox is spread through coughing and sneezing, and through direct contact with fluids in rashes. Most<br>people who are vulnerable to chickenpox are children, especially those under 12 years old. Objectives:<br>The study aim determine the effective of education programs on teachers’ knowledge toward children with<br>of chickenpox disease at Primary schools in Al-Najaf governorate and the relationship between teachers’<br>knowledge with their demographic variables. Methodology: A quasi experimental studies was carried<br>out at Primary schools in Al-Najaf governorate from January 2019, to the end of April 2020, the sample<br>was collected in a purposive random sample comprised with 12 schools, identified the number of teachers<br>selected from each school was 45, the data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of two main parts,<br>the first part related to the social and demographic characteristics of teachers, and the second part concerned<br>teachers’ knowledge about the prevention of chickenpox and then an educational program was established<br>to increase the awareness and knowledge of teachers towards the prevention of chickenpox. Results: The<br>results showed that most of the samples (37.8%) were aged between (41- 50) years. For the number of<br>years of service, the greatest percentage (35.6%) of the sample ranged from 1 to 10 years, the study also<br>showed that 100% of the questions were answered by the teachers after the impact of the educational<br>program. Conclusion: The study concludes that the effectiveness of an education program toward teacher’s<br>knowledge, which is concerned with chickenpox, is positive at a high rate.</p> Raid Saad Atshan1 , Asmahan Qasim Mohammed2 , Ali Hussien Abbas3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Philosophical Foundations of Physical Education and Sport Applied to University Students of Central Areain Iraq According to the Social Understanding <p>The study objectives: To recognize the reality of understanding the members of the research community in<br>central Iraq for physical education and sports. Building foundations for the philosophy of physical education<br>and sports in Iraq according to the social understanding. Research hypotheses: There is a possibility to<br>identify the reality of understanding the members of the research community for physical education and<br>sports of universities in central area in Iraq. The research methodology included, where the researchers used<br>the descriptive approach and survey studies for their suitability to the research problem and its objectives. The<br>research sample consisted of (200) male and female students from the Iraqi Middle Euphrates universities<br>after distributing a questionnaire to the research sample consisting of (60) questions to solve the problem<br>noting that the questionnaire is scientifically evaluated and it has been proven. After collecting the answers<br>of the research sample, the researchers presented these results by using statistical means, analyzing those<br>results, and then discussing it , and the research objectives were fully achieved.</p> Haider Abbas Abdul Amir1 , Murtaza Ali Shaalan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Activity of Several Purine Metabolic Enzymes in Sera of Pregnant Women <p>This study aims to determine the activity of several purine metabolic enzymes in the sera of pregnant<br>women. These enzymes show potential as indicators to follow the progress of pregnancy. The samples of<br>this study were collected from 75 healthy pregnant women. The age range of the sample study was 17–43<br>years and 25 samples were used as control (non-pregnant women in the normal physiological state). Purine<br>metabolic enzyme activity was compared among the three groups with each other and with control. Results<br>appeared high significantly with p ? 0.05 in group III compared with group I of adenosine deaminase and the<br>control group . Pregnant women showed increase significantly level of 5-nucleotidase (5-NT) and alkaline<br>phosphatase (AlP) enzyme activity, particularly in the groups III of 5-NT and AlP compared with group I of<br>5-NT and AlP, the control group was found to possess equal 5-NT and AlP .</p> Noor Khalid Zaidan 1 , Wisam Mahmood Mohammed 1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Legal knowledge and its relationship to selective attention using the Rehcom system for Al-Rafidain basketball athletes <p>the research objectives were to identify the reality of legal knowledge and selective attention using the<br>Rehcom system for Al-Rafidain basketball players, and to identify the correlation between selective<br>attention and the legal knowledge of Al-Rafidain basketball players , And prediction of legal knowledge<br>in terms of selective attention of players Al-Rafidain Basketball Club, the researcher used the descriptive<br>approach in the survey method and the correlational relations on the 19 Al-Rafidain Basketball Club players.<br>Conclusions In light of the research results and the statistical analysis of the data obtained, the researcher<br>reached the following conclusions, that there is a relationship between legal knowledge and The selective<br>attention of basketball players, the variable and the selective attention, and through the test preparation in the<br>Rehcom system, has a very clear relationship to improving and developing a variable and selective attention.</p> Hayder Naji Habash Al-Shawi1 , Shaimaa Farhan Mohammed Al-Jubouri2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological Safety and its Relationship to the Trends of Achievement Goals for Students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in Light of the Covid-19 Virus <p>The research interest in studying security, the new Corona epidemic, and the air of its negative effects on the<br>levels and commitment of its newest participation in the new community, which made it distinctive, which<br>made it distinctive, which made it new in society. And the integration of students within the educational<br>institution and because of this effect of negative repercussions clearly on students and education and their<br>aspirations, and the aims of the study and research objectives on psychological security and directions to<br>identify the goals of education and sports science. Turning around in the light of the researcher’s results, the<br>message that reaches him with this thesis reached him, ease of access to psychological security. Psychological<br>security, enjoy the university’s College of Education.</p> Nizar Hussein Al-Nafakh1 , Nadia Jamal Abdul Amir Al-Athari 2, Muhammad Falah Jihad Alathari 3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle (ZnONP) Biosynthesis by Lactobacillus plantarium aganist pathogenic Bacteria <p>The good capability of zinc-tolerant probiotic of Lactobacillus plantarum tolerating high concentrations of<br>Zinc+2 and producing Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles high lights the unique characteristics of these bacteria as a<br>natural microbial cell nano-factory for a more efficient and environmentally friendly process of biosynthesis<br>of these nanoparticles. The morphology structure and stability of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were<br>studied using structural and morphological Properties technology such as XRD and FE- SEM analysis it also<br>used optical properties such as UV and FTIR spectrum. The results depicted that the synthesized nanoparticles<br>were moderately stable, exagonal phase, roughly spherical with maximum particles in size range within7–19<br>nm in diameteralso this study include the antibacterial activity of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on some<br>pathogenic bacteria .It is clear in this the study that Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles has stronger inhibitory effect<br>on pathogenic bacteria because The proposed two imaginable mechanisms for the antibacterial action of<br>zinc oxide nanoparticles to bacteria are first, creation of augmented levels of ROS mostly hydroxyl radical<br>and singlet oxygen which destruction the bacterial cell wall. Second nanoparticles deposition on bacterial<br>surface or nanoparticles aggregation either in the periplasm region or in the cytoplasm initiating distraction<br>of cellular function and membranes disorganization .</p> Zaman S. Hamza Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Association with Renal Function Decline in Type II Diabetes Mellitus <p>Serum FGF21 level is strongly associated with the onset of nephropathy in T2D patients and is an independent<br>predictor of loss of renal function in these patient.The study aimed to evaluate the role of FGF21 in early<br>detection of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes patents. The study included Eighty-eight(88) samples<br>divided in to four groups, three of which included type 2 diabetes patients, according to mircal test (urine<br>albumin / creatinine ratio), they were classified as :22normalbuminuria , 22 microalbuminuria, and 22<br>macroalbuminuria. The fourth group included 22 apparently healthy subjects with (matched gender and<br>age).<br>The mean ±SD of serum fibroblast growth factor 21 of normoalbuminuria group was (225.00±38.62),<br>microalbuminuria group was (267.78±51.08) and macroalbuminuria group was (230.84±50.33) .The<br>comparison results indicated significant increase (p?0.05) of FGF21 in microalbuminuria group in comparison<br>to that level in normoalbuminurea and macroalbuminuria groups. Also highly significant increase of FGF21<br>was observed in microalbuminuria group in comparison to that level in control group. We conclude that<br>FGF21 may be a useful marker for early detection of nephropathy</p> Zainab A. Hussein 1 , Sura A.Abdulsattar 2 , Essam N.Salman 3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological and Histological Study on Thyroid Gland Toxicity in Male Rats Exposed to Mercury <p>The present study investigated the effect of heavy metals (Mercury chloride) on the morphological and<br>histological feature of the thyroid gland. Rattus norvegicus male rats were selected for experimental use.<br>the rats given doses of Hg salts (3mg/kg, Ip.3times weekly for 4 week) admin is tration altered<br>the body weight, thyroid weight, length and width of thyroid gland. Morphologically, the thyroid gland<br>was consisted of two labs of reddish brown in color, the lobes were located on ventral Lateral side of<br>trachea connected caudally with isthmus. While the thyroid gland treated rats recorded changes in color<br>(pale), swollen and enlarged. histologically, the architectural cellular structure gland of the thyroid gland<br>of exposed rats recorded variations in the follicular thyroid, congested blood vessels and depletion of para<br>follicular cells in the rats treated to Hg in a comparison to that of the control rats. This signify that animals<br>exposed to Hg could at a risk of thyroid gland.</p> Sawsan A. Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Skilful Visual Exercises in the Development of Motor Perception and Preparation Skill in Volleyball <p>Identify the effect of using the aid in developing the perception of the motor sense and the skill of preparing<br>in volleyball. As for the research assumptions, the exercises (visual-skill) using auxiliary means affected the<br>development of sensory-motor perception and the exercises (visual-skill) with the auxiliary means affected<br>the development of the most important basic skills in volleyball. As for the practical part, the researcher used<br>the experimental method to suit the research problem, and the research sample was female students of the<br>College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences / College of Education for Girls / University of Kufa in<br>Volleyball and their number (24) players for the year 2019-2020 AD and they were randomly selected, and<br>three students were excluded In order to conduct the exploratory experiments, homogeneity and parity were<br>conducted for them, and then the researcher distributed forms for the perception of movement and the skill<br>of preparing for volleyball and the suitability for conducting the research and presented it to the volleyball<br>experts and then conducting the pre-tests and after applying visual skills exercises to the research sample<br>within the main section of the training curriculum for a period of (6) 3 weeks, three units per week, to be<br>(18) training units, then the researcher conducted the post-tests under the same conditions in which the pretests were conducted, in addition to using the appropriate statistical means to classify the data obtained. The<br>researcher presented the results, analyzed and discussed them after being statistically processed, and then<br>presented the data in tables and graphs, as the results showed statistically significant differences between<br>the pre and post-test of the research sample and this is what fulfils the research hypothesis. Among the most<br>important conclusions: The researched visual skills exercises have a positive effect by using innovative<br>methods (educational - training) in developing the perception of a kinesthetic sense of volleyball for the<br>research sample.</p> Hamida Obaid Abdul Amir1 , Baida Abd Ali Kahdim Sebti 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of a Proposed Training Curriculum Using an Electronic Learning Platform According to the Principle of Social Distancing to Improve Some Physical Fitness Elements for Female Futsal Players <p>The importance of research has emerged in the number of exercises that help in the development of special<br>physical fitness to identify the capabilities of the physical athletes and to improve each of these physical<br>characteristics, which are considered the basis for preparing the players to implement the skill and planning<br>duty and achieve victory in the match, and the motivation to work and continue, especially in light of these<br>conditions that all athletes live. That is, the Corona pandemic and quarantine procedures, in addition to that<br>these exercises, depend on the combination of strength and speed, which is in line with the requirements of<br>modern play. The researcher came up with several conclusions, the most important of which were: That the<br>use of the proposed approach has a clear effect on improving some elements of physical characteristics in<br>the experimental group in a standard period. Training exercises for simple aids have a great impact on some<br>of the physical characteristics of futsal football players, with less time and effort.</p> Mohammed Naji Shaker Abugneam1 , Rajaa Abdel Abbas Mahous 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Status and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus <p>Background The association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus<br>(GDM) are proposed by several studies. Gestational diabetes mellitus complicates nearly 1% to 28% of all<br>pregnancies and had an adverse effect for both mother and offspring. Vitamin D deficiency is one of the<br>modified risk factors that can be corrected in the pre-conceptional period.<br>Objectives The current study aims to investigate and compare the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in<br>pregnant women with GDM and non-GDM control subjects.<br>Methods In a descriptive study plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was assessed in a 100 women with GDM and<br>it was compared to 162 non-GDM at gestational age above 24 weeks that was conducted in the Maternity<br>Teaching Hospital in Sulaimani city from December 2018 to January 2019. The study used face-to-face<br>interviews to collect the data through a specific written questionnaire. At the same time serum vitamin D<br>state was examined using the Roche Elecsys vitamin D3 assay.<br>Results There were no statistical significant differences found between two groups of GDM and nonGDM. The result of the study showed that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency higher in the GDM group<br>(77.0%) compares to non-GDM group (68.5%). The study found that socioeconomic state (p-value=0.069),<br>body mass index(p-value=0.038), education (p-value=0.000), residency (p-value=0.000), age at marriage<br>(p-value=0.023), gravida (p-value=0.014), and para (p-value=0.001), was significantly different between<br>two groups of GDM and non-GDM.<br>Conclusion Overall, results imply that the vitamin D deficiency more prevalent among GDM group compare<br>to non-GDM group, but the differences was not statically significant.</p> Bushra Jabbar Hamarashid1 , Atiya Kareem Mohammed 2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Interactions of Poly (methylmethacrylate), Poly (vinyl alcohol), Poly(ethylene glycol), Chitosan, Cellulose and Starch Polymers with Iodine <p>The interactions betweenpoly(methylmethacrylate)(PMMA),poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) poly(ethylene<br>glycol)(PEG)as industrial biopolymers andchitosan, cellulose, starch as natural biopolymers with iodine(I2)<br>were investigated using diethyl ether as a solvent. 5% of I2 was added to each polymer and soaked in the<br>solvent. The interactions were investigated using concepts of the activation energy(Ea), Decisivefactor (Df)<br>and the changing in the glass transition temperature (?Tg,<br>s). Therefore, the differential scanning calorimeter<br>(DSC) was used to monitorthe thermal transitions. The optical microscope(OM) device was used to study<br>the surface morphologies.Resultsshowed a clear depression in the glass transition temperatures (Tg<br>,<br>s) for all<br>polymers( as well as new colors appear) except cellulose still unaffected .It appears that cellulose molecules<br>coated with a film prevent iodine to diffuse through the network structure of cellulose thus no effected its<br>color or its Tg which indicates that molecular structure of cellulose quite different from that of starch and for<br>this fact cellulose not soluble by a solvent and undigested in the human body. The depression inTg values<br>of polymers indicate that iodine ruptures the engineering bonds of the polymers. The most effected Tg is of<br>chitosan (lowered by 40.23?C, this mean that iodine ruptures both hydrogen bonding through nitrogen and<br>oxygen atoms in chitosan molecule.<br>From Tg values, it seems that iodine can acts as moderate plasticizer, by diffusing through the net of synthetic<br>and natural biopolymers ruptures their secondary bonds result in depression of their Tg except in case of<br>cellulose.<br>The order of Tg depression is:<br>Chitosan (40.23)&gt;PMMA (27.89)&gt;starch (22.29)&gt;PVA (13.89) &gt;PEG (5.78)&gt;cellulose (0)<br>Which showed no distinguish between natural and synthetic biopolymers.<br>From Tg values calculation of the energy given by the addition of iodine to the polymers was done and<br>shown the following order:<br>chitosan(27.394)&gt;PMMA(18.442) =starch(18.414)&gt;PVA(9.316 )&gt;PEG(4.315)&gt;cellulose( 0 )</p> Jaleel Kareem Ahmed 1, Auda Jabbar Braihi2 , Duaa Abdul Rida3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Indications and Complications of Tracheostomy in Pediatric Age group in Hilla, Babylon province, Iraq: Cross sectional Study <p>Background: The procedure tracheostomy involves making an opening in the airways and introduction<br>of tube into tracheal rings in order to bypass obstruction and allowing air to reach the lungs. The survival<br>of neonates and children witnessed substantial improvement following implementation of such procedure;<br>therefore, the rate of performing tracheostomy in children has become high. Little information is available<br>about complications of tracheostomy in Hilla general teaching hospital.<br>Aim of the study: to highlight the main indications and complications in association with tracheostomy in<br>pediatric age group in Hilla, Babylon province, Iraq.<br>Patients and methods: The current prospective study included 41 children less than 12 years of age form<br>the pool of patients admitted to intensive care unit at Hilla General Teaching Hospital and the intensive care<br>unit at Babel Pediatric and Maternity Teaching Hospital. The study extended from March 2018 to September<br>2019. All those children underwent tracheostomy for a variety of reasons. They were followed up for one<br>year for recoding any possible complication in association with tracheostomy procedure.<br>Results: After one year of follow up, the time until decannulation was ranging between 45 to 365 days with a<br>mean of 61.73 days. Upper air way obstruction was seen in 12 cases while assisting ventilation in prolonged<br>intubation was seen in the majority, 30 cases. Causes of upper airway obstruction were Craniofacial anomaly,<br>Subglottic stenosis, Laryngotracheal stenosis, Vocal fold paralysis and Subglottic hemangioma. The reasons<br>for prolonged intubation included Neuromuscular disease, Postoperative period following major surgery,<br>Respiratory failure, Trauma and Subglottic hemangioma.<br>Conclusion: The main indications for tracheostomy in children were congenital upper air way obstruction<br>and the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation and the main complications are either intermediate<br>cannula loss or late subglotic obstruction.</p> Safaa Hussain Alturaihy Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Road Traffic Injury deaths and Correlates in Babylon Province: A Cross- Sectional Study <p>Background: Road traffic accidents were a major health problem especially in low and middle income<br>countries including Iraq, head injuries were found to be the most common fatal injuries during traffic<br>accidents that causing deaths.<br>Objectives: to identify the relationship of road traffic injury deaths with different associated factors and to<br>measure the extent of this problem.<br>Methodology: this was a cross-sectional study included a retrospective analysis of the forensic medicine<br>data presented in the records of forensic medicine department for three years (2017-2019) the period needed<br>to conduct this study started from 1st of February to the end of November,2019 . After the approval of the<br>study protocol by the Babylon nursing college health ethical committee , a semi structured questionnaire was<br>used to collect data according to the descriptive epidemiologic model (person , place, time).<br>Results: The road traffic accidents death rate in Babylon province was unacceptably high, the mean deaths<br>per month due to Road Traffic Injuries was 43,8 and the mean deaths per week was11victims and the crude<br>death rate =27/100000 population; Males in their productive age group were outnumbered victims to this<br>preventable high priority health problem. Urgent interventional plan of action including provision high<br>quality nursing tertiary care should be started to address this growing problem using the available resources<br>to promote the critical care skills among health care providers and to reduce medical errors.</p> Sahar Adham Ali1 , Hasan Alwan Baiee2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Effect of Adding Iron Salts on the Physiochemical and Sensory Properties of Yoghurt <p>Yoghurt was manufactured by adding ferrous sulfate (T1) before heat treatment, (T2) after heat treatment,<br>and adding ferrous chloride (T3) before heat treatment and (T4) after heat treatment as well as the control<br>sample separately, the physiochemical tests were performed for Yoghurt the above treatments a day after<br>manufacturing and after storage for 21 days at a temperature of 5 ± 1 ° C, and our results were: There were<br>no significant differences in pH values after one day of manufacturing for all treatments, either during<br>storage for 21 days at a temperature of 5 ± 1 ° C, a gradual decrease was observed in them, either with<br>respect to the percentage of total acidity (TA), it was close to all treatments of the different Yoghurt after<br>one day of manufacturing. either when storing, it was observed that it increased for all transactions. The<br>concentrations (2.5, 5)Mm played a role in improving the physicochemical properties of Yoghurt, such<br>as reduced Syneresis, increased Water holding capacity, and improved viscosity and hardness compared<br>to other samples. As for the high concentrations (7.5, 10)Mm, it had a negative effect on the rheological<br>properties of the Yoghurt.</p> Ali Arabi Jasim1 , Jasim M. S. Al-Saadi2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Correlates of Vitamin D Inadequacy in a Sample of Iraqi People <p>Background: Vitamin D had been identified as a common metabolic/endocrine abnormality. Middle East<br>countries had a very high rate of vitamin D inadequacy, vitamin D deficiency was associated with noncommunicable and infectious diseases.<br>Objective : To identify the prevalence of Vitamin D level and its correlates among Iraqi people in Al-Hilla<br>city-Babylon province<br>Methods :. A cross?sectional study was conducted on a convenient sample of individuals from all age groups<br>and both genders who attended eight primary health care centers and individuals in Al?Hilla city\Babylon<br>province\Iraq, the study period was started from May through October , 2019. A pretested questionnaire was<br>used for data collection , the questionnaire included information regarding socio demographic characteristics<br>of participants and their history of chronic diseases. The following measurements were done: level of serum<br>vitamin D , blood pressure, blood sugar , body weight and weight and the serum of vitamin D .<br>Results: The sample included 188 participants their mean age was 64.8 ± 17.25 years.The female to male<br>ratio 1.7:1, More than half of participants (56%) resident in urban areas . Vitamin D mean level was (20.7<br>ng/mL ± 14.9 SD). The vast majority (80%) of the sample have vitamin D inadequacy in which (66% have<br>deficiency and 14% have insufficiency), while 37 (20%) of the sample have vitamin D adequacy.<br>A significant inverse relationship between vitamin D serum level and hypertension, type two diabetes<br>mellitus, increase body weight.<br>Conclusion: there was a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among Iraqi people mainly in females,<br>a significant association between low vitamin D level and hypertension, type two diabetes mellitus, and<br>obesity.</p> Ismael Hasan Jawad1 , Hasan ALwan Baiee2 , Issam Salim Ismail3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Type of Bacteria That Found in Ear, Mouth, Nose of Second Stage Nursing Department Student <p>The samples collected from 70 nursing student second stage ,the sample was mouth ,ear ,nose .The sample<br>cultured on nutrient agar ,MaCconkey agar ,Mannitol agar ,and brain heart agar. Observed different type of<br>bacteria on MaCconkey agar (lactose fermenting ,lactose non fermenting ,lactose slow fermenting ,Mucoid<br>shape ,and different type of bacteria on Mannitol Agar and nutrient agar .after that the isolate tested with<br>Gram stain , Catalase test and then Analytic profile index perform. The results showed the bacteria is (5 )<br>(0,5%)isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and (2)(0,2%) isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa from 70 ear<br>samples , (5 )(0,64%)isolates Staphylococcus aureus and ( 4 )(0,51%)isolates of Staphylococcus epidermedis<br>from 70 mouth samples and 5(0,5%) isolates from pseudomonas aeruginosa ,(2)(0,2%) isolates of Serratia<br>marcescens from70 nose samples.And then the antibiotic sensitivity tested against :<br>Ciprofloxacin ,Gentamycin,Vancomycin,Pencilin,Azithromycin,Cefex,Amikacin,levofloxacin3 and the<br>result as in table below :<br>(Antibiotic sensitivity test result)<br>Antibiotics<br>Bacteria<br>VA p ATM CN AK LEV CIP<br>Staphylococcus aureus + - + + + + +<br>Staphylococcus epedermidis - - + - + + +<br>Pseudomonas aeroginosa + + + + + + +<br>Serratia marcescens + - - - - + +<br>+ mean sensitive , - mean resistant</p> Hala Abbas Jasim Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study of Nerve Growth Factor Level in the Follicular Fluid of Polycystic and Non-Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women Undergoing ICSI: a Cross-sectional Study <p>Background : Nerve growth factor is a member of a group of proteins called Neurotrophins (NTs), which<br>are necessary for growth and differentiation of neurons in both central and peripheral nervous systems. In<br>addition to this essential role, NGF has been suggested to play a possible role in ovarian functions. Thus, we<br>proposed this study to evaluate the nerve growth factor level in the follicular fluid of women with polycystic<br>ovary syndrome undergoing Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in comparison with the control group<br>(non-polycystic women).<br>Results : Follicular fluid nerve growth factor levels of non PCOS women were significantly higher than<br>these of PCOS group (245.399 ± 63.41pg/ml vs. 149.592 ± 64.86 pg/ml), p-value =0.0001*. Also, it was<br>significantly correlated negatively with oocytes number (Correlation Coefficient r= -0.431, P-value = 0.01)<br>and positively with FSH (r=0.370, p value = 0.029).<br>Conclusion: Nerve growth factor level in the follicular fluid of polycystic ovary syndrome women is lower<br>than it in non-PCOS ones. Additionally, it correlates directly with cycle day two FSH and inversely with<br>oocytes number.</p> Noor Kareem Alfatlawy 1 , Hanan Abdul Jabbar AL –Taee 2 , Ali Ibrahim Rahim 3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-Urease Activity of Essential oil and Phenolic compounds of Thymus vulgaris, Melaleuca alternifolia and Betula pendula against Proteus mirabilis isolates <p>The present study was carried out to evaluate the activity essential oil and phenolic compounds of<br>Thymus vulgaris, Melaleuca alternifolia and Betula pendula extracts against urinary tract infections caused<br>by urease-producing from seven strains of bacteria Proteus mirabilis isolated from urinary tract infection.<br>Microdilution technique has been used to evaluate antibacterial operations in sterile 96-well microtiter plates.<br>Activity of urease and inhibition of urease assessed by indophenol test method. The results showed that M.<br>alternifolia extract was the best antibacterial activities against all strains at 1.25 - 25 mg/ml. Also, 0.31 mg/<br>ml of phenolic compounds and essential oil of M. alternifolia extract serves as effective dual acting 100%<br>urease inhibitor to prevent and eliminate urease. Besides, the results of phytochemical detection show that<br>Coumarins, Terpenes, Alkaloids, Tannins, Flavonoids and Sesquiterpenes were present in M. alternifolia<br>extract, which may be have anti-urease possessing activity. Furthermore, these plants could be act as a<br>source of antimicrobial compounds against P. mirabilis which are commonly impaired by the development<br>of bladder and kidney stones.</p> Mohammed R. Mohammed1 , Ayyad W. Al – Shahwany1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histological and Physiological Study of The Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on Liver of Female Rats Exposed to Formalin in Drinking Water <p>Aim: The presented study was established to evaluate the impact of formalin (FA) on the blood levels of<br>superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid profile, total serum protein and serum albumin in female rats. Materials<br>and methods: The animals were assigned randomly into groups of six; control group, and treated other five<br>groups as follow, first group exposed to formalin at 200ppm (F200 group), the second exposed to formalin<br>at 400ppm (F400 group), third group exposed to formalin at 200ppm plus melatonin at 10mg/kg (F200M<br>group), fourth group exposed to formalin at 400ppm plus melatonin at 10mg/kg (F400M group), and the<br>fifth exposed to melatonin at 10mg/kg (M group). Samples of blood from the rats were collected at day one,<br>day and day 30 of the experimental period that was continued for 30 days. Results: Using immune-based<br>techniques, the SOD activity, it has been here-resulted in significant (p?0.05) after-formalin-exposuredecreases in the blood samples of female rats from F200 and F400 groups, especially, when compared<br>with the control group. The total cholesterol levels revealed significant (p?0.05) increases in the blood of<br>the tested animals of the F200 and F400 groups. These increases affected the rates of LDL, VLDL, and<br>triglycerides in the blood of the studied rat-females of both F200 and F400 groups when compared with<br>the control animals. Interestingly, low levels of HDL were noticed in the blood of the animals of the F200<br>and F400 when comparisons with control animals. The concentrations of the LDL, HDL, and triglycerides<br>in the serum of the formalin-exposed females showed significant (p?0.05) low levels when compared with<br>control animals. For day-30 collection, albumin concentrations revealed significant (p?0.05) elevation in the<br>blood of the F200 and F400 animals.. Histological examination revealed that the liver of female rats exposed<br>to 200ppm or 400 ppm of formalin for 30 days have been adversely affected. Whereas, the histological<br>examination of the liver of animals treated with melatonin and formalin were less affected due to formalin<br>exposure. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the formalin high toxic effects on the hepatic tissues can<br>be overcome by the use of exogenous melatonin.</p> Rana Jafer Abid Khadim AL-Mayahi1 , Mutashar JaddoaAL-Shewaily2 , Ali Fayadh Bargooth 3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Methotrexate on Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Iraqi Patients <p>Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered as an autoimmune disease which influences the joints. It usually<br>results in a warm, enlarged, and painful joints. Stiffness and Pain typically amplify once relaxation.<br>Frequently, the hands and wrist are involved, with similar joints naturally involved on both sides of the body.<br>The syndrome might additionally have an impact on the other parts of the body. Adenosine Deaminase is an<br>enzyme (EC used with the metabolism of purine. It is essential for the analysis of adenosine from<br>nutrition and the revenue of nucleic acids in soft tissue. Its chief purpose in humans is the immune system<br>growth and preservation. On the other hand, the complete physiological role of ADA is so far not known.<br>This study carried out at Al-Kadima Teaching Hospital, during the period fr6-om September 2014 till the<br>end of October 2015. Patients who have any other disorders conditions are excluded. Subjects accepting<br>treatment with medications within 7-9 months. A total of 66 patients with Rheumatoid arthritis were<br>enrolled in this study: thirty-five of them were newly diagnosed to have Rheumatoid arthritis who receives<br>no therapy for Rheumatoid arthritis (group A); the remaining thirty-one patients were with Rheumatoid<br>arthritis who receive by methotrexate 500 mg for 7-9 months as the (group B). Twenty-six healthy subjects,<br>as controls(group C ). The results show a significant elevation in the ADA activity in group A and group B.<br>The study concluded that the level of ADA was higher in Iraqi RA patients than in healthy control subjects</p> Ammal Esmaeel Ibrahim1 ; Taha Shawi Morad2 ; Shatha M. Hasan3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Infection Control Rules by Iraqi Orthodontics <p>Orthodontics represent an important dental speciality which deals different situations of patients<br>malocclusion, they use many kinds of sharps and cutting instruments, making them liable to different types<br>of infections which could be transmitted from either the patients or the instruments if they don’t follow the<br>infection control principls. The data were collected by answering a questionnaire by 101 orthodontists, the<br>results showed different responses of the participants to the variables used by the questionnaire leading to a<br>conclusion that more efforts are needed to improve the application of infection control guidelines between<br>Iraqi orthodontists.</p> Rehab adil Al-Rawi1 , Noor Nourie Abbass Abdulla2 , Fudhla Sadoon Al- Zubaydi3 , Bassam Alsheekhly4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mast cell, IL-1 Beta and IL-6 for Wound timing and Vitality in Forensic Practice <p>the application of immunohistochemistry has opened a new era for examining the age of the wound by<br>forensic specialists, The aim of our study was to illustrate the use of immunohistochemical marker of mast<br>cells activation (mast cell tryptase “MCT”) as a reliable and promising factor of wounds vitality and to<br>Identify the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL 1 beta and IL 6 as parameters of wound age determination.<br>The study was done in the Medico-Legal Directorate of Forensic Medicine (MLD) in Baghdad. The<br>specimens were sera and skin tissues for immunohistochemistry examination, and staining procedures and<br>immunohistochemistry (MCT) ELISA sandwich plate will measure the levels of interleukins. Total autopsy<br>cases were 88 and divided into study group (SG) and control group (CG) .We found that density of Mast<br>cells in sample group was significantly high and higher infiltration that correlates with time passing in the<br>study group as compared by other group in dermis of the sample and control lesions and positive relationship<br>between levels of IL 1?beta &amp; IL?6 level and time progress of wound..</p> Mohasmmad Abdul Mohsin Jebur1 , Nabeel Ghazi Hashim2 , R. Hamoudi Al-Obeidi Salim3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association between Genetic Polymorphism of 5-HTTLPR, and SGOT, SGPT and Catalase with Alcoholism of Iraqi People <p>A case- control study on the relationship of 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism with alcohol abuse among<br>Iraqi individuals was conducted during period from December 2018 to June 2019. DNA was extracted from<br>the blood samples of the study subjects. The genetic polymorphism analysis was conducted by Restriction<br>Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) for SLC6A4 gene. The results raveled that the odd ratio for<br>the LL genotype was 1.697 indicating that homo mutant genotype were at higher risk for alcoholism than the<br>wild type SS. This result showed that L allele frequency was (0.78) in alcoholism group and (0.53) in control<br>group whereas S allele frequency was (0.22) in the alcoholism group and (0.47) in the control group. So,<br>the results showed there was a significant difference in allele frequencies of SLC6A4gene between case and<br>control (P&lt;0.01; OR=1.697; 95% CI=0.86-1.64). There was a significant positive correlation between the<br>SGOT activity and the genotype of 5-HTTLPR (SS, SL, LL).Additionally, there was a significantly increased<br>level of liver enzymes (GOT and GPT) and catalase in serum samples of alcoholic males compared with<br>non-alcoholic males.</p> Anwar A. Abdulla Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Sensitive Simultaneous Estimation of Atorvastatin Ca in Pure and Dosage Forms Via Developed CFIA using 1,2 Naphthoquinone-4-Sulfonate as a Suitable Organic Agent <p>Objectives: A sensitive visible spectrophotometric method and FIA/merging zones technique was developed<br>for the determination of atorvastatin calcium in pure material and tablet dosage form.<br>Methods: Atorvastatin calcium has a free carboxylic moiety in its structure, which when being deprotonated<br>in basic medium facilitates associated the reagent with the drug. This method was based on the formation<br>of red colored chromogen of drug with 1,2-Naphthaquinone-4-sulfonate(NQS) in basic medium (NaOH).<br>The absorbance of the chromogens was measured at their respective wavelengths of maximum absorbance<br>against the corresponding reagent blank<br>Results: The red colored product is directly completed in basic medium and exhibits maximum absorption<br>at 525 nm. Different factors affecting the formation of the product and optimized in order to obtain the best<br>conditions for the experiment and its stability were studied. Method validation was done over a concentration<br>range of 2-10 and 1-20 ?g/mL for batch and FIA method respectively.</p> Bushra B. Qassim1 , Asmaa A. Zydan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Gall Bladder Wall Thickness: Sonographic Accuracy and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Conversion Rate, Evaluated by Histopathology <p>Background: Preoperative prediction of a difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy can help the patient as well<br>as the surgeon to prepare better for intraoperative risk and the risk of conversion to open Cholecystectomy.<br>Aim of study: Evaluation the impact of gall bladder wall thickness, on the outcome of laparoscopic<br>cholecystectomy and conversion rate to open cholecystectomy assessed by sonography preoperative and<br>postoperative measurement of gall bladder wall thickness by histopathology.<br>Patients and Methods: A prospective study conducted in the surgical unit, Department of surgery, Baghdad<br>Teaching Hospital between November 2010 and November 2011. Abdominal Sonography performed in 110<br>consecutive patients before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The surgeon re-verified sonographic finding in<br>operative room, and postoperatively, the gall bladder specimens were sent for histopathological measurement<br>of wall thickness.<br>Results: Out of 110 patients with cholecystolithiasis on sonography, we encountered easy laparoscopic<br>cholecystectomy in 80 patients (72.7%), difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 24 (21.8%) and the<br>procedure was converted to open cholecystectomy in six patients (5.5%). The difference between Sonographic<br>and histological measurement was within 1 mm in 102 patients (92.7%), and the other 8 patients was with<br>1.5 mm (7.3%) with sensitivity of (100%), specificity of (83.3%) and accuracy of (97%).<br>Conclusion: An accurate preoperative diagnostic sonography is mandatory for planned laparoscopic<br>gall bladder surgery to provide information for the selection of the most appropriate approach and avoid<br>intraoperative difficulties and surprises. On sonography gall bladder wall thickening is the most sensitive<br>indicator of technical difficulties during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Such difficulties may require<br>conversion to laparotomy.</p> Mohammad Faraj Dawod Al. Jafary1 , Ammar Fouad Abdulrazaq2 , Ayman Nadeem Kadum3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Effect of Addition of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle on Some Physical Properties of Flowable Composite Resin <p>Objective: The flowable dental composite resins were introduced to the dental specialty because of the<br>advantages they possess over the conventional composite resins. The use of nanotechnology in the dentistry<br>field is one of the growing innovations in recent years. The aim of the present study was to evaluate certain<br>physical properties of flowable dental composite after incorporation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles<br>(TiO2NPs).<br>Materials and Methods: In the present study, TiO2NPs at 1.25 % and 2.5% concentrations were added to<br>flowable composite, while the unmodified composite was used as control. Then the physical properties of the<br>control and modified composite resins, including flowablity, radiopacity and water sorption and solubility<br>were tested. Data were analyzed with One way ANOVA, using SPSS 20.<br>Results: The results showed that there was statistically significant difference among the tested groups<br>regarding flowability and radiopacity (P&lt;0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference among<br>control group and TiO2 modified groups regarding water sorption and solubility.<br>Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, a flowable dental composite was successfully<br>reinforced with TiO2. Incorporation of small weight percentages of this nanofiller exhibited properties<br>similar to the control material regarding water sorption and solubility. The flowability was slightly reduced<br>and radiopacity of the reinforced composites was increased, these changes were acceptable for clinical<br>applications and below ISO standards limits.</p> Sazgar Srbast Qasim1 , Diyar Khalid Bakr2 , Dara H. Rasheed3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Activities of Green Biosynthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using F. Carica Fruit Extract <p>In the current study, iron oxide nanoparticles (IO NPs) were synthesized via modified green synthesis<br>technique using F. carica fig extract as reducing agent. Furthermore, the microstructural properties<br>of the synthesized IO NPs have been thoroughly elucidated. In details, the acquired NPs diameter was<br>found to be in the range of 11-29 nm and of root mean square (RMS) of 0.64 nm using TEM and AFM<br>techniques, respectively. Consequently, the antifungal and antibacterial activities of the synthesized IO NPs<br>were screened against Candida and Aspergillus species as well as Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus<br>and Gram-negative Acinetobacter species, respectively. The presented IO NPs play an active role in the<br>antimicrobial activities evidencing the well-organized materials system for biomedical applications.</p> Nada Khudair Abbas1 , Azhar A. F. Al- Attraqchi2 , Jenan Hussien Taha3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Detection of Antibiotics Resistance Genes in Burkholderia cepecia isolated from Diabetic foot infection <p>This study aimed to isolate and diagnose Burkholderia cepetia from clinical specimens of diabetic foot and<br>study the resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agent in Najaf governorate from Augest 2019 to November<br>2019, which includes 120 clinical specimens for both sexes with an age ranged between )35-70) years<br>old. The diagnosis of bacteria isolates was based on microscopy, as well as the culture and biochemical<br>characteristics as an initial diagnosis. The final diagnosis by the Vitek-2 compact system .<br>Burkholderia cepacia 8(6.6%). Antibiotic sensitivity test was examined by dick diffution method,<br>Burkholderia cepacia isolates showed high level of resistance almost for all ?-lactam antibiotic classes<br>under study which included;, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin and Cefepime, with percentage of (100%); ticarcllin<br>with clavulalnic acide ,piperacllin , ceftazidime, tobramycine, ciproflaxcin and levofloxacin with percentage<br>of (87.5%); aztreonam and amikacine with percentage(62.5); meropenem , imipenem and gentiamycin with<br>percentage of (37.5%).<br>At molecular study, the investigated the presence of antibiotic-resistant genes (blaImp, blaOxa,<br>blaKpc,blaCTX-M) using PCR technique and electrophoresis systems. 6/8 Burkholderia cepacia isolates<br>were with blaOXA and (6/8) of isolates carry blaCTX-M gene, all isolates of Burkholderia cepacia gave<br>negative result of blaIMP and blaKPC gene. Finally PCR analysis showed that the integron gene was (3/8<br>%).</p> Maryam Riyadh Al-Muhanna1 , Mahdi Al-Ammar2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation the Antimicrobial Effect of Glycerin Magnesia on Some Bacteria, In-Vitro Study <p>This study was aimed to assess the efficacy of glycerin magnesia on some bacteria. A thirty percent of glycerin<br>magnesia were prepared as explained below. Many types of bacteria including Proteus spp., Staphylococcus<br>aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp. were<br>selected for this study and obtained from university of Tikrit, college of veterinary medicine. A bacterial broth<br>were prepared, a then a sterile swab were emulsify in these broth and streaked on muller hinton agar plate<br>and allowed till dry, then a holes were filled with a given glycerin magnesia and incubated for 24hrs. at 37?C<br>. The results showed that a higher antibacterial effects of glycerin magnesia against Staphylococcus aureus<br>followed by Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Acinitobacter, E. coli, Staphylococcus<br>epidermidis respectively.<br>In conclusion, the glycerin magnesia have a wide range antibacterial effect and can be used in future in<br>wound healing.</p> Maher Saber Owain1 , Khalid Ismael Oleiwi2 , Ali Ghazi Atiyah1 , Mustafa Salah Hasan2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Histopathological Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions in Al-Muthanna Province for Two Years Duration <p>Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is a common form of cancer among women globally. It is considered 5th<br>cause of death in females with equally to 522,000 patients / year. Nowadays it is considered 15.4% of death<br>in developed countries after lung cancer. In developing nations, breast cancer considered the 1st cause of<br>death for females 324,000 cases of deaths (14.3%) for total deaths. Method: One hundred and six female<br>patients with breast lesion were collected from the Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital Laboratory/Histopathology<br>department –Al-Muthanna province, during the period from January 2018 to January 2020. The data for<br>cases were collected to study the age, type of breast lesion whether benign or malignant. Haematoxylin/<br>Eosin staining done in Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital Laboratory / Histopathology department. Results:<br>Cross sectional study for 106 patients done in Al- Muthanna proven for assessment breast mass and identify<br>malignant and benign lesion, mean age of patients was (39.4 ± 15.8) years old, with min age 13 years and<br>max age was 81 years old. Types of biopsy taken from surgeon were 71% excisional biopsy, 21% mastectomy<br>and 8% true cut biopsy. After pathological assessment of biopsies showed 51% malignant and 49% benign.<br>In addition, this assessment distributed as following: fibroadenoma 31.1%, IDC/ grade II 29.2%, IDC/ grade<br>III 9.4%, ILC and fibrocystic changes 5.7% and IDC grade I 3.8% and other types of malignant and benign<br>after pathological assessment. Significant association between age groups and cancer of breast. Conclusion:<br>After pathological assessment of biopsies, malignant breast cancer (IDC/ grade II, IDC/ grade III, ILC and<br>fibrocystic changes) most common changes, significant association between age group and breast cancer<br>development more age group 41- 50 years old and then (31- 40), (51– 60) years old respectively.</p> Sarah Ali Abed1 ; Ali Adnan Jabbar2 ; Roaa Salih Mahdi3 ; Ali Mohammed Khaleel4 ; Suha Suhiel Hussein5 ; Maha Khadum Ghayadh6 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Histological and Histochemical Study on Olfactory Bulbs to Detection Amyloid Protein Depositions by Congo-Red and Routine Staining Techniques <p>In this study, histological and histochemical techniques were used to examine olfactory bulbs in the albino<br>rat male. Thirty male albino rats were split into three age groups (10 animals each) in the current research:<br>Group I: consider as a control group, including adult animals aged 3 months .Group II: include animals<br>aged 6 months. Group III: include animals aged 12 months. The histological architecture of the layers<br>of olfactory bulbs and their main cells was identified by using H &amp; E staining techniques, meanwhile the<br>composition of each layer in albino rat was evident. In the glomerular and mitral cell layer of group III,<br>olfactory bulbs showed reduced neural density. Modified staining with Congo - red was conducted for<br>histochemical studies. Compacted amyloid cores were found in group III animals’ olfactory bulbs, while<br>dispersed amyloid cores were found in group II&amp;III olfactory bulbs’ cortex. The present study adds to our<br>knowledge of the impact of amyloid protein on olfactory bulbs and their prospective neurodegeneration<br>involvement.</p> Rajaa Ali Moheiseen Al- Taee1 , Muna Hussain Al-Aameli2 , Yarub Modhar Al-Qazwini3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Intraperitoneal-Ketoprofen-Histopathological Induced Alterations in the Wistar Rat Kidneys <p>The current-focused study was carried out to generate a data profile about expected changes that could be<br>induced in the kidneys of rats due to the use of intraperitoneal ketoprofen (KP). The study involved using<br>24 adult male Wistar rats sorted randomly into four groups (six animals per group). One group was treated<br>as a control group, C, which was supplied with distilled water (DW) only. The remaining animals were<br>presented as (50KP), (25KP), or (12.5KP) groups that received 50mg/kg.b.w., 25mg/kg.b.w., or 12.5mg/<br>kg.b.w., respectively, of KP. The experiment was continued for 70 days, and the kidney tissue samples<br>were collected from the scarified animals at the end of day 70 of that experiment. The kidney tissues of the<br>50KP animals revealed dilation of the tubules throughout the outer strip of the outer medulla with necrosis<br>and sloughing of the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs). However, the 25KP group<br>suffered lesser grades of epithelial-cell sloughing of the PCTs with lower levels of dilation of tubules than<br>those recorded in the 50KP group. On the other hand, the kidney tissues of the 12.5KP group showed only<br>dilation in the PCTs. The present experimental data unveil the side effects generated by the use of the<br>intraperitoneal KP in the examined rat kidneys which should be used as a launching set of information for<br>better use or further study this drug and its side effects in human patients.</p> Samer Riyadh Fadhil , Hakim Bahlok Jebur2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A New Method for Dental Cast Analysis <p>Objectives: This study aimed to develop a new method of dental cast analysis using angular measurements.<br>Materials and methods: One hundred study models belong to 100 Iraqi healthy adults with class I occlusion<br>were assessed using Planmeca dimax software. Three angular measurements at the levels of maxillary<br>canines, second premolar and second molars cusp tips with the tip of the angles at the midpoint between<br>the two central incisors were measured. Gender difference was evaluated by unpaired t-test and the relation<br>between the angles was assessed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient test.<br>Results: The results revealed higher mean values of the measured parameters in males with direct, moderate<br>to strong, significant correlation.<br>Conclusions: A new method was developed and could be used to assess the growth and treatment changes<br>in the future researches.</p> Jassim Ali Al-E’nizy1 , Zainab Bahjat Mohammed Amin Al-Ani2 , Mohammed Nahidh3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Demographic, Socio-Economic and Biological Factors With the Incidence of Leprosy in Bombana Regency Southeast Sulawesi Province <p>Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This study aimed to know the risk factors<br>of leprosy events in Bombana Regency in 2020. This study was an observational analytic study with case<br>control study design. The sample of this study was all population of Bombana Regency in 2020. The case<br>sample was the population diagnosed in the Leprosy Reporting Information System information reported<br>by the Bombana Regency Health Office during 2017 to 2019, while the control sample was undiagnosed<br>leprosy with matching based on age and gender. The total sample was 122 people (61 cases and 61 controls).<br>Control sampling with systematic random sampling. Data analysed using by the STATA computer program<br>with odds ratio test and multiple logistic regression. The results showed that BCG immunization (OR =<br>5.74, 95% CI = 1.95-16.89) and income (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.34-8.38) were risk factors for occurrence<br>leprosy, while population migration variables, education level, and humidity are not significant risk factors<br>for leprosy. The study concluded that BCG immunization and income are risk factors for leprosy. The<br>variable most at risk for leprosy is BCG immunization.</p> Fauziah Zahra Fahrunnisa1 , Nur Nasry Noor2 , Muhammad Syafar3 , Andi Zulkifli2 , Ansariadi2 , Syamsuar4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Deleted <p>xyz</p> Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Effects of Education on the Understanding and Acceptance of Evidence-based Performance by Nurses <p>Introduction: Evidence-based performance is a problem-solving approach to provide more effective<br>decision-making, avoid repetitive care, facilitate providingservices, and empower employees. Continuous<br>training enables nurses to provide valuable services to patients. The aim of this study was to determine<br>the effects of education on the understanding and acceptanceof evidence-based performance by nurses<br>workingin the infectious and internal wards of Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah (Iran) in 2019.<br>Materials and Methods: In this experimentalstudy,participants were selected byavailable sampling and<br>randomly divided into two groups (n=50 per group). The data was collected using 3 questionnaires: a<br>standard questionnaire for understanding a standard evidence-based performance acceptance questionnaire<br>(Robin and Parish, 2010), and a demographic questionnaire addressing age, gender, work experience,<br>monthly income, education, ward, employment status, and acquaintance with evidence-based performance.<br>Data analysis was performed in SPSS 19 software.<br>Results: The mean score of the understanding significantly increased from 78.24 at pre-education to88.04<br>at post-education in the intervention group while there was no significant alternation in the mean score of<br>control group comparing pre- and post-education (85.38 vs. ,respectively). The mean score of acceptance also<br>significantly increased in the intervention group comparingbefore (37.66) with after (37.66) education. In<br>the control group, the mean acceptance scores were 35.02 and 34.98before and aftereducation, respectively.<br>Conclusion: Education can improve the level of understanding and acceptance of evidence-based<br>performance by nurses; therefore, it is recommended to includecontinuous educational programs in hospitals<br>and encourage all nurses to attend these courses.</p> Hamid Taghinejad1 , Mosayeb Mozafari2 , Hossein Seidkhani3 , Mosstafa Hossini4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Low Carbohydrate High Protein Diet Reduces Levels of Tumour Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?) in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) <p>The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of a low-carbohydrate-high-protein (LCHP) diet on<br>reducing TNF-? levels. The study was carried out with true experimental post-test only control design, using<br>3-month-old females rats (Rattus norvegicus) with a bodyweight of 200-300 g, which were divided into<br>three groups: Negative control (K-) (rats without treatment were fed with broiler standard feed), Positive<br>control (K+) (PCOS-IR model rats were fed broiler standard feed), and Treatment (P) (PCOS-IR model<br>mice were fed with LCHP diet). Serum taken from the rats’ heart on day 49 was examined for TNF-? levels<br>using Bioassay Germany ELISA kit. Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Post Hoc tests.<br>ANOVA analysis of TNF-? resulted in a p value of 0.0017, indicating significant difference of TNF-? levels<br>when LCHP diet was applied, followed by Post Hoc test found that the TNF-? level of the treatment group<br>(p = 0.006) is lower than the positive control group (p = 0.038). One of the roles of a low-carbohydrate diet<br>in the pathogenesis of PCOS-IR is to provide an inflammatory repair effect by increasing insulin sensitivity,<br>improving insulin levels, and stimulating an increase in steroidogenesis synthesis. Increased breakdown of<br>fatty acids is inhibited, so that it does not cause a build-up of fatty acids and does not induce an increase<br>in proinflammatory cytokines against gonadotropins, increasing FSH secretion and effecting follicular<br>development.</p> Hany Aryani1,2, Budi Santoso3 , Bambang Purwanto4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Low Carbohydrate – High Protein Diet Does Not Provide Positive Effect on P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (p38MAPK) Expression <p>P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) is the activity of the p38MAPK pathway in muscle cells<br>causing mitogen-activated disorders that are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, and involved<br>in cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Characteristic of p38MAPK expression contributes to metabolic<br>signal on the reduction and excessive production of ovarian androgen found among women with endocrine<br>and metabolic disorders. We suspect that p38MAPK expression changes in ovarian granulosa cells. This<br>research aims to observe changes in p38MAPK expression among PCOS-RI mice fed by a low-protein,<br>high-carbohydrate (RKTP) diet. Testosterone propionate was given to induce the PCOS-IR model, 0.1<br>ml injection of for 28 days intramuscularly on 18 mice. Each mouse was examined for vaginal swabs<br>and ovarian histology. At the end of treatment, the p38MAPK expression score kept increasing and had a<br>significant negative effect with ANOVA test p value = 0.149 (p &gt;0.05). The results of the treatment group<br>posttest showed p38MAPK expression, and there was a decrease compared to the control group. These<br>occurred because the RKTP diet has not been able to stimulate RE stress through the NFK? pathway, so<br>the NFK? pathway increased AGEs receptors on granulosa cells that played a role in oocyte maturation as<br>a response in the follicular development process on PCOS-IR model. Moreover, in this research RKTP diet<br>had not been able to reduce p38MAPK expression in granulosa cells in the ovary</p> Hany Aryani1 , Budi Santoso2 , Bambang Purwanto3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Healthy and Productive Female Workers Movement (Gp2sp) on Work Health Behavior on Female Workers <p>Recently, female workers have to work in almost all sectors. In carrying out their work, female workers faced<br>various risks that have the potential to damage their health. Female workers also have a burden of doing<br>domestic work and responsible for the quality of children as the next generation and experience the biological<br>cycle, such as menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. Based on that, the government has<br>made an effort to improve the health of female workers known as Healthy and Productive Female Workers<br>Movement (GP2SP). The aims of this study is the influence of the GP2SP through flipcharts on work health<br>behavior on female workers. This research was an experimental study through Quasi Experiment with a<br>time series research design and used flipcharts as a media. The sampling technique used was proportionate<br>stratified random sampling. This study involved female workers who met the inclusion criteria. The results<br>showed that there was an influence of the Healthy and Productive Female Workers Movement program<br>through flipcharts to the work health behavior of female workers. It is expected that the company and the<br>workers have a commitment and participate GP2SP activities, so they can improve their health status and<br>productivity</p> Heriati1 , Atjo Wahyu2 , Masni3 , Masytha Muis2 , Furqaan Naiem2 , Saifuddin Sirajuddin4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 How Possible is it to Recover Semen DNA from Laundered Cotton and Polyester Fabrics? <p>Background: A key element of forensic genetics is the ability to remove DNA from semen stain. Using<br>various laundering conditions to remove semen stain is a routinely faced forensic problem Objective: This<br>study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of detection of semen DNA in different types of fabrics<br>after being washed. Method: Semen samples were applied to cotton and polyester clothes. After drying,<br>the clothes were submitted to washing in water at room temperature, in water at 50°C temperature and<br>in detergent at room temperature. DNA extraction was done to estimate the quantity of extracted DNA<br>by spectrophotometer. Results: Different DNA quantities still could be detected after washing. There was<br>highly statistical significant decrease (P ? 0.001) in the amount of extracted DNA in all group samples (after<br>washing) compared to control group. Washing by detergent proved to have the most destructive effect on the<br>DNA stains on clothes followed by washing by water at 500<br>C while washing by water at room temperature<br>showed the highest recovery of DNA in clothes. The amount of the DNA detected in cotton samples before<br>washing was higher than the amount detected in polyester samples before washing</p> Hoda Ahmed Basyoni1 , Karima Mukhtar Mohamed1, Usama Mohamed El-Barrany1 , Laila Ahmed Rashed2 , Heba Mohamed Aboubakr1 , Heba Abdo Abdel Razik1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Manual Sharpening Method Towards the Cutting Edge Index of Sickle Scaler Instrument <p>Introduction: Cutting edge sharpness of the periodontal sickle scaler instrument will become blunt after<br>several times of usage; thus the sharpening will be required to maintain the instrument’s sharpness of the<br>instrument. Based on the method used, manual sharpening using a whetstone can be divided into a moving<br>instrument technique and moving stone technique. The purpose of this study was to analyze the cutting edge<br>index of a sickle scaler instrument after being sharpened with two different techniques using an electron<br>microscope / SEM. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two new sickle scaler instruments of type H15 / 33<br>(Oshung Inc.) were randomly selected and divided into four groups. The scaler instrument originated from<br>the factory was becoming a positive control (Group I); the instrument that has been blunted was becoming a<br>negative control (Group II). The other groups were the blunt sickle scaler that sharpened using the moving<br>stone technique (Group III) and the moving instrument technique (Group IV). The cutting edge index of<br>all instruments was then analyzed using SEM (JSM 6360LA, JEOL Ltd, Tokyo, Japan). The cutting edge<br>index data from the photomicrograph was then processed using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney<br>statistical tests. Result: The results showed a significant difference in the sharpness level between the manual<br>sharpening groups; this can be seen from the p-value = 0,000 (p-value &lt; 0.05). The average cutting edge<br>index value showed the best results in the moving instrument sharpening technique (2.10), followed by the<br>moving stone sharpening technique (3.10). Conclusion: A periodic sharpening of sickle scaler instruments<br>using a moving instrument technique provides a finer and sharper cutting edge level than the moving stone<br>technique.</p> I.Komara1 , A.Susanto1 , I.M.Setiapribadi1 , C.A.Bawono1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Complications and Contraception Failure in East Java Province, Indonesia <p>Family Planning Programs in Indonesia is carried out by means of contraception which is an effort to<br>prevent pregnancy. These efforts can be temporary, can also be permanent. But until now there has not been<br>a 100% ideal method of contraception, because ideally a contraception is seen from the effectiveness, safe,<br>cheap, aesthetic, easy to obtain, does not require continuous motivation, and minimal side effects. Acceptors<br>using reversible contraception (aged 15-45 years) have a 1.8 chance of contraceptive failure. Within 1 year<br>of use, the reversible method fails as much as 1%. Achievement of cases of complications and contraceptive<br>failure in fertile age couples in East Java can be seen that cases have increased from early January 2019<br>to the end of December 2019 with the achievement of 212 acceptors who experienced cases of failure<br>failure and 90 acceptors who experienced complications in the province of Java. East in 2019. The failure<br>of contraception can be caused by various things, namely because of the method itself, termination of the<br>method by the acceptor, lack of discipline in using it or use errors. According to Lawrence Green, a person’s<br>health is influenced by two main factors namely behavioral factors and factors outside behavior. Consists of<br>Prediposing Factor in the form of knowledge attitude, Enabling Factor and Reinforcing Factor.</p> Ida Farida1 , Lutfi Agus Salim2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Validation of a Simple Extraction Procedure for Stimulants Identification from Human Plasma <p>In this study, a novel LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry) method was<br>designed using a simple extraction procedure that was scientifically developed to capture the most relevant<br>stimulants, methamphetamine, MDA (3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine), MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine), and MDEA (Methyl diethanolamine). The LC-MS/MS method was validated using<br>US FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) guidelines, and all validation requirements were<br>satisfactory. This protein precipitation method was specifically developed for handling large numbers of<br>samples with minimum cost and volume of sample. The developed method was accurate, precise, and<br>reproducible for quantification of stimulant from human plasma. This pilot study enrolled 100 drug addicts<br>to evaluate stimulant testing from plasma. Our findings found 47 cases with positive methamphetamine.<br>This method may be valuable for stimulant blood screening for a large and varied population because of its<br>efficiency and economical aspects.</p> Idha Arfianti Wiraagni1-4, Mustafa Ali Mohd2 , Rusdi Abdul Rashid3, Didi Erwandi bin Mohamad Haron2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Injury Risk Factors based on Sleman Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) Data <p>Background: Injuries can occur in various groups of individuals with various risk factors and complications.<br>Health problems due to injuries will put a burden on the victims’ individuals and families, health services,<br>health insurance, even various parties related to the work productivity of victims. The analysis of injury risk<br>factors is an initial effort for injury prevention efforts which are expected to avoid reducing productivity<br>and quality of life of individuals. Problem: Need to explore and analyze risk factors for injury, including<br>demographic profile. Objective: The research to be carried out to determine the prevalence of injury cases<br>and risk factors. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional observational design. The data used is secondary<br>data from HDSS Sleman. Research subjects were all injury cases recorded in the Sleman HDSS document.<br>Statistical analysis was performed to calculate prevalence and see the strength of the relationship between<br>risk factors and the incidence of injury. Results: Males had an accident 54%, in 2017, it rose to 56%, and in<br>2019 it dropped to 55%. In 2016, adults suffered 48% injuries, then decreased to 38% and 36% in the next<br>cycle. In 2016, the number of bruises and abrasions was 72%, and decreased in the next two cycles of 67%<br>and 58%. Part of the body that was most often affected by injury during three cycles was the upper limb.<br>Conclussion : Continued research on injuries and associated risk factors, needs to be done to create health<br>surveillance data.</p> Idha Arfianti Wiraagni1 , Beta Ahlam Gizela1 , Majid2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Emerging Premarital Sexual Behavior among Adolescent in Indonesia: The impact of Knowledge, Experience, and Media Use to Attitudes <p>The number of premarital sexual behavior among adolescent is increasing around the globe. Research showed<br>attitudes influence the increasing number of premarital sexual behavior among adolescent. However, there<br>is a gap in understanding factors influencing the positive attitudes of adolescent. Therefore, this study aims<br>to determine the three factors affecting attitudes (knowledge, experience, and access to media) to prevent<br>premarital sex behavior among adolescent. This study was a quantitative research with cross-sectional<br>design in determining the sample. The simple random sampling method was used and data were collected<br>from 75 high school students of first, second, and third grade (15-19 years old). The knowledge, experience,<br>and the use of media is helpful for adolescent but only to a certain extent. Their positive attitude formed<br>due to other factors that is beyond the scope of this research. This study showed that positive attitudes of<br>adolescent is necessary to help them preventing premarital sex behavior that leads to many health problems.<br>Therefore, we need to revisit existing health programs for adolescent to reinforce their positive attitudes to<br>help them making healthy life choices</p> Ira Nurmala1,2, Citra Ervina Ahiyanasari2 , Muthmainnah2 , Anggun Wulandari2 , Yuli Puspita Devi2 , Rashmi Pathak3 , Yashwant V Pathak4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Decreasing and Determining Child Mortality in Indonesia <p>Child mortality is very important to be considered by policymakers, especially for developing countries, like<br>Indonesia. Child mortality rates reflect the level of health development of a country and the quality of life<br>of its people. The Government of Indonesia through the 2015-2019 National Medium-Term Development<br>Plan (RPJMN) has set a target of achieving a reduction in infant mortality of 24 per 1000 births in 2019.<br>Achievement targets that have been made, are intended to follow the major goals of the Sustainable<br>development goals (SDGs) in health and welfare. The government has issued a policy to reduce child<br>mortality through programs such as Healthy Indonesia with a family approach through Permenkes no.39 of<br>2016. Based on data obtained by the Indonesian Central Statistics Agency (BPS), it was found that neonatal<br>mortality, infant mortality, and infant mortality from 1991 to 2017 there was a decline which meant that there<br>was progress in efforts to reduce child mortality. The success of the Government of Indonesia in reducing<br>child mortality can not be separated from the use of expert theory well. the theories used as references are<br>those of Mosley and Chen, and Filmer who states that children’s survival is influenced by social, economic,<br>and biomedical factors.</p> IskandarAziz1 , Lutfi Agus Salim2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Parkia speciosa Hassk Peels Extract on Total Cholesterol Levels of Hypercholesterolemia Rats <p>Background: This research aimed to examine the secondary metabolites in the ethanol extract of Parkia<br>speciosa Hassk peels and determine the effect of the P. speciosa Hassk peels on the reduction in total<br>cholesterol levels of male hypercholesterolemia white rats.<br>Methods: Thirty white male rats were divided into six treatment groups (n=5): Group I: normal control<br>(0.5% CMC Na suspension), Group II: negative control (high cholesterol feed), Group III: positive control<br>(suspension simvastatin), Group IV, V, VI: hypercholesterolemia rat received P. speciosa Hassk shell at dose<br>of 300, 400, and 500 mg/kg BW orally for 14 days. The total cholesterol levels were measured on days 0,<br>14, 28, 35.<br>Results: Quantitative test showed that the ethanol extract of P. speciosa peels contained 0.21% alkaloids<br>(w/w), 8.34% flavonoids (w/w), 4.21% tannins (w/w) and 0.18% saponins (w/w). The ethanol extract of P.<br>speciosa peels at a dose of 300 mg/kg BW was able to reduce total cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemia<br>white mice (52 mg/dL).<br>Conclusion: The ethanol extract of P. speciosa peels can be considered as an effective treatment for<br>hyperlipidemia disease.</p> Joni Tandi1 , Tien Wahyu Handayani1 , Maria Tandebia1 , Jessica Anastasia Wijaya1 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histopathological Evaluation of Non-Obstructive Azoospermic Males Using Testicular aspirate (TESA) biopsy <p>Background: Male infertility considers a real diagnostic challenge because of several factors have been<br>involved in its pathogenesis. Histopathology of the testicular biopsy consider the corner stone in the<br>diagnosis. The aim of this study is to report the utility of using of Testicular aspirate biopsy (TESA) for the<br>evaluation of the male infertility &amp; compare the outcomes with different parameters.<br>Materials &amp; methods: we design prospective study for 205 infertile males with Non -Obstructive azoospermia<br>who referred to the Teeba IVF &amp; genetic center for the period from December 2016 to December 2018, they<br>underwent bilateral TESA for histopathological evaluation &amp; 45 patients out of 205 male had previous open<br>testicular biopsy. The hormonal profile for all patient. were done. Results: among 205 patients underwent<br>TESA procedure the commonest histopathological pattern was spermatocyte maturation arrest, present in<br>113 patients (55.1%) followed by round maturation arrest in 41 (20%). There was a good degree of agreement<br>between the spermatogenesis scoring according to TESA and open surgical biopsy (P=&lt; 0.001). The plasma<br>levels for both LH &amp; FSH were statistically showing significant differences in their levels according to the<br>TESA spermatogenesis scoring. (P&lt;0,001).Conclusion: the utility of TESA biopsy in the evaluation of<br>testicular biopsy from Azoospermic males is significantly associated with the histopathological pattern of<br>spermatogenesis &amp; hormonal profile.</p> Karbel Hadeel A.1 , Al -Bdairi Adnan A.2 , Khairullah Ahmed R.3 , Al-Humairi Ameer K.4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Affirmation-Tapping to Reduce Pain Perception and Glutamate Serum Levels of Post-cesarean Patients <p>Introduction: Affirmation, by praying and positive evaluation accompanied by acupoint stimulation, has<br>been shown to reduce pain in postoperative patients. In other studies, affirmations can reduce chronic pain<br>due to the down-regulation performance of Glutamate receptors. Acupuncture can reduce pain complaints<br>by modulating Glutamate at the spinal level. So it is suspected that affirmation-tapping can reduce postsurgical pain due to modulation of Glutamate; however clinical studies have not been conducted. The<br>aim is to compare the pain perception of postoperative patients given affirmation-tapping therapy with<br>other treatment patients as complementary nursing interventions. This is to see if the modulation of the<br>performance of serum Glutamate levels is different from other treatments. Methods: We used a randomized<br>post-test control group design that was performed parallel in post-cesarean patients. A sample of 40 patients<br>was divided into four groups (10 in affirmations, 10 in tapping, 10 in affirmation-tapping and 10 in controls).<br>They were obtained through simple random sampling. The instruments included affirmation-tapping guides,<br>Elisa kits and McGill Melzack Pain’s short questionnaire form (MPQ-sf). The independent variable was<br>the affirmation-tapping intervention and the dependent variable was the perception of pain and Glutamate<br>serum level. Data were analyzed using simple linear regression. Results: The average of Glutamate levels<br>in the Affirmation-tapping treatment group was lower (0. 034±0. 004) pg/mL and significantly different<br>(Sig=0.00) from other groups (0. 056±0. 011) pg/mL. Conclusion: Affirmation-tapping as a complementary<br>nursing intervention decreases pain perception and Glutamate serum levels in patients post-cesarean section<br>that supports conventional treatment. Affirmation-tapping is recommended as an intervention to overcome<br>pain perception in postoperative nursing patients who support conventional treatment.</p> Joko Suwito1 , Nursalam Nursalam2 , Agus Sulistyono3 , I Ketut Sudiana3 , Urged G. A. Suprabawati4 , Ahsan Ahsan5 , Ah. Joseph2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Infection in Calves with Effect on Biochemical Parameters <p>This study was conducted throughout the year on 93 calves from different regions of Baghdad province.<br>Three age groups included; Below 1 month, 1-2 months and above 6 months. A changed aim-the technique<br>of stain Neelsen (MZN) has been used for the identification of the development of cryptosporidium and fecal<br>diarrheic samples.<br>In biochemical research, blood samples have been obtained. Cryptosporidium occurrence was much higher<br>in spring season (56%), followed by the winter (52%), the allergy season (46%), and lowermost in a season<br>of summer (40%).The highest rate of infection in animals which was given was the age group of the<br>animals that under the age of 30 days (71%), 2-6 months were (59%) and (43%) were over 6 months old.<br>The animals concerned reported substantial rises in plasma, urea and creatinine relative to stable animals<br>in the management of biochemical changes. Finally, Age and seasonal changes were associated with<br>cryptosporidiosis. The biochemical factors affected by the calves also have a negative effect.</p> Osamah Nasir Wali1 , Ayoub Ibrahim Ali2 , Khalid Ismael Oleiwi3, Mustafa Salah Hasan3 , Mohammed Hamid Kareem3 , Marwa Raad Jead4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Lifestyle among Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Kirkuk City <p>Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is one of the utilitarian gastrointestinal disorders regularly<br>found in the all inclusive community<br>Aims: To evaluation the lifestyle among patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome according to physical,<br>psychosocial and independence areas.<br>Methodology: The samples purposively collected from the patients who referred in Azadi teaching hospital<br>and Kirkuk general hospital in kirkuk city for period from 21th October in 2018 to 28th of April in 2019.The<br>study sampled comprise of (101) patients with IBS diseases were chosen (male &amp; female). A questionnaire<br>was developed for purposive of study &amp; included 2 parts were demographic data and lifestyle of irritable<br>bowel syndrome. The data were arranged for, age, gender, residence and the results of the procedure.<br>Results: The age group (20-30) years was represent (26.5%) of the sample, the female represent (48.5%)<br>from the sample. And findings of the study indicated that the physical domain, also the psychosocial domain<br>of the lifestyle for patients had greatly affected.<br>Conclusion: The study highlights that is most of the patients of IBS to have constipation. Also in a physical<br>domain with good quality of life. Thus, the socio-demographic factors that appear to be most significant in<br>this concomitant with chronic disease condition.<br>Recommendation: The study recommended future studies that include measurement of dietary factors,<br>habits, exercise and psycho-social factors are needed to understanding of the scope and dimensions of IBS<br>in lifestyle.</p> Rebaz Ismeal Ali Wali2 , Assist. Marghoob Hussein Yaas2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Contributed of Breast Cancer for Women in Iraq <p>Background and aim: Breast cancer is abnormal growth of breast cells, result from spurts or abnormal<br>changes genetic that responsible for cell growth and maintain its health. It is one of the most dangerous<br>cancers that affect woman and reports high level of morbidity yearly if not treat early.<br>The study aimed to assess the Factors that Contributed of Breast Cancer for Women.<br>Materials and method: A descriptive design was employed through the present study from November 1st<br>2017 to March 20th 2018, which carried out on four Health Directorates of different Governorates; (Salah<br>Alden, Kirkuk, Diyala and Sulaymaniyah).<br>Assessment questioner consist of two parts contains of women socio-demographical characteristic, the other<br>part concerning of the assessment the risk factors that contribute breast cancer. A non-probability sample<br>(purposive approach) is selected for the study which includes (88) women diagnosed with breast cancer<br>were treated in Hospital or Nuclear centers, or the patients who visited the outpatient clinic in the same<br>hospital or specialist center for medical follow–up and treatment. Data were gathered through the patients`<br>interviewed. Content validity of the questionnaire was done through eliciting the opinions of a panel of (10)<br>expert, while the reliability of this tool is determined through application of a pilot study by using internal<br>consistency through the computation of the Cronbach alpha correlation coefficient of the scale on data<br>gathered from patients.<br>Results: The overall results revealed that most women were adult (42.0%) married (72.7%) with low<br>educational level and they lives in urban (64.8%) with sufficient income (40.9%). Most sample`s work was<br>house wife (64.7 %), and about half of sample were feed his children natural feed. (35. 2 %) were normal<br>body weight and (21.5 %) of high weight.<br>Conclusion: Most women depended on a style of food contain :( fat, kidneys, red meat, dairy product and<br>salt) that will be contributed to breast cancer development. Greatest women experience of psychological<br>problems and don’t compliance of breast self-examination every month.</p> Marghoob Hussein Yaas1 Rebaz Ismael Ali Al – Brzanji2 , Mohammed Abdual Magead Mohammed3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Family Knowledge toward their Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at Al-Hilla City, Iraq <p>Background: The parents lay the foundations for the lives of their children. When a child is born with a<br>developmental disorder, parents also need support in maintaining normal developmental abilities. There’s no<br>way of predicting when a child can master self-help skills. Parents should be assisted, including the child’s<br>primary caregiver and teacher, and must also include sufficient details on the treatment, disease state and<br>commercially accessible tools that can help their children gain independence.<br>Aims: This study aims to assess the family knowledge toward their children With Autism Spectrum Disorder<br>at Al-Hilla City, Iraq<br>Method: This quantitative study using a descriptive correlational design to study the assessment of Family<br>Knowledge toward their children With Autism at Al-Hilla City. A convenience sample of (n=50) consisting<br>of families. Data were selected over two months from the first of September 2019 to the first of November<br>2019.<br>Results: showed significant differences in autism disorder knowledge between age group.<br>Conclusion: Knowledge of the family of Autism spectrum disorder at Hila is on the moderate and differs<br>significantly by age, education, and location. Consequently, it is recommended that autism disorder<br>education should be used to improve their knowledge of the disorder, especially for those with nonformal education, older parents and those in the rural areas, through intervention by government and nongovernment agencies.</p> Abdulmahdi A. Hasan Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Warm Red Ginger Compress Therapy on the Decrease in Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain in the Elderly at the Social Institution Tresna Werdha Pagar Dewa Bengkulu <p>Background: This study aims to determine the effect of compress therapy using warm red ginger to reduce<br>the scale of rheumatoid arthritis pain in the elderly.<br>Study Design:This study used a one-group pretest-posttest pre-experimental research design, with a total<br>sample of 15 respondents.<br>Results:Based on the results of the bivariate analysis using the Dependent T test, it was found that there<br>was an effect between compresses using warm red ginger with a value (p value = 0, 000) on the decrease in<br>the scale of rheumatoid arthritis pain in the elderly at the Tresna Werdha Pagar Dewa Bengkulu Home. The<br>provision of non-pharmacological management in the form of compressing warm red ginger will provide<br>a heat effect so that it can eliminate inflammation and acidity in the fluid content in the joints, besides that<br>there is also gingerol content in the area around the ginger rhizome which has an analgesic effect with<br>techniques to create vasodilation conditions in vessels. blood resulting in decreased pain. Therefore, giving<br>this therapy is very beneficial and helps the elderly who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis pain.<br>ConclusionThe role of the orphanage will be very helpful in informing and facilitating the elderly in reducing<br>the scale of rheumatoid arthritis pain through non-pharmacological management in the form of warm red<br>ginger compress therapy with the hope of improving the health status of the elderly at the social institution<br>Tresna Werdha Pagar Dewa Bengkulu Home.</p> Andri Kusuma Wijaya1 , Ferasinta1 , Yandrizal2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Legal Philosophy about the Performance of the Indonesian National Police <p>This study is intended to absorb various aspirations and information about all aspects of police performances.<br>It is also projected so that the ranks of the police can guarantee openness and accessibility to comprehensive<br>information about their performance. Through this study, the impact of the implementation of the police<br>programs and activities which are then realized through their performances can thus be examined carefully.<br>With this in mind, police legitimacy and community support are expected to flourish. It can be said, the study<br>is actually a kind of ‘tool’ that is important in the effort of raising partnerships as well as synergistic joint<br>problem solving among the police, stakeholders, and the public. Through this study, meaningful dialogue<br>in order to hear, understand, accept, solve problems, and then meet the needs of the police, can take place.</p> Erlyn Indarti Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efforts to Prevent Criminal Acts of Money Laundering Using Penal Policy Measures <p>The context of enforcement of money laundering is not a simple concept that is very complicated because<br>it is so complex that it is very difficult to formulate criminal offenses in an objective and effective manner.<br>This can be seen from countries that regulate the problem of money laundering. Money laundering is already<br>a phenomenon of cross-border crime and organized crime which requires special law enforcement as well,<br>in this case one of the means used is a means of punishment. The modus operandi of money laundering<br>crime continues to change from time to time in line with the advancement of the era and the technology of<br>the community. To that end, increasing the ability of law enforcement officers in the field of enforcement<br>of money laundering crimes must always be improved, one of the efforts to overcome and prevent money<br>laundering by means of a penal policy. In this study, the data used are secondary data with a normative<br>juridical approach and normative descriptive analysis reported in a research report. From the results of the<br>research that has been carried out, it has been concluded that the means of reasoning are useful in efforts to<br>prevent and deal with money laundering.</p> Purwoto Purwoto Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Fiduciary Security Execution after Constitutional Court Decision <p>Fiduciary collateral is one of the material guarantees, thus giving a fiduciary recipient a strong position. This<br>is the main principle of fiduciary collateral, one of which is if the debtor defaults then the fiduciary collateral<br>object can be executed. With the decision of the Constitutional Cour