Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology <p>Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology is a double-blind peer reviewed international journal. The frequency is quarterly. It deals with Forensic Medicine, Forensic Science, Toxicology, DNA fingerprinting, sexual medicine, environmental medicine, Forensic Pathology, legal medicine and public health laws. It has been assigned International standard serial No. p-0973-9122 and e-0973-9130. The Journal has been assigned RNI No. DELENG/2008/21789. The journal is indexed with Scopus, EMBASE. The journal is also abstracted in Chemical Abstracts (CAS) database. The journal is also indexed /abstracted with many databases. </p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> en-US <p><strong>Re use and mixing of content policy</strong>- We follow Creative Commons Licence Policy. We follow CC BY. Please refer below for all details</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>CC BY</strong></p> <p>This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon our work, even commercially, as long as they credit us for the original creation.</p> <ol> <li>The journal allows readers to <em>read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles</em> and allow readers to <em>use them for any other lawful purpose</em>.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions</li> </ol> (Prof (Dr) R K Sharma) (kavita) Fri, 08 Jan 2021 07:12:09 +0000 OJS 60 Socio-Demographic Profile of Fatal Poisoning in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of Coimbatore District-A Retrospective Study <p>Background: Poisoning poses a major public health problem mainly in developing countries. Because of<br>the rapid industrialization and advancement in agricultural sector, fatality by poisoning also increases day<br>by day. The aim of this study is to determine the socio-demographic profile of fatal poisoning in Coimbatore<br>District. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in Department of Forensic Medicine, Coimbatore<br>Medical College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu with data obtained from fatal poisoning cases brought for<br>postmortem examination from January 2016 to December 2016. Identification of specific poisons were done<br>with chemical examiner’s report. All collected data were analyzed in various possible aspects in the prepared<br>proforma. Results: During the study period the total number of medico legal autopsies conducted were 3675<br>out of which fatal cases due to poisoning were 600(16.33%) cases. The study showed that the incidence of<br>poisoning was more common among married men ie.303 cases (50.5%) out of 600 total number of poison<br>cases. The incidence was more common in the age group 31 – 40 years in males (86 cases) which formed<br>14.3 % and in females it is 21-30 years (65 cases) which formed 10.8%.When we observed the religion wise<br>distribution, Hindu males out numbered 369 out of 600 cases which formed 61.5%. Conclusion: Morbidity<br>and mortality due to poisoning can be minimized by health education, early referral, establishment of<br>toxicological units for detection of specific poisons and appropriate guidance for proper management of<br>poisoning cases at hospitals and primary health care centers.</p> Angayarkanni S1 , Jeyasingh T2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Pilates Training versus Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique on Quality of Life in Menopausal Women- A Comparative Study <p>Background: Menopausal women shows common symptoms which includes night sweats and hot flushes,<br>heart distress, disturbances in sleep, depression, irritability, anxiousness, weight changes, physical and<br>mental fatigue, joint and muscle pain. This affects the Quality Of Life of the Menopausal women. Pilates<br>Training has proven beneficial for enhancing Quality Of Life in menopausal women but there is paucity<br>of evidence of effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique in Menopausal women on QOL. The<br>research is an initiative study that focuses on the effectiveness of PMRT on the various aspects of Quality<br>Of Life of the menopausal women and comparison of the Pilates training and PMRT in order to enhance the<br>QOL of participants.<br>Aim and Objective: Effect of Pilates training &amp; Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique on menopausal<br>women’s Quality Of Life and comparison of both the technique.<br>Methods: 42 participants aged more than 45 years will be randomly categorized in two groups: Group A<br>(n= 21) and Group B (n=21). The study duration will be of 6 months. The pre and post Intervention will<br>be taken from both the group and data will be analyzed with the help of main outcome measure which is<br>Menopause specific Quality Of Life (MENQOL).<br>Result- The expected result would include the details about whether the measures are effective for improving<br>the quality of life in menopausal women, as well as the comparison of both the interventions. Data will be<br>analyzed using paired t-test.<br>Conclusion- It will be published after results are analyzed</p> Anjali Bais1 , Pratik Phansopkar2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Muscle Length in Dominant Versus NonDominant Lower Extremity in Young Asymptomatic Individuals- A Research Protocol <p>Background: Muscle length is defined as the length at which the maximum amount of force a muscle is<br>able to produce. This length is determined by the joint angle corresponding to that muscle. Understanding<br>the optimal muscle length as well as its comparison between the extremities is very important as a part<br>of examination in physiotherapy, particularly in the cases of musculoskeletal disorders. Several tests are<br>available for testing the muscle length. However standardize and reliable tests have been chosen to prevent<br>the error while testing. Many studies have shown that there was difference in the lengths of muscle of lower<br>extremity which was assessed in different players. However there is paucity of study on the muscle length<br>of individuals who are completely normal and not the athletes.<br>Objectives: The objective of this study is comparison between the length of iliopsoas, hamstring,<br>gastrocnemius, rectus femoris in dominant to non-dominant extremity in young asymptomatic individuals<br>aged between 18-25 years.<br>Methods: Measurement of hamstring, iliopsoas, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius length will be acquired<br>through standard goniometer. The methods of assessment that will be used are; active knee extension (AKE)<br>tests the hamstrings, Thomas and modified Thomas test to evaluate iliopsoas and rectus femoris while prone,<br>figure-four position accompanied by dorsiflexion for gastrocnemius.<br>Results: Once the study is completed, the parameters of outcome measure will be statistically analyzed and<br>calculated.<br>Conclusion: Based on the previous data we assume that there can be a significant difference between the<br>muscle lengths of lower limb in normal person.</p> Anushree Pawar1 , Pratik Phansopkar2 , KiranKumar3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isoniazid Mono Resistance: Changing Trends in Drug Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis. – A Case Series of 3 Patients <p>Drug resistant tuberculosis is a major public health concern in many countries including India, Isoniazid<br>resistance (INH) accounts for 7.2 % of new cases globally.1<br>In our case series 3 patients had INH mono<br>resistance out of which 2 patients had no previous history anti tuberculosis therapy (ATT). All 3 patients<br>received 6 months of standard regimen under National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (NTEP).<br>All patients showed clinical improvement. INH mono resistance diagnosis is often delayed due to lack of<br>infrastructure of 1st line probe assay (LPA) at various centres. INH mono resistance if diagnosed early can<br>also help in prevention of Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB)</p> Arti D. Shah1 , Anchal Jain2 , Apoorva3 , Kusum V. Shah4 , Yash Rana5 , Saket kumar6 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Effectiveness of Chakramarda (Cassia tora) Ghrit and Go-Ghrit in the Management of Parikartika (Fissure in Ano) <p>The term Parikartika is used for the condition of Guda (anus) where cutting and burning pain occurs, also along<br>with this pain occurs in anus, penis, umbilical region and neck of urinary bladder with cessation of flatus. In modern<br>medicine trend of the management depends on the type of the disease, e.g. in cases of acute variety with short history<br>of the problem can be treated on the conservative lines, which results in healing of almost all acute and majority<br>of chronic fissures. Priority must be placed normalization of bowel habits such that the passage of stool causes less<br>trauma to anoderm. The addition of fiber to the diet to bulk up the stool, stool softener and adequate water intake are<br>the simple and helpful measures. In the present study, an effort was made to derive a standard and easily accessible<br>treatment for fissure-in-ano. Chakramarda is having vra?a shodhana and ropa?a properties which can help the Vra?a<br>(ulcer) to heal rapidly. Its base is Ghrit which itself is having Samskaranuvarti (i.e. it enhances the properties of drug)<br>and healing properties. Chakramarda Ghrit is economically beneficial by virtue of easily available ingredients and<br>a time tested classical formulation. Hence, it was selected for the clinical evaluation in the present study. It proved<br>to be significant in managing Fissure in ano, it reduced pain, itching, bleeding and promoted healing. Properties of<br>its chemical constituent’s probable mode of action can be derived that Chakramarda is efficient in healing any ulcer<br>like anal fissure.</p> Alok Kumar Diwedi1,Alok Kumar Diwedi1, Kiran Khandare2 , Pooja Shrivastav3 Kiran Khandare2 , Pooja Shrivastav3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Percutaneous Subclavian Artery Covered Stent Placement Following Inadvertent Subclavian Arterial Cannulation <p>Inadvertent subclavian artery canulation although rare is a life threatening complication of central venous<br>canulation. Its prompt recognition and management by stent placement, thrombin injection, Angio seal or<br>gel foam embolization is essential to minimize fatal complications. We describe a case report of subclavian<br>arterial canulation which was recognized and managed percutaneously by covered stent placement without<br>complications.</p> Cinosh Mathew1 , R Calton2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Vitamin D level with severity of Coronary Artery Disease(CAD) in patients of Acute Coronary Syndrome(ACS) in a Tertiary Care Centre in Western India <p>Background : Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is a widespread problem in developing countries. Recent<br>studies have shown association of Vitamin D deficiency with atherosclerosis and Coronary artery disease.<br>This study was conducted to assess the relationship between Vitamin D and the severity of coronary artery<br>disease (CAD) in patients undergoing coronary angiography.<br>Materials and methods: Consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography for acute coronary<br>syndrome or effort angina were included in a descriptive cross-sectional study and their Vitamin D level<br>was measured. CAD was defined as at least one vessel stenosis &gt;50% on coronary angiography. Vitamin D<br>levels were correlated to the CAG findings as to the severity and number of vessels involved and also to the<br>traditional CAD risk factors<br>Results: Vitamin D Deficiency was noted in 70.72% of the population in the study. Patients were classified<br>as normal Vitamin D level(&gt; 30ng/ml), Vitamin D insufficiency (20-30ng/ml) and Vitamin D Deficiency<br>(&lt;20ng/ml). Vitamin D levels had inversely correlated with significant coronary artery disease both for<br>number of vessels involved and severity (p&lt;0.001) and dyslipidemia(p=0.009). No significant association<br>was found between VDD and other risk factors such as age, sex , hypertension, diabetes mellitus and<br>smoking.<br>Conclusion : Vitamin D deficiency was noted in majority of the patients undergoing CAG and was found<br>to be significantly associated with the prevalence and severity of CAD. However studies involving larger<br>population are needed to evaluate whether supplementation with vitamin D may help in prevention of<br>atherosclerosis and further development of CAD.</p> Cinosh Mathew1 , Nishant Saxena2 , Ashish Sharma2 , Jayesh Rawal3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Questionnaire-Based Study to Evaluate the Basic Understanding of Pharmacovigilance of the Under Graduate Medical Students of a Rural Teaching Hospital <p>Introduction: Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) have presently been greatly contributing to the hospital<br>admissions, prolongation of the hospital stays, visits to the emergency departments, in turn, contributing<br>to the economic burden of healthcare management. Pharmacovigilance is predominantly concerned with<br>ADRs, and drug safety. The basic understanding about pharmacovigilance is essential for future medical<br>professionals as they will come in contact with the patients and can efficiently report the ADRs.<br>Aim: To evaluate the basic understanding about pharmacovigilance and create awareness in medical students<br>of a rural teaching hospital.<br>Materials &amp; Methods: This was a non-interventional questionnaire-based study, where medical students<br>from a rural teaching hospital were included in the study. They were distributed a simple questionnaire<br>related to pharmacovigilance basic knowledge, through google form link, which they had submitted. The<br>data was analysed.<br>Results: Total 92 participants were included in the study. It was found that, 57.8% of these were female and<br>42.2% were males. Moreover, regarding assessing the basic pharmacovigilance knowledge it was reported<br>that 98.9% were aware about healthcare professionals who can report ADR. Nearly 83.5% were aware about<br>pharmacovigilance. Nearly 70% of the participants had not heard about pharmacovigilance before joining<br>pharmacology lectures. Majority of the participants had never attended any seminar/workshops and agreed<br>to attend in future.<br>Conclusion: The results indicate that the basic understanding about pharmacovigilance is improving and<br>medical student shows interest about creating awareness related to pharmacovigilance, as it is an important<br>aspect of drug safety. However, to further improve their understanding awareness programs for medical<br>student can be conducted.</p> Ervilla E. Dass1 , Maulin Mehta2 , Jayant Patharkar3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing Fear-Avoidance Belief Questionnaire and Quality of Life in Housewives with Knee Osteoarthritis : A Research Protocol <p>Introduction - Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory disorder of cartilage, degeneration of synovial fluid,<br>osteophyte formation, thinning of joint space and sub-chondral sclerosis. The prevalence of osteoarthritis in<br>India was found to be around 28.7%. Females are generally more affected than males with the ratio of 2:1.<br>Of all the joints knee and hip joint are seen to be most commonly affected joint in OA. Prevalence of knee<br>pain is common amongst housewives due to prolong standing and frequent bending. Strenuous physical<br>activity, especially activities requiring kneeling, knee-bending, stair climbing, squatting, prolonged standing<br>as well as knee injury and trauma have also been linked to a high prevalence of symptomatic knee OA. Knee<br>OA causes pain of various degree depending upon the severity of disease which can cause fear in patients.<br>The fear related to pain can results in decrease in quality of life.<br>Purpose - Purpose of this study was to assess fear amongst housewives related to OA using fear-avoidance<br>belief questionnaire and the effects of fear on their daily life using WHOQOL-BREF.<br>Methodology - 200 housewives will be selected according to exclusion and inclusion criteria. Their knee<br>radiography was done to look for level of OA. Then those ladies were interview to find their fear related to<br>disease and its effects and how that affects their quality of life.<br>Results - Results are awaited till the study is completed.<br>Conclusion - Conclusion of this study depends upon the result of this study.</p> Dhanashri R Ghordadekar1 , Angela Kapoor2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Screening for Upper Cross Syndrome in Asymptomatic Individuals <p>Background: Upper cross syndrome has become prevalent in today’s population. This syndrome refers to<br>tightness of muscles such as pectoralis major, upper trapezius and levator scapulae and weakness of deep<br>neck flexors, scalene, rombhoids, serratus anterior, middle and lower trapezius. Poor posture is associated<br>with imbalance created in musculoskeletal system and common condition to be reported as upper cross<br>syndrome. It is commonly seen in people with forward head posture, desk job workers, dentist, beauticians<br>etc. The resulting clinical presentation is complaint of pain in neck and shoulder, cervicogenic headache,<br>hunched upper-back and rounded shoulder. Children are not as proactive today and the rate of the Upper<br>cross syndrome is on the rise. This deviated posture and sedentary lifestyle continues, where it progresses<br>more as the age progresses in adulthood. Aims and objectives: To screen, detect, early treat as well as<br>prevent upper cross syndrome in young individuals. Materials and methods: Asymptomatic individual<br>with 20-40 years of age group will be explained about the procedure before commencement of the study.<br>Posture will be screened using Kinect Azure and REEDCO Posture Assessment Scale will be used for<br>evaluation. Assessment of muscle tightness and weakness will be evaluated using muscle length tests and<br>manual muscle testing.<br>Results: The expected results would include details about prevalence of UCS in asymptomatic individual.<br>The parameters of outcome measures will be analyzed using the statistical test namely students paired T-test.<br>Conclusion: Based on previous data we assume it is essential to screen asymptomatic individual to looks for<br>signs of Upper Cross Syndrome for early detection, prevention and treatment.</p> Heena Pathan1 , Pratik Phansopkar2 , Waqar M. Naqvi3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Novel Research Protocol to Evaluate Psychological Perception Using Brain Gym Exercises in Physiotherapy Students <p>Brain Gym is an academic kinesiological program that is promoted and applied with a consistent learning<br>purpose that aims at enhancing performance such as memory, psychological perception and cognitive<br>skills. The technique requires the participant to communicate with a series of activities that help the body<br>to understand the primary behaviour and learn how to coordinate the brain and entire body. Brain Gym<br>activities includes of 26 basic motions, which are believed to improve perception and stimulates brain<br>hemisphere by neural re-modelling to facilitate whole brain learning. By ways of balancing both the side of<br>brain, behavioral difficulties, social and intellectual burdens are expected to be reduced.<br>Aims and Objective: This study aims to evaluate the psychological perception and decrease depression in<br>the undergraduate physiotherapy students.<br>Method: Here’s a idea we suggest to check the psychological perception with brain gym intervention<br>and the duration for practices comprises of three days a week session, duration of 25 minutes, which is<br>completed in one hour. The depression anxiety stress scale (DASS 21) is used to evaluate disorder which is<br>a valid and reliable tool. This study will be conducted in Ravi Nair Physiotherapy college, Sawangi, Meghe,<br>Wardha. The duration of the study will be six months. The study design is of before after-type with simple<br>randomized sampling.<br>Result: The data will be analysed using Student paired t test.<br>Conculsion: The expected outcome includes the detection of stress, depression and anxiety levels which<br>will be evaluated by using DASS-21. Data analysis will be done using students paired t test and conclusion<br>of the study will be published after the results are analysed.</p> Vaishnavi v. Siroya1 , Angela Kapoor2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Gaming addiction to Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) and Quality of Life <p>Context: Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) are three dimensional games played on personal<br>computers, mobile phones &amp; video games. Millions of people of all ages worldwide participate in gaming<br>and it has become most popular leisure activity for them which sometimes appear to develop problems as<br>a result of excessive gaming, most commonly among young adults/young adults/ students. Aim: The aim<br>is to assess the relationship between gaming addiction to Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs)<br>and quality of life among young adults. Setting and Design: Data collection for the present study was<br>conducted at Private University of Punjab, India in April, 2019. A quantitative research approach with<br>descriptive research design was adopted to assess the relationship between gaming addiction to Massively<br>Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) and quality of life among young adults. Subjects and Methods: By<br>purposive sampling technique, 100 samples (18-21yrs) meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were<br>selected. Statistical analysis used: Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Results: Findings of the<br>study revealed that 61% young adults/ students were non addicted and 39% were addicted to gaming and<br>quality of life was good among addicted and non addicted young adults/ students &amp; there is no significant<br>relationship between gaming addiction to Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) and Quality of<br>life at p&lt;0.05.<br>Conclusion: MMOGs can improve quality of life and playing these online games for long hours may have<br>long term ill effects on various components of health.</p> Divya Thakur1 , Kamalpreet Shergill2 , Gurpreet Kaur3 , Shindbir Kaur4 , Devakshi Abrol5 , Harjot Singh5 , Ashwyn Gill5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice about informed consent amongst Resident doctors at Rural Medical Institute of Central India <p>Informed consent is the process by which the treating health-care provider discloses appropriate information<br>to the patient so that the patient may make a voluntary choice to accept or refuse treatment. There are few<br>studies done amongst the medical residents in India about informed consent. The residents are the stepping<br>stone of the Medical profession, it is proposed that the perception about the informed consent amongst<br>the residents shall be sought. Hence, the study was undertaken with the aim, to appraise the knowledge,<br>attitude, and practices of residents of all three years toward ‘informed consent taking’ with the objectives of<br>assessing and comparing the knowledge, attitude and practices of obtaining informed consent. The survey<br>questionnaire was circulated and data was collated. It was developed in Knowledge, Attitude and practice<br>domain and analysis was done. Based on the result, it was concluded that, in all three domains, there was<br>ascendency of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in three years of resident doctors.</p> Shashank Gotarkar1 , Prakash Mohite2 , Kumar Bijyendra Sourabh1 , Alka Rawekar3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Total Elbow Arthroplasty in a Rare Case of Giant Cell Tumour of Humerus: A Case Report <p>Giant cell tumour forms 4 percent - 5 percent of all bone tumours &amp; 20 percent of all benign bone<br>tumours. It is responsible for 20 percent of bone tumours in China. It is usually single , aggressive locally<br>&amp; accounts for 5 percent of metastasis &amp; 1 percent - 3 percent with malignant changes. Most commonly<br>it is found in people aged 30 to 40 years and in the long bones mainly the meta-epiphyseal region<br>. It is most commonly affects the distal femur , distal radius , proximal tibia and proximal humerus.<br>But the occurrence in the distal humerus is rare. A 50 year old male patient who came with complaints<br>of pain and swelling over right elbow since 3 years. Patient gave history of trauma to right elbow as<br>he met with a road traffic accident. After few days patient noticed swelling which was insidious in<br>onset and gradually kept increasing in size. Patient also had pain in right elbow which was insidious<br>in onset and increased in severity daily. Pain was managed with total elbow arthroplasty and elbow<br>range of motion improved after the surgery. Patient was managed with total elbow arthroplasty<br>and wide resection of tumour which has good functional outcomes , less complications and lower<br>recurrences rates. Patient was followed up at 18 – month and free range of motion of 10º to 110º<br>without pain along with no proof of reoccurrence was noted .</p> Gajanan Pisulkar1 , Kiran Saoji1 , Ulhas Dudhekar1, Sridhar Reddy2 , Shivshankar Jadhav2 , Mohit Dadlani2 , Pratik Phansopkar3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Working Tenure and Working Posture with Musculoskeletal Grievance in Batik Madura Workers <p>Introduction: Batik is one of the cultural heritages of Indonesian people. Batik is the result of acculturation<br>of Javanese, Hindu and Islam which is written on a sheet of fabric. The process of making batik fabric<br>takes a long time. This condition causes many batik workers experience work related disease, such as<br>musculoskeletal grievance. This research aimed to analyze the relationship between working tenure and<br>working posture with musculoskeletal grievance in Batik Madura workers.<br>Methods: This research was an observational research with a cross sectional design. The research population<br>was all Batik Madura workers. The sample in this study was 61 Batik Madura workers. The variables<br>researched included working tenure, working posture and musculoskeletal grievance.<br>Data were collected by observation, filling out research questionnaires, and Nordic Body Map (NBM). The<br>data analysis used was the Spearman correlation.<br>Results: There was no relationship between working tenure with musculoskeletal grievance with a value of<br>p = 0.837 and there was relationship between working posture with musculoskeletal grievance with a value<br>of p = 0.000.<br>Conclusion: The working tenure didn’t have relationship with musculoskeletal grievance. The working<br>posture had a relationship with musculoskeletal grievance.</p> Galuh Sistha Prabarukmi1 , Noeroel Widajati2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Transport Guidelines on Intra Hospital Transport Practices of Nurses and Occurrence of Mishaps among Critically ill Patients <p>Background: Intrahospital transport means transporting ill patients for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures<br>with in the hospital. Implementation of intrahospital transfer demands a well organized meticulous planning<br>and prompt application of well designed plan.<br>Objectives: To compare intrahospital transportation practices and occurrence of mishaps during intrahospital<br>transport before and after administration of hospital transport guidelines and to determine the association<br>with situational variables (level of floors and distance of destination)<br>Methods: Quasi experimental one group pre test post test design was used in the study by event sampling.<br>55 pre test transport and 62 post test events were selected. IHT guidelines was given to nurses working in<br>operation theater by using demonstration cum lecture technique, one on one teaching provided to individual<br>nurse consecutively. Observational technique was used for data collection Result showed that the mean<br>percentage of intrahospital practice were higher(89.37%) then pre test (40.03) with a mean difference of<br>49.33. Computed t value (t=37.46,p=0.000) was statistically significant .Chi square value of occurrence<br>of mishaps regarding intrahospital transport is(X2 =53.9,p=0.001) statistically significant F value between<br>transportation practices with distance from OT were(f=1.68,p=0.16) and Computed t value practices with<br>level of floor were (t=1.60,p=0.39) statistically not significant at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusion<br>Intrahospital transportation guidelines are effective in reducing mishaps and increases transportation<br>practices.</p> Gautam Sakshi1 , Sembian N2 , Kumari Vinay3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge of Women about the Early Detection Methods of Cervical Cancer in Baghdad City <p>Background: Cervical Cancer is considering a public health problem, leading cause of mortality and<br>morbidity among women.<br>Objective: To assess women’s knowledge regarding cervical cancer and. early detection methods<br>Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted, included (200) women from different levels of education<br>who work in the institute, from 5th November 2018 to 30 April 2019, by using interview technique and selfreporting technique . A non-probability (purposive) sample of (200) women. The questionnaire was used<br>for data collection. The validity was estimated through a penal of experts related to the field of study, and so<br>us the reliability was evaluated through a pilot study conduct included (10) women (except from the original<br>sample). Data is analyst through the implementation of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis.<br>Results: The results of this study show that the knowledge of the study sample was low regarding early<br>detection methods, prevention treatment and there was statistical significant relationship between level of<br>knowledge, and some variables<br>Recommendations: It was recommended that increase coverage in cervical screening programs from Iraq<br>ministry of health to encourage women in Iraq. In addition, training program should supply in educational<br>institute</p> Iman A Jaber Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Causative Microorganisms and Antibiotics Susceptibility in Neonatal Sepsis at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Longitudinal Study from Diyala Governorate in Iraq <p>Background: Neonatal sepsis is classified into two types, early-onset and late-onset sepsis, depending on<br>the time of appearance of the clinical features of neonatal sepsis.<br>Objective: We aim to detect the most common causative organisms of neonatal sepsis and to evaluate the<br>corresponding antibiotics susceptibility in the Diyala governorate.<br>Patients and Methods: We prospectively collected a convenient sample of 106 sepsis-proven neonates<br>from the neonatal intensive care unit at Al-Batool teaching hospital. We assessed all cases based on clinical<br>features, laboratory investigations, and demographics.<br>Results: Late-onset neonatal sepsis was predominant (77.4%) among neonates, and it was significantly<br>associated with neonatal prematurity and the mode of delivery at p-values of 0.03 and 0.045 respectively.<br>Premature neonates and those who were the product of cesarean section were more prone to develop<br>late-onset neonatal sepsis with a relative risk of 2.8 and 2.54 respectively. The most common causative<br>microorganism of early-onset neonatal sepsis was found to be Escherichia coli in 45.8% of cases while<br>those causing late-onset neonatal sepsis were mainly due to Gram-negative bacilli represented by Klebsiella<br>pneumonia (46.3%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (24.4%). Multi-drug resistance was evident for most of<br>the causative microorganisms.<br>Conclusion: To recapitulate, late-onset sepsis appeared was more common among Iraqi neonates, and it was<br>significantly associated with the neonate prematurity and C-section mode of delivery.</p> Issam Tariq Abdul Wahaab1 , Sura Qais Mahmood Almaroof 2, Zaid Taha Yaseen3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study Evaluating Correlation between Umbilical Cord Attachment on Placenta in Normotensive and Hypertensive Pregnant Females and its Effects on Fetus <p>Introduction: Well nourished newborn is a reflection of adequate placental function.The umbilical cord<br>that connects fetus and placenta can attach itself to placenta at different placenta.The incidence of central,<br>eccentric, marginal and velamentous cord insertion is 18%,73%, 7% and 1-2%, respectively. This insertion<br>type significantly influences fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes.<br>Methodology: This study was conducted in Department of Anatomy of SBKS MIRC, Vadodara. This was a<br>comparative study between normotensive and hypertensive group in which 500 subjects, in each group were<br>included. Insertion of umbilical cord on placentawas determined and fetal growth and outcome with type of<br>insertion were correlated.<br>Results: The two groups were comparable in terms of demographics.Higher proportion of those in<br>hypertensive group had marginal insertion of umbilical cord (23.40%) as compared to 2.90% in normotensive<br>group. Mean systolic (150.10±7.51mmHg) as well as diastolic blood pressure (91.23±4.00mmHg) was<br>higher in those with marginal insertion of placenta. Mean fetal birth weight and APGAR score at birth and 5<br>minute and proportion of fetus reaching full term, live births were low in those in those in the hypertensive<br>group especially in those with marginal insertion of placenta.<br>Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded that abnormal attachment of umbilical cord on placenta has significant<br>impact on fetal growth and influences the outcomes of pregnancy directly and indirectly</p> K M Parmar1 , Kinjal Jethva2 , Priyanka Sharma3 , Nirali Chavda4 , Hetal Vaisnani5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Cross Sectional Discriptive Study of Analysis of Lambdoid And Squamous Sutures Closure by Ct Scan for Age Estimation <p>Background– Identification is fixation of an individuality by various physical and biological parameters.<br>An individual’s age determination is very important in various civil and criminal medicolegal cases. Age<br>estimation by cranial sutures closure is an old method. This study was conducted to analyze closure of<br>lambdoid and squamous sutures for age estimation in living individuals by CT scan.<br>Objectives– To study the pattern of closure of lambdoid and squamous sutures with relation to age of<br>person. To detect bilateral and bisexual variations in same.<br>Materials &amp; Methods–We had done a descriptive cross-sectional study by CT scan head of 130 living adult<br>persons and analyzed them for closure status of lambdoid and squamous sutures in co-relation to age.<br>Results– In Lambdoid suture complete closure observed 5yrs earlier in upper 2/3rd(L1&amp;L2) parts of right<br>side than left side in both sex while while complete closure observed very late ages(&gt;75yrs) or not at<br>all(lapsed union) in lower 1/3rd(L3) part. Both sides of Squamous sutures follow more or less same pattern<br>for closure in relation to age and sex while complete closure observed at very late ages(&gt;75yrs) or not at<br>all(lapsed union).<br>Conclusion– Closure of Lambdoid and Squamous sutures should be used only as corroborative to other<br>criteria and evidences for age estimation as they might be unreliable as standalone until proven otherwise.</p> Kalpesh M Zanzrukiya1 , Lavlesh Kumar2, Ashish A Bhalodiya3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Laughter Therapy on Reduction of Stress among Nursing Students <p>Context: Stability of hormones are being effected by consistent stress in the human body which leads to<br>changes in thoughts and situations that make the individual perplexed, restless or anxious. Laughter therapy is<br>the antidote for stress. It helps to release serotonin in brain which is essential for the uplift of mood.<br>Aim: The aim of this research is to find out the efficacy of laughter therapy on the decline of stress.<br>Setting and design: Data collection for the commenced study was conducted at Sri Sukhmani College of<br>Nursing and Amar Professional College of Nursing, Dyalpura, District Mohali, Punjab. A quantitative approach<br>with “Quasi-experimental design” was adopted to conduct this research.<br>Methods and Material: Technique used for selecting the subjects was purposive sampling technique. 60<br>subjects were selected and sub grouped into experimental and control group (30 each). 5 point likert scale i.e.<br>Sheldon Cohen?s (1983) Perceived Stress Scale which includes 10 items, was selected to evaluate the level of<br>stress among nursing students.<br>Statistical analysis used: Descriptive and inferential statistics were used.<br>Results:<br>• Before implementation of laughter therapy, it was identified that stress scores were approximately same<br>in both the groups.<br>• After implementation of therapy, it was identified that stress scores in the experimental group was lower<br>than the control group.<br>Conclusions: Study concluded with the result that stress level is alleviating among student nurses with help<br>of laughter therapy</p> Kanika Guleria1 , Pushplata Manta2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Current Trends of Poisoning in Tertiary Care Hospitals Located in a Rural Area of Salem, Tamil Nadu, India <p>Time wise epidemiological studies are important to find out the trends of poisoning in each region. The<br>present study was conducted by collecting data regarding age, sex, marital status, religion, occupation, type<br>and manner of poisoning of cases which got admitted and treated over a period of 3 years to know the current<br>pattern of poisoning in tertiary care hospitals located in a rural area of Salem, Tamil Nadu.<br>Total number cases studied were 170 cases, Among them 60cases (35.3%) belonged to 21-30yrs, males<br>were 86 cases (50.6%) and females 84 cases (49.4%), both the sex were almost equally distributed, 103<br>cases(60.6%) were married, 151cases(88.8%) came from rural area, 160 cases (94.1%) were suicidal<br>and all belonged to Hindu religion. Occupation-wise 56 cases (32.9%) were house wives, students 51<br>cases (31.8%), followed by farmers, laborers and others. Coming to the type of poisons, maximum were<br>organophosphorous compounds 38 cases (22.4%), followed by Paraquat, 3% yellow phosphorous, oleander<br>seeds and others.</p> Koteswara Rao. Vipparla1 , Vijaya Kumari2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Epidemiological Profile of Burn Cases among autopsies Conducted in Dept. of FMT, RIMS, Ranchi <p>Introduction : Every year, it was found that burns caused by fire were responsible for about 265,000 deaths<br>globally. More than 90% of fatal fire-related burns occur in developing or lower and middle income countries<br>(LMICs). Out of this, South- East Asia alone accounts for more than half of these fire-related deaths. In<br>South East Asian region, death due to Burns in girl / women is more than that of Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS<br>and malaria combined. In India, burn injury is found to be one of the major causes of death, especially in<br>females. The problem of death due to burns in developing countries like India is primarily due to various<br>socio-cultural factors prevalent in the country. Some of these factors include poor housing conditions, poor<br>maintenance of electrical appliances, and customs of wearing dresses like sarees or dupatta, practice of<br>dowry, illiteracy level and poverty.<br>Material and Method: Materials for the present study were collected from the medico legal autopsies of<br>296 burn cases, performed at the mortuary of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, during<br>the period from January 2018 to December 2018. A detailed performa was designed with a definite set of<br>questionnaire which formed the basis of this study.<br>Results: In our study, out of the 296 cases, the most common age group involved was 21-30 years with a<br>female sex predilection (female to male ratio of 1.5:1). As far as the marital status is concerned, most cases<br>were of married men and women (66.22%) involving mostly Housewives (43.25%). The most common time<br>period involved was between 4 PM to 10 PM (35.47%). Most of the cases took place at home (75.34%).<br>Conclusion:- Our study primarily focuses on the epidemiological profile of data involving burn cases in this<br>part of India which is relatively a backward area comprising of a majority of tribal population.</p> Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Systemic Sclerosis and Pulmonary Tuberculosis Associated with Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report <p>A 59-year-old man had complaints of shortness of breath, thickened and dry skin especially on both hands.<br>Results of thoracic HRCT obtained interstitial lung disease. A year after, the patient underwent geneXpert<br>sputum test because he still complained of coughing with white phlegm and tightness while doing activity.<br>The test obtained Mycobacterium tuberculosis 2+. He received anti-tuberculosis drugs. One month<br>after infection, the patient was evaluated for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while administration of antituberculosis drugs was continued for up to 8 months. In the second year, the patient had severe restriction,<br>and was given advanced anti-tuberculosis drugs in the sixth month.</p> Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study Protocol for a Randomized Trial on Effect of Safe Patient Handling (SPH) program on Rehabilitation Outcomes and on Safety of Physical Therapists in Rural Hospital <p>Introduction: Patient management and intervention practices are a crucial component of patient treatment<br>in the hospitals. In recent times the focus is put on early and regular mobilization of patients to boost recovery<br>during and after hospitalization. Increase in inpatient mobilization to improve patient treatment raises a<br>physiotherapist’s physical demands and therefore risk of injury. With the context of a patient mobilization<br>program, better work procedures and decrease in physiotherapist’s injuries while working, SPH program<br>will be incorporated.<br>Purpose : The goal of this research is to evaluate the effect of SPH program and mobilization in context of<br>efforts to improve quality of health care and safety of patients as well as the physical therapist.<br>Method : There will be 2 groups, intervention (SPH) and comparison (no-SPH) each group will consist of<br>20 patients. The intervention group will be consisting the patients admitted in rehabilitation unit for the first<br>three months of the research and the comparison group will consist the patients admitted in rehabilitation<br>unit in the last 3 months of the research. Intervention group will undergo rehabilitation with SPH program<br>which will include equipments like lifts based on ceiling and floors, sit to stand supports, motorized hospital<br>beds and ambulation aids.<br>Result : Statistical analysis will be conducted. Comparison will be made on a variety of characters such as<br>age, duration of stay and diagnosis to determine equivalence between the groups. Evaluation of the impact<br>of SPH program on recovery outcome will be done by linear regression model. FIM scores of intervention<br>group at admission and discharge will be compared to the comparison group FIM scores at the time of<br>admission and discharge. The linear regression model will represent the graphical overview of the mean<br>mobility scores at the time of admission and at the time of discharge for each group.<br>Conclusion: The publication of conclusion will be done after conducting the study and obtaining the results<br>through statistical analysis.</p> Poulami Bhandakkar1 , Deepali Patil2 , Angela Kapoor3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Patient’s Knowledge and Satisfaction Regarding Nursing services and Physical Infrastructure of a Tertiary Care Hospital Situated in Rural area of Northern India (Haryana) <p>Background: Nowadays health care quality is a universal concern. The health sector is changing rapidly<br>due to the escalating requirements and desires of patients. The most appropriate method to measure a client’s<br>experiences about available hospital services is a patient satisfaction survey. Present study aimed to assess<br>patient’s knowledge and satisfaction regarding nursing services and physical infrastructure. Methods: 330<br>patients were selected by purposive sampling technique attending various indoor departments of the selected<br>hospital. Self-structured checklist and three-point rating scale each containing a total 90 sets of items used<br>to assess knowledge and satisfaction. The reliability coefficient for the knowledge tool was 0.87 by KR 20<br>and satisfaction was found 0.85 by Cronbach’s Alpha. Result: Study results showed that more than half<br>(59.7 %) patients had very good level of knowledge regarding availability of services. 72.4% &amp; 69.7% of<br>patients were satisfied with Nursing services and physical infrastructure facilities respectively. Item wise<br>distribution of level of satisfaction among patients regarding nursing services reveals that “nurses hear<br>you carefully(64.5%)”, “explain patient’s condition to the family (64.5%),” and “Adequate space in ward<br>(75.5%)” was found ranked 1st with the highest satisfaction, whereas “provide psychological counseling”,<br>“Toilet facility and cleanliness(32.1%)” was found ranked lowest. A significant low positive correlation found<br>between mean knowledge and satisfaction scores regarding nursing services and physical infrastructure as<br>evident by computed ‘r’ value (0.38)<br>Conclusion: Using these necessary responses from the patients, various shortcomings can be pointed out<br>and notify to hospital administration for improvement of the nursing care services &amp; physical infrastructure.</p> Manisha Rani1 , Jyoti Phougat2 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Medicolegal cases : A Potential Source of Coronavirus (SARSCoV-2) Infection in Indian Police Personnel <p>India accompanies the world witnessing a rapidly spreading global pandemic of Covid-19. On 24 March,<br>the Government of India ordered a nationwide lockdown that triggered the mass migration of daily wages<br>workers back to their native states. Without prior testing for SARS-CoV-2, it imposed a new challenge<br>towards the authorities to prevent the possible spread of infection. The study aims to determine the infection<br>status of migrants who died in the jurisdiction of Varanasi district during their journey and the possible risk of<br>spread of Covid-19 to frontline workers. The study was conducted between 24 March 2020 and 10 July 2020.<br>A total of 6 cases came to our department who died during travel. The nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal<br>swabs were taken after the body arrived in the mortuary and sent for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR<br>method to the Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (VRDL), Department of Microbiology of our<br>Institute. A total of six cases were included in this study, of which 3 were positive for SARS-CoV-2 while<br>others were negative. None of them had symptoms of Covid-19 infection, such as respiratory difficulties,<br>sore throat or fever. The guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare were limited<br>in scope to hospital deaths and lacked guidelines to be followed by police personnel while investigating<br>unnatural deaths. This brings the police personnel at risk of contracting Covid-19 infection as the cases are<br>getting tested after the arrival at mortuary. The only way of protection is prevention, which mandates laying<br>down the guidelines at the earliest.</p> Mayank Gupta1 , Amit Kumar Nayak2 , Praveen Kumar Tiwari3 , Taneesha Gupta4 , Surendra Kumar Pandey5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Lunar Cycle and its Correlation with Unnatural Death in Different Age Group <p>It is believed abstraction that the Planets and stars influence human health and psychology is a popular notion<br>in astrological science in India. However, debates are still ongoing about the exact effects and their extent<br>and quality. This study aims to deduce the correlation between unnatural deaths in different age groups and<br>the lunar cycle in 2819 cases. The cases were selected from the dead bodies brought into the mortuary of the<br>department for medico-legal postmortem examination from the various police stations of Varanasi between<br>the duration of 1st January 2013 to 17th July 2014. The compiled data were studied and analyzed statistically<br>by employing the ‘one-way parametric ANOVA.’ It was observed that out of 2819 cases the most affected<br>age group was between 21-40 years (52.4%) followed by the age group 41-60 years (23.1%) and 13-20 years<br>(13.7%). The insignificant rise in unnatural death among different phases of the lunar cycle of different age<br>groups indicates minimal correlation and association with the lunar cycle. A detailed study may be done in<br>the future considering one parameter at a time.</p> Mayank Gupta1 , Amit Kumar Nayak2 , Praveen Kumar Tiwari3 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of High Technology Medical Devices and Its Uses in Patient Care <p>The healthcare sector has a vision of providing the best medical facilities to their patients leading to better<br>health care and minimum of medical errors. The healthcare sector tries to provide the patients access to high<br>quality medical devices, safe and security, effective technology and safe products for their health. Increasing<br>complexity of medical technology and consequences for training and outcome of care. The healthcare sector<br>has created a safe sense of services with enhanced and swift technology which is patient reported outcomes<br>to help the patients rate the quality and working of the hospitals to get a clearer picture. This is possible only<br>with the help of technology and this research paper is a primary data based exploration where techlogy is in<br>the centre.</p> Mrideema Yadav1 , Shailesh Kr. Singh2 , Amit Kumar Pandey3 , Aseervatham Achary4 , Sandeep Tiwari5 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Online Classes during COVID-19 Pandemic: Anxiety, Stress & Depression among University Students <p>COVID-19 pandemic has not only put people at risk of developing physical illness but also face mental<br>distress. This pandemic disease is impacting almost every sector of economy as well as Indian education<br>sector that includes school, colleges and institutes. As everything is virtual with no physical movement<br>most of the mental health illnesses were triggered rapidly such as Depression, Anxiety and Stress. A crosssectional descriptive study design was done to assess the level of Depression, Anxiety and Stress in grad<br>students who were undergoing online classes and the population for research study was all students studying<br>in bachelors’ program of universities. The sample size was 159 students and the tool used for the research<br>study was DASS 21. The researcher concluded that majority of students experienced moderate Depression<br>27(16.98%), Anxiety27 (16.98%) and stress 23 (14.46%) due to online classes.</p> Mridul1 , Bandana Bisht2 , Dhariti Sharma3 , Navdeep Kaur4 Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Reflection of Stress in the Oral Cavity <p>Stress is based on the physical, mental, or emotional reaction to events which cause tension in the body or<br>mind. Different types of diseases affect the human body, some of which may have an unknown etiology. It<br>is one such etiology that predisposes many diseases. Dentists often come across patients in their everyday<br>practice showing signs of stress and about their oral manifestations in the form of recurrent aphthous ulcer,<br>oral lichen planus, and temporomandibular disorders, xerostomia, burning mouth syndrome, bruxism,<br>periodontal disease, dental caries. Identification of such an emotional or psychological disorder stands to<br>benefit both the patient and the practitioner. Consequently, psychological management should be considered<br>when treating patients with any of these psychosomatic disorders. This review literature discussed common<br>oral manifestation of stress.</p> Mutum Sangeeta Devi1, Manju J2 , Takhellambam Dhanapati Devi3 , Binita Sorokhaibam4 , Ravi Ranjan5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Parental Perception on the Effect of Various Factors in a Dental Clinic Affecting Child’s Behaviour <p>Background: Societal, professional views and parenting styles have evolved tremendously over the years.<br>Thus, it is important to understand the parental perceptions on the various factors influencing child behaviour<br>in the dental clinic.<br>Aim: To record and evaluate the parent’s views regarding the various factors that influence child behaviour<br>in a dental clinic.<br>Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 164 parents who were asked to<br>complete a close-ended questionnaire divided into 4 categories- dentist, dental clinical settings, dental<br>treatments and child related factors. This data was analyzed using descriptive statistics.<br>Results: According to the study results, the parents perceived that the dental treatments and dental settings<br>played a significant role (p&lt; 0.05) that affected the child’s behaviour in a dental clinic. There was no<br>significant differences between the “yes” and “no” responses for the dentist and child related factors.<br>Conclusion: The parental attitudes and styles are constantly changing as the society evolves. Thus it is<br>important to understand and reassess their beliefs and update our way of managing the dental setup and<br>treatments regularly.</p> Neethu Ann Preethy1 , Deepa Gurunathan2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching Programme on Knowledge and Expressed Practices Regarding the First Aid Management of Epilepsy among Patient’s Family Members in Selected Hospitals of Ambala, Haryana <p>The epilepsy is a symptom complex of several disorders of brain function characterized by recurring seizures.<br>Practically epilepsy is not a disease but a symptom that may lead to further mental diseases. It includes loss<br>of consciousness, excess movement or loss of muscle tone or movement, disturbances of behaviour, mood,<br>sensation, and perception. Only the patient experiences the Epileptic fits or seizures causing a “sensation”<br>within him/her. Most important thing in the epilepsy first aid management we have to stay calm; most<br>seizures last less than a few minutes. Help the person having the seizure from getting hurt by moving<br>any nearby objects out of the way, as necessary.The research includes Quantitative approach and quasi<br>experimental non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Total 60 patient’s family members (30 in<br>experimental group and 30 in comparison group) were recruited. Conveniently 1 hospital were selected and<br>then the sample was chosen by convenience sampling technique. Tools in the study were selected variables,<br>structured knowledge questionnaire and structured expressed practices scale. The mean post-test knowledge<br>score of experimental group was higher (14.67) than the mean post test score of comparison group (9.77)<br>which was found to be statistically significant (‘t’ = 2.21, p = 0.00**) at the 0.05 level of significance. The<br>mean post-test expressed practices score of the experimental group was higher (91.87) than the mean posttest expressed practices score of comparison group (74.50), which was found to be statistically significant (‘t’<br>= 14.46, p =0.00**) at the 0.05 level of significance. No significant association was found among knowledge<br>scores and expressed practices scores regarding first aid management of epilepsy among patient’s family<br>members with selected variable. Video assisted teaching was effective to improve the knowledge and<br>expressed practices regarding First aid management Epilepsy among patient’s family members as there was<br>a significant difference between experimental and comparison group.</p> Neha Singh1 , Uma J. Deaver2 , Manpreet Sharma3 , Manish Bathla4 , Jyoti Sarin5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Variation in the Shapes of Coronoid Process of Dry Human Mandible of Gujarat Region <p>Introduction: Coronoid process is single the bony processes of the ramus of the mandible. It is a thin, triangular<br>eminence, which is flattened from side to side. It differ in shape and size. The importance of frequency in the<br>shapes of Coronoid process is important for maxillofacial surgeons as a graft material as well as for anthropologists<br>for the detection of races.<br>Aim: To determine the different shape of Coronoid process of mandible in both sides.<br>Materials and Method: The Present study was conducted on 50 mandibles from the department of Anatomy,<br>Baroda Medical College, Baroda. Variations in the shapes were observed, and photographs were taken.<br>Results: Triangular shape of Coronoid process was most prominent as compare to hook and round shape.<br>Triangular shaped Coronoid was seen in 70% shaped (Type: I) followed by Rounded shaped 26%, Hook<br>shaped was least 4% respectively.<br>Conclusion: This study will be helpful for maxillofacial surgeons, anatomists, forensic researchers,<br>anthropologists.</p> Nirali Chavda1 , Priyanka Sharma2 , Kinjal Jethva3 , Kantilal Parmar4 , Hetal Vaishanani 5, A.R.Gandotra6 , G.V.Shah7 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Physical and Mental Abilities in Fulfilling Children’s Rights in the Program of ‘Kampung Anak Negeri’ in Surabaya <p>As an obligation to protect the children, both physically and mentally, every child must be provided in<br>accordance with their welfare by providing guarantees for the fulfillment of children’s rights. The Indonesian<br>government’s concern for the protection and fulfillment of children’s rights has actually existed since the<br>enactment of Law Number 4 of 1979 concerning Child Welfare. However, until the promulgation of the<br>Child Protection Act to date, welfare and fulfillment of children’s rights are still far from what they should<br>be, mostly for street children and neglected children. The purpose of this research is to study how the efforts<br>to fulfill children’s rights through the program specifically for street children and neglected children. The<br>method used in this research is normative juridical. Based on the results of the study, that the Kampung<br>Anak Negeri Program in Surabaya was made as a social service for the fulfillment of children’s rights in the<br>orphanage system, including meeting the needs of food, clothing, and shelter, as well as mental and spiritual<br>guidance, behavior, children’s talents, and business skills that can improve child welfare after leaving later.</p> Novira Maharani Sukma1 , Irawati1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of Medico Legal Aspects of Clinical Practise and Common Medico Legal Issues among Medical Graduates <p>Background: Medical practitioner is expected to have skills and knowledge in his field along with legal<br>aspects of practise of Medicine, various medico legal issues and management of such issues. The study will<br>help us to know the areas of weakness with regard to handling of medico legal issues among the medical<br>graduates and can suggest remedial measures to improve the learning process.<br>Method: Data will be collected by giving a printed questionnaire which consists of seventeen questions<br>related to basic knowledge of medico legal issues and its management. This will be done only after taking<br>consent. The participants are required to answer by agreeing or disagreeing the statements given or by giving<br>simple answers to the questions. Data will be analysed using Microsoft excel &amp; SPSS Software and results<br>will be presented with frequency and percentage and will be illustrated within charts and tables.120 medical<br>graduates participated in the study and study showed an existence of gap in the learning and practical<br>knowledge about medical legal issues and its practise.<br>Conclusion: Regular training to update the knowledge of medico-legal issues is necessary to ensure<br>continuous improvement of the quality of health care delivery and better administration of justice.</p> Padmakumar.K 1 , Ajith Paleakkara2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Education and Information Technology on Menopausal Syndrome among Rural and Urban Premenopausal Women <p>Background: Menopause is defined as the point in time when menstrual cycles permanently cease due<br>to the natural depletion of ovarian oocytes from aging. The diagnosis is typically made retrospectively after<br>the woman has missed menses for 12 consecutive months. Pre-menopause is a biological stage in a woman’s<br>life when she is no longer fertile and is marked by the cessation of menstruation. The study aimed to assess<br>the effectiveness of education and information technology on menopausal syndrome among rural and urban<br>premenopausal women.<br>Methods: Pre experimental research design was used with 50 rural premenopausal women and 50 urban<br>premenopausal women samples who matched the inclusion criteria were selected by simple random sampling<br>technique. Demographic variables were collected by self structured questionnaires. The results of the study<br>are in rural, 31(62%) women had adequate knowledge in pre test and 40(80%) in post test, 15(30%) women<br>had moderate knowledge in pre test and 10(20%) in post test, 4(8%) women had adequate knowledge in pre<br>test. In urban 42(8%) women had adequate knowledge in pre test and 39(78%) in post test, 7(14%) women<br>had moderate knowledge in pre test and 11(22%) in post test, 1(2%) women had adequate knowledge in pre<br>test on menopausal syndrome among rural and urban premenopausal women.<br>Conclusion: The study concludes that majority of the women had a negative outlook towards premenopausal<br>syndrome and their management. After providing information regarding premenopausal syndrome and<br>management women had a positive outlook.</p> Parimala.L1 , Kaviya.S2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Study of Combined Endoscopic And Percutaneous Management of a Late Complication Following Tension-free Vaginal Tape (TVT) Anchored Stone for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence <p>TVT is a simple and less-invasive variation of the suburethral sling with higher success rates1. It has been<br>rapidly gaining popularity worldwide but it has also lead to increasing number of patients presenting with<br>associated complications. Bladder erosion through the bladder wall occuring predominantly within the first<br>2 years the placement of TVT is producing tension or in the close proximity of the bladder..Formation of a<br>calculus in the urinary bladder secondary to an intravesical mesh erosion is relatively infrequent rare and<br>delayed complication.Owing to the scarcity of the data on mesh erosion there is no consensus regarding the<br>ideal approach to remove the mesh Combined endoscopic and percutaneous approach should be opted as the<br>preferred approach .Open surgery should be opted only if minimal invasive approach fails.</p> Patel Mikir1 , Nahar Gaurav1 , Pavan Kumar Tungala2 , Patel Harsh2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Medicolegal Evaluation of Burn Injuries- An Autopsy Based Study <p>Even before the primitive man learnt to use fire, he has been a victim of it. Our study was carried out over<br>a period of 2 years starting from 1st September 2012 to 31st August 2014 at SCB Medical College, Cuttack,<br>Odisha on burn deaths. Aim and objective of the study was to know demographic pattern, cause of death and<br>relation of body surface involved.<br>The rate of burn death was 16.7% of the total autopsy. Female victims outnumbered male victims with a<br>female to male ratio approximately 3.2 : 1. Majority of the cases belong to adolescent and young adult (11-<br>40 years) age group. Maximum no. of victims were married. In most of the cases fatal period was within<br>24 hours. Most of the deaths occurred when &gt;40% of TBSA is involved. Most of the victims died within<br>1 week. More than 80% of TBSA are involved in majority of cases of shock, whereas a wide range of<br>TBSA(30-100%) is involved in cases of septicaemia. Major cause of death in burn was septicaemia.</p> Pradeep Kumar Nayak1 , Bibhuti Bhusana Panda2 , Sudhansu Sekhar Sethi3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Eating Attitudes Test Students Using EAT-26 Questionnaire Among Physiotherapy Undergraduate Students <p>Introduction: Increased number of high BMI individuals eventually leads them to low self-esteem, low selfevaluation which can lead to self-destructive behaviours such as uncontrollable dieting or overeating.<br>thus,<br>in order to evaluate the eating attitudes a study is conducted among the undergraduate students. Incidence<br>of fast food is increasing rapidly day by day especially in the young individuals, with improper food eating<br>habits at irregular intervals which includes increased intake of carbonated soft drinks in young individuals,<br>due to which there is increased risk of various health hazards out of which the most commonest health<br>hazard is increased risk of obesity in young population especially of urban region obesity also affects the<br>individuals in different aspects such as lethargy, psychological disturbances and physical inactivity leading<br>to increased risk of cardiovascular complications. EAT -26 questionnaire is a screening measure which<br>helps in determining whether you might have an eating disorder that needs professional attention. This<br>questionnaire is a screening measure and is not designed to make a diagnosis of an eating disorder or to<br>replace the place of a professional consultation.<br>Objective: The objective of the study was to get the number of individuals at risk and to analyse the change<br>in the food habits.<br>Study design: The design of the study is Observational with 1 month study duration.<br>Result: 44 students were having inappropriate eating disorder whereas 156 students were having normal<br>eating habits.<br>Conclusion: 22% of students are at risk of eating disorder tested by EAT 26 questionnaire .</p> Prasad B. Risaldar1 , Akshata Raut1 , Arti Sahu2 , Waqar M. Naqvi3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Active Release Technique verses Conventional Physiotherapy in Management of Upper Cross Syndrome <p>Background: In upper cross syndrome (UCS), weaker neck flexors, anterior and middle serratus and lower<br>trapezius along with rhomboids usually develop, and tightness of the levator scapulae, pectoralis major and<br>upper trapezius are biomechanically adapted. Active Release Technique (ART) helps to reduce discomfort<br>and improve the range of movement. Also, Active Release Technique (ART) is a manual procedure which is<br>also being used for other soft tissue rehabilitation as well as for the management of the scar tissues. UCS and<br>neck pain is common with uncomfortable job postures as well as in stress and anxiety, due to which muscle<br>dysfunction starts which can further followed by altered posture around the neck.<br>Aim and Objective: To evaluate the effects of Active Release Technique verses conventional physiotherapy<br>in management of upper cross syndrome physiotherapy.<br>Materials and Method: 35 patients will be grouped in two groups. Both groups will be treated for six<br>sessions. Group A will be treated with active release technique and static stretching along with hydrocollator<br>pack. The patients coming under Group B, conventional physiotherapy would be given which include upper<br>trapezoid stretching, levator scapulae and pectoralis major as well as rhomboid strengthening, deep neck<br>flexors, lower trapezius along with the hydrocollator pack.<br>Result: The parameters of outcome measures in interval of pre and post treatment will be analysed using the<br>statistical test namely students paired T test.<br>Conclusion: Based on the previous data of ART we assume it will be beneficial in relieving the symptoms<br>involved in UCS.</p> Prasad Risalda1 , Pratik Phansopkar2 , Waqar M. Naqvi3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Significance of Measuring Dimensions of Lumbar Lamina and Spinal Canal – A Cadaveric Study <p>Introduction: The incidence of lumbar nerve root compression and surgeries for its treatment like<br>laminectomy, laminotomies are increasing. Similarly, intralaminar screw insertion and use of laminar hooks<br>for stabilization is also gaining popularity. The dimensions of lumbar lamina are of importance for designing<br>of lumbar spinal implants used. Method: The present study was under taken to measure vertical height of<br>lumbar lamina and width of lumbar vertebral canal in cadavers. Lumbar spine was exposed from posterior<br>midline approach in 20 formalin preserved cadavers. The dimensions of lumbar lamina L1 to L5 were<br>recorded with the help of Digital Vernier Caliper after removal of soft tissue from the vertebrae. The data<br>was analyzed using SPSS software version 23. Result: Range of transverse width of vertebral canal of<br>L1 and L2 was 14-23 mm. It gradually reduces in L3, L4 and L5 (12-21 mm). There was no significant<br>difference in width of vertebral canal between Male and female. Mean height of lamina at junction with<br>transverse process at L2 was (25.7±2.8mm) which reduced from L3, L4 and was lowest in L5 (20.8±2).<br>Mean height of lamina at junction with Spinous process increased from L1 to L2 (27.55±3.3) and decreased<br>from L3, L4 and L5 being smallest (24.3±2.7). The gender, right and left differences for the dimensions of<br>lumbar vertebral lamina were statistically insignificant. In 35 percent cases the spinous processes were fused<br>which was an accidental finding. Conclusion: The data so collected will be of great significance for spinal<br>surgeons and for designing of implant around this region.</p> Priyanka N. Sharma1 , Manoj Kulkarni2, A. R. Gandotra3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Screening for Lower Cross Syndrome in Asymptomatic Individuals- A Study Protocol <p>Background: lower cross syndrome results from muscle strength imbalance in the lower segment. It is<br>characterized by specific pattern of muscle weakness and tightness that cross between the dorsal and ventral<br>sides of the body. In lower-crossed syndrome, the patient typically has anterior pelvic turn, elevated lumbar<br>lordosis (swayback), and weak abdominal muscles. Inaction may also have a detrimental effect on the<br>mechanics of the body, such as immobilization, disuse or excessive postural discomfort, such as sitting at<br>the workstation for long periods of time and poor posture .It also involves tightness of the iliopsoas, rectus<br>femoris, fascia lata tensor, adductor group, gastrocnemius, and soleus. Pressure biofeedback device is used<br>for the purpose of measuring and treating the transverse abdominis muscle. This study is needed because<br>over time due to prolonged daily activities and lack of regular exercises in young people, this leads to muscle<br>imbalance which leads to low back pain in this population. The goal of the study is to screen for lower cross<br>syndrome in asymptomatic individual.<br>Aim and objective: To screen for lower cross syndrome in asymptomatic individual. Materials and<br>Methods: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 300 individuals will be included in the study and<br>the respective evaluation procedure for lower cross syndrome will be carried out.<br>Result: The expected results would include the data about whether lower cross syndrome would be detected<br>in the asymptomatic individuals. Data will be analyzed using paired T-test.<br>Conclusion: based on the previous data of test and assessment we assume it will be beneficial in relieving<br>the symptoms of lower cross syndrome.</p> Priyanka Sahu1 , Pratik Phansopkar2 , Kiran Kumar3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Unnatural Deaths in the Paediatric Age Group in a Tertiary Hospital at Bangalore: An Autopsy Study <p>Background and Aim: During transition from childhood to adulthood, people are exposed to various<br>hazards having potentiality lead to unnatural deaths by distorting physical, mental and social wellbeing.<br>Studying pattern of unnatural deaths helps stakeholders to formulate policies for prevention of loss of<br>important human resource.<br>Materials and Methods: A descriptive study with purposive sampling was conducted at KIMS Hospital and<br>Research Centre, Bangalore from 2013 to 2015 wherein the data using pre-tested structured proforma was<br>collected from autopsies of unnatural deaths among pediatric age group (0-18 years). The details pertaining<br>to the Socio demographic characteristics, pattern of injuries and cause of death was ascertained from the<br>police reports, reliable attendants of the deceased, histopathological /hospital records and postmortem<br>reports.The data obtained from this study was analyzed statistically by presenting the data in the form of<br>appropriate tables and graphs, computing the descriptive statistics like mean, median, standard deviation<br>and percentages.<br>Results: Out of 832 cases, 703 (84.5%) were unnatural deaths, amongst which 8.8% cases were of paediatrics<br>of age group. In that (82.2%) 51 cases belonged to 12-18 years, followed by 5-12 years and preschool age<br>(3-5years) each with 4 cases (6.5%), 3 cases (4.8%) are of toddlers (1-3) years and no cases were reported<br>among infants. Male preponderance was seen 35 cases (56%). Maximum number of deaths occurred during<br>evening times i.e., 30 cases (48.39%).In the present study, maximum number of victims were from social<br>class II i.e., 38 cases and least among social class I with only 1 case. Out of 62 cases , 37 cases (60%) were<br>intentional deaths (1 case (3%) is homicidal and 36 cases (97%) were suicidal )and 25 cases (40%)were<br>unintentional deaths. In the present study out of 36 suicidal cases, Hanging was the most preferred method<br>used to commit suicide with 26 cases (42%), followed by burns and drowning with 1 (8%) case each. Out 62<br>cases, only 12 (19%) cases were treated before death and remaining 50 (81%) were not treated prior to death.<br>Conclusion: This study indicates that there is an immense responsibility for the parents and caregivers in<br>supervising their children .The public health burden of all unnatural deaths needs to be estimated to provide<br>a rational basis for policy decisions to implement necessary interventions.</p> R K Varma1 , P Shruthi2 , S R Jagannath 3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Time Since Death from Na+ Ion Concentration in CSF <p>In the present study 100 medico legal cases examined for Na+ ion concentration in CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)<br>at different postmortem interval in the department of Forensic Medicine Indira Gandhi Medical College,<br>Nagpur. Analysis revealed that there is decrease in sodium ion concentration with PMI, and shows negative<br>coefficient correlation r= -0.721. (p&lt;0.001), the least square regression equation is found to be y = -1.027x<br>+ 138.7, where y= sodium ion concentration (independent variable) and x= time since death (dependent<br>variable). The sodium ion concentration in CSF decreases after death and it is statistically significant<br>but individual variation is such that we can’t accurately calculate postmortem interval from sodium ion<br>concentration.</p> Rajesh S. Chintalwar1 , Anurag Kesarwani2 , Shailendra G. Dhawane3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Vachadi Ointment in the Management of Scabies - A Case Report <p>Introduction: Skin disease has a high prevalence throughout the world. Scabies is contagious and can<br>spread quickly through close physical contact so it is an acute communicable disease. It is highly prevalent<br>in young children. The present study is aimed to show the effect of Vachadi ointment on scabies in children.<br>Scabies is characterized by nocturnal itching, vesicular or pustule eruptions, with small red bumps and<br>blisters. According to Ayurveda Scabies can be correlated to Pama. Pama is one of the eighteen types of<br>Kushtha (Skin Disease) according to the Charak Samhita (Chikitsa-Sthana) which is caused by vitiation of<br>Kapha and Pitta Dosha. Case Description: A 10 years old male patient brought with complaints of itching<br>in between the fingers of both the hands, wrists and forearms since 10-12 days. On local examination,<br>vesiculopustular lesions were present along with dry scaly patches over both the hands, wrists and forearms.<br>Effect of the treatment was assessed on the basis of clearance of lesion and relief from itching. Conclusion:<br>After intervention of the Vachadi ointment for 14th day, there was a marked improvement in symptoms<br>like itching, scaling, and discharge. So, it can be said that Ayurveda has a better remedy for skin related<br>complaints.</p> Rakesh Khatana1 , Renu Rathi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Vachadi Ointment in the management of Pama Kushta (Scabies): A Novel Research Protocol Using Science of Ayurveda <p>Background: Scabies is a common cause of itching is produced by infestation with the mite Sarcoptes<br>scabiei var hominis. Poor hygienic condition and overcrowding, permitting close body contact favour the<br>transmission of the disease. Scabies is more prevalent in overcrowded communities with low socioeconomic<br>conditions. The point prevalence in the general population of rural India is about 13%,In Maharashtra<br>81% of inmates of an orphanage in rural area,[6] 72% of cases are seen in the age group of School going<br>children’s. Pama Kushtha characterized by many small Pitikas, Srava, Kandu, Toda and Daha that may be<br>considered as scabies in contemporary science. Aim: The present study is aimed at evaluating the effect of<br>Vachadi Ointment in the management of Pama Kushta. Material &amp; Methods: The present study is designed<br>as a Non-randomized controlled clinical study, in which minimum of 30 patients will be enrolled. Vachadi<br>Ointment will be administered external application 2-3 times in a day. Assessment will be recorded on 3rd,<br>5th, 7th and 14th days. Results: Changes will be observed in subjective parameters such as Kandu (Itching),<br>Toda (Pain), Daha (Burning) and objective parameters such as Pitika (Eruption) and Srava (Discharge).<br>Conclusion: Suitable conclusion will be drawn post completion of the trial.</p> Rakesh Khatana1 , Renu Rathi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Palmar Dermatoglyphics and Idiopathic Epilepsy – A Systematic Review <p>Dermatoglyphics is the science which deals with the study of dermal ridge configuration on the digits, palms<br>and soles. Etymologically this term is harmonious blend of two words Derma – skin; Glyphe – carve. It gives<br>the impression that something has been carved out of the skin. The entire human body is clothed with the<br>skin which happens to be the largest and most important organ of the body. However, the skin on the ventral<br>sides of the hands and the plantar sides of feet is exclusively designed and is corrugated with the ridges<br>and configurations which are functionally useful as they help in the grasping without which the objects<br>would easily slip away from the hands. Dermatoglyphic traits are genetically determined. Dermatoglyphic<br>abnormalities are due to genetic or other factors that express their effect before the end of 5th month of foetal<br>development. The permanency of finger patterns, the extreme variability from one individual to the other<br>and easy analysis are some of the reasons for its wide application in a variety of conditions. Abnormality in<br>the genetic configurations of parents is inherited by children and is reflected in the dermatoglyphic pattern.<br>Hence dermatoglyphic study proves to be a very useful, easily applicable, inexpensive, indispensable tool<br>as an indicator in the diagnosis of hereditary diseases in patients. The etiology of the epilepsies allows a<br>classification of syndrome features into two groups – idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy, which has isolated<br>primary symptoms without apparent cause and is probably hereditary and finger print configurations are<br>inherited with an embryonic origin common to nervous system. Their attractions indicate pleiotropic effects<br>of the genotype responsible for enaphalographic irregularity and convulsive seizures.</p> Rashmi C Goshi Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the Serum Concentrations of Micronutrients Zinc and Iron in Epileptic Children before and after Administration of Valproic ACID <p>Introduction: The mortality rate of epileptic patients has increased despite advances in the treatment of<br>epilepsy. Several studies have indicated that changes of micronutrient homeostasis led to seizures. The<br>anticonvulsant valproic acid affects the intracellular concentration of micronutrients.<br>Objective: To compare the serum concentrations of micronutrients zinc and iron in paediatric patients with<br>epilepsy before and after administration of valproic acid.<br>Method: A prospective cohort design study was conducted in children with epilepsy from July to December<br>2019 in the outpatient department of paediatric neurology, Dr. Soetomo Regional Public Hospital, Surabaya,<br>Indonesia. Serum concentrations of micronutrients zinc and iron were measured using the colorimetric<br>method. Statistical analysis used paired t-test with p&lt;0.05 being considered significant.<br>Results: The study sample comprised 20 children with epilepsy. There were 13 (65%) males. Eight (40%)<br>children were in the 1-5 year age group. Seizure type was generalised in 18 (90%) patients. The mean serum<br>iron concentrations before and after valproic acid treatment were 23.9±16.8 µmol/L and 25.8±16.4 µmol/L<br>respectively (p=0.700). The mean serum zinc concentrations before and after valproic acid treatment were<br>13±16.8 µmol/L and 26.8±15.4 µmol/L respectively (p=0.004).<br>Conclusions: There was a statistically significant increase in the mean serum zinc concentration after<br>valproic acid treatment in children with epilepsy. There was however no statistically significant increase in<br>the mean serum iron concentration after valproic acid treatment in children with epilepsy.</p> Ratih Dwi Andini1 , Darto Saharso2 , Roedi Irawan2 , Prastiya Indra Gunawan2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Palaskhshar ointment in the management of Abhyantar Gudarsh – An Ayurvedic Management Protocol <p>Background: Hemorrhoids or piles are a common ailment among adults. More than half of men and women<br>aged 50 years and older will develop hemorrhoid symptoms during their lifetime. This disease Gudarsha<br>comes under the heading of Mahagada, as it is Dirghakalanubandhi, Dushchikitsya in nature, Tridoshaj and<br>involves the Marma and it is well known for the chronicity and difficult to treat. Aim &amp; Objectives:- To<br>evaluate the effect of local application of Palash Kshar Ointment in Management of Abhyantar Gudrsha.<br>Methodology:- The study is prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Total 60 patients will be<br>selected for this study, which will be further divided randomly into two groups. Each group consists of<br>about 30 patients. In which group A, will be trial groups and group B will be control groups. Every patient<br>will be observed at regular follow up. On 7th, 14th, 21th, 28th Day.. Results– Results will be drawn from the<br>observations of objective parameters. Conclusion – Conclusion of the study will be drawn on the basis of<br>statistical data calculated from the collected data.</p> Ravikumar S Suryawanshi1 , Kiran Khandare2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Response Evaluation on Single Common and Uncommon EGFR Mutation on First-Generation EGFR-TKI Therapy in NSCLC Patients <p>Objective: To compare the response of first-generation EGFR-TKI (epidermal growth factor receptortyrosine kinase inhibitors) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with single common and<br>uncommon EGFR mutation.<br>Methods: Patients were divided into two groups, the uncommon (exon 21 L861Q, exon 18 G719X, exon<br>18 delE709) and common EGFR mutation group (exon 19 deletion, exon 21 L858R). Health-related quality<br>of life (HRQOL) using EuroQol EQ-5D® questionnaire, body weight, performance status (PS), Response<br>Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) on chest CT, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall<br>survival (OS) was recorded during TKI therapy.<br>Results: The value of HRQOL was stable and PS was constant in both groups, body weight was constant<br>in uncommon group (42.1%) and increased in common group (44.1%; p=0.165). The uncommon group<br>showed mostly progressive disease in RECIST (47.4%) while the common group showed mostly partial<br>response (42.2%; p=0.007). PFS in the uncommon group was 4 (2.0-6.0) months and 7.0 (2.0-21.0) months<br>in the common group (p=0.001). OS in the uncommon and common group were 4.00±1.71 months and<br>10.00±6.94 months (p&lt;0.001), respectively.<br>Conclusion: NSCLC patients with common EGFR mutations showed a better response and survival rate<br>compared to uncommon EGFR mutations on first-generation TKI therapy.</p> Rena Arusita Maranatha1 , Laksmi Wulandari2 , Gatot Soegiarto3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histopathological Assessment of Autopsied Salivary Gland Tissue to Estimate the Post Mortem Interval – A Cross Sectional Observational Study <p>Background: In biological system, cells are considered as dynamic and complex structures likewise cellular<br>disintegration is also a complex process which occurs in a sequence. Therefore, these autolytic cellular<br>changes have been investigated by forensic pathologist in an attempt to find markers that may assist in<br>determining the time of death. In this study we attempt to analyse the efficacy of oral soft tissues specifically<br>salivary gland in concluding the time since death.<br>Methodology: After obtaining approval from the human ethical committee, informed consent from the<br>relative of the corpse and the investigating police officer, demographic information, as well as post mortem<br>number was recorded. Submandibular Salivary Gland was collected for histopathological analysis during<br>routine autopsy procedure. The specimens were fixed immediately in 10% formalin, processed, sectioned<br>and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The stained sections were evaluated under light microscope for<br>histopathological changes.<br>Conclusion. The histopathological changes in the autopsied salivary gland tissue can be used as an adjuvant<br>to estimate the post-mortem interval.</p> S.Rajkumari1 , R.Mensudar2 , N. Naveen3 , B.Thayumanavan4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Melatonin in the Treatment of Experimental Enterobius Vermicularis Infection <p>This study aims to realization the conceivable therapeutic of melatonin effects experimental against<br>Enterobius vermicularis in rats. Implement this experiment during the period from August 2019 to January<br>2020. E.vermicularis infected with male wistar rats orally with dose 15mg/kg melatonin former of body<br>weight for 30 day showed significantly reduction in the number of eggs and worms compared with rats<br>orally with dose 15mg/kg melatonin accompanying and untreated rats for 30 day (P &lt; 0.05).Histologically in<br>intestine examined show increase numbers of leucocytes produce, necrosis significant scatter and reduction<br>this parasite of tissue in rats treated with melatonin. This results show influence of melatonin in the control<br>on Enterobiosis and suggestion that this drug usefulness in Enterobius vermicularis infection therapy</p> Shaimaa A. Shlash1 , Noor M. Hasnawi2 , Hussein A. Kadhum3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Observational Study of Reduction in Inflammatory Markers and Simultaneous Reduction in Joint Inflammation in Patients of Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated by Leech Therapy <p>The sense of pain in arthritis carries the highest stigma among the sufferers as well as the treating physicians.<br>It makes the life miserable for the patients along with the disability the disease rheumatoid arthritis causes,<br>which can be correlated to Aamvata in Ayurveda.There are the conventional treatment options which<br>are available in the form of shodhana and shanmana. Besides NSAID.s and corticosteroids in modern<br>medicine rendering many side effects Ayurveda offers drugless healing art in the form of jaloukavacharan<br>also known as leech therapy which is known for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anesthetic actions<br>of leech salivary gland secretions. Hence, a protocol was designed for the doctoral research on “Study of<br>inflammatory markers in patients of Rheumatoid Arthritis treated by leech therapy”, for the assessment of<br>subjective parameters of pain, swelling, redness, tenderness, loss of function of joints assessed by standard<br>criterion, and objective parameters like CRP and ESR before and after leech therapy for 10 sittings on<br>alternate days. Observations were taken on day 0 and day 21, and follow up taken on day 30 and day 45.<br>Statistical tests were applied which revealed significant results of anti-inflammatory effect of leech therapy<br>on CRP(relative change 23.54%),with p value =0.0001,than ESR(relative change 10.30). Leech therapy was<br>found to be having highly significant effect on pain score (relative change 57.62%), followed by tenderness<br>score(relative change 72%) and followed by significant increase in walking effect (relative change 56.67%).<br>There was statistically significant improvement in other subjective parameters of assessment like swelling<br>on ankle(relative change by 11.73).,knee joint(relative change 10.29),redness(relative change25%),walking<br>effect(relative change 72%),rise in local temperature(relative change 61.90%) withp value,0.0001.with corelatable clinical improvement.</p> Sheetal Asutkar1 , Kiran Khandare2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Palashgudavarti and Diclofenac Sodium Suppository in the Management of Acute Fissure in Ano (Parikartika)-An Ayurvedic Management Protocol <p>Background - Anal Fissure is one of the major causes for pain at anal region. The two primary signs of<br />this disease are pain and bleeding, and pain is often unbearable. In males anal fissure typically occurs<br />in the midline posterior- 90 %, and 10 % midline anterior. Subsequently, female fissures on the midline<br />anteriorly are significantly more frequent than posteriorly (60:40). In contemporary sciences Parikartika<br />can be correlated with Fissure in Ano. Objective- The objective of the prospective study is to find the<br />efficacy of Palashgudavarti &amp; Diclofenac Sodium Suppository in the management of Acute Fissure in<br />ano(Parikartika).Material &amp; Method: The present study is designed as a Randomized single blind parallel<br />in which 60 patients will be enrolled. Varti will be applied for local application once a day. Assessment will<br />be done 0th, 7th day, 14thday, and 28th day. Results: The changes are expected to be observed in subjective<br />parameters such as pain bleeding per rectum with itching as well as with objective parameters such as<br />Parikartika Healing. Conclusion: The study is expecting the nonsurgical management of fissure in ano with<br />respect to the impact of Palashgudavarti &amp; Diclofenac Sodium Suppository. The research is expecting to be<br />baseline and benchmark of the prospective studies in Acute Fissure in ano (Parikartika).</p> Shubham Golokkumar Biswas1 , Devyani Dasar2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Review on Annavahasrotodushti with Respect to Arsha Vyadhi <p>Digestion is a main process of human body. Food is essential for body and digestion, conversion of food<br>takes place in digestive tract.AnnavahaSrotasDushti leads to indigestion, anorexia, lack of interest towards<br>food which leads to Anorectic disorders like Arsha,Parikartika etc.Contrarily this seems to be an increasing<br>incidence of the commonest of all anal disease, i.e. Haemorrhoids and fissure in ano. Though Sushrutahas<br>described detailed of, however as lifestyle has been changed significantly therefore it is of great importance<br>to study other causes of Haemorrhoids according to modern era. Hence, the diseases of ano-rectal area are<br>the commonest of all the diseases of GI tract. This study aimed at Annavahsroto-dushti and its relation<br>in Pathogenesis of ArshaVyadhi and its management.They were well known for time immemorial to the<br>physician and surgeon due to the worldwide distribution and trouble caused by them.</p> Shubham Golokkumar Biswas1 , Devyani Dasar2, Alok Kumar Diwedi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Poor Sleep with Low Back Pain among Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Population: A Research Protocol <p>Background and objectives- Low back pain (LBP) is the key contributor to ages of disability. Although Low<br>back pain puts an immerse economic strain on healthcare services, this disease is responsible for impacting<br>people’s daily lives. Low back pain is a widely common illness impacting persons of all ages. Sleep is an<br>intricate and fundamental organic element with the social objective of keeping up homeostasis by methods<br>for various physiological frameworks. Sleep quality has gained interest for people with musculoskeletal<br>pain conditions as a contributing factor to the outcome. Sleep consistency has created consideration as a risk<br>factor to the outcomes for people with MSK pain disorders. Some studies show a bidirectional link between<br>intensity of pain and sleep quality. Recent attention to the combination of inflammatory processes in pain on<br>the one side and sleep on the other, contributes to neuro-immunological mechanisms that may contribute to<br>the near connection between pain and sleep.<br>Aim and objectives- To study association of poor sleep with low back pain among symptomatic and<br>asymptomatic population.<br>Materials and Method- All asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals with low back pain in the group<br>between 35-50 years of age will fill the survey using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Insomnia Severity<br>Index Questionnaire, and further data will be analyzed.<br>Result- The parameters of outcome measures of both the group of low back pain individuals will be analysed<br>using the statistical test namely students paired T-test.<br>Conclusion- Based on the previous studies we assume that there should be a positive association between<br>both poor sleep and low back pain.</p> Sneha Nemade1 , Pratik Phansopkar2 , Waqar M. Naqvi3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Pippalyadi and Suranadi ointment in management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids) <p>Arsha is a common anorectal disease so associated with bleeding per anum . It can be compared to<br>Haemorrhoids accoding to modern science. Haemorrhoids are dilated veins in the anal canal. Through all<br>the modern modalities of treatment in haemorrhoids are universally accepted but all have some or other<br>limitations. In Ayurveda various measures have been mentioned for the management of Abhyantar Arsha ,<br>among which lepa karma is one of them . Various study have been done on the application of various lepa<br>so prepared have been conducted depending upon the sign and symptoms. In this study the effectiveness<br>of Pippalyadi and Suranadi ointment were compared which were so mentioned in bhaishajya ratnawali.<br>In this preset researnch work efforts were made to provide the treatment which is non-invasive, easy to<br>implement, effective and not need any hospitalization. In this study 30 patients of Arsha were selected as per<br>criteria of selection randomly irrespective of religion, socio-economic status and were divided in 2groups<br>of 15 patients each. Group-A was treated with Pipplyadi oitment advised for 15 days twice a day as local<br>application. Group-B allotted Suranadi Ointment given twice a day for local application for 15 days and<br>accordingly the result were assessed. Pippalyadi and Suranadi ointment were prepared according to the<br>texts and the ointment was used for local application on the patients of Arsha. Lastly, it was concluded that<br>both the ointments have shown significant results in the patients without any side effects.</p> Suraj Rathod1 , Kiran Khandare2 , Pooja Shrivastava3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Management of Phenylketonuria: Current and Future Perspectives <p>Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of phenylalanine (phe) and tyrosine (tyr) metabolism. It is an<br>autosomal recessive disease occurred due to deficiency of liver enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH).<br>Hence, phe is not converted to tyr and phe is accumulated in the body. Phe thus channeled to alternative<br>routes of metabolism and forms Phenylketones excreted in urine. Early treatment is essential to prevent<br>mental retardation and other intellectual disabilities. Dietary treatment remains the main cornerstone to<br>manage PKU since last 3-4 decades. A diet low in Phe supplemented with special amino acids formulas<br>must be started soon after diagnosis within seven days of life. Inspite of good results obtained from dietary<br>treatment in PKU, still there are some issues with palatability of the dietary formulations. There are also<br>issues of nutritional deficiencies of vitamins like calcitriol and cobalamin (B12). Poor cognitive and executive<br>functions have been observed in patients who do not follow proper dietary treatment. Attempts have also<br>been made to increase the palatability of food under dietary management. Role of large neutral amino acids<br>(LNAAs) and glycomacropeptides (GMP; found in bovine milk) as a newer dietary management have also<br>been explored. In recent era, advances occurred in terms of genetic therapy and enzyme replacement therapy<br>which opened a new door towards management of PKU. In this review, various treatment aspects of PKU<br>are discussed and explored.</p> Tejas J. Shah1 , Dipika Baria2 , Shruti Brahmbhatt3 , DVSS Ramavataram4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation Between Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior with Blood Cadmium Levels in the Population of Industrial Area <p>Objectives: The aim of this analysis is to investigate the correlation between knowledge, attitude, and<br>behavior with cadmium level in the industrial population. Methods: This research is a non-experimental<br>study with cross-sectional method. The subjects are 108 respondents live in industrial area. Questionnaires<br>were used for measuring the level of knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Cadmium levels were measured using<br>Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: The result showed a strong correlation between<br>levels of knowledge factor and cadmium with r = -0,272* in the population of industrial areas. Meanwhile,<br>knowledge have significant correlation with attitude (r = 0.528**). Conclusion: Knowledge factor has<br>the significant relationship with cadmium levels in the population of industrial area. The government is<br>suggested to improve the knowledge of the people in the industrial area in order to prevent high levels of<br>cadmium. Therefore, the negative impact of metal waste exposure on health can be minimized.</p> Teuku Heriansyah1, Kumboyono Kumboyono2 , Fibe Yulinda Cesa3 , Titin Andri Wihastuti4 , Shila Wisnasari4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Coronavirus :- An Emerging Pathogen <p>Corona virus disease -19(COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2). Primarily it causes respiratory illness in humans. The pandemic caused by ths virus started in 2019<br>in Wuhan , China. Later it was declared as pandemic by WHO. In this article I am reviewing the coronavirus<br>along with its microbilogical structure, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical features and its management.<br>The virus is a singl stranded RNA virus. The virus enters the respiatory tract via mucous membrane of<br>mouth or nose. It binds to ACE TYPE 2 receptor and causes alveolar edema and its destruction leading to<br>decrease in gas exchange which further leads to hypoxaemia finally leading to acute respiratory distress<br>syndrome ( ARDS). It most patients COVID19 presents with mild symptoms and they doesn’t require any<br>medical intervention. But patietnts presenting with severe symptoms needs vigilant medical attention and<br>may require ventilatory support. Most common symptoms are fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, fatigue<br>, nasal congestion. The infection spreads via droplet from an infected person. Infection with this virus<br>may lead to severe inflammatory response leading to release of cytoines which causes increased capillary<br>permeability and vasodilatation leading to hypotension which further leads to decrease in blood supply<br>to multiple organs leading to multiple organ failure. There is increase chances of morbidity and mortality<br>among elderly and in those with comorbidities. In eldrely the chance of fatality is way more than young<br>people. No one drug has been found yet as the ultimate treatment of COVID-19. Many drugs are under<br>clinical trial and researches are going on for vaccine as well. But untill we get a definitive cure the only<br>escape we have is prevention and the only means to do that is to practice social distancing , proper hand<br>hygiene and sanitation.</p> Alankrita Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Ayurveda in the Era of COVID-19 <p>Summary: Currently, we can see, covid19 is quite a concern because of its mortality and even morbidity<br>rate. Since no cure is present till date it’s more important for people to take basic care to increase their<br>immunity. One modality for prevention of such diseases can be through AYURVEDA, which has different<br>therapies and medicines to deal with diseases as well as measures to take basic care and to boost immunity<br>of individuals. AYUSH helps with those basic methods in one’s life .This article discusses the necessity of<br>ayurveda in order to cure this type of air born diseases. Ayurveda mainly emphasizes on body response to<br>any cure as well as role of chakra healing in covid19. Susruta helps find chakras in our body and chakra<br>helps to communicate with different diseases via factors like air, water, earth, fire etc. Ayurveda is the oldest<br>cure and best way to connect body with mind and soul. It brings you more near to nature and helps you calm<br>yourself in different situations. It also molds your perspective and the way we see things.<br>Conclusion: Lifestyle adaptation with proper dincharya and ritucharya is quite effective to ensure healthy<br>living and protect ourselves by building our immunity. Ayurveda acts as an immunity booster and effective<br>in combating infectious diseases.</p> Anukriti Awasthi1 , Swarupa Chakole2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Engaging School Going Children During Covid-19 Lockdown <p>Corona virus (Covid-19) is a pandemic disease, it is a crisis situation faced all over the world. The corona<br>virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans in the month of December 2019 from Wuhan China.<br>Corona virus is the infectious disease and it attacks on respiratory system and causes respiratory illness that<br>can spread from one person to another person by droplets i.e sneezing, coughing. In India, as on date recorded<br>Corona virus cases are 207615, recovered cases are 1, 00303, total deaths 5815 as on 30 August 2020. Indian<br>Government has declared lockdown all over the states to save the life of the citizens. This is a very critical<br>situation mostly for vulnerable population means children. After lockdown children are getting bored, due to<br>separation from friends, peer group and their daily routine of playing is creating lots of anxiety for children.<br>Children’s social life and leaving have been affected. Lockdown of pandemic disease, Closure of schools<br>has affected the education of children and younger’s also. The school closures are liable to boredom to the<br>students and caused learning gap among the children belonging to lower or higher socioeconomic status<br>families. In this condition we have to understand the children psychology and we need to engage them in<br>creative and interesting activities at home, also need to give them some learning task regarding studies so<br>their cognitive and psychomotor function will be improved. This short communication concludes with the<br>key learning for the parents of children on how to engage school going children during lockdown in Covid<br>19(Pandemic).</p> Deepali Ghungrud1 , Seema Singh2 , Ranjana Sharma3 , Savita Pohekar4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Unseen Positive Effects of Lockdown Due to Covid-19 Pandemic: Air pollution, Sound Pollution, Water Pollution, Sanitation and Hygiene, Behavioral Change, Global Warming, Road Traffic Accidents <p>Background: This study states that, the environment became polluted even after consistent efforts by<br>various governments and organizations. Pollution due to various factors was out of control all over the world<br>and it was badly affecting human lives as well as the mother earth. It was very essential to control these<br>pollutants because the environmental and health interaction was closed, but it was not possible practically.<br>Lockdown due to Covid 19 has played a very vital role in controlling these pollutants; it has given a much<br>needed break to our mother earth.<br>The outbreak of Covid -19 viruses started in Wuhan, China in the month of December 2019. After its<br>outbreak, it’s called as Covid-19 worldwide. By March 2020, World health organization declared it as a<br>global pandemic disease. This disease has forced complete world at almost a stop these days no human<br>movements are allowed unless and until it is really needed or is an emergency situation, the government<br>has taken very strict steps to control the spread of this disease all over the world and various country<br>governments have declared lockdown in their respective countries. Everybody is restricted from moving<br>outside their houses, even all vehicles are restricted, shops and factories are compulsorily restricted from<br>functioning. Closed factories and companies are showing considerable positive effects on health. Otherwise<br>in developing country like India environmental pollution has serious impact on people’s health it was badly<br>affecting human respiratory and cardiac system and due to which peoples were losing their lives. Water<br>pollution was affecting human digestive system, renal system. But now due to controlled global warming<br>communicable diseases are reduced. Ban on vehicles reduced traffic pollution, reduced accident rates too.<br>Peoples are at rest at their houses, they are showing many positive behavioral changes as they are spending<br>quality time with family, they are engaged in cleaning their home regularly. Due to this lockdown unlike<br>human being’s nature too got its much needed break after many centuries. Conclusion: Aim of this study<br>is to compare the situation of pollution and other related factors before and after lockdown along with<br>its comparison and to identify unseen positive effects of the Covid-19 lockdown which we have never<br>seen before . If all these positive effects continued for a long time, then it will definitely become beneficial<br>for the living creatures as well as to mother earth.</p> Deepali Ghungrud1 , Ranjana Sharma2 ,Vaishali Tembhare3 , Samruddhi Gujar4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Appraisal of Bioethical Inclusions in Aetcom Module for Competency Based Undergraduate Medical Education as Prescribed by Medical Council of India <p>Background – Critical appraisal of AETCOM Module with reference to Bioethical inclusions vis-à-vis<br>professional ethics inclusions needs appraisal for purposes of judicious operational mix of two, so that<br>learner is oriented in all-round manner so that optimal results thereto stand generated with at par status in<br>commensuration with “The UNESCO Universal Declaration On Bioethics And Human Rights”.<br>Methods – Rapid review of literature with reference to AETCOM Module for identification of Bioethical<br>inclusions in it with reference to Bioethical principles included in UNESCO declaration specially those<br>applicable to profession and not propagation or advocacy. Critical appraisal of identified Bioethical<br>inclusions with reference to their conformity with bioethical principles as applicable to profession included<br>in UNESCO declaration and to work out appropriate inclusion of non-included bioethical principles in form<br>of structured competencies and their incorporation in AETCOM module with reference to their placement,<br>learning levels , mode of assessment.<br>Conclusion –This study deals with mapping and matching of competencies included in AETCOM module<br>with UNESCO universal declaration on human rights and bioethics giving recommendations which can<br>fulfil realised omissions in present AETCOM module thereby leading to its simplification and adoption.</p> Gaurav Mishra1 , Sudhir Ninave2 , Abhilasha Dass3 , Ashish Anjankar4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of Physiotherapy among Higher Secondary Students- A Survey <p>Background: Physiotherapy is a kind of art among various health care professional. It is the rapidly<br>emerging allied health profession in India. It is engaged with promoting health and maximizing potential.<br>Students are the budding generation where the knowledge regarding physiotherapy as a treatment must be<br>developed. This study focused on students in Thanjavur District since the term physiotherapy as health care<br>service is rising gradually nowadays. The main objective of this study is to scrutinize the level of awareness<br>of physiotherapy among the students who are the vitals of the upcoming generation.<br>Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the level of awareness of Physiotherapy among Higher<br>Secondary students in Kumbakonam of Thanjavur District. subjects and methods: A structured survey<br>questionnaire depicting the awareness with three components namely Knowledge Attitude and Belief<br>towards physiotherapy is distributed around 200 students of ARR Matriculation Higher Secondary School<br>in Kumbakonam. The responses were collected from the students for the statistical data analysis. result and<br>conclusion: The awareness regarding all the three aspects were significantly less. It is said that there will<br>be in chance of creating the awareness among students unless the professionals themselves include in the<br>repletion and improvement of the field.</p> K. Jothi Prasanna 1 Ayesha Farvin Z2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Use of Social Web and Perceptions of Professional Behaviours Regarding Social Web Postings among Physiotherapy Students <p>BACKGROUND: Social media websites which facilitate exchange of user-generated content has enormous<br>potential in health care which allows Physiotherapists to post educational information for patients also<br>to share ideas as it acts as a great source of information for research and learning. OBJECTIVE: To<br>survey students enrolled in professional physical therapy programs regarding their use of social web and<br>perceptions of professional behaviors regarding social web postings. MATERIALS AND METHODS:<br>A non-experimental observational type of study has been done with 100 Physiotherapy students of three<br>different years and were selected according to the selection criteria. The survey instrument was provided to<br>participate in the study addressing students use of social web. RESULTS AND CONCLUSONS Students<br>are unaware about the social media policy and its importance. Students should learn about the privacy<br>concern and professional boundaries. There is a need for social media policies and education regarding the<br>proper use of social media</p> K. Jothi prasanna1 Priyanka B2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Dry eye Disease During COVID-19 : Need for Investment Into Research to Develop Solutions? <p>Purpose: To review the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI) for clinical trials registered for the<br>interventions for the treatment of dry eye disease.<br>Methods: CTRI was manually searched by using the different key words related to the dry eye. Trials<br>registered after 2009 were included in the analysis. All the parameters like type of interventions, phase of<br>trial, sample size etc of the each trial were extracted in the predesigned proforma. Descriptive statistics was<br>reported in the form of frequency and percentages.<br>Results: Total 35 trials were registered since 2010. Majority were phase 4 trials (Post Marketing Surveillance).<br>More than half of the registered trials were related to the ayurvedic products. Most frequent allopathic<br>intervention was lubricant and most frequently used comparator was Carboxy Methyl Cellulose. Range of<br>sample size in different trials was 30-300.<br>Conclusion: A good number of trials related to the ayurvedic drugs are registered for dry eye. There is a<br>need for similar research efforts for allopathic interventions.</p> Komal Shah1 , Deepika Singhal2 , Ashka Patel3 , Binita Gadhavi4 , Jay Karan5 , Abhay Gaidhane6 , Deepak B Saxena7 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Covid 19 and Ophthalmic Morbidity among College Students Attending Online Teaching <p>Due to ongoing pandemic, majority of the academic teaching is executed on online platforms, leading<br>to extended screen time. Anecdotal evidence suggests long-term ophthalmic impact of extended screen<br>time. Present study was carried out to document eye related problems amongst adult university/college<br>students undertaking online classes to document the effects of online teaching. An online survey method was<br>undertaken in the month of July, 2020 amongst university/ college students of Gujarat using google form.<br>All possible social media platforms were used to collect the data from students of Gujarat. Epi Info and<br>SPSS were used and both descriptive and inferential analysis was performed. A total of 620 students from<br>the various streams participated in the study where around 56.5% were female respondents. The majority<br>of students (88% of participants) had noticed eye problems out of that 39.1% of participants felt that online<br>teaching as a reason. Headache (54.0%) was the most common problem experienced by the participants<br>followed by Pain in eyes (34%) and Watering (26.3%). To conclude online teaching has led to increased<br>eye strain and other eye-related problems in university/college going students and risk factors for severity<br>included sessions attended per day, the distance at device kept, and the enjoyment level. In spite of the high<br>incidence of ophthalmic issues, none of the respondents contacted any ophthalmologist for the same.</p> Krishna Shah1 , Smeet Desai1 , Hasti Lo1 , Binita Gadhavi1 , Vaishali Prajapati1 , Priya Bhavsar1, Deepika Singhal2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 E-learning- A New Trend of Learning in 21st Century During Covid-19 Pandemic <p>The dissemination of COVID-19 has contributed to the closing of educational institutions around the world.<br>Such closing accelerated the creation of online learning environments within these institutions, ensuring<br>that learning would not be interrupted. The coronavirus pandemic tested the ability of the centers to cope<br>with a problem that involves online and remote intervention. Most have not been educated, so it is necessary<br>to investigate the motives for providing online classes to students, which go beyond the confinement era.<br>The vast majority of children have no previous experience of remote learning previous to the pandemic.<br>Since the COVID-19 pandemic has destroyed people’s usual lifestyles around the globe, the virtual world<br>has come to the rescue. Like several institutions, schools have already transferred their focus to interactive<br>networks to take classes online. Video conferencing tools such as Zoom and WebEx are commonly used<br>and learning management systems such as Infrastructure Canvas, Blackboard and Google Classroom. In<br>addition, applications such as Proctorio, a Google Chrome plugin that tracks students taking online tests,<br>are available. In India, too, all educational institutions have been suspended by the government as part of<br>the national lockdown, which has impacted learners ranging from school-learning to post-graduate students.</p> Lata Kanyal Butola Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Herd Immunity: A Major Advantage or A Major Challenge to Achieve for the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>COVID-19 caused by the novel SARS-COV2 has been causing worldwide panic in recent times. Global<br>epidemiological findings have shown numerous new cases being reported daily as well as drastic mortality<br>rates. It is the need of the hour to plan out strategies to cope with this ongoing pandemic. Herd immunity<br>has been used as an effective approach for years during epidemics and can prove to be a major advantage in<br>controlling the spread of the disease. Various models have been studied using mathematical estimates to find<br>out how herd immunity can be achieved as well as to predict risks involved in doing so. The current scenario<br>where there are no efficient vaccines available has also been taken into consideration. It is important to take<br>all these facts into consideration to come to a valid conclusion of whether achieving herd immunity can be<br>beneficial or impractical.</p> Parisha Subhash Walinjkar Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Adult Vaccination: The Current Scenario <p>Vaccination is the process by which a person is made immune to various preventable diseases. Most of the<br>emphasis is given to childhood vaccination and very little focus goes on towards immunizing the adults.<br>Health care services in India has very less contribution to adult vaccination. Hence a desperate need has<br>emerged to develop strategies and schemes for adult vaccination. The disease burden in India is increasing<br>for both communicable and non-communicable diseases. By vaccinating adults against a disease that are<br>known to be life-threatening can reduce the mortality rates significantly. In a country like India with such a<br>huge population, vaccination can be a major intervention in preventing morbidity, mortality, and disability<br>due to many known and preventable diseases. There is no doubt that adult vaccination in India is negligible<br>as protecting adults by vaccination has never been considered as a preventive strategy. Hence there is a need<br>to sensitize the health care providers in our country regarding the same. By vaccinating adults along with<br>children, the chain of spreading the diseases can be broken and quality of life can be improved in a diseasefree world.</p> Parth Pramod Godhiwala1 , Sunil Kumar2 , Sourya Acharya3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between Gestational Age and Abdominal Circumference in Second Trimester <p>Gestational age is age of unborn baby, defined in weeks as beginning from first day of last menstrual period<br />prior to conception. Estimation of gestational age and thereby forecasting Expected Date of Delivery is not<br />only concern of the Individual but it is invaluable in the diagnosis of intrauterine growth retardation of fetus<br />and obstetric planning. Determination of age of a fetus by using various methods is required for medico legal<br />purposes in both civil and criminal matters. In present study we assesses Correlation between gestational<br />age and abdominal circumference in second trimester, The study of Correlation between gestational age<br />and abdominal circumference in second trimester by Ultrasonography was carried out and collected data<br />was tabulated according to weeks of menstrual cycle and were taken in centimeters. Standard deviation<br />of abdominal circumference for each week was calculated. We found that Abdominal Circumference is<br />statistically highly significant and the regression equations derived for growth parameter for estimating<br />gestational age in a normally developing fetus, increase with gestational age, showed good correlation with<br />gestational age.</p> Patond Swapnil1 , Chimurkar Vilas2 , Pande Varsha 3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nursing Perspectives in Diabetic Ketoacidosis <p>Diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA) is a serious life threatening condition and it occurs when insulin production<br>in our body is less.Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complication of diabeties mellitus and it mostly occur in<br>hospitalize patients . Diabetic ketoacidisis condition mostly found in both type of diabeties such as Type<br>1 and Type 2 diabeties patients. In between 20-30% of cases of diabetic ketacidosis condition occure in<br>newly diagnosed patient with diabeties . Almost till 20 years the mortality rate of diabetic ketoacidosis is<br>100 percent and till now there is no reduction in prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis in younger patients due<br>to that children are continuous suffering with death .<br>The mortality rate in Diabetic ketoacidosis is very important because it is a very serious life threatening<br>condition so the prevalence of diabeties is very crucial. The younger are the foundation of future health care<br>delivery system so the evaluation of their knowledge and continue development and upgrading regarding<br>awareness and unstanding the sign and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis it helps to reduce the mortality<br>rate of Diabetic ketoacidosis.<br>It’s an emergency condition, so the health care professional becomes a vital part of managing diabetesrelated hyperglycemic emergencies, rising health care costs and changing health care systems preventing<br>signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis remains an essential requirement.<br>Effective management and prevention on diabetic ketoacidosis can reduced longer stay time in hospitalize<br>patient.</p> Pratiksha Thakare1 , Ruchira Ankar2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Child Abuse and Neglect among Dental Practitioners <p>Background: Child abuse and neglect (CAN) is a prevalent and growing public health problem. Dentists<br>are in a strategic position to identify and report cases of CAN as common signs of child abuse are in the<br>orofacial region. Proper knowledge and awareness are required for early identification and intervention to<br>prevent untoward consequences.<br>Methodology: A cross-sectional observational study using a predesigned three parts questionnaire was<br>conducted among general and specialty practitioners in branches of dentistry of Dakshina Kannada district,<br>Karnataka to assess the knowledge, awareness, and behavioral practice towards child abuse and neglect. The<br>data extracted were tabulated, statistically analyzed and results calculated based on percentages using SPSS.<br>Result: The participants in the current study demonstrated sufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms<br>of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report<br>such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. Most of the participants desired for<br>further training such as courses or workshops on examining, diagnosing, and reporting cases of child abuse.<br>Conclusion: - The study suggests that dental practitioners need an effective education to increase their<br>knowledge and awareness on CAN for its precocious identification and diagnosis as an assay for early<br>intervention.</p> Rachana . P. B1 , Supriya H2 , Seema M3, Vijaya Lakshmi G4 , Meghashree Kerpala5 , Charisma Thimmaiah6 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Indoor Activities for Physical Fitness During Lockdown <p>The on-going novel corona virus 2019 from the outbreak of china is affecting many more countries almost<br>213 have been reported. The highest number of cases till 10th of July 2020 is from the country united states.<br>India is the 3rd most country which has been affected by novel corona virus 2019. The least country which<br>is affected and recovered also is an islands of saint pierce and Miquelon. So for the measure of preventing<br>the novel coronavirus the most of the government has declared complete lockdown especially in India there<br>were complete lockdown from 23rd march 2020 and this whole pandemic thing has affected a lot of people,<br>students, children’s, elders and all as all gyms and garden were closed people were not able to go out so then<br>what about their fitness in this pandemic. New data has been come out that while doing exercise may reduce<br>the risk of breathlessness like respiratory distress syndrome, which is one of the major causes of death<br>with coronavirus 19. (covid19). Breathing disorder, a severe lung condition. Physical activity should not<br>be confused with exercise. Physical activity means movement of body that uses energy. It can be moderate<br>0r vigorous intensity. Let’s be active everyone and every day. Regular physical activity reduces the risk of<br>non-communicable diseases like blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, stroke, blood sugar level, colon and<br>breast cancer. All conditions that increase the susceptibility to covid-19. And mainly in the lockdown the<br>new things for people it will help you from to maintain your weight and from anxiety and depression.</p> Sakshi Manoj Khatri1 , Manoj Patil2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Preventive Measures Adopted by Allied Health Care Professional Students to Control Transmission of COVID-19 Pandemic Infection During Lockdown <p>Introduction: After declaration of COVID-19 infection as pandemic by World Health Organisation (WHO),<br>various preventive strategies have been intended to mitigate disease spread and control the infection rate<br>such as isolation of patients, social distancing, hygienic practices; covering mouth and nose, restriction of<br>mass gathering in society. Hence we planned this survey to assess the knowledge and preventive measures<br>adopted by students to control COVID-19 infection during lockdown.<br>Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among students of School of Allied Health Sciences,<br>DMIMS, Wardha during April-May 2020. First year was selected randomly and all 168 students were<br>approached by internet for sharing questionnaire after IEC approval. Received responses is analysed in the<br>form of descriptive statistics.<br>Results: Total 139 students responded. 38.85% students understood the relationship between mass<br>gathering and transmission of COVID-19 infection at community level. Only 34(24.46%) students were<br>aware about safe social distance. Less than half of the students 66(47.48%) were aware about minimum 20<br>seconds needed to hand-rub by the alcohol based sanitizer. About 108(77.7%) students maintained the social<br>distancing sincerely, only 74(52.5%) students always used to wear the mask and; 100(71.94%) participants<br>always used to wash their hands.<br>Conclusions: Though some of the students adopted standards practices, others observed to be considering<br>it as less important. Such survey can be conducted among in various institutions to assess the awareness and<br>shortfall in practices. Awareness level can be raised through dedicated online awareness program.</p> Sarika Dakhode1 , Swapnil Patond2 , Alka Rawekar3 , Ajay Chaware4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Assess the Knowledge Regarding HIV/AIDS among New Entrant of the Nursing Institute in Wardha District <p>Introduction: One of the world’s most significant public health issues has been HIV infections and AIDS<br>(HIV / AIDS). The 1 percent of deaths worldwide are responsible for HIV / AIDS Knowledge of HIV /<br>AIDS among students is crucial to the elimination of disease propagation. Besides, young adult university<br>students may start their own families someday and some may be health care providers in the future. Data<br>about Knowledge, regarding HIV/AIDS are needed to sensitize and create awareness among nursing<br>students as they were becoming health care administrators and providers in the future. Aim: To determine<br>the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among new entrants of the nursing institute. Materials and Methods:<br>A cross-sectional study was carried out among new entrants of the nursing institute in Wardha district. The<br>students were chosen randomly. This cross-sectional descriptive research was carried out by pre-designed,<br>pre-tested, and semi-structured surveys of eligible 296 nursing students in their first year of life. First-year<br>Basic Bsc nursing100 students, GNM100 students, ANM 96students in the age-group of 17-19 years on 1st,<br>4th, and 7th Oct’ 2016, respectively. After the study purpose was clarified, the students received 45 minutes<br>without shared consultation under the supervision of the investigator, to obtain informed verbal consent and<br>maintain confidentiality. Students have been given the right to withdraw without fear or obligation from<br>the study at any time during their data collection, but none declined to take part. The research variables<br>included demographic variables such as sex, professional education, the difference between HIV / AIDS,<br>routes of transmission, prevention strategies, category of behavioral risk, and antiretroviral therapy, etc.<br>Result: Out of 296 total students, 123 (51.9%) were women and 103 (44.0%) were rural native students.<br>The mean knowledge score for the professional education of ANM was 17.35± 3.59, for GNM it was 13.00±<br>3.61and for B.Sc. Nursing it was 17.37±4.31. The majority of the lot was aware of all four routes of infection<br>transmission and methods of prevention. When the mean data score for the three new entrants is compared, no<br>major statistical difference except ANM (P=.999) is noted.</p> Savita Pohekar1 , Samruddhi Gujar2 , Arti Raut3 , Sonali Tadas4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of COVID-19 on Women, Pregnancy and Psychologically <p>Background: Gender differences among the responses to the COVID-19 disease needs to studied. As<br>pandemic is growing and more and more cases are being registered, correlation between disease and gender<br>response if any should be examined.<br>Summary: pandemic of COVID-19 is evolving which reported its first case in Wuhan, PRC, considerable<br>amount and efforts are only directed towards containment of the virus. The effect of the pandemic on pregnant<br>women physiologically, psychologically and classification by socioeconomic status can give better trends<br>to study. Further mortality rate between men and women and reason behind it can be evidently proved after<br>through study. After all, one solution to different problems cannot be implemented. Middle East respiratory<br>syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) also belonging to similar family of the<br>coronavirus have more things to study regarding which strategy should be employed in containing the viral<br>spread. Vertical transmission is not seen yet but occurrences of sporadic deaths of infants or still birth could<br>be explained after research.<br>Conclusion: Gender based case fatality rate and its reasons can be extremely helpful in treating the patient<br>with specific gender. Psychological state in the time of distress always been a cause of worry. It worries more<br>when identified in pregnant state. All these aspects need to studied thoroughly</p> Sharleen Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assess the Prevalence of Hypercalcemia among Immobilized Patients <p>Immobilization hypercalcemia is a diagnosis in which excessive bone metabolism abnormalities and<br>conditions related to reduced movement such as medullar lesions or vascular cases. Investigation needs a<br>more evaluation to find out other causes of hypercalcemia.Incidence rate of immobilization hypercalcemia<br>is 11?22% in spinal cord injury group and 20?30% in immobilized patients secondaryto fractures in 2 case<br>series .Usually itoccurs 4?6 weeks post trauma (1 week?16weeks)may stay elevated for up to 12 months<br>based onmobilization. Aim-To determine the prevalence of hypercalcemia among immobilized patients.<br>Materials and Methods-An analytical research approach and a cross-sectional research design were used.<br>The study was conducted in Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital; Sawangi Meghe Wardha.The samples<br>were selected using purposive sampling technique, sample size was 30 and blood test done for screening<br>after written informed consent.There were total 30 patients, blood samples which were carried out during<br>studyperiod, it was concluded that out of 30 immobilized patients 14 patients is having hypercalcemia in<br>immobilized state. The study found that there was a person suffering from hypercalcemia in their immobilized<br>state. Hence this study helps in treatment of hypercalcemia during their immobilized state of the patients.<br>From this study it is concluded that 46.67 % of the patients suffering from hypercalcemia.</p> Sheetal Sakharkar1 , Mayuri Age2 , Ruchira Ankar3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 High Risk Population For COVID 19 <p>COVID-19 is a new type of corona virus that causes the disease. ‘CO’ is for corona, VI’ for viruses, and<br>‘D’ for illness. This disease was previously referred to as ‘2019 novel corona virus’ or ‘2019-nCoV. Corona<br>virus is the contagious disease (COVID-19) is arising from newly discovered. The COVID-19 virus gets<br>people of all ages infected. However, research to date shows that two classes of people are at greater risk<br>of being strongly struck by COVID-19. The older people and others with existing health problems. WHO<br>stresses that, in order to protect others, everyone must protect themselves from COVID-19. Old age people<br>and individuals with underlying disabilities such as heart problems, asthma, chronic lung disease and cancer<br>are more vulnerable to severe disease. Men is at a higher risk than females for COVID-19. Conclusion<br>According to this short communication article, two groups of people are at higher risk of developing severe<br>COVID-19 disease. Old age people and individuals with underlying disabilities such as heart problems,<br>asthma, chronic lung disease and cancer are more vulnerable to severe disease. These peoples have to take<br>more precaution to prevent covid -19 infections.</p> Sheetal Sakharkar1 , Arati Raut1 ,Samrudhi Gujar1 , Savita Pohekar2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Manual and Digital Contact tracing of COVID-19 <p>Background: The unprecedented situation unfolded by the COVID-19 pandemic needs tools and measures<br>of varying degrees. Contact tracing is one of them. Contact tracing has become buzz word these days. Along<br>with non- pharmacological interventions (NPI) this is one of the major tools employed by the local health<br>care authorities.<br>Summary: The contact tracing measure is major part of the response against COVID-19 pandemic.<br>Methods of contact tracing and its efficient way to carry them out needs to be studied. The efficacy of the<br>contact tracing mechanism needs strong backing of empirical data upon which research is ongoing. Further<br>combining the manual and digital contact tracing is the option authorities needs to check out. Health care<br>human resource crunch can be addressed by creating civilian vigilantes to inform the health authorities about<br>the possible suspected case. In case of digital tracing the data minimization and anonymizing the data in<br>which there is no name attached with the particular data can used so that doubts about data privacy should<br>get vanished. Balancing between controlling case fatality rate and infection rate with the help of proper and<br>adequate resourceful data is the key to effectively control the spread along with easing of restriction and step<br>towards normalization of lives.<br>Conclusion: More thorough study is needed with numerical data backing to establish the efficacy and the<br>relation between controlling the case count and contact tracing.</p> Shradha Agrawal (Medical Intern) Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Survey on Parental Attitude Towards Ethical Considerations of Involving their Children in Physiotherapy Care <p>BACKGROUND: Ethical considerations around Physiotherapy treatment on Children are more complex<br>than discussions about adult involvement. The interrelation between the ethical values and its involvement<br>in practice is a challenging one. The accountability of clinical decision making by the therapists differ<br>for children and adults. The implications of ethical values in practice provide quality good care for the<br>patient. The purpose of this study was to explore the parental attitudes towards ethical considerations of<br>involving their children in Physiotherapy care. METHODS: Total of 38 parents whose children undergoing<br>Physiotherapy session at present were participated in the survey. Participants were chosen using convenient<br>sampling technique. The instrument used in the study was a self-descriptive questionnaire. The data were<br>analysed using descriptive statistics. CONCLUSION: The result revealed that there is no marked evidence<br>of ethical misconduct seen among Physiotherapists handling the Children and it was found that there is a<br>bias in some of the ethical norms like getting written informed consent before treatment, documentation of<br>the records. Efforts to focus on the elements which has a bias and if rectified will have a positive effect on<br>quality Physiotherapy treatment for the children.</p> Sivasankari.A1 , Malarvizhi.D 2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Rare Case Series of Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Auricular Defect Category: Case Series <p>Loss of facial organs in an individual may be developmental anomalies or acquired. The missing parts of the<br>face ear, eyes and nose are considered as maxillofacial defects which can be rehabilitated by the prosthesis<br>and/or cosmetic surgeries. This art of science has developed into a more reliable and predictable process due<br>to ever increasing development of materials and equipment used in the procedure. This article describes a<br>simple technique to rehabilitate patients with auricular defects which are both aesthetically acceptable and<br>economical for the individual.</p> Sweta Gajanan Pisulkar1 , Rohit Ashok Mistry2 , Hetal Satish Purohit2, Chinmayee Dahihandekar2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient with Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in association with Fraser’s Syndrome – A Case Report <p>About a quarter of the population in the world is affected with Anaemia and deficiency of iron is one of<br>the major causes. Associated symptoms are long term fatigue, cognitive function which shows impairment,<br>and decreased well-being. “Fraser syndrome” can be described as rare, genetically inherited disorder. It is<br>manifested as Crytophthalmos, Syndactyly along with Enamel Hypoplasia because of which the patient is<br>referred to a dentist. The following report presents the report of a male patient who had symptoms of iron<br>deficiency anaemia and also showed signs &amp; symptoms of Fraser’s Syndrome. Proper knowledge regarding<br>Fraser’s syndrome and iron deficiency anaemia is imperative to plan an oral rehabilitation treatment protocol<br>for such patients.</p> Sweta Kale Pisulkar1 , Chinmayee Dahihandekar2 , Seema Sathe3 , Surekha Godbole4 , Gajanan Pisulkar5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Increased Demand of Emergency Medical Services in Covid-19 <p>The World is going through a tough situation and that is a pandemic caused by the Novel Corona virus which<br>originated in the Wuhan Province of China in December 2019. During this tough and critical situation, the<br>only saviors of humanity are our health care professionals, who restore the faith and trust in humanity and<br>ensure the safety of each individual suffering from this COVID-19 disease. The cherry on the cake is the<br>additional health support provided by the staff of Emergency Medical Services who help the health care<br>workers in treating the patients in hospital, by giving the pre-requisite or the initial treatment during this<br>emergency situation. So to tackle this pandemic, it is important to meet up to the increasing demand of<br>Emergency Medical Services so that the situation remains under control and there is a decrease in mortality.<br>The fragile and fragmented healthcare system of India needs to be upgraded and emphasis needs to be put<br>on developing the Em</p> Vaibhav Vikas Bisne Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Fluoride Contaminated Groundwater on Human Health in Fluorosis Endemic Areas <p>Background: Fluorosis is an endemic health problem in twenty-five nations around the globe. Objectives:<br>To correlate fluoride content of groundwater and health status of affected population and suggest remedial<br>measures. Methodology: A cross-sectional research design is followed because people from different age<br>groups were sampled, observations were made and skeletal examinations were conducted at a specified point<br>of time. The study is conducted in Yavatmal and Chandrapur districts of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra<br>State. Health related surveys were carried out in 54 villages from study area selected on the basis of high<br>fluoride level in groundwater. Result: Out of these, 32 villages are selected from Yavatmal district having<br>a population of 30320 and 22 villages from Chandrapur district with a population of 21581. Out of the<br>total population of 51901 total 3268 subjects have been examined. Amongst these subjects 1760 were male<br>(53.86%) and 1508 were female (46.14%). Out of the total 3268 subjects 2445 subjects included in the<br>‘normal’ grade, which does not show indications of skeletal fluorosis. It has been observed that as the<br>concentration of fluoride increases the cases of ‘normal’ grade decreases. Out of the 360 subjects studied,<br>about 102 (28.33%) subjects show radiological evidences of skeletal fluorosis. Mild radiological fluorosis<br>was seen in 55, moderate in 21, severe in 17 and very severe radiological fluorosis in 9 subjects. Conclusion:<br>Based on the outcome of the research work carried out in the study area, it is recommended that awareness<br>among the people residing in the area about the protection &amp; prevention of groundwater contamination from<br>different sources, groundwater quality, its impacts on health, soil and plants should be created on priority<br>basis.</p> Abhyuday D Meghe1 , Deepak B. Malpe2 , Dhananjay C. Meshram3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Quality, Health, and Safety Assurance of Fish Produce based on the Republic of Indonesia’s Governmental Decree No. 57 of 2015 on the Quality, Health, and Safety Assurance of Fish Produce and the Increase of Fish Produce Value: A Sociophere Analysis in North Maluku <p>Objective: This paper aims to describe the findings on quality, health, and safety guarantee of fish catch and<br>the related regulations in the Governmental Decree No. 57 of 2015. Method: This research uses the juridical<br>sociologic research method, with the descriptive qualitative approach, which describes the guarantee of<br>quality, health, and safety of fish catch based on the Governmental Decree No. 57 of 2015. Results: It is<br>found that there are violations in the form of an unhygienic method in processing the fish catch. In the Fish<br>Auction Center, the processing uses chemical substances which are prohibited for food. Conclusion: The<br>government should make a policy which support the fishermen, so that they may use a safer and a healthier<br>method in processing fish.</p> Absori Absori1, Muhammad Amin Hanafi2 , Khudzaifah Dimyati3, Natangsa Surbakti4, Siti Barora5 , Suryani6, Dewi Permatasari7 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nursing Intervention for Caregivers of Post Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation Patients at Home <p>Background: Autologous bone marrow transplantation is a curative procedure for hematological diseases<br>and immune deficiencies. The unique and intensive nature of this treatment requires distinctive care during<br>and post the entire transplant course. Nursing intervention for caregivers post autologous bone marrow<br>transplantation patients at home is an important component of the care that improves and develops knowledge<br>and practice of the caregivers, to take care of the patients in order to help them follow the demanding<br>treatment plan to reach recovery. Aim to evaluate the effect of nursing intervention for caregivers of postautologous bone marrow transplantation patients at home. Material and Method: A Quasi-experimental<br>study was carried out among convenient sample of 143 patients and their caregivers who attended the follow<br>up clinic during the first six months post autologous bone marrow transplantation. The study was conducted<br>among patients and their caregivers in three different hospitals Sheikh Zayed Specialized Hospital, National<br>oncology institute, and Nasser institute at outpatient’s follow-up clinics. A self-administered questionnaire<br>of patients and their caregivers’ demographic data, and reported checklist of caregivers’ knowledge and<br>practices toward post-autologous bone marrow transplantation patients at home. Results: there was a<br>statistically significant difference between pre and post nursing intervention, which indicate improvement in<br>caregivers’ knowledge and practice post implementation of the nursing intervention program, and positive<br>correlation between their knowledge and practice. Conclusion and Recommendations: Although caregivers<br>had adequate knowledge, practice on some aspects, gaps were identified. There is a need for educational<br>interventions and discharge plan to upgrade knowledge and practices of the caregivers of post autologous<br>bone marrow transplantation patient at home.</p> Asmaa Farouk Mohamed¹, Nawal Soliman², Hemat Abd-El-Moneem El-Sayied³, Asmaa Talaat4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chronic Kidney Disease: A Case Report <p>Chronic kidney disease can occur in mostly those patient which having a history of hypertension and<br>diabetes, this disease also known as a chronic renal failure. In this disease condition kidney can decreasing<br>the rate of filteration or kidney function since month or a year. In the beginning period of Chronic Kidney<br>Disease the person not showing any sign and symptoms about disease condition, after the months and year<br>patient showing symptoms like nausea, vomiting, lethargy edema, confusion and loss of appetite. If the<br>early detection and treatment is not getting so the patient can goes in complication such as heart disease,<br>hypertension, bone disease and anemia.1 Case Report: The female patient name is Rashida khan 63 year<br>old religion by Muslim lived in the yawatmal. She was admitted in the AVBRH with the chief complaint<br>of breathing difficulty, fever, nausea and vomiting, swelling on both legs, lethargy weakness since 10 days.<br>She having a history of HTN since 5 year and freshly diagnosed as DM2.Conclusion: This case presented<br>how the prolong history of HTN which is uncontrollable causing the DM2 and it can leads to CKD. The<br>firstly clinical presentation of the patient providing information about the history of HTN and DM2 and the<br>laboratory studies suggested a reducing function of kidney. So the patient sign, symptoms and the laboratory<br>values showing the condition of patient kidney with increasing volume of kidney, breathing difficulty,<br>moderate anemia and uremia. Early detection of the HTN and DM2 and their management in early stage,<br>also the modification in lifestyle and diet can help to reduce the chances of occurring Chronic Kidney<br>Disease. Patient also have to complete the given treatment and counseling about the disease condition, and<br>the problem get solved by taking proper treatment.</p> Sonal Dhobe1 , Vaishali Tembhare2 , Ruchira Ankar3 , Savita Pohekar4, Samruddhi Gujar5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Physiotherapy Students Willingness To Report Misconduct To Protect The Patient’s Interests In Chennai <p>Backgroung: Applying the ethics in practice is more essential than just learning it. Any sought of misconduct<br>to the patient is not just an ethical issue but it will also degrade the professionalism and it brings a sense of<br>insecurity in patients and this will slow down the progress of treatment. So it is not only important to avoid<br>the ethical issues and misconduct but it is also necessary to stand against ethical issues that happen within the<br>organization that may done by colleagues or higher authorities without any dilemma. Objective: This study<br>aims to find out the difficulties and dilemmas of the physiotherapist in ethical decision making and disclosing<br>the misconduct of their colleagues without any hesitation. Methodology: A close ended questionnaire was<br>used to assess the willingness of the student physiotherapist to expose the misconduct which might be<br>an internal or external disclosure. The questionnaire consisted of two clinical scenarios which were most<br>likely to arise in a work place. Each scenario consisted of 5 questions that rated the severity, likelihood of<br>confronting, internal disclosure, external disclosure to the association and external disclosure to media. The<br>scoring was based on five point likert scale. It was a study that was done with convenient sampling method.<br>The questionnaire was given to 100 Physiotherapy students in Chennai of both the sexes who were willing<br>to participate in the study. Result: From the statistical analysis, there is a significant difference obtained for<br>the likelihood of reporting the manager’s misconduct than colleague’s misconduct. Also their willingness<br>to report internally within the organization is greater than that of reporting externally to the association<br>and to the media. Conclusion: Ethics being a part of Physiotherapy curriculum, these students have well<br>understood the ethical and professional behavior and have good ethical acceptance. Hence we conclude that<br>the students do understand the seriousness of any misconduct of a therapist to the patient and are willing to<br>expose any misconduct they encounter to the internal or external environment.</p> Malarvizhi1 , Bhagya Lakshmi K2 , Hariharan S3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cognitive Impairment and Its Impact on Quality of Life in Rural Indian Female after Stroke: A Cross Sectional Study Protocol <p>Introduction: Stroke represented growing social, health care and economic problems. in 2005 vascular<br>cognitive impairment a condition that can be found in 20-30% of stroke patient. Now in 2018-19 over 50<br>percent of stroke survivors have reported cognitive impairment 6 months after stroke and are associated with<br>poorer quality of life which increase disability. Cognitive functions is identified as a top priority for stroke<br>research. Cognitive impairment affects inadequate ability to focus on the job, recall, understand, prepare, use<br>knowledge, initiate and stop the operation and solve problem. a stroke impaired cognitive function including<br>focus, memory, vocabulary, executive function, perception and orientation of space. Because of abnormality<br>in functional independence and other abnormalities in higher function, cognitive impairment may lead to<br>affect independence. it increases the death ratio, abnormality. Stroke impacts wellbeing dramatically on<br>health system resulting in high costs, and is also considered a global public health problem due to severe<br>disabilities, functional deficiencies and reduced quality of life.<br>Method: The corrective study is assessing the cognitive impairment and the quality of life. The cognitive<br>impairment will be measured with the use of the MoCA and QoL will be measured by stroke specific quality<br>of life questionnaire. Female stroke patient with age in between 45-65 year who was diagnosed by the<br>physician is included in the study.<br>Discussion: Stroke is a prevalent condition which affects most of the Indian population. Most studies are<br>done on stroke including male and females both. Many studies have concentrated on cognitive disability<br>after stroke and quality of life in males but no research is available in rural Indian females.The need for the<br>research is therefore to establish the prevalence of cognitive disability in females and their effect on quality<br>of life after stroke.</p> Nikita S. Deshmukh1, Ashish Bele2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Awareness and Attitude about Breast Lump among Females Attending Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved Hospital <p>Background: Breast lump is considered as carcinogenic unless it is tested and diagnosed as other than this.<br>Today in India, it is one of the main causes of cancer deaths among women. Only early detection and early<br>medical intervention could decrease its mortality rate. Knowledge and awareness of palpation of breast<br>lumps and attitude to get diagnosed at earliest is extremely crucial. Aims &amp; Objectives: Aim is to assess<br>knowledge, awareness and attitude about breast lumps in women attending Hospital OPD. Objectives are<br>to assess the existing knowledge and awareness and to study the attitude about breast lump examination<br>for prevention &amp; early diagnostic measures. Methodology: The proposed cross sectional observational<br>study will be carried out in in Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved Hospital, Salod (H),Wardha. The women visiting<br>OPD will be randomly selected and with their consent will be interviewed personally by a structured and<br>validated questioner. Result: Result will be interpreted on the basis of statistical analysed data. Conclusion:<br>Conclusion will be drawn from the observations and analysis.</p> Ishwari Gaikwad1 , Pradnya Dandekar2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ethical Issues at the Interface of Physiotherapy Care and Research Practice in Pediatric Oncology-Descriptive Study <p>Pediatric oncology has a major role in research. This paper discuss about the ethical consequences of<br>physiotherapy care and research in Pediatric Oncology. Empirical ethics is a broad division,grasping,<br>difference in indicatingethics and empirical research. A major Australian tertiary teaching hospital reveals<br>that 65 % of patient presents with specific indication for physiotherapy, in that only12.8% are receiving<br>physiotherapy. Indications includes in physiotherapy care are pain, lymph- oedema, incontinence, respiratory<br>and musculoskeletal Problems also it includes hard to move. Physiotherapy has extensive role inpalliative<br>oncology, it also has large preventative ,educative and supportive roles to play and provides independent<br>and complementary therapies for physical debility and pain. Pain from reflex spasm and contracture are<br>dealt with Physiotherapists. Founded that no reference based on standard of life and quality-adjusted life<br>years in terms of preventing dependance and avoid hospitalisation. Treatment of pediatric oncology often<br>has physically, socially and psychologically demands. Always there must be some ethical reason for all<br>the decision on treatment and care for a patient with cancer. It is a fact that ethics needs not only all the<br>stakeholders to do the right things but also it needs the one who do it in the right way. Research practice has<br>led us to great advances in pediatric oncology and the proportion is greater in children than adults. Obtaining<br>the informed consent and assent was the most important ethical challenges faced during the research.</p> Malarvizhi D1 , Metha K S2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Age Estimation from Fusion of Manubrium & Xiphoid Process with Sternal Body: A Radiological Study in Living Individuals from Central India <p>Forensic Age Estimation is an expertise in Forensic Medicine which aims to find out the most accurate way<br>of determining the chronological age of the unknown person involved in judicial or legal proceedings. This<br>study aims to investigate the relationship between the stage of union at Manubrium, Sternum &amp; Xiphoid<br>Process and biological age in Chhattisgarh population. The study was carried out in 270 healthy subjects<br>(135 males and 135 females) aging from 25 to 70 years. The obtained results from the radiographs revealed<br>that the complete fusion of Xiphoid process &amp; Manubrium with the body of sternum is seen in more than<br>&amp; 70% of individuals in the age group of 50-55 years. Females were consistently developing union at a<br>younger age than their male counterparts. Results also suggest that the age of union is found to vary greatly<br>all over the India indicating the need for separate standards of age of epiphyseal union for separate regions.</p> Ninad Nagrale1 , Swapnil Patond2 , Prakash Mohite3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Knowledge and attitude about Medicolegal Aspect of Organ Donation amongst Medical Students <p>Organ Donation is one the lifesaving procedure for many critically ill patients with organ failure. Even if<br>the various advanced and modern medical science and technology, there is Scarcity of organs led to big<br>gap between the demand and Supply of organs with number of donors. Present study was conducted At<br>Jawaharlal Nehru medical college DMIMS, Wardha. It was a cross sectional study and second year medical<br>students who were willing to participate included in the study. After taking their informed consent total<br>of 100 students, brief introduction about the scope of our study, general demographic data was collected.<br>Most of the students answered correctly the knowledge based questions on Organ Donation Appropriate<br>knowledge and a positive attitude by health science students could play a crucial role in shaping public<br>perspective.</p> Pande Varsha1 , Nagrale Ninad2 , Patond Swapnil3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Associated Factors of Depressive Symptoms among School Going Children’s <p>Depression is the most often encountered in the world of mental illness. In adulthood these mental disorders<br>do not understand as people do not want to share their mental illness with health care providers, they are<br>fearful of receiving approval from the physician. The community people in the last century did not accept the<br>existence of mental illness to the children. Nowadays some studies can provide evidence of mental illness<br>and treatment, or the medical field is also evolving so that people believe disease and death rates. Earlier<br>studies show that depression is prevalent in adolescents (10% to 60%). The mood disorder (depressive<br>mood) may inform lows all around, people may go to sadness in this condition, and in a severe case, people<br>may end their lives. A person may suffer for a long period in a situation in which he or she feels sad and<br>does not participate in social, personal, professional life. In all life situations, the person feels low and does<br>not feel pleasure in everyday life, so if the individual can feel these things in their life so that they consider<br>depression. 3 influence of depression mood which is unusual at a particular age. This can lead to negative<br>effects on a friend, social, and family relationship. 4 most suicide and suicidal behavior can lead to major<br>depressive disorders. Younger depression can lead to chronic waxing and increased risk of major depression<br>in adulthood. Some studies can indicate that depression may occur early in adulthood as opposed to people’s<br>past lives.</p> Sonal B. Dhobe1 , Samruddhi Gujar2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bibliometric Analysis of Publications on Dental Caries and Dental Fluorosis from India <p>Introduction- Dentistry goes back to about 5000 BC when a “tooth worm” was believed to be the source of<br>dental caries. Repeated processes of acid generation lead to the superficial degradation of calcified tissue in<br>the tooth, and consequently cavitation. Work has shown that enamel demineralisation happens at a pH of 5.5<br>and below. World Health Organization (WHO) mission is Health for all. Fluoride containing drinking water<br>and supplements such as tablets, gums, gel, and toothpastes are the major sources that could be responsible<br>for increased fluoride consumption.At various periods of tooth growth, the ingestion of unnecessary fluoride<br>may have a number of consequences on teeth, including the presence of white lines or streaks on enamel,<br>yellow or brown streaks on enamel, and the general participation of enamel with white or dark chalky stains.<br>Material and method- A systematic Search Strategy was framed using the specific keywords related to<br>Dental Caries and Dental Fluorosis. The Web of Science Database was accessed and Search Query was<br>input as “KP= (“Dental Caries*” OR “dental fluorosis*” OR “school children 8-13 Years*” OR DMFT* OR<br>“Dean’s fluorosis Index*”)”.<br>Result- Search output generated total 210 documents from 111 Sources (Journals, Books, etc.)Over the<br>period from 1999 – 2020. Total Author’s Keywords (DE) were 664<br>Conclusion- Dental caries is genuinely a neurological disease whose nature primarily depends on the<br>existence of fermentable sugar, host factors, cariogenic microbial flora and other related environmental<br>conditions. Researchers have proposed numerous theories within the context of dental caries. Fluoride is<br>among the relatively few contaminants that may cause significant public safety impacts in drinking water.<br>Various types of exposure to fluoride have been found to influence systemic F material, thereby raising the<br>likelihood of fluoride sensitive diseases.</p> Rutuj Waghmare1 , Roshan Umate2 , Shobha Joshi3 , Manoj Patil4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Finger and Hand Exercises among Amateur Pianist <p>BACKGROUND: Now days the number of students studying piano in tertiary institution is being increasing.<br>The piano player is similar to athletic activity to play the notes accurately. Posture plays a vital role in<br>piano. Musicians are prone to injuries due to the nature of musical practice, inappropriate body postures and<br>potentially harmful playing techniques. Majority of amateur players are prone to injuries .Amateur piano<br>player experience pain in hands and fingers. The main objective of the study was to strengthen the finger<br>and hand muscles to reduce the level of pain. Methodology: Quasi Experimental study and convenient<br>sampling.20 amateur piano players, were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pre test was<br>done to the participants using VAS score, hand grip dynamometer and cornell musculoskeletal discomfort<br>questionnaire. Finger and hand Exercise were given to the participants for 4 weeks . After 4 weeks of study<br>to analyze their level of pain, a hand held cornell musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire, VAS score<br>and hand grip dynamometer were used to find the effect of finger and hand exercise exercise. Outcome<br>Measure: CORNELL MUSCULOSKELETAL DISCOMFORT QUESTIONNIARE, VAS SCORE,HAND<br>GRIP DYNAMOMETER Result &amp; Conclusion: The study concludes that there was significant reduction<br>in the level of pain and also the hand grip was significantly improved</p> S.F. Mariyam Farzana1 , Ashish Mathew A2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Posture Using Posture Screening Mobile Application among Collegiates <p>BACKGROUND: A posture is a position of the body which is maintained by the balanced muscular forces<br />on the skeletal system. The posture is affected by the imbalance between the muscle force and also by<br />reduction or increase in the muscle length. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the posture using posture screening<br />mobile application among collegiates. METHODOLOGY: It is a non-experimental, observational study,<br />sample size 200 subjects both genders between 19 to 23 years, more than 18.5 to 25 ratios of BMI were<br />conveniently included in the study. The exclusion criteria was any congenital or acquired musculoskeletal<br />problems and recent surgeries fractures and injuries. METHOD: A written informed consent was taken<br />from the subjects. The posture assessment was taken using posture screening mobile application and was<br />documented. RESULTS: The result shows the percentage of abnormal posture deviation among normal<br />BMI collegiates. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders<br />among young individuals with normal BMI is one of the challenging issues among health care professionals.</p> S.F. Mariyam Farzana1 , Pooja2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cognizance Amongphysiotherapy Clinicians and Students in Pelvic Girdle Dysfunction- Qualitative Analysis <p>Low back pain of pelvic girdle dysfunction origin is most prevalent among all age group,hence there is<br>constant need of updates in diagnosis and therapeutic approaches,manual physiotherapy gained an adequate<br>importance in addressing pelvic girdle dysfunctions,with an objective of understanding the awareness of<br>pelvic girdle dysfunctions among the clinicians and students, a self-administered questionnaire was designed<br>and administered in pre-conference workshop pelvic girdle dysfunction dogmas in diagnosis and approach<br>at SRM college of physiotherapy SRM Institute of Science and technology Chennai India,based on the<br>response and through the statistical analysis it was found that the awareness was lacking and there was also<br>need to focus on the clinicians and student community towards pelvic girdle dysfunctions and its basics,<br>this may be beneficial in enhancing better patient care services and evidence in framing up clinical practice.</p> S.F.Mariyam Farzana1 , M.S.PawanKumar2 , D.Malarvizhi3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Patient Safety Program in a Hospital with Reference to Costs Associated with Patient Falls <p>Background: Patient safety is an emerging field in healthcare that has indirectly or directly affected all<br>stakeholders of healthcare delivery system in the last decade. World Health Organization guidelines for<br>adverse event reporting and learning systems, 2005 describes adverse events as “an injury related to medical<br>management in contrast to complications of disease.” These adverse events can be preventable or nonpreventable. Inpatient falls presents a serious challenge to the safety and quality of patients in hospitals.<br>Falls are not harmless, they delays in functional recovery and prolonged hospitalization that can cause<br>patients to suffer. The study was conducted to estimate the incidence and major reasons for falls. Methods:<br>Retrospectively, case records from January 2016 to September 2018 of all the inpatients were researched for<br>patient fall incidents, reported to the committee. The committee findings noted and the costs were estimated<br>in terms of cost to the patients, and costs to the hospital. Results: 118 incidents of patient fall happened<br>in study period. 3(2.6%) of them experienced two or more falls during stay, 115 (97.4%) fell once.<br>5 patients were morbidly obese. Costs to the hospital on each patient was Rs. 5412/-, not levied on<br>patients. Conclusion: The number of fall incidents and falls reporting system have been improved by early<br>detection of reasons by conducting root cause analysis.</p> Renu Mirchandani, 1 P. Naveen Kumar2 , Vikram Palimar3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Physical Therapy Rehabilitation and Care in Post Operative Trans-Tibial Amputation Patient <p>Introduction: The case study is focused on the treatment of an individual with a residual limb after a<br>transtibial amputation. The main goal is to help provide a greater understanding of how to treat the residual<br>limb after transtibial amputation.<br>Case Description: The case study focuses on a 65 year old female who recently underwent a transtibial<br>amputation of the left lower extremity because of chondrosarcoma of distal tibia. The patient was<br>mesomorphic and had a history of tumor. Physical therapy provided care in ways including wound care,<br>therapeutic exercise, gait training and prosthetic fitting and training.<br>Conclusion: The patient progressed well because of her motivation to continue physical therapy and the<br>proper management. After much hard work, by both the patient and the therapist, the patient was able to<br>ambulate house distances without assistance. For the patient’s age, it was remarkable to be able to progress<br>to the current functional status which she attained.</p> Renuka Dhole1 , Simran Jaiswal 1, Waqar M. Naqvi2 , Arti Sahu1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Workstation Exercise and Ergonomic Exercise on Nursing Population – A Randomized Clinical Trial Research Protocol <p>Nursing workers represent a significant proportion of the hospital workforce. In recent times, focus is put<br>on increasing efficacy with reducing the concurrent risks in this population. Many researches imply on<br>including workplace modifications and various exercises to reduce the number of absenteeism and heighten<br>the quality in work. As low back ache is the most prevalent, this study targets on determining the effects of<br>workstation exercise and ergonomic intervention on it.<br>Purpose -Nursing staff is the base of primary healthcare provision in the Indian background. The most<br>common reason for early retirement, sickness absenteeism, and decline in working population in nurses is<br>low back pain. With proper evidence, the efficacy of workstation activities in nursing staff will mitigate or<br>eliminate this issue in the area of healthcare.<br>Methods: There will be 3 groups, workstation exercise group, ergonomic modification group and a control<br>group each consisting of 40 patients selected from a fixed criterion. They will be graded with a QOL scale<br>and a pain scale during the start of treatment and after 2 months to compare the results and determine which<br>therapy gets better results.<br>Results: Statistical analysis will be done after the study’s completed by use of concise and inferential<br>tests use Student’sdistribution t test on single and combined analysis, one-way Analysis of Variance (F)<br>ANOVA test and Multiple Comparison: Turkey Test and analytical tools is SPSS24.0 version and Graph<br>Pad Prism 6.0 version and p&lt;0.05 is known as value point.<br>Conclusions: Both the ergonomic training and workstation exercises will result in reduction of low back<br>pain with workstation exercises proving more effective. The Publication will be done after conducting the<br>study and obtaining the results through the statistical analysis.</p> Renuka Dhole1 , Deepali Patil2 , Angela Kapoor3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and p21 Expressions with Capsular Invasion of Thymoma AB <p>Thymomas are the common neoplasms of mediastinum, and type AB is the most frequent case. All thymomas<br>are potential for invasion to adjacent tissues and considered malignant. Capsular invasion is one of its<br>prognostic indicators. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a family of proteinases that has the ability<br>to degrade a component of extracellular matrix and affect tumor invasion and or metastasis. Cytoplasmic<br>expression of p21 protein can be significantly correlated with invasion and metastasis. The correlation of these<br>two proteins in thymoma has not been widely studied, hence we aimed to analyze the expression of MMP-2<br>and p21 and investigate their correlation with capsular invasion of thymoma AB. This cross-sectional study<br>was performed on the 24 paraffin-embedded samples of thymomectomy during January 2013-Desember<br>2019 at Anatomical Pathology Laboratory of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya. The samples were<br>devided based on capsular invasion into 2 groups. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect<br>expression of p21 and MMP-2. The correlation was statistically analyzed using Spearman test. There was<br>no significant difference of MMP-2 expression between thymoma with capsular invasion and without<br>capsular invasion (p=0.839), and also no significant difference of p21 expression between thymoma with<br>capsular invasion and without capsular invasion (p=0.816). No correlation of MMP-2 and p21 expressions<br>in thymoma AB was revealed (p=0.255). In thymoma AB, the expression of MMP-2 and p21 were not<br>correlate with capsular invasion. These results may contribute to the development of thymoma research.</p> Santi Maulina1,2, Etty Hary Kusumastuti3,4, Nila Kurniasari3,4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Graded Theraband Exercise on Myofascial Dysfunctions in Breast Cancer Survivors <p>Background: Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality .Breast cancer is the most common<br>form of cancer among women. Many breast cancer surgeries leads to dissection of muscles and soft tissue<br>structures. After the breast cancer treatment many complications are seen in breast cancer survivors. In<br>that myofascial dysfunctions are common. These dysfunctions are one of the common sources of pain and<br>discomfort. Not only pain but this dysfunction also leads to decreased range of motion, decreased strength,<br>and altered posture. Because of dysfunctions, an upper body function decreases and affects the activity of<br>daily living. Graded theraband exercises are effective in improving muscle strength and shoulder range of<br>motion in breast cancer survivors. And also helps to enhance functional capacity. Early rehabilitation can be<br>implanted to reduce pain, improve strength and flexibility which will be helpful in minimize restrictions in<br>daily living activities and improve quality of life. This effectiveness study will help to enlighten the status of<br>myofascial dysfunctions in breast cancer survivors. The objectives of the study were as follows: To find out<br>the effect of graded theraband exercise on myofascial dysfunctions in breast cancer survivors.<br>Methods: A total 40 females who underwent breast cancer surgeries along with chemotherapy or radiotherapy<br>or hormone therapy, were included based on inclusion criteria. All the females received thera- band<br>exercises along with medications for five days per week and pre and post assessment was done with manual<br>muscle testing (MMT), shoulder range of motion (ROM), and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI)<br>questionnaire.<br>Result: The result concluded that strengthening with thera-band showed better effect in the breast cancer<br>survivors. Strengthening exercise program with resistance band showed significant improvement in the<br>shoulder strength, ROM and activities of daily life.</p> Sapana Namadev Jare1 , Mandar Malawade2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphometric study of Macewan’s Triangle in Relation to Depth of the Sigmoid Sinus Plate <p>Background: The suprameatal triangle is used for approaching the tympanic cavity and also it is an important<br>landmark for otologic surgeons during mastoidectomy.<br>Aim: To determine the depth of sigmoid sinus plate over the Macewan’s triangle by morphometry of various<br>anatomical landmarks.<br>Materials &amp; Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Penang International<br>Dental College &amp; VMKV Medical College, Salem on 30 dry human adult skulls. Five landmarks (D1,<br>D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6) were taken on the left and right sides of the skulls and the imaginary lines were<br>constructed and measured by Vernier caliper between the landmarks.<br>Results: The measurement of D2 showed statistically significant differences. The correlations of D1, D3,<br>D4, D5 and D6 on both sides do not show any significant differences. The linear correlation equations were<br>derived using the measurements for predicting D6.<br>Conclusion: The depth of sigmoid sinus plate (D6) can be assessed using D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 on lateral<br>view of head &amp; neck X-rays which can be used by Otologist during mastoidectomy to avoid severe bleeding<br>complications from sigmois sinus.</p> Senthil Kumar. B Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative study on Prevalence of Diastasis Recti in Primipara and Multipara Undergone Full Term Normal Delivery - A Research Protocol <p>Background: Diastasis Recti is very common in women after pregnancy. Diastasis recti among women<br>should be treated as soon as possible as it may cause various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. A digital caliper<br>is a tool for assessing diastasis recti in postpartum women. It is a simple, fast, and reliable assessment tool<br>for assessing diastasis recti. Objective: The objective of the study is to find the prevalence of Diastasis Recti<br>in Primipara and Multipara undergone full-term normal delivery and to compare the prevalence of diastasis<br>recti in the both of the groups Method: This study will be carried out in Physiotherapy OPD, Ravi Nair<br>Physiotherapy College and AVBRH, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha. Diastasis recti will be evaluated in fullterm normal delivery females. Diastasis recti will be compared in primipara and multipara using a digital<br>caliper. Results: The result of the study will be estimated by the statistical analysis of the data and will be<br>discussed after the study is completed.Conclusion: After going through various studies, many studies have<br>indicated that the prevalence of diastasis recti abdominis is commonly seen in multipara undergone cesarean<br>section delivery. Very few studies indicate the prevalence of diastasis recti abdominis in primipara and also<br>women underwent full-term normal delivery. Therefore, the current study is carried outreach a conclusion to<br>find whether there is any discrepancy of the prevalence of diastasis recti abdominis between primipara and<br>multipara in females undergone full-term normal delivery.</p> Simran Jaiswal1 , Shalaka Dhankar1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Does Dermatoglyphics An Essential Tool for Predicting Dental Caries? - A Systematic Review <p>Background: Dermatoglyphics is one the vital tool which helps to predict many systemic diseases including<br>oral problems. Dental caries seems to be a major problem overall the globe. The best way to manage this<br>condition is only early diagnosis.<br>Aim: This study aims to assess whether dermatoglyphics effective in predicting dental caries.<br>Materials and Method: A systematic review of controlled trials was performed. The data were hand<br>searched using electronic databases and the 328 number of articles were screened. The intervention and<br>outcomes were assessed in the study included for systematic review. The bias assessment of the articles was<br>done by using Newcastle Ottowa scale.<br>Results: Seventeen cross-sectional studies were included in our systematic reviews. Of that sixteen articles<br>were found to be statistically significant, but further studies should be done in other countries to prove the<br>association between dermatoglyphic pattern and dental caries.<br>Conclusion: The pattern of dermatoglyphics was found to be very effective in predicting dental caries and<br>thereby prevent the caries formation at an incipient stage.</p> Suganya P1 , Lubna Fathima1 , Prabu D2 , Raj Mohan3 , Bharathwaj4 , M.R. Prashanthy1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on the Effectiveness Of Abhaya Sunthi Churna and Snehana Swedana in Tamaka Shwasa <p>Background: In Ayurveda Shwasa is a disease of Pranvha srotasa which is explained by all the Acharya in<br>detail. The disease, Tamaka Shwasa in the contemporary system of medicine resembles the clinical features<br>of Bronchial Asthma such as dyspnea, cough and chest discomfort. The etiological factors like exposure<br>to smoke, dust, seasonal variation and exposure to cold are also similar in both the condition. A rough<br>estimation in India shows 10-15% of Bronchial Asthma in the age group of 5-11 year old children.<br>Aim: present study is entitled to study the effect of Abhaya Sunthi Churna and Snehana, Swedana in<br>management of Tamaka Shwasa. Material &amp; Methods: The present study was designed as the comparative<br>parallel group, interventional study, in which minimum of 30 patients were enrolled. The selected participants<br>were assigned to the two observational groups. Each interventional group participants were administered<br>with Abhaya sunthi churna for 14 days in both the groups A and B. Also in Group A there were additional<br>Snehana and Swedana procedures for 7 days and in Group B consist of Churna with Conventional therapy.<br>Results: In comparison significant results were seen only in Kasa in group A whereas other parameters<br>showed insignificant difference between the groups. The parameters such as Peenasa, Ghurghurkatwa,<br>Kaphanishtivana, Asinolabhatesaukhyam and Shwasakrichrrata showed reduction individually. The<br>comparative result of both the groups on Adventitious Sound, Significant result was noted on the 14th day<br>in group A who received Abhaya Shunthi Churna with Snehan Swedana after treatment in comparison with<br>group B. Conclusion: we can conclude that the Symptoms of Tamaka Shwasa were reduced in both the<br>groups (A and B) but the effect of the Abhaya sunthi churna with Snehana, Swedana i.e Group A was more<br>significant than Group B.</p> Suraj Sankh1 , Jyothy Kothanath.Bhaskaran2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study Protocol for Checking Efficacy of Leap Motion Device on Gross Hand Dexterity in Sub-Acute Stroke Patients <p>Introduction: Stroke survivors have limited everyday living tasks, often because of dexterous issues.<br>Videogame-based training (VBT) with the appearance of virtual reality helps to improve the role of the<br>upper limbs. The leap Motion controller can track both hands and fingers’ fine movements. The studies<br>thus demonstrates the efficacy of the leap motion system on gross hand dexterity in patients with sub-acute<br>stroke.<br>Method: The research has been designed as an experimental study. The total of 40 participants will be taken<br>from AVBRH, sawangi Meghe for study as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. With intervention the span<br>of the study will be 6 months. Leap Motion-based, augmented reality training will be provided to patients<br>for half hour, every single day, Five days of the week a month. Pre and post, box and block test and System<br>usability scale will be taken. Those two will be the patient’s major outcome.<br>Discussion:-This study protocol aims to assess the efficacy of the leap motion controller on the rehabilitation<br>of gross hand dexterity in patients with stroke. The study’s expected outcome will concentrate on the<br>evaluation of the usability of VBT using the Leap Motion Controller (LMC) to train gross hand dexterity in<br>stroke patients’ early recovery process.</p> Vaidehi kannao1 , Waqar Naqvi Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Deleted <p>g</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-demographic Profile of Deaths due to Poisoning at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangalore <p>Background: Deaths due to poisons form inexorable part of all unnatural deaths in the current era of social,<br>cultural and personal dilemma existing among mankind. Stress, poverty, financial insecurities, personal conflicts,<br>unemployment, ill health, psychological disturbances, difficulties in psycho-social adaptability and loneliness<br>contribute significantly to the ever-increasing mortality in poison deaths.<br>Methods and results: A 20-month prospective descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Forensic<br>Medicine and Toxicology, Victoria Hospital, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute on cases of<br>death due to poisoning. Out of 110 cases, maximum number of cases were male (63.63%), in the age group<br>of 21-30 years (33.63%). 92.72% belonged to Hindu religion and 55.45% belonged to the upper lower class.<br>54.54% belonged to urban areas and 60% were married victims. Maximum numbers of cases (38.18%)<br>were recorded in winter, commonly between 5pm – 10 pm (39.09%) and 84.54% occurred at the place<br>of residence. 84.54% of cases were suicidal in nature with psychological causes being the most common<br>motive (30.90%). 81.81% of cases received treatment and 34.53% succumbed to death within 1-7 days<br>of consumption of poison. Organophosphorus group of insecticide (50%) was the most common poison<br>encountered, followed by Phosphide ions (30%).<br>Conclusion: Poisoning is a major epidemic of non-communicable disease in the present century. Suicidal<br>and accidental poisoning are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality throughout the world.</p> Vidusha Vijay1 , Pradeep Kumar M.P2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assess the Effectiveness of “First Aid Training Program” in Terms of Knowledge and Skills Among School Teachers of Selected Schools of Ambala, Haryana”: A Quasi Experimental Study <p>Background: As the incidence of medical emergencies is rising, the demand of the knowledgeable and<br>skilled personnel is also needed. It is important for every person to be competent enough to tackle all the<br>emergency situations anywhere. First aid training helps to make a person able to give actual immediate care<br>and safety awareness. The objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of first aid training program in<br>term of knowledge and skill among school teachers.<br>Methodology: A Quasi-Experimental study following one pre-test post-test design was used. Participant’s<br>data was collected from 105 school teachers from 12 schools (9 govt. and 3 private) using Total enumerative<br>sampling and the schools were conveniently selected. Knowledge and skills were assessed by using structured<br>knowledge questionnaire and observational checklist respectively.<br>Conclusion: Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. The t test analysis showed a significant difference before<br>and after the administration of first aid training program in term of knowledge(t=37.05 and p= 0.001)and<br>skills (t=84.485 and p=0.000) at 0.05 level of significance. There was significant association of pre-test<br>knowledge scores with educational status of school teachers.</p> Vijayata1 , Yogesh Kumar2 , Jyoti Sarin3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Hygiene as a Risk Factor in Periodontitis <p>Dental plaque is the etiological factor for initiation of periodontal disease due to secretion of toxins and<br>proteolytic enzymes by the microbial accumulation in the cervical region of teeth &amp; sub gingival area.<br>Gingival inflammation will progress into the continuing destruction of supporting tissues like resorption<br>of alveolar bone Joss of attachment increase pocket depth if we don’t remove the microbial dental plaque,<br>by daily oral hygiene practice through mechanical tooth brushing of the person himself &amp;periodic clinical<br>examination to remove the plaque .calculus &amp;other retentive factors to maintain the oral hygiene in a good<br>manner.<br>The oral hygiene is considered as a risk factor in the prevention or progression of periodontal disease<br>depending on daily removing of dental plaque by the person &amp; professional recalling system clinically.</p> Abdul Majeed Wadi Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Incidence of Hydatidosis in Slaughtered Animals and their Relation to Public Health at Baghdad Province <p>Hydatid cysts disease is an important public health problem and economic losses especially at developing<br>countries such, Iraq. A study of incidence of hydatidosis in sheep and cattle, which are slaughtered food<br>animals, was carried out at different areas of Baghdad province outside the government abattoirs, during<br>a period of 18 months from November 2016 to May 2018. Both slaughtered livestock animals (sheep and<br>cattle) which are local breed of both sexes, they are of difference areas in boundary at Baghdad city, and with<br>ages having non descriptive features. Hand palpation and visual inspection were followed in this study. A<br>total , 2594 carcasses were examined comprising 1632 sheep and 962 cattle, from these 33, 11 ( sheep and<br>cattle) respectively were found to harbour the cysts, recording percentages of (2.0%, 1.1%) respectively. The<br>predominant location cysts at the liver (48.4%, 45.4% ) in sheep and cattle respectively, next by the lungs ,<br>in sheep and cattle (39.3%, 36.3%) respectively. Next to the mixed organs (liver + lung), the incidence was<br>(18.1%) in cattle and (9.0%) in sheep. The percentage of cysts in heart of sheep was (3.0%) but in cattle it<br>was (0%) Zero. The results revealed that fertile cysts only, were present in sheep with (87.8%) fertility. Cysts<br>in the organs ranged(1-13,2-7) in sheep and cattle respectively. It can be observed that , sheep play a major<br>role for distributions the disease. Suggestive control measures and public health hazard were mentioned.</p> Abdulkareem Thamer Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Inheritance Pattern of Lip Prints and Blood Group among Parents and their Offspring in Javanese Population, Indonesia for Assisting Forensic Identification <p>Lip prints and bloodstains may be left behind in many crime scenes and may reveal the identity of the victim<br>and the suspected person. This study was aimed to investigate the inheritance pattern of lip prints and blood<br>groups among parents and their offspring in the Javanese population. 105 subjects from 25 Javanese family<br>frames participated in this study. Lips print pattern was recorded and analyzed according to Suzuki and<br>Tsuchihashi classification. A blood group test was also performed for each subject. The statistical analysis<br>carried out using IBM® SPSS® Statistics version 23.0 (IBM, Armonk, New York, USA). The results of this<br>study revealed that type II was the predominant pattern of lip prints among the Javanese population (34.3%).<br>Blood group A was the predominant type in subjects with lip prints type II (15%). The result also shows that<br>the lip prints pattern in girls tends to be inherited from the mother. However, the inheritance of lip prints<br>pattern in boys couldn’t be determined precisely. The heritability of lip prints pattern was observed between<br>parents and their offspring. Also, there was a tendency of blood groups to have a certain pattern of lip prints.</p> Agung Sosiawan1 , Cahyo Pulunggono1 , Arofi Kurniawan1 , Haryono Utomo1 , Maria Istiqomah Marini1 , Beta Novia Rizky1 , Mieke Sylvia Margaretha Amiatun Ruth1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Human Age Estimation Through DNA Metilation Analysis Method from Bite Mark Samples in Forensic Identification <p>Background: Age estimation are often calculated using bone and teeth samples, but are limited to human<br>skeleton findings. The aim of this research is to estimate human age through DNA methylation method<br>from bite mark samples. Result: There were 40 bite mark samples obtained from healthy volunteers. DNA<br>samples were isolated using DNAzol reagent and converted using DNA methylation kit. The isolated DNA<br>were amplified and electrophoreses was conducted using agarose gel. Electrophoresis result was used as<br>length reference for the sequenced band and analyzed for methylation percentage and correlation with<br>age estimation. Statistical test showed that there was a significant correlation between DNA methylation<br>percentage with age estimation both in men (r Pearson 0.767) and women (r Pearson 0.878). Conclusion:<br>Cpgplot emboss analysis for DNA methylation mean percentage in men tend to increase in accordance to<br>age categories, whereas for women, the mean DNA methylation percentage in age categories was stable or<br>constant.</p> Ahmad Yudianto1 , Mieke Sylvia Margaretta AR2 , Fery Setiawan3 , Ma’rifatul Ula4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Cusp Deflection in Teeth Restored with Various Manipulation Techniques and Types of Composite Restorations <p>This study aim to evaluate and compare the deflection of premolar teeth cusps that filled incrementally with<br>conventional composite (Universal Ceram X One Sphere TEC TM) and various types of bulk fill composite<br>materials (Kerr SonicFillTM3 , 3M FiltekTM Bulk Fill and Shofu Beautifil Bulk Fill). In this study 40 human,<br>healthy maxillary first premolars were collected and large MOD cavity were prepared in them . According<br>to restorative materials, the teeth were haphazardly categorized in 4 groups (n=10 per group). Group I :<br>The teeth were filled with SonicFill™3 Kerr composite, Group II : The teeth were filled with Filtek Bulk<br>Fill, Group III : The teeth filled with Shofu Beautifil Bulk Fill composite, and Group IV : The Teeth were<br>filled with Dentsply Ceram X One Sphere TEC TM. By the aid of digital microscope intercuspal distance on<br>the tips of the cusps between two index reference points was measured pre preparation of the cavity , post<br>preparation, after 15 minutes of completion of fillings. The cuspal deflection was calculated by determination<br>of the changes in measurements. Inward cuspal deflection was occurred in all teeth after filling , minimal<br>cuspal deflection reported in all study groups that filled with bulk fill filling in comparison with group IV that<br>filled in layering technique with conventional composite. Greater cuspal deflection produced by Beautifil<br>Bulk Fill restorative in comparison with other groups. As a conclusion of this study that using of new bulk<br>filling restorative materials could dramatically minimize cuspal deflection.</p> Ahmed A. Alquzweeni1 , Mustafa Basim Al-Talqani2 , Marwah Safaa Ali3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Health Education in Promotion of Health Care Waste Management in Khartoum North Teaching Hospital <p>The study was conducted as a quasi-experimental design in Khartoum North teaching hospital to assess the<br>role of health education in the promotion of health care waste management. A sample size of (103) targeted<br>workers (cleaners) were used in the investigation. Data collected was analyzed using the T-test and chisquare test by computer using SPSS. The results revealed remarkable improvement in the knowledge of<br>the respondents, as regards the hazards of the health care waste (53%-100%) before the intervention, after<br>the intervention, it increased to 100% showing highly significant change. The opinion of the respondents to<br>use the protective clothes ranging from (45% - 100%) before the intervention, rose after the intervention to<br>(70.5% – 100%) showing significant change. The practice of workers about touching contaminated cotton<br>and linen with patient body fluids was 16.7% before the intervention, after the intervention only 7.4% touch<br>the waste showing significant change.</p> Ahmed Abu-Rayyan1 , Waed Alahmad2 , Fatima Fadul ALI Osman3 , Kamal Elbssir M Ali4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Serotonin Concentration and Some Variables in the Sera 6 hours before and after Dialysis on Chronic Kidney Patients with Different Ages in Iraqi Population <p>This study is concerned with chronic kidney disease and control group . The determine patients from (alseder<br>hospital ) in Najaf city during the period between January 2019 to July 2019. The CKD patient and control<br>group consisted of sixty with age mean of (80 ±20) years. The blood samples were drawn from all patients 6<br>hours before and after dialysis to measurement serotonin , blood Urea, Creatinine , uric acid and hemoglobin<br>and control group. Also the patients classified into two groups according to age . This variables measured by<br>using assay (ELISA) technique and colorimetric methods. The higher mean value of serotonin was shown<br>in CKD patients before dialysis ( 0.0257± 0.00224 ng /ml) compared with patients after dialysis ( 0.1894 ±<br>0.05189 ng/ml) compared with control group( 0.0059 ± 0.00139 ng/ml). Also the higher value of blood Urea<br>and Creatinine reversibly in CKD patients before dialysis was (126.25± 4.869 mg/dL), (10.041± 0.3019<br>mg/dL) compared in blood Urea and Creatinine in CKD patients after dialysis was (48.183± 2.262 mg/dL),<br>(3.28± 0.201 mg/dL) and control group was (28.105 ± 1.896 mg/dL), (1. 095 ± 0.0961 mg/dL).<br>Also the higher value of uric acid and hemoglobin reversibly in CKD patients before dialysis was (8.0623±<br>0.1478 mg/dL), (13.800 ± 0.16519 g/dL) compared in uric acid and hemoglobin in CKD patients after<br>dialysis was (5.5361± 0.16055 mg/dL), (12.383 ± 0.15872 g/dL) and control group was (2.6789 ± 0.2977 mg/<br>dL), (13.742 ± 0.18954 g/dL) , all above results there was a significant difference and correlation (p?0.05).<br>Aim of study: Study the effect of serotonin, blood Urea, Creatinine , uric acid and hemoglobin 6 hours<br>before and after dialysis on CKD patients and compared with control group .Study the effect of variables<br>on CKD patients with different age and study the relation between CKD patients after and before dialysis.</p> Ahmed Chyad Abbas1 , Ahmed Zuhair Alwaeli2 , Ebtihal Chiad Abass3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of the Biological Activity of Some Commercial Bleaching Solutions (Hypochlorites) on Pathogenic Bacteria <p>Hypochlorites, the active ingredients in bleach, are an extremely useful chemical that have been used since<br>the 18th century as a disinfectant.Hypochlorite solutions are in general strong oxidizing agents. The study<br>included of five species of hypochlorite solutions widely used as commercial bleaching solutions (Shoof,<br>Oroplus, Alwazir , Lamoa and Fas) and their concentrations were confirmed chemically by potentiometric<br>titration methods previously and applicate their ability and efficiency against two types of bacteria (E.coli<br>and Staphylococcus arueus) which are isolated from human infected sample in general Heat hospital /Iraq.<br>The results revealed that all bleaching solutions have anti-bacterial influence against two species of bacteria<br>and more successful against Staphylococcus aureus than the E.coli especially with Alwazir solution give<br>high significant difference compared with other solutions ,also the outcomes showed sensitivity of bacteria<br>enhanced with concentrations of bleaching solutions. The study indicates the fast reduction rate in the 30S<br>reaction showed the immediate efficiency of Hypochlorites. Finally the current study suggest and encourage<br>to use hypochlorite solutions as antiseptics and disinfectants to killing species of bacteria which proved their<br>efficiency during this study</p> Ahmed Salih Lateef 1 , Ismail K. AL-Hitti1 , Atheer A .Khashan2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of the Some Dominant Aerobic Microorganisms in Burn Injury and Testing their Susceptibility for Different Antibiotics in Najaf <p>Burn injury and wound is a pig problem that assists the pathogens to grow and cause infection. 149 burn<br>injury swabs were taken from different site of the patients’ body ages (11-53 years old). All samples were<br>tested to isolate the sigificant microorganisms that found in burn injury. Antibiotics test was performed by<br>using disc diffusion way that stated by Kirby-Baucer. Results appeared that the most frequent pathogen in<br>burn injury was Pseudomonas aeruginosa 33(22.14%) and followed by E.coli 31(20.8%), Staphylococcus<br>aureus 28(18.79%), Proteus vulgaris 26(17.48%), Coagulase-negative Staphylococci 12(8.05%), Proteus<br>mirabilis 10(6.71%), Klebsiella pneumonia 5(3.35%) and Candida spp. 4(2.68%) respectively. Antibiotic<br>test showed that Staphylococcus aureus was a high resistance against Gentamycin and ciprofloxacin, but<br>it was sensitive to Vancomycin and Imipenem. Coagulase negative Staphylococci showed a resistance<br>to Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin and Ceftazidime, but it was sensitive to Amikacin, Oxacillin, Cefotaxim,<br>Vancomycin, Imipenem and Cefepime. P. aeruginosa showed resistance against Cefotaxime, Aztreonam,<br>Gentamicin and Ceftazidime. Whlist it showed a high sensitivity against Imipenem, Cefepime and<br>Tobramycin. E.coli showed a high resistance against Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin and Cephalothin. whilst<br>it showed a high sensitivity against Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, Imipenem, Cefepime and Tobramycin.<br>Proteus vulgaris showed a high resistance against Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Amikacin, Cephalothin and<br>Gentamicin. Whilst it showed a high sensitivity against Cefotaxime, Aztreonam, Ticarcillin/clavulanic<br>acid and Imipenem. Proteus mirabilis showed resistance against Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone,<br>Gentamicin and Cephalothin. Whilst it showed a high sensitivity against Ceftazidime, Cefotaxime,<br>Aztreonam, Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, Imipenem, Cefepime and Tobramycin. Klebsiella pneumonia<br>showed resistance against Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime, Cefotaxime and Aztreonam. whilst it showed a high<br>sensitivity against Ceftriaxone, Amikacin, Gentamicin, Cephalothin, Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, Imipenem,<br>Cefepime and Tobramycin. The current study was aimed to determine the most frequent pathogens in burn<br>injury and test their antibiotics susceptibility in hospitalize patients in Najaf city.</p> Ahmed Zuhair Alwaeli Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Dentifrices with Different Abrasives on the Surface Roughness of a Nano Composite Resins materials <p>Background: to evaluate the effect of different dentifrices on the surface roughness of two composite resins<br>(nanofilled-based and nanoceramic – based composite resins). Materials and methods: Forty specimens<br>(diameter 12 mm and height of 2mm) prepared from different composite resin materials: Z350 (nanofilled<br>composite, and Ceram-X (nanoceramic) .they were subjected to brushing simulation equivalent to the<br>period of 1 year. The groups assessed were a control group brushed with distilled water (G1), Opalescence<br>whitening toothpasteR (G2), Colgate sensitive pro-relief (G3) and Biomed Charcoal Toothpaste (G4). The<br>initial and final roughness of each group was tested by surface roughness tester. The results were statistically<br>analyzed using ANOVA and Tueky test at 0.05 significance level. Results: the surface roughness of the<br>two tested composites brushed with the tested dentifrices was statistically higher than the roughness found<br>in control group. Comparison among the three types of dentifrices showed that there was a statistically<br>high significant difference in the surface roughness among all subgroups. Charcoal Toothpaste showed the<br>highest surface roughness increase. Conclusion: Whitening dentifrices increase the surface roughness of<br>dental composite thereby compromising its durability. Changes in composite depended on the material itself<br>and the dentifrices used.</p> Ala, a Jawad Kadhim1 , Linz Ali Shalan1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Coenzyme Q10 in the Follicular Fluid and Its Relation to Oocyte Maturity, Fertilization Rate, Embryo Grading, and Pregnancy Rate <p>Background: Infertility was define as; a disease characterized by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy<br>after 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse, or due to an impairment of a person’s capacity<br>to reproduce, either as an individual or with his/her partner. According to the latest definition by the<br>international glossary on infertility and fertility care, regular sexual intercourse is an important determinant<br>for the occurrence of pregnancy.<br>Aim of the study: To assess the relation between Coenzyme Q10 level in the follicular fluid with oocyte<br>maturity, fertilization rate, embryo grading, and pregnancy rate<br>Patients and method: A prospective cross sectional study conducted at the High Institute for Infertility<br>Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies / Al-Nahrain University and in fertility center at AlSadr general hospital during the period from December 2019 to August 2020. Sixty infertile couples were<br>enrolled in this study; all underwent ICSI cycles<br>Results: Mean level of Co Q10 in Grade III and IV (0.387 ± 0.54) than that in Grade I and II (0.539 ± 0.65),<br>CoQ10 total in pregnant were 0.79 ± 0.63 and in non-pregnant were 0.381 ± 0.2, A threshold of 0.27 of<br>CoQ10 had a sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 67.0 %, PPV was (88.0%), NPV (45%) and accuracy<br>was (74%). ROC curve of CoQ10 for pregnancy prediction<br>Conclusion: Significant decrease of Co Q10 between in Grade III and IV than that in Grade I and II. CoQ10<br>total were increase in pregnant women than non-pregnant.</p> Alaa Abdulateef Mohammed1 , Zainab Hassan Al-Khafajy. 2 Ass. Prof Dr. Wasan Adnan Abdullhameed3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of VEGF Gene Polymorphisms on BEV Responsiveness in a Sample of Iraqi Colorectal Cancers Using HRM - PCR <p>Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have a vital role in the molecular genetic events<br>of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, so it is involved in the development of cancer. Single nucleotide<br>polymorphisms (SNP) in VEGF gene has been announced as a risk factor in colorectal cancer. Bevacizumab<br>(BEV) is an angiogenesis inhibitor that curb the binding of VEGF to its receptors obstructing the angiogenesis<br>process. Objective: The ideal goal of ongoing study lies in revealing the effect of rs699947 (-2578 C/A (and<br>rs833061 (-460C/T( polymorphisms in the promoter of VEGF gene on the development of colorectal cancer<br>and on the BEV responsiveness in a sample of Iraqi patients using High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRM)<br>analysis. Methodology: Venous blood samples were collected from 25 colorectal cancer patients with<br>response to BEV treatment and 25 with BEV resistant and 25 apparently healthy individuals as control<br>group who matched with patients in age and gender. Results: AA and CA polymorphisms A allele of<br>rs699947 (-2578 C/A) and TT and CT polymorphisms and T allele of rs833061 (-460C/T( were represent<br>a risk factor on the occurrence of the colorectal cancer. It has been found that CC and CA polymorphism<br>of the VEGF - 2578 C/A and CT genotype of the VEGF -460 C/T polymorphism might be a predictive<br>factors of responsiveness to BEV chemotherapy in CRC patients. Conclusion: These outcomes confirm the<br>essential role that VEGF polymorphisms play in the occurrence of CRC and the correlation between SNPs in<br>VEGF promoter region and the BEV responsiveness. With this, further research and investigation of VEGF<br>polymorphisms could allow for its use in identifying risk factors for the development of CRC and increasing<br>its predictive value for anti-VEGF cancer therapies.</p> Alaa Tariq1 , Wiaam Ahmed Al-Amili1 , Ahmed Zuhair Abdulhameed Alsammarraie2 , Waleed Jassim Mohammed Alserartee3 , Sarah Mohssen Mohammed4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Quick Reference Manual for the Management of Drug Overdose and Poisoning <p>Aim: To develop a reference manual for the management of drug overdose and poisoning.<br>Methods: A prospective developmental study was performed for a span of six months at a tertiary care<br>hospital in Erode. Information on the management of cases of drug overdose and poisoning was provided<br>based on queries received at the Drug Information Center and the poisoning cases identified in the respective<br>hospital over the past three years. Further attention was paid to detecting local poisons. Such information<br>was collected on the basis of literature reviews, magazines and newspapers. In addition to drug and poison<br>monographs; android applications, toxicological databases and links, standard reference books and articles<br>on drug overdose and poisoning were included. Locally reported cases have been given more focus.<br>Results: A formulary was prepared which includes the management information for 100 drugs and 57 toxic<br>substances that were identified after extensive research. The signs and symptoms of the various poisoning<br>cases were graded as mild, moderate and severe based on poison severity scale (PSS) and respective antidotes<br>were mentioned.<br>Conclusion: As per our knowledge, this is the first formulary that focus on local poisons. The implementation<br>of the formulary may have a significant impact on healthcare professionals to improve the quality of life<br>of patients.This provides important information of localized poisoning and drug overdose in a nutshell and<br>therefore offers as a quick data to the enquirer.</p> Alan Tom1 , Mohammed Salih1 , N Venkateswaramurthy1 , R Sambathkumar1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA and Complement Components C3 and C4 Levels in Iraqi full term Neonates with Severe Hyperbilirubinemia <p>Background and aim: Hyperbilirubinemia is an elevation of the bilirubin levels in blood of newborn babies<br>that presented as jaundice. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of important of immunological system<br>proteins (IgG, IgM, IgA, C3 and C4) in both newborn babies with severe hyperbilirubinemia and healthy<br>controls.<br>Methods: Thirty (30) full-term neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin &gt;20 mg/dl) and<br>twenty five (25) healthy control full-term neonates were included in the study. Blood samples taken and Hb,<br>total serum bilirubin, total protein measured immediately by spectrophotometer. IgG, IgM, IgA, C3 and C4<br>measured by immune-nephelometric method.<br>Results: In hyperbilirubinemia group (Male/ Female percentages) were (63% / 37%), (IgG 373.4±218 mg/<br>dl),( IgM 20.5 ± 24.03 mg/dl), and (C3 209.4±17.81 mg/d)l values were significantly lower than control<br>group ( 588.2±298.5 mg/dl IgG, 26.44 ± 2.92 mg/dl IgM and 627.5±221.1 mg/dl for C3). Correlation<br>analysis revealed that in control group IgG, IgM, and C3 shown to be significantly (P value &lt;0.05) and<br>positively correlated (r-value &gt; 3) with both age and weight.<br>Conclusions: jaundice is a risk factor for sepsis that could be due to lower levels of immunoglobulins and<br>complements components. The normal development of immune system that observed with increasing age<br>and weight was impaired in patients with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.</p> Ali Abdulateef Hassan Al-bayati 1 , Khitam Abdul-Wahhab Ali1 , Shaimaa Hamid Kareem Aljanabi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Aetiology and Findings of Recurrent Chronic Rhino Sinusitis with Nasal Polyposis after Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery <p>Background: Nasal polyps are the edematous sinonasal mucosa prolapsing into the nasal cavity. Allergy,<br>asthma, aspirin intolerance and fungal rhinosinusitis have been implicated in various studies. Recurrence<br>of nasal polyposis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery is prevalent but there are no specific causes for<br>recurrence. Intensity of relapse varies depending on multiple factors that implicated in showing characters<br>and findings of the recurrence.<br>Objective: To evaluate causes of nasal polyposis recurrence after FESS.<br>Patients and method: 30 adult patients age between 18 and 60 years (with recurrent nasal polyposis after<br>FESS) were studied in the period between March 2017 and September 2018. Assessment done for all<br>patients by taking Medical history, documented data from the primary surgery, rhinoscopy with CT-scan<br>examination.<br>Results: In this study, most of nasal polyp recurrence occur in 1-3 years after primary surgery, patients using<br>post-operative steroid showed delay in recurrence, post-operative antibiotic showed no effect on time of<br>recurrence,patients with (asthma, allergy, aspirin sensitivity and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis) showed high<br>lund-kennedy and lund-mackay scores and some patients had anatomical findings mainly (40% incomplete<br>anterior ethoidectomy).<br>Conclusions: Recurrence of nasal polyposis could occur at any age mainly in middle age group and male<br>gender showed higher prevalence. Asthma, aspirin sensitivity (Samter’s tried) and allergic fungal sinusitis<br>were the most important associated diseases. CT-scan showed some anatomical variations like incomplete<br>anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy which occupying the highest percentages. Post-operative steroid<br>showed delay in time of recurrence.</p> Ali Aziz Abed1 , Ragheed Turky Miteab2 , Ali Majid2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Review: Cancer Cells Resistance Strategies <p>Cancer, which is the most important health problem, develops the ability to resistant traditional medications<br>this leads to increase efforts to develop new cancer medication protocols. In this review, the chemotherapy<br>resistance could be due to several mechanisms. These mechanisms involve either inactivation by two<br>important phases, phase I which involve oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis or phase II which involve<br>conjugation wi, alteration of the target site which decrease either activation of anticancer prodrug and/or<br>decrease its influx to cancer cells. Other mechanisms for chemotherapy resistance return to the repairing<br>of cancer cell DNA, modulation of efflux for drug, inactivation of apoptosis, besides how the role of<br>heterogeneity of tumor cells in drug resistance. All of these strategies obligated the oncologist to use a<br>combination of chemotherapy medication to overcome or avoid resistances to treatments.</p> Ali Faris Hassan1 , Nada Naji Al-Shawi 1, Mahmood Kahtan Salih1 , Pharmacsit Rusul Mohammed Hassan Ali 2 , Biologist Omar Faris Hasan3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Hyaluronic Acid in Patients with Osteoarthritis of The Knee <p>Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by pain,<br>stiffness, swelling and progressive functional limitation in elderly. Non-surgical management modalities<br>like physical therapy, lifestyle modification and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are often<br>ineffective or do not alleviate symptoms adequately. Intra-articular corticosteroid (CS) and hyaluronic acid<br>(HA) injections have been used for long to alleviate the symptoms of knee OA. viscosupplementation has<br>been used as a therapeutic modality for the management of knee OA. The principle of viscosupplementation<br>is based on the physiological properties of the hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial joint which helps tissue<br>lubricate, cushion and reduce pain in the joint.<br>Study diagnosed forty patient of knee Osteoarthritis for both gender with age (45-70 years) and observed<br>change and effectiveness to pre-and post of HA injection, All patients diagnosed by Orthopedists and<br>Rheumatologists whose used X-rays were graded as stage I, II and III according to Kellgren and Lawrence<br>scale.<br>All the measurements were used at the time of enrollment in the study before any injection and then measured<br>again at the end of three months by using Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index<br>(WOMAC) .<br>All the patients before therapy were having minimum score of 72.4 &amp; 9.045 for Mean and Standard Deviation<br>respectively while after the therapy there score reduced to 36.2 &amp; 4.783.<br>The results show improvement significant during four month under study and the effect peaks at around<br>8–12 weeks following administration, This supports the potential use of intra-articular HA as an effective<br>long therapeutic option for patients with OA of the knee.</p> Ali Hasanain Alhamadani Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Changes in Interleukins and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in Toxoplasmosis Male Patients <p>In several countries there are endemic of parasitic diseases, specifically in developing countries, several<br>studies investigated that toxoplasmosis is related with sterility of male. Aims of study are assessment of antiToxoplasma IgG antibodies in patient’s serum and their relation with interleukins and FSH hormone. IL-6<br>stimulates antibody production and extend effect of proinflammatory by stimulating the production of acute<br>phase proteins. IL-10 and IL-12 control the immune response type. Cytokine synthesis is inhibits by the<br>former and by blocking the IL-6 and TNF-? production, the response with involvement of Th2 and activation<br>of B cells has an advantage. Detection for the toxoplasmosis which is based on toxo IgG , interleukins and<br>FSH used the classic ELISA technique that based on immunoassay system using fluorescence technology<br>and antigen antibody interaction. They were found in 1 (3.03%) of azoospermic patients and 4(12.12%)<br>of oligozoospermic patients, while the negative results found in 32(96.97%) of azoospermic patients and<br>29(87.88%) of oligozoospermic patients. The control group had 34(100%) negative results in toxoplasmosis.<br>The mean serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 (pg / ml) increased significantly in patients with Toxoplasma gondii<br>compared to the control group (237.97±9.09 pg / ml 285.52±12.45and pg / ml, respectively; p&lt;0.0001) . In<br>this study, it has been concluded that infection with T. gondii can effect on the level of the interleukins and<br>FSH in infertile couples.</p> Alia Salim Altemeemi1 , Noor Kareem Kadhim2 , Ghufran Saad Nsaif3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance System of Polio Free in East Java, Indonesia, 2019 <p>Background: Proving that the wild polio virus no longer exists in Indonesia, the symptoms must be found that<br>resemble polio. These symptoms are found in patients with AFP (Acute Flaccid Paralysis). AFP surveillance<br>is an observation made of all cases of acute paralysis or AFP in children aged &lt;15 years who are vulnerable<br>to polio. The priority problem that is still found in the East Java Provincial Health Office regarding AFP<br>surveillance is the reduction in the discovery of non-polio AFP cases and adequate specimens.<br>Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyze the implementation of AFP surveillance activities in the East<br>Java Province Health Office in 2019.<br>Methods: Data collection was carried out by primary and secondary to study the AFP surveillance overview.<br>Primary data were obtained from in depth interviews with AFP surveillance program holders in East Java<br>Provincial Health Office. Secondary data is processed using Microsoft Office Excel, Epi Info and Quantum<br>GIS.<br>Results: The result is in 2019 the rate of non-polio AFP and the percentage of adequate specimens in East<br>Java Province has under the target. In 2019 there was a decrease compared to the previous year, the nonpolio AFP rate was 1.64 and the percentage of adequate specimens was 56.2%. Only as many as six districts<br>/ cities in East Java Province had pass these two indicators.<br>Conclusion: The lack of visits and reports from both the hospital and the community is one of causative<br>factor. Intensive and routine AFP surveillance is needed to monitor the emergence of polio cases</p> Alya Hanifa Rasyidi1 , Anik Suroiyah2 , Laura Navika Yamani3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 E-Cigarette Vaping and Periodontium: A Systematic Review <p>Conventional cigarettes have shown severe toxicity on immune cells and wound healing in the periodontium,<br>but little is known about the comparative effects of vaping or electronic cigarettes. If current conventional<br>cigarette users are to transition to a less detrimental alternative, the evidence must demonstrate if electronic<br>nicotine delivery systems can be deemed safer than conventional options. The intent of this literature is to<br>summarize the evidences on the effect of E-cigarette on the periodontal health.<br>The main sources of evidence for this report included: a comprehensive report from National Academies of<br>Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, reviews published in the past 10 years.<br>As a conclusion, further investigation and studies are needed to evidence the effect of new smoking methods<br>on the oral health of newly users and on the shifted persons who was previously tobacco smokers.</p> Ameer A. Altabatabaie1 , Ahmed A. Alquzweeni2 , Hussein A. Alnajar3 , Raya Ali Dalol4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship Between Spermatid Specific Thioredoxin-3 Protein and Antisperm Antibody in Patients with Varicocele Compared with a Control Group <p>The spermatogenesis process are very complex and involves many process to lead to give normal sperm<br>, these sperms a very important to fertility in the men). Protein in the male fertility that is very important<br>which give the significant job in fertilization. The infertile varicocele patient grade 1,2 and 3 (n= 25 , 25<br>and 25 respectively) compare with control patient (n=15). The present study Shown spermatid – specific<br>thioredoxin 3 level a significant increase in varicocele patient grade 1,2 and 3 compare with control group<br>(mean± Std. Error 17.97± 0.8 &amp; 22.92±0.75 Respectively) .Also in Antisperm antibody a significant increase<br>in varicocele patient grade 1,2 and 3 compare with control group (mean± Std. Error 73.85±2.71 &amp; 45.6±1.44<br>Respectively ). Consecutive (r= -0. 840, r = -0. 745 and r = -0. 475). Also theirs a negative correlation<br>between Antisperm antibody level and the sperms concentration , Sperm Progressive motility percent and<br>sperm normal morphology present in varicocele patient grade 1,2 and 3 Consecutive (r= -0.443 , r = -0.370<br>and r = -0.384 ) .<br>The result show a positive correlation was found between Spermatid specific thioredoxin-3 protein level<br>and antisperm antibody level in varicocele patients .(The present study conclude that a negative function of<br>Spermatid specific thioredoxin-3 protein and antisperm antibody which that appears on sperm function and<br>sperm parameters , The study showed that spermatid specific thioredoxin-3 protein and antisperm antibody<br>has a harmful effect with the time) .</p> Ameer Ali Imarah1 , Waleed A.H.2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Tuberculosiss Arthritis: A Case Report <p>Tuberculosis Arthritis of the knee joint is rare. A 25-year old female patient presented with pain and<br>swelling of her left knee. The symptoms first appeared two months earlier; she was given glucocorticoid<br>after diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis. The patient did not improve with the treatment. The patient was<br>diagnosed with tuberculosis arthritis according to biopsy and PCR TB result. Biopsy excision of the left knee<br>found granulomatous appearance, which is consistent with tuberculosis, PCR TB examination also found a<br>positive effect. Antituberculosis treatment was started and will be continued for nine months. Tuberculosis<br>arthritis frequently mimics more common etiologies and can be difficult to diagnose. Tuberculosis arthritis<br>may be suspected in a chronic case of joint pain, usually monoarticular, although pulmonary TB may absent.</p> Anak Agung Gede Ocha Rama Kharisma Putra1 , Ni Wayan Candrawati2 , Ida Bagus Ngurah Rai2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Peritoneal Tuberculosis as a Final Result of Diagnostic Conundrum: A Case Report <p>Peritoneal tuberculosis is a disease which can mimic malignancy especially in women present with ascites and<br>elevated CA125 levels. It always should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Peritoneal tuberculosis<br>with ambiguous patient symptoms and diagnostic difficulties still poses a great challenge in clinical practice.<br>A 33 years old woman was admitted to hospital with complaints of abdominal pain and shortness of breath.<br>Initially, elevated serum antigen CA-125, ascites, pleural effusion, and multiple suspicious nodules in the<br>lungs and abdominal cavity on CT were found, thus, diagnosing advance stage ovarian cancer. Biopsy<br>laparotomy was performed, and post-operative histological examination was peritoneal tuberculosis. The<br>patient was treated with first-line antituberculosis agents and discharged home. Almost in all other cases,<br>peritoneal tuberculosis is diagnosed only after surgical intervention.</p> Ananda Febriani Aulia1 , Azizman Saad2 , Zarfiardy Aksa Fauzi2 , Ari Hidayat3 , Yenni Oktavia4 , Wiwit Ade Fidiawati5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Relation between Exercise Duration and Intensity on Phosphocreatine (PCr) Level: an Article Review <p>Exercise is a physical activity that planned, structured, and sustainable. Exercise has 4 criteria, that is<br>frequency, intensity, type, and duration. During exercise, phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion increases, and<br>early intracellular acidosis has occurred. These changes contribute to a decrease in training capacity in<br>terms of training duration. This literature review aimed to determine the relationship between the intensity<br>and duration of exercise with the concentration of PCr and recovery factors. The literature study has carried<br>out by selecting an Experiment research design. The results of the review showed that PCr was the largest<br>energy contributor in the first 10 seconds of exercise in the heavy-intensity exercise where phosphocreatine<br>triggers energy without oxygen or anaerobic. The recovery of PCr influenced by a person’s health condition<br>and age. The concentration of PCr in children was higher than in adults because of the relatively high rate<br>of oxidative ATP formation. It proved that there was a significant relationship between PCr and the duration<br>and intensity of exercise.</p> Aprilia Durotun Nasikhah1 , Roy Januardi Irawan2 , Trias Mahmudiono3* Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Mixed Liquor Administration on The Johnsen’s Score and The Number of Sertoli Cells and Leydig Cells on The Wistar Strain White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) <p>To analyze the effect of mixed liquor administration on the Johnsen’s score and the number of Sertoli cells<br>and Leydig cells on the Wistar strain white rats (Rattus norvegicus). A total of 28 rats were divided into 4<br>groups: C, P1, P2, and P3. Rats were given mixed liquor with different dose, namely P1 (1 ml), P2 (2 ml),<br>and P3 (4 ml) each day for 14 days, then compared to C group which was given 4 ml of distilled water using<br>an oral gavage. Mixed liquor consists of 20% ethanol and 4% methanol. The histopathological features were<br>evaluated by the Johnsen’s score, the number of Sertoli cells, and Leydig cells in cross-sectional preparation<br>of rat testicular tissue with 400× magnification. Datas were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and OneWay ANOVA test with a confidence level of p &lt;0.05. The P3 group had the lowest Johnsen’s score and the<br>number of Sertoli cells, 6.442±0.293 and 5.942±0.674, respectively. A significant decrease in increased dose<br>occurred in the Sertoli cell count but not in the Johnsen’s score. Group P2 had the lowest number of Leydig<br>cells, 6.421±0.360. The administration of mixed liquor caused a decrease in Johnsen’s score and the number<br>of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells on the Wistar strain white rat (Rattus norvegicus).</p> Aqidah Khariri1 , Anny Setijo Rahaju2,4, Arifa Mustika3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biological Activity Investigation of Phytocomponents in Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.): In Silico Study <p>Indonesia has abundant medicinal plants, which have been historically used by the population in treating<br>diseases for generations. Traditional Indonesian medicine and the medicinal plants used could lead to the<br>discovery of novel drugs. The mangosteen or Garcinia mangostana L. is a well-known medicinal plant<br>that has been used to treat various diseases worldwide. The pharmacological activities and phytochemical<br>composition of the whole plant of mangosteen have been investigated and identified by scientists in recent<br>decades. Therefore, this study aims to generate the prediction of the biological activity of phytocompotents<br>in mangosteen. In this study, we extracted 18 phyocomponents of mangosteen from PubChem, an open<br>chemistry database at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), USA. Then, we predicted the pharmacokinetic<br>properties and druglike nature of the phytocomponents using the SwissADME web server, Swiss Institute<br>of Bioinformatics, Swiss. Furthermore, PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) web resource<br>has been employed as a strong potential tool to predict the biological activity. In summary, we revealed the<br>biological activity of 18 phytocomponents of the mangosteen. However, further trials, such as in vitro and<br>in vivo evaluation, are needed to prove the validity of these findings.</p> Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori1 , Raden Joko Kuncoroningrat Susilo2 , Suhailah Hayaza2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Mini-Review of the Medicinal Properties of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) and Potential Benefit against SARS-CoV-2 <p>Indonesia is rich in medicinal plants, where its population has traditionally used them for generations to<br>cure diseases. Traditional medicine and medicinal plants from Indonesia may lead to the discovery of novel<br>drugs. Abelmoschus esculentus L. or okra is well known as a cure for several diseases and is included<br>in various folk medicinal stockpiles. In recent decades, scientists have discovered the phytochemical<br>composition in the whole okra plant, as well as its pharmacological activities. These studies established<br>the therapeutic potential of okra for drug discovery. Therefore, the present review provides a sneak peek of<br>okra’s pharmacology and phytochemistry, also the potential benefit against SARS-CoV-2.</p> Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Identify Population Attitude Towards Osteoporosis and Pharmacists Involvement in Community Education in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study <p>Introduction: Fracture is the most severe clinical consequence of osteoporosis. Unfortunately, most patients<br>are unaware that they have fragile bones until they fracture the hip, spine, pelvis, or wrist. Thus, increase<br>disability, hospitalization, and so on total health care costs. In Saudi Arabia, many middle-aged and older<br>women were unaware of osteoporosis risk factors with a high prevalence of osteoporosis reported in Saudi<br>Arabia.<br>Aim: This study’s main objective is to evaluate population awareness about osteoporosis and pharmacist’s<br>involvement in patient education to minimize the risk of osteoporosis in the Makkah region.<br>Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using an online survey. A total of 1390 participants<br>completed the questionnaire from 15 February to 15 Marc 2019.<br>Results: only 1.4% of participants had a risk for osteoporosis and got the advice from pharmacists.<br>Significantly, 53.7% had a chance but didn’t get any advice from either physicians or pharmacists.<br>Conclusion: The results show a low self-awareness level in Makkah’s general population with insufficient<br>involvement of pharmacists in patient education.</p> Arwa Fairaq1 , Byader Sulimani2 , Ghada AlAhmadi2 , Nouf Adnan Hijii2 , Rahma AlEssa2 , Sara AlHarthi2 and Yosra Alhindi1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Possible Relation between Pityriasis Alba and Intestinal Parasitic Infestation Among Children in Tikrit City, A Case Control Study <p>Background: There is a solid belief stated that the appearance of hypopigmented patches on children<br>face is a sign of their helminthic or parasitic intestinal infestation despite the constant health education<br>about the absence of such relation. Pityriasis Alba (PA) is common benign skin lesion characterized by<br>fine scaly hypopigmented patches (HP) or macules (1) mostly in the face and upper body parts. (2-4) PA<br>may be atopic dermatitis related or endemic PA. PA occurs mostly in 3-16 years old children and accounts<br>of 5% of pediatric population worldwide. Prevalence rate in Iraq is high (38.2%). No specific cause of<br>PA has been identified. Diagnosis of PA depends on the clinical picture and treatment may implicate<br>sunscreen and topical corticosteroids despite its self-limiting privilege. Helminthiasis (worm infestation)<br>is the hosting of parasitic worms after invading humans and other animals necessarily to complete their<br>lifecycle. Enterobius vermicularis is the most common helminthic intestinal infestation among children in<br>Iraq. The main complaint of helminthiasis is the perianal itching, especially at bed time. The study aims to<br>determine the relation of intestinal helminths with PA. Study Design: This prospective and a case-control<br>study had consisted of 43 males (53.5%) and females (46.5%) children of 5-15 years of age presented with<br>HP. Results and Discussion: 4 (9.3%) cases presented with Enterobius vermicularis given antihelminthic<br>drugs and had their infestation eradicated completely after a week. 39 (90.7%) children presented with no<br>infestation, regarded as control group, and so given placebo treatment. Number and size of HP varied after<br>the 6 weeks of treatment. Although cases shown more numerous (6.0 ± 2.9) HP and larger size (120.0 ± 72.2)<br>than control group (4.9 ± 3.6 and 90.0 ± 58.3 respectively), but the difference was not significant for both<br>groups (cases and control) and between them for both HP number and sizes (p&gt;0.6). Conclusion: There is<br>no enough prove of the relationship between children intestinal parasitic infestation and the appearance of<br>hypopigmented patches.</p> Asaf Kamal Asaad Taha1 , Mazin Hamid Ayyash2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Investigate the therapeutic effect of autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on ischemic renal failure in dogs. <p>Background/ aim: The kidney excretes waste materials and regulates important metabolic functions, and<br>renal disorders constitute a significant medical problem and can result in fatalities. In the present study,<br>mesenchymal stem cells derived from canine adipose tissue were isolated and evaluated for their ability to<br>improve renal function in a canine model of ischemic renal failure. Materials and Methods: The canine<br>ischemic renal failure model was developed by a traumatic occlusion of the renal artery in 10 dogs. ASCs<br>were administered directly into the renal artery following ischemic renal failure induction. Blood analysis<br>and histological parameters were analyzed. Results: The group treated with ASCs had decreased blood urea<br>nitrogen and creatinine levels, and showed an improving histological manifestation. ASCs were detected<br>around the tubules of these kidneys at the histological level. Conclusion: our findings suggest that ASCs<br>could be an alternative therapeutic agent for canine ischemic renal failure.</p> Bassim K .Khashjoori1 , M. S. Ghaji1 , Omar Tariq Hammoodi2 , Majid A. Alkhilani2 , Ali. A. Ajeel 3 , Lubna Muslim Abdulkareem4 , Abdullah Qassim Mohammad4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of PTEN Losses by Immunohistochemistry and Fish in Prostate Adenocarcinoma <p>Background: Prostate cancer (PC) is the largest and most unusual site of robust neoplasm in Europe,<br>accounting for 22.8% of all newly diagnosed cancers in men. An increase in the prevalence of pentachloro<br>anisole has been observed in most countries. This may be explained by the massive use of prostate unique<br>antigen (PSA) in the early detection of PCa in the early stages. Objective: Detection of PTEN loss by IHC<br>and FISH technique and compare between the two methods and correlate with Gleason grading system.<br>Patients and method: A retrospective sample study was performed. From January 2014 - Joe. 2019. This<br>study included 120 cases of prostate cancer from Baghdad and Duhok, with different age groups. Fixed<br>formalin paraffin biopsy for prostatectomy in cases obtained from the Archives of Pathology Laboratories in<br>Baghdad” (Shahid Ghazi Hariri Training Hospital and Laboratories).<br>Results: PTEN (FISH) detected the gene in 29 case and confirmed by PTEN (IHC) expression results,<br>underestimation occurred in five case detected by PTEN (IHC). Concerning PTEN (IHC), it detected the gene<br>in 34 case. Percentage of cases showing negative staining for PTEN protein in high grade was higher than<br>cases showing positive protein expression (good correlation with new grading group). IHC to detect PTEN<br>protein levels is an interesting alternative to knowledge of the FISH PTEN gene loss and as a prognostic<br>biomarker. There was significant association between PTEN gene expression and age. PTEN (IHC) showed<br>negative results in 65.3% of case; while loss was shown in 58.2% of s by PTEN (FISH).<br>Conclusion: The important result in this study was a substantial agreement between the expression results<br>of PTEN (FISH) and PTEN (IHC).</p> Batool Jameel Jubair1 , Sazan Abdulwahab Mirza Al-Atroshi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Diastasis Recti Abdominis and Low Back Pain on Quality of Life in Post-Partum Female <p>Introduction: The separation of the two rectus abdominis muscle along with linea alba is called diastasis<br>recti abdominis. Diastasis recti is comman in Post-partum females. In Post-partum period Low back Pain is<br>very comman which lead to daily activity limitation. Post-Partum women complaint regarding there usual<br>activities, mobility, pain, which affect the quality of life in individual.<br>Aim: To study the” Impact of diastasis recti and low back pain on quality of life in post-partum females”<br>Method: This study will be carried out in Physiotherapy OPD, Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College and<br>AVBRH, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha. Diastasis recti will be evaluated in Post-partum females. Impact of<br>Diastasis recti and Low back pain on Quality of Life in post-partum female. Low back pain is going to asses<br>with the help of Modified Owestry low back pain disability questionnaire .And quality of Life with the help<br>of Maternal postpartum questionnaire<br>Results: Study yet to be commenced.<br>Conclusion: Conclusion will be published after the result are analysed.</p> Bhavna Gandhi1 , Shalaka Dhankar2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Interpersonal Communication on the Prevention Action of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) in Meo-Meo Public Health Center of Baubau City <p>Dengue infection is a global health problem. One of the city in Indonesia that has a high incident of DHF<br>is Baubau City, especially the area of Meo-Meo Public Health Center in 2016 to 2018 ranked first of the<br>incident of DHF respectively for three years among 10 Public Health Center on the coastal area and third<br>among 17 Public Health Center in Baubau City. DHF cases are not only caused by mosquitoes, but also<br>by human behavior that does not carry out healthy and indifferent lifestyles in the environment where<br>mosquitoes nest. Such behavior includes leaving the hanging used clothes, does not drain the tub, leaving<br>puddle around the residence. This study involved 39 people in the intervention group and also in the control<br>group who met the criteria including the age of 17-65 years old, can read, write, and communicate well,<br>and willing to participate in this study. The result indicates a significant from the intervention groups to the<br>control group (p&lt; 0.05), is action (p=0.001), and the difference in the percentage of action in both groups.<br>So, it can concluded that interpersonal communication is more influential than counseling on increasing<br>DHF prevention action.</p> Budi Utama1 , Andi Zulkifli2 , Hasnawati Amqam3 , Wahiduddin2 , A. Arsunan Arsin2 , Lalu Muhammad Saleh4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Coronal Pulp Cavity Index an aid in age determination -A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study <p>Background: The objective of the present study was to assess the accuracy of age estimation from TCI of<br>mandibular molars (except wisdom teeth) of both sides using CBCT images of known age and sex, so that<br>we can apply this method to estimate age in both living individuals and skeletal material of unknown age.<br>Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study was conducted on a total of 100 CBCT images of subjects<br>who were referred to the department for varied diagnostic purposes of known age and gender. All CBCT<br>images with a fully visible pulp cavity were selected. Two measurements were taken at two different levels.<br>Height of the crown (CH) and height of the coronal pulp cavity (CPCH). Then tooth – coronal index (TCI)<br>for each tooth was calculated as follows: TCI = CPCH X 100 / CH.<br>Results: Comparison of TCI value between male and female showed no significant difference between the<br>gender. Among the four mandibular molars (lower left and right1stand 2nd molars) 46 and 47 TCI correlates<br>well with age. TCI of 46 has significant prediction of age in female with an R value of 0.426. Inter observer<br>measurements showed a moderate to good agreement of the measures.<br>Conclusions: TCI method of mandibular teeth was found to be a reliable method for age estimation and not<br>gender determination. CBCT can be used in age determination for forensic purposes as it is non- invasive<br>and also makes it possible to reconstruct the images in different planes showing the anatomical and imaged<br>structures at different planes.</p> Ceena Denny E1 , Bastian TS2 , Srikant Natarajan3 , Nithin Thilak4 , Almas Binnal5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Cross-sectional Radiological Study of Ossification at Lower End of Ulna and Tip of Olecranon among Children and Adolescents coming to Forensic Medicine Department, Medical College, Kolkata, for Age Estimation <p>Objectives: To study radiologically the ossification status of lower end of ulna and tip of olecranon and<br>compare with Galstaun chart and other standard charts.<br>Material and Methods: A record based cross sectional study was performed in the department of Forensic<br>and State Medicine, Medical College Kolkata for one month, on children and adolescent coming to the<br>department for age estimation over a span of past one year. Their chronological age was noted from birth<br>certificates. The X-Ray plates was looked for appearance and fusion of lower end of ulna and tip of olecranon<br>and compared with Galstaun chart and other standard charts.<br>Results: The records of 199 subjects (Male-142. Female-57) were examined, who belong to the age group<br>of 7yrs to 19yrs. After observing the appearance and fusion from X-Ray plates and comparing them with<br>Galstaun chart it was seen that maximum deviation from mean age occurred in appearance of lower end of<br>ulna. Appearance of tip of olecranon also had a wide deviation. Males were found to have more variations<br>than females.</p> Chandan Bandyopadhyay 1 , Anamica Chakraborty2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determinant of Incompliance Medication People with Tuberculosis Disease <p>Indonesian Tuberculosis (Tb) case is the highest third rank in the world. It is caused by disobedience<br>in therapy. Three factors affect medication compliance include predisposing, reinforcing and enabling<br>factors. This research aims to analyzed factors that affects medication compliance in Indonesian Tb<br>patients. The study was analytical research. The population were 119 Tb patients in Surabaya Health care<br>center, Indonesia. Simple random sampling technique was used to take sample, consist of 93 respondents.<br>The variables of this study were predisposing factors, reinforcing factors and enabling factors. The data<br>was collected with questionnaires and analyzed with chi square test. The study showed that all factors<br>related to incompliance medication people with Tb, namely predisposing factors: knowledge, attitude,<br>belief (p=0.000), trust (p=0.013, and values (p=0.001); reinforcing factors: family support (p=0.034) and<br>healthcare personnel support (p=0.022); and enabling factors: healthcare facility (p=0.000) and physical<br>environment (p=.000). The determinants of incompliance medication people with Tb include predisposing<br>factors (knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, trust and values); reinforcing factors (family and healthcare personnel<br>support); and enabling factors (healthcare facility and environment). Tackling incompliance medication on<br>Tb should involve private sector, family sector, society/healthcare sector and government sector.</p> Chilyatiz Zahroh1 , Nur Ainiyah1 , Nurus Saadah1 , Novita Nur Aini1 , I Ketut Sudiana2 , Ah. Yusuf3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 “COVID-19 – Current Status and Trends: A Comprehensive Review <p>The current global pandemic of COVID-19 is caused by a virus of corona family named SARS-CoV-2.<br>Cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 are varied and complex and include myocarditis, acute<br>coronary syndrome, heart failure, pericarditis and pericardial effusion. Those with cardiac comorbidites are<br>at higher risk of severe infection and death. SARS-CoV-2 may infiltrate and injury the heart directly or may<br>cause Myocardial infarction, LV dysfunction secondary to myocarditis, congestive cardiac failure, rhythm<br>abnormalities and pulmonary and other vascular embolisms. The medications used to treat COVID-19 may<br>also have serious cardiac side effects. A through understanding of the cardiac involvement of COVID-19<br>and its varied presentation is needed for management of COVID-19 infection and its complications.</p> Cinosh Mathew1 , Jayesh Rawal2 , Nishant Saxena3 , Ashish Sharma3 , Rahul Jain3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Tubo-ovarian Abscess and Uterine Leiomyoma in a 35-year-old woman with 8 years of infertility: A Case Report <p>Infertility can be influenced by several factors, including the presence of leiomyomas and tubal abnormalities<br>like a tubal abscess or tubo-ovarian abscess which can cause adhesions of the tubes and surrounding tissues<br>or obstruction of the tubes. A 35-year-old woman is diagnosed with primary infertility of 8 years with<br>intramural uterine leiomyoma, right tubo-ovarian abscess, and left tubal abscess with tubal obstruction.<br>Laparotomy myomectomy and salpingostomy surgery were carried out. There were no complications during<br>or after the surgery. The management of infertile patients with leiomyoma and tubo-ovarian abscess who<br>wish to preserve reproductive function requires special attention.</p> Cipta Pramana1 , Kartika Budi Peranawengrum1 , Jennifer Nanda Dewi1 , Charity Harlim1 , Victor Sepriyadi Wohangara1 , Dina Nihayati2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Drug abuse among ante partum females, Obstetric Department, Beni Suef University Hospital, Egypt <p>The consumption of drugs of abuse among females in the Health Services is a frequent problem, but often<br>it is not diagnosed. Aims: We have analyzed the variations in the clinical profile of female patients came to<br>obstetric emergency department in a period of sex months and made screening for various drugs to assess<br>the percentage of addicted females in this period of life. Secondly, we have assessed also the accuracy of the<br>presumptive method of detection compared to the confirmatory method. Method: Urine samples were taken<br>from pregnant females came to obstetric emergency department, Beni Suef University hospital and was<br>screened to detect the drugs of abuse that taken by these females by immunoassay and GC- mass and clinical<br>assessment of the babies were done. Results: from 300 females there were 20 cases Tramadol positive<br>by immunoassay but all of them were false positive when GC-mass was used. There was a questioned<br>cross reactivity between Ranitidine and tramadol by Immunoassay needing for more researches. 62.3% of<br>the female were no educated 42% of the female’s husbands were SHISHA smokers. Intra uterine growth<br>retardation was the most common fetal complication<br>Conclusions: scientific survey which done to detect drug abuse among group of people should never depend<br>on immunoassay methods. The belief that women are more biologically complicated than men and that<br>they were too busy caring for their children to participate in studies should be changed. Women should be<br>included in clinical researches.</p> Dalia Abd Elwhab Hassan1 , Manar .A Ahmad1 , Salwa Mahmoud Ali2 , Mohamed A Hussien2 ,Doaa M. Khalil3 , Inas Abd El Rahim Ali4 , Mostafa Abdallah Abdel Alim1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Overview of the Content of Bisphenol A in the Amniotic Fluid of Pregnant Women And Its Adverse Health Outcomes <p>Background: This review represents a critical and constructive analysis of literature in the content of<br>Bisphenol A in amniotic fluid of pregnant women and its adverse health outcomes. The review is generated<br>through summary, classification, analysis and comparison of already existing material and researches on<br>field.<br>Methods : Databases as Scopus, PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Global Health, were used to extract<br>data for the review. Search terms like “Bisphenol A”, “pregnancy”, “amniotic fluid”, “endocrine disruptors”<br>were used. Out of 200 research articles screened, 70 most relevant studies are included in this review.<br>Conclusions: This review highlights the correlation between Bisphenol A and its endocrine disrupting<br>potential, impacting especially fragile categories as pregnant women and their fetuses through its<br>toxicokinetic features and its metabolites. Thus, BPA distorts important physiological processes necessary<br>for fetal development and disease progression later in life.<br>We can conclude that human exposure to BPA, as one of the leading environmental contaminants, represents<br>a major global issue and its adverse health outcomes can be debilitating for human health. Further research<br>on field considering BPA distribution, varying exposure rates, racial disparities, inter-species differences and<br>EDCs cumulative effects, should be conducted. Finding safer alternatives for replacing BPA in market must<br>remain a priority.</p> Dardan Dreshaj 1 , Flaka Pasha2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Students’ Perception Regarding Open Book Assessment and Closed Book Exams <p>Background - An “open book examination” is one in which students are allowed to refer to their notes,<br>textbooks, and other approved material while answering questions. This practice is mostly unheard of. It is<br>ideally suited to professional courses like MBBS which especially aim at developing the skills of critical<br>and creative thinking.<br>Materials and Methods – After a lecture on chapter Medical Law and ethics 100 students selected through<br>simple random sampling after obtaining informed consent were given Pre test. Then they were divided into<br>2 groups. The topic Medical Law and Ethics was divided into 2 Parts. The students of Group 1 undertook<br>open book exams for Part A and Self study exams for Part B and for students of Group 2 it was reversed.<br>Post test was done with the validated pretest questions. To check the retention another open book exam<br>was performed after a month. The students also answered a questionnaire on their perception of open book<br>exams and the reason for their preferences and it was analyzed.<br>Conclusion – A total of 100 students participated in the study. In that 60 were medium achievers and 40<br>were high achievers. Both medium achievers and high achievers obtained high scores in open book exams.<br>Most of the students felt that Open book exam is less time-consuming for preparation, less stressful and<br>increased their Self-directed learning. Open book exams is better to the closed book exams and inculcates<br>the habit of life-long learners.</p> Dayananda R1 , Mahantesh Patil2, Manjunath S N3 , Rajapur Parshuram4 , Vijay Kautilya5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mandibulectomy in Desmoblastic Ameloblastoma: Physiotherapeutic Approach in a Sporadic Oral Surgery Case <p>Introduction: Ameloblastomas are slow-growing lesion with local infiltrative and odontogenic tumors of<br>epithelial origin. Desmoblastic ameloblastoma is traditionally considered to be a subtype of SMA.<br>The purpose of this case report is to describe the physiotherapy rehabilitation in mandibulectomy of the right<br>side. A patient chief complaint was inability to open mouth, inability to eat food, impaired cognitive and social<br>behavior. The primary goals of mandibular reconstruction are feature restoration and an appropriate cosmetic<br>outcome. The diagnosis of desmoblastic ameloblastoma was confirmed by bone biopsy. Mandibulectomy of<br>right side done due to desmoblastic ameloblastoma. Physiotherapy treatment is found to be best to resolve<br>patient’s chief complaints.<br>Results: The case report demonstrated that patients with Mandibulectomy with minimal mouth opening<br>regain near-normal range and improvement in social skills.<br>Conclusion: The patient was able to do essential activities of daily living like eating and talking without<br>pain and regain near-normal face appearance due to physiotherapy intervention.</p> Deepali Patil1 , Waqar M. Naqvi2 , Pratik Phansopkar3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of Alleged Homicidal Deaths in and Around Cooch Behar Region <p>Homicidal deaths are a significant public health problem and affect every society around the world. The<br>incidence of homicide has seen a worldwide upsurge with varying trends across geographical locations.<br>Detailed information on the characteristics of victims of homicide from the Cooch Behar region is limited.<br>This article explores recent trends of homicide in the Cooch Behar region. The study was conducted between<br>June 2019 to May 2020 at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Cooch Behar Government<br>Medical College and Hospital, Cooch Behar. 1133 autopsies were conducted over the time-period with 70<br>homicidal deaths. Most of the victims were males (70%) with a male to female ratio of 2.33:1. 34.3% of<br>victims were between the ages of 21 – 30 years. Most of the victims were laborers (18.6%) while Hinduism<br>was the most common religion (65.7%). 06:00 pm to 12:00 midnight was the time when the majority of<br>the incidents took place and 68.5% of victims were brought dead. Injuries by hard blunt weapons and<br>sharp cutting weapons were responsible for maximum deaths, constituting 21 (30%) and 15 (21.4%) cases<br>respectively. Multiple regions of the body were involved in 35.7% cases followed by head and face region<br>with 34.3% cases. This study is significant as it aims to identify the profile of risk factors of victims of<br>homicide and suggest new lines of research that would help to reduce the number of homicides.</p> Deepmalya Sengupta 1 , Pranabesh Bharatee 2, Saikat Saha 2 , Rajib Prasad 3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Posture and Quality of Life in Females Undergone Modified Radical Mastectomy: A Research Protocol <p>Modified radical mastectomy performed for CA breast is a life modifying surgery for most women. It creates<br>a profound impact on the quality of life enjoyed by the women. Body image in patients with breast cancer<br>differs from all other cancers. The assessment of quality of life after modified radical mastectomy for early<br>breast cancer patients using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Questionnaire (WHOQOLBREF) .<br>Women suffers from day to day activities. Postures become impaired. Postural changes, such as increase in<br>thoracic kyphosis , scoliosis leads to poor postural habits. There is also decrease in shoulder range of motion<br>, scapular muscles weakness . Contractures may develop in axilla after surgery. Breast cancer survivors have<br>muscle weakness of upper limb are Pectoralis major, serratus anterior, upper trapezius, rhomboid muscles,<br>latissimus dorsi .<br>Spine alignment also may effect due to poor posture. Women with Modified Radical mastectomy may have<br>some social phobia . Anxiety, stress level may increase. Women may have fear of recurrence. Because of this<br>factors , there is impaired Quality of Life in Women.<br>Conclusion: Breast cancer is a serious disease that reduces the quality of life, particularly in physical domain<br>and in the emotional area. Oncological disease is becoming a disease for a lifetime. It connected with the<br>constant fear of cancer recurrence and the consequences of treatment.</p> Aachal Birelliwar1 , Shalaka Dhankar2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Retraction in Orthodontics – A Short Review <p>Aim- The aim of this review is to discuss about the retraction mechanism in orthodontics and to discuss in<br>detail regarding the mechanism of action and their application in orthodontics.<br>Objective- To list out the difference types of retraction mechanics used and their merits and demerits<br>Background- The basic principle of retraction mechanism can be used in orthodontic space closure<br>involving retracing the canine initially followed by remaining anterior teeth or entire anterior teeth can be<br>retracted at once using intra or extra oral anchorage. They are broadly classified into friction and frictionless<br>mechanism. Once the extraction of the teeth has been done, the orthodontist must choose the procedure to<br>retract the teeth based on the demand of the case. This article provides the basic information of both the<br>mechanics and their application in orthodontics.<br>Reason- This review mainly done for better assessment and benefits of retraction mechanics and its<br>appliances</p> R. Vighnesh1, Ashith M.V2, Siddarth Shetty3, Supriya Nambiar4, Nidhin Philip Jose5, Shravan Shetty6, Asavari Desai7 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Replantation and Revascularization of Limb and Its Parts <p>Background: Traumatic amputations may be devastating and can result in irreversible functional and<br>psychological problems in individuals who sustain them. With developmental advances in microvascular<br>surgery, amputated body parts are now routinely attached in many centres across the world. Successful<br>replantation of amputated digits may allow better appearance, better functional outcome and minimal pain<br>to the patient.<br>Materials and Methods: This is Prospective observational descriptive study comprising of 20 cases with<br>traumatic amputation of extremities and its parts treated with replantation and revascularization of part from<br>October 2014 to February 2017. Nature of injury was classified by Yamano classification of amputation<br>based on mechanism and severity of injury. Patients were evaluated by Chen &amp; Quick DASH score.<br>Results: The viability of replanted part is guranted by a successful vessel anastomosis, while the quality<br>of bone, tendon, nerve and skin repair will determine the overall functional success of replanted parts.<br>Revascularisation procedures had overall better survival than replantation due to less complexity of<br>procedure.</p> Aditya Damani2 , Priyank K.Katwala2 , Vinayak Lokare3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Reliability of Different RBC Indices and Formulas in the Discrimination of ?-Thalassemia Minor and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Surabaya, Indonesia <p>In this study, we evaluated the RBC indices in differentiating ?-thalassemia minor and iron deficiency<br>anemia in a healthcare center. This was an observational analytic study with a cross-sectional design using<br>blood specimens of children aged 3 years to 17 years with microcytic hypochromic anemia based on<br>the results of complete blood counts and evaluation of peripheral blood smears. Calculation of the RBC<br>indices was performed as an initial screening to differentiate ?-thalassemia minor and iron deficiency<br>anemia. Iron profile examination and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed to confirm the diagnosis<br>of ?-thalassemia minor and iron deficiency anemia. The results of the independent samples t-test showed<br>significant differences in Hb, MCV, MCH, and MCHC between ?-thalassemia minor and iron deficiency<br>anemia (p &lt;0.05). The results of the Mann Whitney test showed a significant difference in the Mentzer<br>Index to distinguish between ?-thalassemia minor and iron deficiency anemia (p &lt;0.05). Also, the results<br>of the independent samples t-test showed significant differences in the Green &amp; King formula, Sirdah et<br>al. formula, and the Maltos and Carvalho Index (p &lt;0.05). The Green and King formula has a diagnostic<br>sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 76.6% and an accuracy of 78.03%. Various formulas based on the<br>results of complete blood count parameters have been developed to detect ?-thalassemia minor in areas with<br>a high prevalence of ?-thalassemia with different sensitivity and specificity. In this study, it showed that the<br>Green and King formula has a diagnostic sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 76.6%, and an accuracy<br>of 78.03%. Green and King’s formula can be applied as an initial screening to differentiate ?-thalassemia<br>minor and iron deficiency anemia</p> Yulia Nadar Indrasari1 , Yetti Hernaningsih1 , Munawaroh Fitriah1 , Arifoel Hajat1 , I Dewa Gede Ugrasena2 , Narazah Mohd Yusoff3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Interleukin-10 And Its Relationship with The Level of White Blood Cells in Women Spontaneous Miscarriage Undergoing Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) technique <p>This study was conducted on 84 samples of women subject to the ICSI program . Blood sample was taken to<br>measure WBC count , Interleukin-10 and ?-hCG levels . Groups were divided based on the ?-hCG level to<br>two groups (Pregnant Women Group - Pregnancy Failure Group) and the total of pregnant women divided<br>into (Pregnancy Group and spontaneous miscarriage) .<br>The results of the current research showed a significant increase in the level ?-hCG and that the increase<br>in the level of this hormone is evidence of the presence of high success rates for pregnancy in women who<br>performed operations IVF, where the success rate at the beginning of the matter reached 61.9%, after which<br>it decreased to 33.3% after the first three months due to the occurrence of spontaneous miscarriage of<br>pregnant women due to various immunological and physiological reasons, as well as a positive correlation<br>between the level of ?-hCG and other parameters within the study (Interleukin-10 -WBC).<br>The results of the current research also showed a significant difference between the group (pregnancy<br>failure) and the group (spontaneous miscarriage) compared with the control group (continued pregnancy)<br>in relation to the level of Interleukin-10, Also, The results of the current research showed a significant<br>difference between the group (pregnancy failure) and the group (spontaneous miscarriage) compared with<br>the control group (continuation of pregnancy) in relation to the level of WBC, and the present study found a<br>positive relationship between the level of Interleukin-10 and WBC</p> Dhirgam F. Hassan Al-Shimerty1 ; Alaauldeen S. M. AL-Sallami2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Constitutional Right to Vote for People with Mental Disorders (PMWD) with Case Study in Yogyakarta, Indonesia <p>The right to vote as one of the constitutional rights is certainly in favor of all Indonesian citizens, including<br>those who suffer mental disorders. The Constitutional Court through the Constitutional Court Verdict Number<br>135/PUU-XIII/2015 has stated people with mental disorders, as long as their condition is not permanent,<br>they can vote. However, this verdict has the potential to violate the constitutional rights of the citizen. This<br>research location will be carried out in the Special Region of Yogyakarta where it is one of the provinces<br>with the largest mental disorder communities in Indonesia. This research uses a normative juridical method<br>and focusing on literature studies as its main sources. This research will conclude about the method used<br>by people with mental disorders to access their right to vote. Furthermore, it will also explain the extent to<br>which the Constitutional Court’s decision has an impact on patients with psychiatric disorders in the Special<br>Province of Yogyakarta.</p> Diastama Anggita Ramadhan Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Purified Pyocyanin from Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enhances Antibiotic Sensitivity Against Some Pathogenic Bacteria <p>Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most life-threatening pathogen. It is considered nosocomial<br>opportunistic microbe that cause wide range of infections including wound and burn infections, respiratory<br>infections, and Otitis media. Despite the efficiency of antibiotics against infectious diseases, P. aeruginosa<br>still causes complicated infections with antibiotic resistance in many clinical strains. The pigments produced<br>by P. aeruginosa exhibits antibacterial properties. Thus, we have examined its ability to enhance antibiotics<br>effect against some pathogenic microbes. 286 samples were collected from patients with different infections<br>who visited Mosul hospitals. 76 samples were positive to P.aeruginosa. Among them, 38 (13.28%) of isolates<br>were isolated from surgical infection, whereas, 12 (4.19%), 11(3.84%), and 7(2.447%) were isolated from<br>Otitis media, Urinary tract infection, and pus, respectively. The pyocyanin in low concentrations showed<br>synergistic effect with some antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. E. coli became<br>sensitive to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid when mixed with 100 mg/ml pyocyanin. However, cloxacillin<br>did not show any activity against Staph.aureus when mixed with 1 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml pyocyanin. Staph<br>aureus became sensitive to nalidixic acid when mixed with 1 mg/ml pyocyanin.</p> Duaa Ghazi1 , Hasan Faisal Kahya2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Plyometric Training on the Agility in Police Cadets <p>Background: Plyometric training is a hybrid between strength and endurance training. This allows muscles<br>exert maximum force in short intervals of time, with the goal of increasing power (speed-strength) which<br>ensures better agility in police cadets. Agility has been defined by the capacity to retain or determine the<br>location of body by shifting its direction rapidly in a sequence of movements. Agility, speed and explosive<br>power are qualifying components of physical fitness and desirable athletic performance, and play a key role<br>in most sports. Agility can enhance the coordination and regulation of locations of the body throughout<br>movement.<br>Objective: To study the efficacy of the 6-weeks and 12-weeks Plyometric training on the agility in police<br>cadets.<br>Method: 40 Cadets aged above 18 years were grouped into two. A group continued their regular activities<br>while rest underwent 2 sessions of plyometric training every week for 6 weeks, along with their daily<br>activities. Analysis was then carried out with assessment of T-test Agility test, Illinois Agility Test, Edgren<br>Side Step Test. Study duration is 6 months and intervention duration is 12-weeks, hence participants will be<br>enrolled during first 3-months of study so 12 week intervention will be completed successfully. Assessment<br>will be done on 1st day of visit then at the end of 6th week and again at the end of 12th week. Participants<br>would have to perform 2 session of Plyometric Training per week in other group.<br>Result: Data will be analyzed using paired T-test.<br>Conclusion: Will be published after the results are analyzed.</p> Dushyant Bawiskar1 , Pratik Phansopkar2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between CD4 T lymphocyte and Candida Species Counts In Oral Candidiasis Patients with HIV / AIDS <p>Background: Candida sp. is the most common opportunistic pathogen found during the development of<br>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) &amp; Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease. The<br>clinical severity of oral candidiasis and the prevalence profile of Candida species reflect immunological<br>changes in HIV / AIDS patients. Objective: Evaluating the relationship between CD4 T lymphocyte cells<br>counts and the number of Candida species. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out<br>at Dr. Soetomo, Surabaya, Indonesia. For identification of Candida species, culture was carried out on<br>Chromagar media followed by culture with vitek 2. Results: There were 114 study subjects who were<br>divided into three groups based on the number of CD4 T lymphocyte cells, with 158 isolates of Candida<br>species growing in culture. The highest number of Candida species was Candida albicans with a total of 107<br>isolates (67.7%). Candida non-albicans were 51 isolates (32.3%). Statistical test results showed a significant<br>correlation between the number of CD4 T lymphocyte cells and the number of Candida species (p &lt;0.001).<br>Conclusion: The decrease in CD4 lymphocyte cell counts is influenced by various types of Candida sp. in<br>oral candidiasis patients.</p> Dwi Murtiastutik1 , Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoswa2 , Indah Setyawati Tantular 3, Evy Ervianti1 , Afif Nurul Hidayati4 , Muhammad Yulianto Listiawan4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Epigallocathecingallate (EGCG) Antifungal Properties for Candida Isolates from HIV/AIDS Patients with Oral Candidiasis in Compare with Fluconazole <p>Background: Oral Candidiasis (OC) still mainly oportunistic infection problem in HIV/AIDS Patients.<br>Due to increasing report of fluconazole resistant as common antifungal drugs nowadays, there have been<br>many studies focusing on natural substances and its antifungal properties. In this study, a form of green tea<br>extract, named Epigallocathechingallate (EGCG) 1,25% were examined for their in vitro antifungal activity against Candida sp in comparison to fluconazole (2 mg/ml) as standard antifungal agents.Objective:<br>To evaluate the antifungal activity of EGCG in compare with fluconazole against Candida isolates taken<br>from HIV / AIDS patients with OC. Methods: Fourty Candida sp. isolates taken from HIV / AIDS patients<br>with OC in the Outpatient Unit and Inpatient Installation of the Infectious Disease Intermediate Care Unit<br>(UPIPI) Dr. Soetomo, Surabaya. Antifungal activity were evaluated by using microdilution tests. Results:<br>The microdilution test revealed the MIC of EGCG for all Candida sp. was 0.625%, while the MIC of<br>fluconazole was 100% for all Candida sp. There was significant difference (p &lt;0.05) between the MIC<br>values for Candida sp. by fluconazole and EGCG. The MFC values of EGCG was 50%, while value of<br>fluconazole MFC was 100%. Conclusion: Antifungal activity of EGCG with fungistatic and fungicidal<br>effect is better than fluconazole.</p> Dwi Murtiastutik1 , Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoswa2 , Indah Setyawati Tantular3 , Yusuf Wibisono1 , Afif Nurul Hidayati4 , Sawitri1 , Muhammad Yulianto Listiawan4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Significance of CD4 to the Number of Grown Candida Colonies in Oral Candidiasis Patients with HIV / AIDS <p>Basic data of this study showing isolates mostly<br>taken from male than female (77.5% and 22.5%). The<br>most age group is productive age groups in the age<br>range of 26-35 years with 20 subjects (50%). In 2017<br>report of the Directorate General of Disease Control<br>and Environmental Health, Ministry of Health Republic<br>of Indonesia, found HIV/AIDS patients more male<br>than women, and related more common in young adult<br>which makes it more likely to engage in unsafe sexual<br>behavior that is at risk of HIV transmission (8). The<br>domicile of HIV / AIDS patients with OC mostly came<br>from Surabaya (90%). This is because most patients<br>have to seek help from the nearest health center with<br>most patients from within the city. The isolates most<br>were taken from HIV / AIDS patients with OC who had<br>an absolute CD4 count &lt;100 cells / L for 28 patients<br>(70%). This data is supported by a 2015 Indian study by<br>Kumar that showed 71.4% of patients with a CD4 cell<br>count &lt;200 cells / µL obtained by the fungus growth of<br>Candida species from OC lesions (9).</p> Dwi Murtiastutik1 , Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa1 , Indah Setyawati Tantular2,3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Deleted <p>l</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Different Body Organs of Albino Rats Exposed To Cadmium Chloride Toxicity: A Systematic Review <p>Background and Objective: Cadmium chloride (Cd cl2) is a highly toxic heavy metal that causes severe<br>degenerative effects to different body organs. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) may have<br>a protective effect upon CdCl2 induced structural and functional changes in the rat’s organs. This systematic<br>review aimed to test the regenerative effects of bone marrow?derived mesenchymal stem cells on different<br>body organs of albino rats exposed to cadmium chloride toxicity.<br>Methods: Experimental animal studies were identified by the following electronic databases: PubMed,<br>Scopus, Ovid Medline, KoreaMed, Google Scholar, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences<br>Literature (LILACS) and Central Cochrane Library. The literature search was done from January 2010 to<br>2020.<br>Conclusion: From the selected articles, using stem cell therapy enhances the regeneration process in CdCl2<br>toxicity of different body organs.</p> Elham H. Ahmed 1, Mohammed E. Grawish2 , Mohamed Abdulrahman3 , Menatalla M. Elhindawy4 , Mohamad E. Helal2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnostic Accuracy of Recto-Sigmoid Index Evaluation on Barium Enema in Hirchsprung’s Disease <p>Background: Hirschsprung’s disease is a congenital disease caused by the absence of ganglion cells<br>in the bowel wall, which results in functional obstruction of the aganglionic segment due to failure of<br>relaxation during peristalsis. The recto-sigmoid index on barium enema may constitute in the diagnosis of<br>Hirschsprung’s disease.<br>Aim: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of<br>recto-sigmoid index for the diagnosis of Hirschsprung’s disease in patients who underwent barium enema<br>examination.<br>Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Dr Soetomo Hospital. Medical records of patients<br>suspected of Hirscsprung’s disease who underwent both barium enema examination and diagnostic full<br>thickness biopsy were evaluated. Moreover, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and<br>negative predictive value (NPV) of recto-sigmoid index was calculated.<br>Results: A total of 37 patients were examined; 21 of them were male. The average age was 24.5 (SD 17.34,<br>range 1 month-72 month). Biopsy revealed the absence of ganglion cells in 32 (91,8%) patients. The rectosigmoid index agreed with the histopathologic diagnosis in 30 (81%.) patients. The sensitivity, specificity,<br>PPV, and NPV were 87.5%, 40%, 90.5% and 33% respectively.<br>Conclusion: Recto-sigmoid index evaluation in barium enema for the diagnosis of Hirscsprung’s disease<br>has poor diagnostic accuracy.</p> Emma Ratna Fury1 , Andy Darma2 , Alpha Fardah Athiyyah3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Edible Oils Consumption and the Fatty Acids Profile of the Most Common Consumed Brands in Shiraz, Iran <p>Aim: This study aimed to measure edible oils consumption, the most preferred brands and their fatty acid<br>profile compared with standard values in Shiraz, Iran.<br>Methods: In this cross-sectional study 384 households were assessed. Edible oil types (frying, sunflower,<br>corn, canola, rapeseed, mixed, solid, olive, grapeseed, sesame, and animal), brands, volume of consumed,<br>attention to the label, and changes in the volume of oil consumption compared to the last year were measured.<br>Resistance, fatty acid patterns, total trans fatty acid, smoke point, and saturated fatty acids of the three most<br>frequently consumed edible oils were compared to the standard recommended values.<br>Findings: The mean of households? oil consumption was 40.34 ± 32.88 kg per year. Frying (78.6%),<br>sunflower (60.70%), and olive (37.5%) oils were the most common consumed oil. 57.6% of participants read<br>the labels. 28.9% could not understand the labels information. Compare to the last year, 53.8%, 46.8%, and<br>55.5% of studied households reported decrease in the liquid, solid and frying oils consumption. Fatty acid<br>profile in majority of studied brands were in the standard range. Myristic acid level in the three major brands<br>of solid oil was out of the standard range. The level of C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 in the third common<br>olive oil, C14:0 and saturated fatty acid in the third common frying oil were out of the standard range. The<br>resistance level in the third common corn oil, the first common and the third common frying oil was out of<br>the standard range.<br>Conclusion: Liquid, solid and frying oils consumption among studied population decrease than the last<br>year, which can be helpful to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The fatty acids profiles of the most common<br>consumed brands were in the standard range.</p> Erfaneh Aalipanah1, 2, Enayat Berizi1 , Anoush Khamoushi1, 2, Morteza Zare1 , Zahra Sohrabi1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mitigation of the Biofilm Using Nanoparticles By Enhanced by D-alanine and D-proline <p>The present study was undertaken to investigate the susceptibility patterns as antifungal and growth of certain<br>D-amino acids inhibitory effects, includes D-alanine(D-ala) and D-proline (D-pro). The obtained results<br>indicated that D- proline acid is potent mostly as antifungal, among tested D-amino acids, then followed<br>by D-ala. The study aim was evaluating the of D-amino acids and nanoparticles against Candida albicans<br>adhered cells and bio-films. Results showed that D-ala MIC value was 25 ?g/ml, while in methods of TCP,<br>(D-pro) MIC 50 ?g/ml value. Nanoparticles (lithium and silver) and amino acids (D-pro and D-ala) effect<br>in preventing cells adhesion on polystyrene surface and mature bio-film inhibition was studied. Highest<br>inhibition was obtained at D-pro concentration 50 ?g /ml, while the lowest at concentration D-ala 25 ?g /ml<br>against mature bio-film and cell adhesion.</p> Fakhri Alajeeli Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection the Serogroups of Escherichia coli isolates from Urine sample of UTI patients <p>Aims: Determining of E.coli serogroups which isolation from UTI patients<br>Patients and Methods: the study was conducted between September 2019 to April 2020 and they was<br>collected 40 sample from patient how are diagnosis with UTI during this study .<br>Results: From the UTI patients individuals, 40 strains were identified in which O serogroups showed<br>8(30%) and 2 (20%), respectively, of occurrence in those strains. Moreover, the enterohemorrhagic E. coli<br>(O157 H7) and the enteroaggregative E. coli (O44 H7) were detected in two strains of the UTI-based urine<br>samples only. For the antibiotic resistance properties of the biofilm positive producers isolated from the UTI<br>urine samples, multidrug resistance was revealed in 60% of those isolates; however, only 20% of the biofilm<br>negative producers from the UTI urine samples showed the MDR characteristics. Biofilm was identified in<br>75% of the UTI urine. For the antibiotic sensitivity test, the results demonstrated that the sensitivity rates to<br>Imipenem, Amikaci, gentamicin, and tobramycin were 90%, 100%, 65%, and 40%, respectively, in the UTI<br>strains.<br>Conclusion: The herein study provides thorough data about the Escherichia coli based biofilm,</p> Fakhri S.Ahmed Ph.D Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Management of Non-Vital Teeth Discoloration with the Internal Bleaching : A Case Report <p>Tooth discoloration due to intra coronal bleeding after trauma can cause aesthetic disturbances and<br>appearance. Internal bleaching is a non-invasive method to restore tooth color which is performed after<br>endodontic treatment by placing a strong oxidizing agent in the pulp chamber. Aim of this study was to<br>report the success of internal bleaching procedure to restore discolored teeth due to trauma. A 44-year-old<br>female came to Conservative Dentistry Universitas Airlangga with chief complaint of the upper right insisor<br>tooth looks darker than the adjacent teeth. The patient had fallen 10 years ago from her motorcycle and her<br>tooth had been painful and then the pain disappeared. In intra oral clinical examination, it showed that tooth<br>11 had discoloured, vitality test of tooth 11 showed no response to electric pulp test. Radiographic view<br>showed that radiolucen in periapical area and no fracture was found. At the first visit, treatment of single<br>visit root canal using rotary instrument and gave dressing calcium hydroxide. A week later on the second<br>visit, internal bleaching with hydrogen peroxide 35% was done. After bleaching, calcium hydroxide was<br>applied to neutralize the oxidizing agent and then re-evaluated for the color. At the third visit, it showed that<br>the tooth colour was obtain as desire from C3 to A3 (Vitapan Classical). The internal bleaching procedure<br>on the traumatized tooth was the best option to restore the function and aesthetics according to the original<br>tooth colour and also provided benefits in terms of saving time, lower price, and maximum results.</p> Dewi Fitria Anugrahati1 , Rizky Ernawati1 , Windi Irsya1 , Yulianti Kartini Sumur1, Sukaton2 , Kun Ismiyatin2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Relationship between Antithyroid Antibody and Pregnancy Outcome in Invitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer <p>Background of the study: One type of assisted reproductive technique is intracytoplasmic sperm injection<br>(ICSI) Despite use ofintracytoplasmic sperm injectionICSI it remain has low birth rate due to failure<br>rate there are many markers associated with poor predict the outcome one of these factor effect outcome<br>inintracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI presence of antithyroid antibody ineuthyroid patient<br>Aim of study: To examine the effect of antithyroid antibody on pregnancy results following the in vitro<br>fertilization and fetus transmit<br>Methods and patients : Cross section study conducted at AL-Sader infertility center atotal of eighty one<br>Iraqi women were enrolled in this study of them 22positive antithyroid antibody,59 negative antithyroid<br>antibody were undergone intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI in Al-Sader infertility center. The group of<br>the study involved onlyeuthyroid women outwardly any clinically showed autoimmune illness.<br>Result:there was higher significant difference p value&lt;0.004 in fertilization rate number of available<br>embryos p value&lt;0.003 and number of transfer embryos p value&lt; 0.001among study group which was<br>higher in group of women with antithyroid negative followed by,group with antithyroid positive in infertile<br>euthyroid women Conclusion:patients with antithyroid antibody associated with poor pregnancy outcome<br>in infertile euthyroid women undergoingintracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI</p> Fawz Alaa alikhan1 , Azhar Mousa AL-Turiahi, 2 Asceel Hassan Bader3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Conventional Method on the Length of Treatment Days for Children Underwent Circumcision at Poniran Khitan Centre Bengkulu <p>Background: Circumcision is a minor surgical procedure that is most widely performed in the world,<br>namely a method of cutting all or part of the prepuce of the penis for specific indications and purposes.<br>Study Design:This study was used one-group pretest-posttest pre-experimental research design, with a total<br>sample 15 respondents.<br>Results: Based on the results of the bivariate analysis using the Dependent T test, it was found that there<br>was an effect conventional method with a value (p value = 0, 000) on the on the length of days of care for<br>circumcision wounds in children undergoing circumcision at the Poniran Khitan Centre Bengkulu.<br>Conclusion: The role of the Poniran Khitan Center will greatly assist in facilitating children in treating<br>wounds who undergo circumcision</p> Ferasinta1 , Andri Kusuma Wijaya1 , Desri Suryani2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio and Acid-Fast Bacilli in Tuberculosis <p>Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death in the world and the most common<br>cause of death with single infectious agent. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is a cheap and fast marker of<br>inflammation that has been widely studied in TB. The aimed of this study was to investigate Neutrophillymphocyte ratio (NLR) in TB with positive Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) and negative AFB. Methods: This<br>was a retrospective study that included TB patients data from the medical records in two hospitals in Palu,<br>Indonesia. A total of 150 TB patients were involved in this study consisting with positive and negative AFB<br>TB suspect. Neutrophil, lymphocyte and NLR data were compared with the Mann-Whitney test. Results:<br>The study shows a significant difference of neutrophils and lymphocytes percentage between positive AFB<br>TB patients (80 subjects, 53.3%) and negative AFB TB patients (70 subjects, 46.7%) with (p &lt; 0.001) as well<br>as NLR (p &lt; 0.001). The percentage of Neutrophils was significantly higher in positive AFB TB compared<br>to negative AFB tuberculosis (81.18 ± 8.52 vs. 55.02 ± 9.80), lymphocyte percentage were found to be<br>significantly lower in positive AFB TB compared with negative AFB TB (12.72 ± 7.51 vs 28.69 ± 12.01).<br>Additionally, NLR were significantly higher in positive AFB TB compared with negative AFB TB (10.20 ±<br>9.53 vs 2.47 ± 1.56). Conclusion: There is a significant increase in the number of neutrophils, a decrease in<br>lymphocytes and an increase in NLR among positive AFB TB compared with negative AFB TB.</p> Haerani Harun1 , Muhammad Nasir2 , Sumarni3, Rosa Dwi Wahyuni1 , Dita aridhatamy4 , Nur Aulia Pratiwi4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Extent of the Need for Teaching Forensic Sciences for Law Students in Jordanian Universities <p>This article examines the actual need for teaching forensic sciences to Bachelor of Law students in Jordanian<br>universities, where the research extrapolated the study plans for the specialization of law in the faculties<br>of law in Jordanian universities, which amount to 20 faculties, to know the faculties that teach forensic<br>sciences. It was found that only one faculty offered forensic sciences as an elective requirement, and that<br>13 faculties included among their study plans the course of forensic medicine as an elective requirement.<br>Also, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a random sample of 120 lawyers in Jordan. The<br>questionnaire contained 9 multiple-choice questions, the most important results are that only 39% of the<br>sample studied one of forensic sciences subjects at the bachelor’s level, and 36% of them know the work of<br>forensic experts, and 92% support that the forensic sciences to be as a compulsory requirement course for<br>law students.<br>The article discussed the results of the questionnaire in a scientific discussion and concluded the necessity<br>to design a subject specialized in forensic sciences for students of law, provided that it is a compulsory<br>requirement because of its great importance in the work.</p> Hamzeh Abu Issa1, Ma’en Juwaihan2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Does Husband/Partner Matter in Reduce Women’s Risk of Worries?: Study of Psychosocial Burden of COVID-19 in Indonesia <p>Several previous studies have found that women are more susceptible to psychosocial burden than men.<br>The study was aimed at analyzing the influence of having a husband/partner on the psychosocial burden<br>of COVID-19 among women in Indonesia. The study involved 5,061 women collected through a rapid<br>online survey. The psychosocial burden was reviewed based on worries level on 5 aspects of daily life,<br>namely economic, religious, educational, employment, and social aspects. Four independent variables were<br>included in the analysis, including husband/partner ownership, age group, education level, and employment<br>status. A multivariate test using the binary logistic regression was done at the final stage. The results show<br>that women who have a husband/partner have a risk of 1.377 times compared to women who do not have<br>husbands/partners to experience worries. Women in the 40-49 age group had 0.630 times the risk of women<br>with ? 19 age groups to experience worries. Meanwhile, women with the ? 50 age groups had a 0.327<br>times risk than women with the ? 19 age groups for experiencing worries. Women with higher education<br>have a risk of 0.610 times compared to women with secondary education for experiencing worries. It could<br>be concluded that having a soulmate is a risk factor for women to experience the psychosocial burden of<br>COVID-19 in Indonesia. The analysis also found that younger age and lower education were risk factors for<br>women to experience the psychosocial burden of COVID-19 in Indonesia.</p> *Hario Megatsari1 , Agung Dwi Laksono2 , Yeni Tri Herwanto3 , Kinanty Putri Sarweni4 , Rachmad Ardiansyah Pua Geno4 , Estiningtyas Nugraheni4 , Mursyidul Ibad5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Playing Origami Intervention on Improvement of Fine Motor Development Pre School Children <p>Background: One aspect of development in children is fine motor development. Delays in fine motor<br>skills can make children have difficulty exploring the environment, barriers to learning, lazy writing, lack<br>of creativity. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of playing Origami interventions to improve<br>preschool children’s fine motor skills in PAUD Aisiyah VI Bengkulu City.<br>Study Design:This research is a Quasi-Experimental study with a research design of “one group pretest<br>and post-test without control group design”, a sample of 26 preschool children using purposive sampling.<br>The intervention was given for two weeks as many as six meetings with 30 minutes per session. Data on<br>children’s fine motor development were collected using the DDST II screening format.<br>Results: Analysis using the Wilcoxon test obtained ? value 0.000 (? 0.05). In conclusion, Origami play<br>intervention is statistically effective in improving the fine motor skills of preschool children.<br>Conclusion: Teachers and parents should pay more attention to and increase the stimulation of preschool<br>children’s fine motor skills by facilitating children to play folding, sticking, and paper cutting more often.</p> Harsismanto J1 , Larra Fredrika1, Novia Wati2 , Padila3 , Desri Suryani4 , Yandrizal5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The ITGA2B gene Polymorphism Associated with Glanzmannthrombasthenia in Sample of Iraqi Patients <p>Case control study was used ,with healthy individual control(n=20)and Glanzmannthrombasthenia<br>patients(n=15). The diagnosis was depending on the clinical , hematological parameters and molecular<br>analysis.All patients were severe bleeding symptoms with normal Hemoglobin , and plateles count ,and<br>prolonged bleeding time.<br>It was successfully identified three SNP in ITGA2B gene the first SNP c.2653 T&gt;G (rs5911)was presented<br>with three genotypes (TT, TG and GG).The genotype frequencies of TT in control group (60.0 vs. 90.0%)<br>show significant difference (p ?0.05) compared withGT patients . It was also noticed the frequency of<br>mutant allele (G) revealed a significant difference (p ? 0.01) in GT patients compared with controls group (<br>33.3 vs. 7.5%; OR = 6.17; EF = 0.44; 95% C.I. = 1.55 - 24.53)respectively .<br>The c.641T&gt;C (rs137852911) was given with three genotypes (TT, TC and CC) . The frequencies of these<br>genotypes show non-significant difference (p ?0.05 between control and GT patient ,while the mutant allele<br>(C) show significant difference (p ? 0.01) in GT patientscompared with controls group (10 vs. 7.5%; OR =<br>1.37 ; EF = 0.11; 95% C.I. = 0.26 – 7.14 ).<br>The c.6438G&gt;A showed three genotypes (GG, GA and AA) with two alleles (G and A).<br>The frequencies of these genotypes GG (60 vs. 95 %) , GA (33.3vs. 5.0%) and the third genotype (AA) 26.6<br>vs. 0%show significant difference (p ?0.05) between control and GT patient .It was also found the mutant<br>allele (A)revealeda significant difference (p ? 0.01) in GT patients compared with controls group (33.3 vs.<br>2.5%; OR = 11.87 ; EF = 0. 35 ; 95% C.I. = 1.41 – 99.80 )respectively</p> Hayderkareemkataa AL-Aidy¹ , EhabDawood Salman², Zaid Jamal Mahmood ³ Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isotherms, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies for Removal the Valium from Stomach and Intestine Fluids via Adsorption on Egg Shells Powder <p>Drug abuse or overdose in accidents is a serious social issue. This study concerned the adsorption behaviour<br>of the Valium drug in both simulated gastric and intestinal pH onto the untreated eggshell powder by using<br>UV spectroscopy. The effects of various experimental parameters such as contact time, pH-solution, an<br>adsorbent dosage of Valium and temperature range (300-320k) on the adsorption capacities have been<br>investigated. The suitability of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models to the experimental equilibrium<br>data at different solution temperatures were calculated. The adsorption was well described by the Freundlich<br>isotherm model and Langmuir, S3 for the stomach and S2 for the intestine according to the Giles classification.<br>Thermodynamic parameters such as ?H°, ?G°, and ?S° results showed that the adsorption of the drug<br>increases by increasing the temperature in the stomach solution, i.e., the endothermic reaction decreases by<br>increasing the temperature at the intestinal solution, i.e., the reaction is exothermic. Experimental data were<br>also tested in terms of adsorption kinetics, the results illustrated that the adsorption process was following<br>pseudo-second-order kinetics in the stomach solution and first order in the intestinal solution.</p> Hayfaa. J. Sinbah1 , Majida. H. Khazaal2 , Nadia. S. Majeed1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Housing for Elderly in Nursing Home on the Level of Satisfaction in the work Area of Social Service of Surabaya <p>A large number of elderly suffer degenerative brain function decline with the characteristics of progressive<br>loss of memory function and other cognitive abilities. The number is increasing in almost several. The<br>purpose of this study was to look at the effect of housing for the elderly in Nursing Home on the level of<br>satisfaction of the elderly in the Social Service area of Surabaya.<br>The research design used was “Pre-Experimental” design. The variable in this study was the intervention<br>variable that was the housing for the elderly in the Nursing Home and the output variable that was the<br>satisfaction of the elderly. The population was all the elderly in the work area of the Surabaya Social Service,<br>with the criteria for the age limit of the elderly 60 years and over, with a probability sampling technique. The<br>statistical test used was the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test.<br>The results of the study obtained were divided into before and after the housing. Before the housing treatment,<br>there were 133 respondents (88.6%) who were at good satisfaction level and there were 17 respondents<br>(11.4%) who were at very good satisfaction levels. After the housing treatment, the results showed that there<br>were 107 respondents (71.3%) who were at good satisfaction level and there were 43 respondents (28.7%)<br>who were at very good satisfaction level. in addition, the results of the Wilcoxon sign rank statistical test was<br>0.00. It indicated that there was an effect of housing for the elderly on their level of satisfaction.</p> Hidayatus Sya’diyah1 , Sukma Ayu Candra Kirana1 , Diyan Mutyah1 , Ayu Citra Mayasari1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Correlation of DSD Teeth Outline Ratios to Q-Sort Smile Assessment and Smile Mesh Analysis <p>Smile beauty is considered the main goal in many cosmetic or orthodontic dental treatments. However<br>many objective and sujectives methods were developed to evaluate smile attractivesness depending on many<br>variables. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method based on digital smile design teeth<br>outlines ratios for smile esthetic evaluation and to correlate this method with Q-sort assessment method<br>and smile mesh variables. Frontal posed smile photograph of 48 individuals were subjected to smile mesh<br>measurments, digital smile design (DSD) and Q-sort assessment method. The areas of DSD teeth outlines<br>were measured using image J software in addition to the teeth areas lie in the outlines to calculate the ratio<br>of each individual tooth area to its outline area and the total teeth areas to totsl outlinrs area.<br>The results showed a significant correlation between the new method and Q-sort asseseement method,<br>additionally there was a significant difference in individual and total teeth outlines ratios between the<br>pleasant and unpleasant smile groups.<br>Conclusions It was found that Digital smile design teeth outline ratios method could be considered as a<br>valuable tool for evaluation of smile esthetics.</p> Hussein A. Alnajar1 , Ameer A. Altabatabaie 2 , Ahmed A. Alquzweeni3 , Tholfqar majed4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pulmonary Artery Hypertension in Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Underwent Transcatheter Closure at Dr. Soetomo Hospital <p>Background: Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is common complication of congenital heart disease.<br>Echocardiography before and after transcatheter closure procedure is needed for further evaluation.<br>Objective: To evaluate the PAH before and after transcatheter closure procedure by echocardiography at<br>Dr. Soetomo Hospital.<br>Methods: Medical record patients with acyanotic congenital heart disease with PAH and already done<br>transcatheter closure procedure in 2010 – 2014 were reviewed. Data taken were demographic, clinical,<br>and echocardiography. Tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient (TRPG) was evaluated. Statistical analysis<br>using t test comparative study; P&lt;0.05 was considered significant.<br>Results: There were 46 patients underwent transcatheter closure, ASD closure 22/46, VSD closure 16/46,<br>PDA closure 8/46 patients. Ten patients with PAH (10/46), 4/10 ASD, 4/10 PDA and 2/10 VSD. Boys were<br>6/10, median age was 60 (range 4-144 months). Median TRPG before procedure was 32.4 (range 25-43<br>mmHg). Median TRPG after procedure was 21.5 (range 15-26.9 mmHg). There was significant decreased in<br>PAH after transcatheter closure procedure (P=0.01).<br>Conclusion: Transcatheter closure procedure in acyanotic congenital heart disease was important for<br>decreasing the pressure gradient of PAH.</p> I Ketut Alit Utamayasa1 , Mahrus A Rahman1 , Taufiq Hidayat1 , Teddy Ontoseno1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between Elevated Serum Progesterone in the Day of Hcg Injection, Metaphase II Oocytes and Their Impact on The Success of ICSI <p>Objective: In this study we tried to understand the effect of progesterone level at the time of ovulation<br>trigger on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. We expected identifying cut off values for<br>serum progesterone level the day of hCG injection (P-hCG) &amp; P-hCG per mature oocyte ratio (P-hCG /<br>MII), as predictive tests of ICSI success. Methods: 200 women 18-40 years old and attending IVF unit<br>of Kasr el Aini hospital for management of infertility were included in the study. They were scheduled for<br>ICSI after controlled ovarian induction with GnRH- agonist protocol. Inclusion criteria were tubal factor<br>of infertility, unexplained infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome and BMI ? 30 kg/m2. Exclusion criteria<br>were severe male factor infertility, hyperprolactinemic patients, high basal FSH &gt; 11 IU/L, frozen embryo<br>transfer cycles, uterine anomalies or synechia. Primary outcome parameter included correlation of serum<br>progesterone on day HCG administration, number of MII oocytes and calculated progesterone/ MII oocyte<br>ratio with success of ICSI.<br>Results: 193cases underwent embryo transfer, 7cases cancelled. Clinical pregnancy was reported in 52<br>(27.9%) cases. Higher P-hCG was observed in cases who didn’t get pregnant compared to those who got<br>pregnant (p= 0.01) with cut off value of 1 ng/ml correlated well with the clinical pregnancy rate after ICSI<br>with 61% sensitivity and 59% specificity (p=0.004). A significantly lower P-hCG/MII ratio was found in<br>the pregnant women group compared to that found in the non-pregnant group (p=0.001) and cut off value<br>of 0.18 correlated best with clinical pregnancy after ICSI with sensitivity 70.5% and specificity 61.2%<br>(p&lt;0.001). Conclusion : We demonstrated negative correlation between P-hCG and P-hCG/MII and<br>clinical pregnancy rate after ICSI.</p> Ibrahim Badr, Hesham Sayed1 , Yahia Mohammed2 , Ahmed Mohamed2 , Mohammed Shehata3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nutritional Status, Dust Exposure and Risk Factors for Acute Respiratory Infections for Workers in Industrial Estates <p>Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) are a health problem that has not been handled properly in Indonesia,<br>every year the incidence of acute respiratory infections is still high, which can be fatal, namely death. Several<br>factors cause acute respiratory infections such as nutritional status, dust exposure, length of exposure to<br>dust, and years of service for workers in industries who have a high risk of acute respiratory tract infection<br>problems. This study aims to determine the risk factors for acute respiratory infections in the industry. This<br>study uses a cross-sectional approach with a sample of 89 respondents, where the results will be analyzed<br>using the chi-square test. The result of this study is that there is a relationship between nutritional status,<br>dusty workspace, length of exposure to dust, and length of work with the incidence of acute respiratory<br>infections in industrial workers. Based on the results of this study, it is hoped that workers and the industry<br>will pay attention to the use of PPE to minimize dust exposure to workers in the industry.</p> Ichayuen Avianty1 , Fakhrurradhi Luthfi2 , Suharto3 , Nanda Novziransyah4 , Kipa Jundapri3 , Rubi Ginanjar1 , Ade Saputra Nasution1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Expression of FOXP1 and p53 in Reactive Lymphoid Lesion and B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Large Cell Type <p>Lymphoproliferative lesions that have morphology between benign and malignant are difficult to diagnose<br>even with immunohistochemical and clonality testing. The correct diagnosis is necessary for the prompt<br>treatment. These lesions can also serve as instructive models of lymphomagenesis. FOXP1 plays an important<br>role in B-cell development, has a potential oncogene in B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and p53 protein<br>has a crucial role in the regulation of cell cycle, DNA repair, apoptosis, and senescence tumor suppression<br>activity. In this study, we analyze the role of FOXP1 and p53 expression in reactive lymphoid hyperplasia<br>and B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, large cell type. 68 paraffin blocks samples from patients diagnosed<br>as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, large cell type was sectioned and<br>stained with immunohistochemistry for FOXP1 and p53, and the percentage of nuclear cells showing<br>positive staining were evaluated. Expression of FOXP1 and p53 in B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, large<br>cell type is higher than in reactive lymphoid hyperplasia with p=0.001 and cutoff point 45%(CI=95%) for<br>FOXP1 and p=0.001 and cutoff point 7.5%(CI=95%) for p53. There is a significant correlation between the<br>expression of FOXP1 and p53 in reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, large<br>cell type (p=0.001). Our findings suggest that high expression of FOXP1 and p53 in B-cell Non-Hodgkin<br>lymphoma may demonstrate the role of FOXP1 and p53 in lymphomagenesis and these markers may help<br>to distinguish benign and malignant lymphoproliferative lesions.</p> Ita Ellyana1,2,3, Nila Kurniasari4,5,6 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Correlation between Body Mass Index and Lifting Frequency with Low Back Pain Complaints on Rice Transport Workers in Warehouse of Perum BULOG Subdivre Pematangsiantar <p>Introduction: Rice transport workers are at risk for Low Back Pain (LBP) complaints because their work<br>is lifting heavy loads repeatedly and affected by individual characteristics. This research aimed to analyze<br>the strength of the correlation between body mass index and lifting frequency with LBP complaints on rice<br>transport workers in Perum BULOG Pematangsiantar Subdivre.<br>Methods: This type of research was an observational research with a cross sectional design. The sampling<br>technique used total populated sampling with 30 respondents. The variables researched included body mass<br>index, lifting frequency, and LBP complaints.<br>Data were collected by observation, filling out research questionnaires, and Nordic Body Map (NBM). The<br>data analysis used was the Spearman correlation.<br>Results: The strength of the correlation between body mass index with low back pain complaints had a value<br>of r = 0.203, the strength of the correlation between the lifting frequency with low back pain complaints had<br>a value of r = 0.415.<br>Conclusion: Body mass index with LBP complaints had a weak and positive correlation. The lifting<br>frequency with LBP complaints had a moderate and positive corelation.</p> Ita Riyana Limbong1 , Noeroel Widajati2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Genetic Variations And Specific Locus of Banjar Hulu Tribe Through Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Locus Combine Dna Index System (Codis) in Nuclear DNA <p>Based on the 2010 Indonesian Population Census, there are 1,300 ethnic categories with various sub-tribal<br>details. Ethnic diversity is important in terms of identification, such as natural disasters, accidents, crime,<br>and the discovery of unidentified corpses that may come from various tribes. Forensic Medicine views<br>genetic diversity and variation as one of the challenges in identification. Genetic variation and kinship in<br>Banjar Hulu tribe have never been done.The aim of the study are identify and analyze the genetic variation<br>of Banjar Hulu tribe through nucleus DNA examination of short tandem repeat (STR) Loci combined DNA<br>index system (CODIS). This study is a descriptive observational study that aims to explain the genetic<br>variation of Banjar Hulu tribe. The design of this study is cross-sectional. This study was conducted in two<br>stages, the first stages is to obtain information on family tree from the study subjects conducted by interview.<br>Then the second stage is to draw blood from the study subjects’ criteria. Blood is drawn from peripheral<br>vein. Then, there will be DNA examination and analysis of genetic variation. Result of the study show THO1<br>allele 9.3 locus, D3S1358 allele 12 locus, and D16S539 allele 12 locus, D8S1179 allele 12 locus are typical<br>marker for Banjar Hulu tribe. Banjar Hulu tribe have specific loci and alleles.</p> Iwan Aflanie1.2. Roselina Panghiyangan2 , Pandji Winata Nurikhwan3 , Ahmad Yudianto4 , Toetik Koesbardiati5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Changes in Some Hematological Parameters among University Students Due to Stressful Conditions During and after Examinations Period <p>Background: Several studies demonstrated that stress can cause an obvious change in the hematological<br>parameters in healthy individuals. In the current study, we determined whether the stress during the exams<br>can produce some hematological changes and how long this effect may take after the end of the exam period.<br>Methods: Seventy (n= 70) male and sixty (n=60) female student of similar height, weight and age were<br>selected from the department of medical laboratory sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman university. All students<br>were first had a preliminary medical checkup. Students excluded from the study include those who had a<br>chronic disease and any health issues or habits affecting the studied parameters, such as smoking; fever<br>and high blood pressure. All study participants were between the age group of 20-22 years. Blood samples<br>were taken three weeks before the exam, during and 72 hours after the end of the exam period. Estimations<br>of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean<br>corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), neutrophils,<br>lymphocytes and platelets were accomplished.<br>Results: Compared with pre-examination results the blood samples taken during exams showed a significant<br>decrease in the readings of lymphocytes (p &lt;0.01) , MCV and MCH (p &lt; 0.05). Significant increase in<br>Neutrophil (p &lt; 0.05) and platelets (p&lt; 0.05). Readings taken after 72 hours of the end of exam period<br>showed significant decrease in white blood cell count (p &lt; 0.01) and further significant increase in the<br>platelet count (p &lt;0.001). No significant changes were observed in the readings of Hemoglobin, Red Blood<br>Cell count (RBC), hematocrit and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p &gt;0.2).<br>Conclusion: This study concluded that the stress due to examinations is enough to alter certain hematological<br>parameters. The effect of stress on platelets and WBC remained until the end of the exam period. As the<br>increased platelet count may cause health problems for a person, from bleeding problems to the formation<br>of various clots. We do not know for sure how long the increase in platelet and decrease in white blood cells<br>continue as this may cause health problems for people subject to permanent stress.</p> Jehad F. Alhmoud1 , Husni S. Farah2 , Talal Al-Qaisi1 , Wala, a Hamdan3 , Ghaleb A. Oriquat4 , Ali Atoom1 , Khalid M. Al-Qaisi1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nurse Educator-Led an Educational Intervention on Critical Care Nurses’ Knowledge Regarding Endotracheal Suctioning <p>Background: Studies placed a great emphasis on implementing in-service educational intervention for<br>nurses in order to improve their knowledge regarding critical nursing procedures. Therefore, critical-care<br>nurses need to be more knowledgeable and competent in providing patient care. Hence, the researcher<br>(nurse educator) developed structured educational program that mainly focused on endotracheal suctioning<br>based on evidence-based recommended practice guidelines. Endotracheal suctioning is vitally important<br>nursing procedure in terms of maintaining airway patency and preventing complications. Objectives:<br>to evaluate the effectiveness of endotracheal suctioning educational program on critical-care nurses’<br>knowledge. Methodology: a quantitative, quasi-experimental one group pre-test and post-test design was<br>used. Convenience sample of 87 critical-care nurses are recruited from three hospitals at AL-Najaf ALAshraf City. The study conducted over the period of time that started on December 10, 2019 and ended on<br>January 22, 2020. Results: most of the participants had inadequate to moderate knowledge at pre-test. While<br>after implementing the educational intervention, the participants gained more knowledge and statistical<br>findings indicated that all nurses have adequate knowledge regarding endotracheal suctioning. Conclusion:<br>Endotracheal suctioning is a widely performed technique for mechanically ventilated patients in critical care<br>units. Nurses must be competent and well educated to perform this procedure in order to prevent patient<br>potential complications and achieve best outcomes. Educational intervention that led by nurse educator has<br>a positive influence on nurses’ knowledge. Recommendations: the researchers are highly recommended<br>implementing ongoing educational program by using recent clinically recommended evidence that focuses<br>on areas where knowledge expansion can be achieved to staff nurse. In Iraq, creating postgraduate degree<br>focusing on nursing education is a cornerstone to engage in the health care team and articulate new scientific<br>approach by using researches in the clinical setting and apply research findings in clinical practice.</p> Jihad Jawad Kadhim1 , Fakhria Gaber Mhabes2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship of Low Maternal Vitamin D3 Level and Adverse Early Neonatal Outcomes <p>Background: Low serum vitamin D [25 (OH) D] levels have been shown to have multiple health-related<br>implications in females at childbearing age, during pregnancy, as well as in their children. Aim of the<br>study: To assess the inverse relationship between vitamin D3 level and adverse neonatal outcomes using<br>parameters such as fetal birth weight, head circumference, Apgar scores, fetal respiratory distress syndrome,<br>and rate of neonatal admission.<br>Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted on 100 early- and full-term pregnant women at<br>Al-Elwiya Maternity Teaching Hospital in Baghdad from 1st of April 2017 to 31st of March 2018. Maternal<br>vitamin D deficiency was confirmed based on levels &lt;20 ng/mL.<br>Results: The vitamin D3 levels in the studied pregnant women were categorized as follows: normal (45%),<br>insufficiency (31%) and deficiency (24%). The significant adverse neonatal outcomes associated with<br>vitamin D3 deficiency were low Apgar score (54.2%), low birth weight (91.7%), small head circumference<br>(91.7%), respiratory distress syndrome (66.7%), and neonatal intensive care unit admission (66.7%).<br>Conclusions: vitamin D3 deficiency among pregnant women is associated with prominent adverse neonatal<br>outcomes.</p> Kawakib Hussein Noamam1 , Thikra Najim Abdulla2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Caries Risk Assessment in Children Aged 6-12 years based on Parental Knowledge and Its Relationship with BMI and DMFT in Ahvaz <p>Background: The prevalence of dental caries in childhood is one of the problems related to children’s oral<br>health. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of caries in children aged 6-12 years based on parental<br>information and its relationship with BMI and DMFT in Ahvaz.<br>Methods and materials: The necessary permits were obtained from the Ahvaz Education Department, and<br>then 300 samples of the city’s primary schools were selected. Students were examined with a disposable<br>dental mirror and the number of decayed, missed, and restored permanent and deciduous teeth was recorded<br>in the DMFT table. After that, the questionnaire was completed with the help of parents. The validity of this<br>questionnaire was confirmed by 5 pediatric dentists and the reliability of this questionnaire was confirmed<br>by conducting a pilot study on 10 children based on Cornbach coefficient of 0.85.<br>Results: Maternal occupation was associated with moderate caries risk (p = 0.007). Economic situation was<br>associated with low risk (p = 0.0001). The mean weight of the child in the high risk group was significantly<br>higher than the low risk groups (p &lt;0.001) and medium risk (p &lt;0.001). The mean DMFT in the low risk<br>group was significantly lower than the medium risk (p &lt;0.001) and high risk groups (p &lt;0.001). The mean<br>BMI in the high risk group was significantly higher than the medium risk groups (p &lt;0.001) and low risk (p<br>&lt;0.001).<br>Conclusion: Economic status, mother’s job and child’s weight are associated with caries risk. Also, DMFT<br>and BMI index have a direct and significant relationship with the risk of caries.</p> Leila Basir1 , Targol Amini2 , Shabnam Rasti3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Perianal Care Proven to Reduce the Incidence of Diaper Dermatitis <p>Maintaining a clean perianal area is an attempt to prevent and treat diaper dermatitis. The purpose of cleaning<br>the perianal area is to prevent irritation. The practice of cleaning the perianal area is done by considering<br>the physiology of the skin such as, normal flora, bacteria, and skin pH. Cleaning the perianal area can use<br>water and a soft cloth without rubbing the skin hard. The purpose of applying evidence based in nursing<br>practice is to identify the effect of perianal care by using water against diaper dermatitis with skin integrity<br>issues. Search evidence of nursing practice used the PICO analysis. Thirty-four toddlers were divided into<br>two groups: the intervention group (n = 17) and the control group (n = 17). The analysis used was Wilcoxon,<br>and Mann-Whitney test. There was no significant difference in diaper dermatitis score in the intervention<br>group and control group (?&gt; 0.05). Cleaning the perianal area using water and tissues can be used to prevent<br>and treat diaper dermatitis.</p> Lina Mahayaty1, Nani Nurhaeni2 , Dessie Wanda2 , Fitriah3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 LIP Prints Patterns: A Study among the Aryan and Dravidian Ethnic Population in India- A Cross Sectional Study <p>Background: Lip prints are subjected to be unique for all the individuals except monozygotic twins; hence<br>they can be an important indicator for human identification. Since, Aryan population are descendants of<br>north India and Dravidian population are descendants of south India. AIM: The aim of the study was to<br>assess the uniqueness of lip prints among Aryan and Dravidian ethnic population. Materials and method: A<br>cross sectional study was conducted among 192 individuals of Aryan and Dravidian population. Convenient<br>sampling was used to select the study population among the Tamilnadu and Chandigarh states in India. The<br>lip prints were recorded with the help of lip sticks and glue portion of the cello tape. Statistical analysis<br>was done using spss software version 20.0. Results: In the present study, branched lip print pattern was<br>predominantly seen in males of Dravidian population. In contrast, least commonly predominant was partially<br>vertical pattern which was absent in both the males and females of Aryan population. Conclusion: Lip prints<br>are a unique feature for human identification. In this study, it was found that branched lip print pattern was<br>higher in males of Dravidian population and the partially vertical type was least predominant among the<br>males and females of Aryan and Dravidian population.</p> Lubna Fathima1 , Suganya P1 , Sunayana Manipal 2, Prabu D3 , Bharathwaj4 , Raj Mohan5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Endometrial TB in Patients with AUB using PCR Method of Assessment of Menstrual Blood Flow of Iraqi Females <p>Background: Iraq still considered one of the countries in the region with high prevalence of TB, there are<br>about 20000 patients, accounts for 3% of the total number of cases, and the estimated death from TB exceeds<br>4000 per year. TB in Iraq until nowadays considered a health, public and social problem, and because of<br>the wars and political problems, many programs, campaigns, and researches were hundred by this situation<br>Objective: To detect endometrial Tuberculosis in women complaining from AUB (abnormal uterine<br>bleeding) using real time PCR method of assessment via taking an endocervical swab.<br>Patients and methods: Prospective cross-sectional study carried at Department of obstetrics and gynecology<br>in Baghdad teaching hospital /medical city over a period of eight months starting from Octuber2019, to<br>Augest2020. A total of 60 women complaining from abnormal uterine bleeding(AUB) who were scheduled<br>to have endometrial biopsy for histopathology by dilatation and curettage(D&amp;C), endocervical swab assessed<br>for female genital tuberculosis(FGTB) by real time PCR.<br>Results: Out of 60 samples taken 6 were positive by real time PCR 10%, while there was only one case<br>positive by histopathology 1.66% which was also positive by PCR the same patient gave history of pulmonary<br>TB and received a nine month course of treatment, according to these findings the sensitivity of PCR found<br>to be 100% while the specificity92% and an accuracy of 92%.<br>Conclusion: Real time PCR considered one of the valuable diagnostic tools for mycobacterium tuberculosis,<br>and because Iraq still showing high incidence of the disease, one should suspect mycobacterium tuberculosis<br>in any women complaining from abnormal uterine bleeding and offer PCR in addition to other diagnostic<br>modalities, luckily it will allow treatment at an early stage of the disease.</p> Maad Mehdi Shallal,1 Farah AbdulHussein Salih Al-Asadi2 , Mohammad Ibrahim Mizaal3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nasal Polyps :An Etiological Analysis <p>Nasal polyps,the prolapsed linings of nasal mucosa are one of the commonly encountered conditions in the<br>outpatient department of otolaryngology, The aim of this study is to study the etiology of nasal polyps and<br>also to compare between the different methods used for diagnosis of nasal polyps.<br>This study was submitted prospectively on 100 patients diagnosed with nasal polyps (diagnosed either<br>clinically or radiologically) with evidence of nasal obstruction,rhinorrhae and headache. from April 2015<br>till April 2017. All patients had been selected from the outpatient clinics of Al-Zahraa University Hospital<br>and Kobry El Koppa military hospital. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Al Azhar Faculty<br>of Medicine.<br>A total of 100 patients were analyzed, age range 18 to 56 yrs with a mean age of 38.5 yrs. There were 83 male<br>and 17 female. The main presenting symptoms are nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. Most of the cases was<br>bilateral nasal polyps,. The commonest clinical diagnoses were non-neoplastic simple nasal polyps 84% and<br>about 13% were benign neoplastic, 3% were malignant . The commonest histological diagnosis among nonneoplastic nasal polyps was simple allergic nasal polyp, among benign neoplastic was inverted papilloma<br>.most of neoplastic lesions were presented by unilateral nasal polyps,where epistaxis was noticed mostly<br>with vascular tumour and malignant ones. The results show that most of nasal polyps were simple nonneoplastic lesions especailly bilateral ones,also for proper evaluation of nasal polyps clinical, radiological<br>and histopathological evaluation should be done in all patients.</p> Magda Abd El-latif1 . Sayed Kadah2 , Ahmed Yehia3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study of Thyroid Function test and Lipid Profile in Pregnancy <p>Pregnancy is known to create profound changes in the body. It causes hormonal changes in the body<br>which may lead to changes in lipid profile. TSH levels are usually suppressed due to very high levels<br>of Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during the first half of the pregnancy. Thyroid dysfunction may<br>result in various changes in triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and other lipoproteins. Dyslipidemia, a<br>consequence of thyroid dysfunction, generally increases the risk for cardiovascular disease.<br>The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, MMC&amp;RI, Mysore. 100 women with a<br>singleton pregnancy irrespective of parity and gravida were enrolled and cases like chronic hypertension,<br>Diabetes mellitus, Renal Disorders and Thyroid Disorders, Obstetric and Foetal Complications (Hydrops<br>foetalis, congenital foetal anomalies) were excluded from the study. Blood was analysed for thyroid and<br>lipid profile.<br>Conclusion: T3, T4 and TSH levels are within normal range during pregnancy. There is a positive correlation<br>between TSH levels and cholesterol. This suggest that regular TSH and cholesterol estimation is very<br>important during pregnancy to reduce the maternal and fetal complications.</p> Mahantesh Patil1 , Arpitha M R2 , Dayananda R3 , Meera S4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Caracteristics, Diagnosis, Management and Output of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn at Dr. Soetomo Hospital <p>Background Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the new-born (PPHN) is a failure of lung circulation in<br>new-born. However the data related the characteristics of clinical profile, diagnostic, management and the<br>outcome was still limited.<br>Objective To investigated the characteristics, diagnostics, management and outcome from PPHN.<br>MethodsRetrospective observational study. Neonates with PPHN from January 2015 to December 2019 were<br>identified from medical record. After the data was excluded, the characteristics, diagnostic, management and<br>the outcome was collected. The statistical analysis to known the frequency and the chi-square test used to<br>analyse the association between the treatment and the outcomes (P &lt; 0.05).<br>Results 37 medical records enrolled the study, with the characteristics; 62.2% babies was boy, 70.3% with<br>term infant, 70.3% with normal birth weight, 24.3% with maternal history of eclampsia. 62.2% babies<br>born by C-section, 21.9% with history of asphyxia and MAS. 78.4% with differences between pre- and<br>post-ductal saturation. From echocardiography result, 13.5% diagnosed as mild PPHN, 54.1% as moderate<br>PPHN and 32.4% severe PPHN. From the management consisted of 5.4% with O2 nasal, 32.4% O2 CPAP<br>and 62.2% O2 ventilator, 24.3% with sildenafil, 5.4% with combination sildenafil and illoprost, 5.4% with<br>combination sildenafil, illoprost, and surfactant, 2.7% with combination sildenafil, illoprost, surfactant,<br>and inotropic, 24.3% with combination sildenafil, illoprost, and inotropic, and 37.8% with combination<br>sildenafil and inotropic. The outcomes was obtained 35.1% babies was died and 64.9% babies was cured,<br>with oxygenation supplementation had significantly affecting the outcomes (P=0.02)<br>Conclusion The characteristics of PPHN was dominated by baby boy, term infant and good birth weight,<br>history of asphyxia and MAS, maternal history of eclampsia, C-section delivery and the differences between<br>pre- and post-ductal saturation. The diagnosis commonly with moderate PPHN. The management with O2<br>ventilator and combination sildenafil-inotropic. The outcome mostly the babies was cured.</p> Mardiyan Aprianto1 , Mahrus A Rahman1 , Martono Tri Utomo1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors that affect on the Event of Lung TB in Jati Kudus Health Center <p>Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which can attack<br>the lungs and other organs. Pulmonary tuberculosis is still one of the world’s public health problems even<br>though TB control efforts have been implemented in many countries since 1995. The target of the national<br>pulmonary TB prevention program is eliminated in 2035 and Indonesia free from pulmonary TB in 2050.<br>Purpose of Research, this is to find out the factors that influence the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis<br>in the Jati Health Center Area. This study uses secondary data taken from data from the Jati Health Center<br>and the analysis in this study uses the CHAID Exhaustive method. The results of this study indicate that<br>the number of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with a positive smear suspicion when viewed from the type<br>of sufferers is mostly new cases as many as 216 people. Associated with the type of patient who came for<br>treatment at the Teak Health Center, all patients seeking treatment received a cure category of 99.6% which<br>is a new patient treatment category. So the factors that influence the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis are<br>the type of patient and treatment results.</p> Maria Ulfa1 , Windhu Purnomo2 , Rachmah Indawati2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Role of Ph in Curli Biogenesis Gene Expression in Enterobacter Cloacae Local Isolates <p>Enterobacter cloacae is the most common pathogenic species of the genus Enterobacter, identified in<br>hospitalized and enfeebled patients as the etiologic agent of many infections and considered as a significant<br>bacterial pathogen in recent years. E. Cloacae are typical gram negative opportunistic forms of bacteria that<br>cause illness after another infection or injury has influenced the host immune system and are related with<br>nosocomial infections. The infection may be caused by GIT, UTI or cross contamination of the blood. The<br>present study focused on the existence of the main curli biogenesis gene (csgA) and the role of pH as an<br>environmental factor in the gene expression (csgA) for curli biogenesis. In this study, urine samples from<br>75 patients.In Baghdad city clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection,for gram staining, Api20System<br>and gene expression (csgA) gene in Standardized pH7 and acid pH4 RT-PCR was performed with specific<br>primers. Conventional gram staining techniques, agricultural methods and System API 20E showed good<br>results for E. Cloacae. For the 75 patients, 10 (13.3%) the findings find the highest gene expression fold<br>values for the (csgA)gene in pH7 while the lowest fold value for (csgA) at acid pH4 (0.1577) thus the<br>modify conditions growth such as pH of bacteria E. Cloacae triggers gene expression changes for biogenesis<br>process. the findings of rpoB gene expression, which was used as a control gene, indicated that this gene was<br>good as a housekeeping gene.</p> Marrib N. Rasheed1 , Basima Qasim Hasan Al-Saadi1 , Osama Mohammed Hasan2 , Noor Yahy Salman1 , Sara Faisal1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Neonatal Death Incidence in Healthcare Facility in Indonesia: Does Antenatal Care Matter? <p>Despite having carried out maternity care in healthcare facilities, neonatal deaths still occur. A study was<br>conducted to analyze the effect of antenatal care (ANC) on neonatal death incidence in healthcare facilities<br>in Indonesia. The study used the 2017 IDHS data. With stratification and multistage random sampling,<br>13.104 women aged 15-49 years with live births in the last 5 years, who performed maternity care in the<br>healthcare facility, were sampled. Apart from ANC, other independent variables analyzed were a type of<br>place, age, education, wealth, employment, parity, and complication during pregnancy. The final stage<br>employed a binary logistic regression test. The analysis found that women who made complete ANC visits<br>during pregnancy (?4 times) were 0.486 times more likely than women who did not complete ANC visits<br>(&lt;4 times) (OR 0.486; 95% CI 0.266-0.887). The results of this analysis inform that carrying out a complete<br>ANC visit is a protective factor for women who perform maternity care in healthcare facilities in Indonesia<br>from neonatal death incidence. Apart from ANC, 2 variables were also found to have a significant effect<br>on neonatal death incidence in healthcare facilities in Indonesia. These two variables are the age group<br>and complications during pregnancy. Meanwhile, education level, wealth status, employment status, and<br>parity proved insignificant. It was concluded that ANC is a determinant of neonatal death incidence in<br>the healthcare facility in Indonesia. Complete ANC visits are a protective factor for women who perform<br>maternity care in healthcare facilities in Indonesia from neonatal death incidence.</p> Masruroh1,2, Ah Yusuf3 , Nikmatur Rohmah4, Irfansyah Baharudin Pakki5 , Anita Dewi Prahastuti Prasojo6 , Qurnia Andayani1 , *Agung Dwi Laksono7 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between sexual desire and premenstrual syndrome in young women in Iraq <p>Sexual desire could be affected by many psychological and physiological aspects . This research aims to find<br>out the relationship between sexual desire and premenstrual syndrome in young female . A Descriptive design<br>cross-sectional study was carried throughout the present study in order to achieve the study objectives. The<br>period of the study is from 20th September 2019 to 28th April 2020, included 200 young married women<br>in the reproductive stage, with ages between (17-31) years . Sexual Desire Inventory 3 (SDI-3) has been<br>used to assess sexual desire after modification to meet the cultural and social considerations . The current<br>study revealed that it explains that the highest percentage of the women subgroup are : women with ages<br>between (21-24) years old (50%), those who the age of their husbands (23-26) years old (46.5%), those who<br>live urban residents (84%), those who they and their husbands work as employee (58.5%), those with barely<br>sufficient monthly income (38.5%), those who are graduated from college or above .The results showed<br>that there is a significant association (p &lt;0.05) between sexual desire of women and each of : backache,<br>dysmenorrhea and mood instability ; while there is no significant relationship with each of : (backache,<br>breast tenderness, headache, irritability, sadness, aloneness, bloating, vaginal pain, vaginal dryness) . It<br>is concluded that sexual desire may affected by some symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome . Further<br>studies may be needed to confirms these results .</p> Miaad Jasim Mohammed1 , Ali A. Al-Fahham2 , Shukriyia Shadhan Al- Ogaili3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficiency of Determination of Elemental Composition of Metals and their Topography in Objects of Biological Origin Using Spectrometers <p>Bodily injuries, caused by firearms and special non-lethal means, which are provided for law enforcement<br>agencies and special services and they are available to the civilian population as well (pistols for firing<br>ammunition equipped with elastic bullets, stun guns, etc.,) and the consequences of torture using various<br>methods and the traumatic factors that caused by them have to get expert objective assessment. Among other<br>laboratory studies, it is important to determine the characteristics of the composition of chemical elements<br>in objects of biological and non-biological origin by performing X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis using<br>modern spectrometers. The object: to determine the characteristics of the elemental composition of metals<br>and their topography in injuries caused by gunshots and stun gun by conducting X-ray fluorescence spectral<br>analysis using spectrometers “ElvaX CEP-01” and “M4 TORNADO”. Conclusions: the use of spectrometers<br>increases the accuracy and objectivity of expert examinations of injuries caused by firearms and electric<br>shock device as they have a wide range of chemical elements detection in the composition of the products of<br>the shot and the electro tag from sodium to uranium. Using X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis, it is possible<br>not only to detect metals in the layers of soot on injuries, but also to conduct a targeted “microscopic” study<br>of their topography for partial group identification of firearms and the installation of electrode metal, which<br>acted as a contact body conductor. X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis is a non-destructive research method.</p> Mikhailenko O.V.1 , Roshchin H.H.2 , Dyadik ?.?.2 , Irkin I.V.2 , Malisheva T.A.3 , Kostenko Ye.Ya.4 , Gunas V.I.5 , Hel A.P.5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Pure Tone Audiometry with DPOAE in Students after Shooting Practice at East Java State Police Academy, Mojokerto, Indonesia <p>Objective: Analyzing the association between pure tone audiometry and distortion of otoacoustic emission<br>(DPOAE) in students after shooting practice.<br>Methods: This study was conducted at the East Java State Police Academy, Mojokerto, Indonesia, from<br>August 2018 to January 2019. Participants were examined for pure tone audiometry and DPOAE two weeks<br>after shooting training. Participants previously had undergone shooting training for 5 months, with schedule<br>of 4 times per week. The statistical test used an independent t test or Mann Whitney test with p &lt; 0.05.<br>Results: All participants were men, with an average pure tone audiometry value of 27.50 ± 10.43 dB. The<br>results of pure tone audiometry examination found that most participants had normal hearing (58.00%). This<br>finding was inversely proportional to the results of DPOAE examination, in which most participants had<br>“Refer” (78.00%). The mean pure tone audiometry value on participants with DPOAE “Refer” was 20.36 ±<br>3.47 dB and DPOAE “Pass” was 29.51 ± 10.87 dB (p = 0.008). Most participants had “Refer” DPOAE with<br>normal pure tone audiometry as much as 36.00%, followed by participants with “Refer” DPOAE but mild<br>hearing loss of pure tone audiometry as much as 24.00% (p = 0.002).<br>Conclusion: There is a significant association between pure tone audiometry with DPOAE. Many participants<br>have normal audiometry but “Refer” DPOAE, and followed by participants experiencing mild hearing loss<br>with “Refer” DPOAE.</p> Mochammad Ridwan Indiyana1 , H.M.S. Wiyadi2 , Artono3 , Nyilo Purnami4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmaceutical Mini-Tablets Overview <p>Oral dosage forms are considered as the most preferred dosage forms to various age groups of patients.<br>However, conventional solid dosage forms (tablets and capsules) have been associated with some issues;<br>such fluctuation in the plasma drug concentration and swallowing difficulty for some patients. This advocates<br>the need for the continuous development and improvement of tablets and capsule to enhance therapeutic<br>efficacy and increase patient acceptance. Mini tablets technology has been developed to minimize these<br>problems. It aims to facilitate oral administration with minimal swallowing difficulty (especially in<br>pediatrics and geriatrics) and deliver a therapeutic agent, selectively and effectively, to be targeted in a<br>certain position in the body. The most benefit of this technique is the ease of production with facilitated<br>control of stability problems. The size and shape uniformity, with smooth surface area, make minitablets<br>attractive to be incorporated with different medications for the efficient treatment of chronic diseases. This<br>overview outlines properties, production requirements, formulation options and evaluation methods of mini<br>tablets.</p> Mohammad F. Bayan1 , Hala M. Sbaih1 and Mohamed J. Saadh2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship Between High Sensitivity TNF-? WITH clinical outcome During Admission In Acute Ischemic Stroke <p>Background : Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), together with other pro-inflammatory cytokines such<br>as Interleukin-1b (IL-1b), IL- 6 and IL-8, play a role in the ischemic injury of the central nervous system.<br>TNF-? has adverse effects on ischemic brain tissue. The mechanism generated is a multicomplex process. In<br>other studies, an increase in TNF-? can actually have neuroprotective effects. This study aims to determine<br>the relation between the levels of the High Sensitivity TNF-? with clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke.<br>Method : Thirty patients with acute ischemic stroke patients who admitted in Dr. Soetomo hospital Surabaya<br>during the period December 2011 to February 2012. 2 cc of vein blood for examination High sensitivity<br>TNF-? was drawn during admission from acute ischemic stroke. Clinical outcome in acute stroke was<br>measured by NIHSS score.<br>Results: From 30 research samples, the mean age of patients was 59.53 ± 11.51 years. The mean High<br>Sensitivity TNF-? level in the study subjects was 2 ± 0.99 pg / ml. NIHSS examination showed the median<br>value of the NIHSS was 5 with a range of 2-19. There is a correlation but not statistically significant with<br>the strength is very weak between High Sensitivity TNF-? with the NIHSS in patients with acute thrombotic<br>stroke (r = 0.100 and p = 0.600).<br>Conclusion: There is relationship between serum levels of High sensitivity TNF-? with clinical outcome in<br>acute ischemic stroke patients.</p> Mohammad Saiful Ardhi1 , Mohammad Saiful Islam1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the effect of purified alginate from Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Hep G2 and A549 cell lines. <p>Alginate was extracted from highest alginate producer of P. aeruginosa 29 isolate, it was determined by<br>biochemical method (Carbazole-borate assay) and molecular method (PCR), where the amplified algD gene<br>samples showed that clear bands at one level for all the produced isolates and molecular weight were 313 on<br>the leader scale. partially purified of alginate using gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-200) showed<br>the present of single peak and initial alginate fraction at 17 to last fraction 28 of alginate concentration ,<br>where the highest alginate concentration was at fraction 23 . The cytotoxic effect of different concentrations<br>of purified alginate on cancer cells (HePG2 , A549 ) and normal cells WRL68 was tested. The result of<br>half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC 50) values of purified alginate treated WRL68 and HepG2 cells<br>after 24,48,72 hours of incubation at 37º C were ( 187.8 , 62.0, 83.07) ?g /ml , (102.3, 42.5, 61.03) ?g/ml<br>as respectively. While, the IC50 of purified alginate treated WRL68 and A549 cells after 24,48,72 hours of<br>incubation at 37ºC were ( 126.2, 63.57, 90.31 ) ?g /ml , (117.8, 57.06, 65.7) ?g /ml as respectively.</p> Mohammed S. Ismaieel1 , Muthanna Hamid Hassan2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy and Safety of Sacral Neuromodulation in Treatment of Refractory Overactive Bladder <p>Background: Overactive bladder syndrome is a urinary disorder that occurs more frequently in women and<br>older people and is characterized by feeling an urge to urinate (sudden urge to urinate, with the feeling that<br>you cannot get to the bathroom in time), doing it many times throughout the day (more than six) or having<br>episodes of urinary incontinence (involuntary loss of urine) and nocturia (waking up several times during<br>the night to urinate). In addition, other secondary symptoms may also occur, such as headache, dry mouth or<br>blurred vision, among others. It is a problem that has a clear impact on the quality of life of those who suffer<br>it and that can lead them to significantly reduce their social activity and negatively condition their work.<br>Overactive bladder (OAB) is defined as urinary urgency with or without urgency urinary incontinence,<br>nocturia, and/or frequency in the absence of UTI or other obvious pathology. Sacral neuromodulation is a<br>newer surgical therapy for refractory OAB.<br>Aim of Study: Is to assess the sacral neuromodulation (SN) safety and efficacy in refractory overactive<br>bladder patients.<br>Patients and Methods: In the period from November 2015 to May 2017. the unit of neurogenic bladder<br>and neuromodulation in (Gazi Al_Harriry) surgical specialty hospital, medical city complex 27 patient aged<br>from (17—55) year old were complaining from refractory overactive bladder. All the 27 patients underwent<br>stage1 &amp; stage2 SNS devices implantation.<br>Results: Patients of urgency incontinence (group1) demonstrated that the number of leak was significantly<br>reduced (p=0.01) after implantation of SN, (11.6_2.7) leak/day pre&amp; post SN, numbers of pads (6.9 _ 0.8)<br>pad/day pre&amp;post SN. Patients with urgency frequency (group 2), numbers of voids/day pre &amp; post SN<br>implantation decreased significantly (p=0.01) (14.7 _ 6) voids /day. The voided volume increased significantly<br>(p=0.02) from (136.4 _ 371.8) ml/void. The urgency episodes were decreased significantly (p=0.01) from<br>(6.4 _ 2.1) episode/day. The complications occurred in 5 patients (18.5%). Two patients (7.4%) developed<br>pain after trauma to the back, lead migration, lack of efficacy of device, treated by reprogramming the<br>device, one patient (3.7%) get infection at the site of device implantation, SN was removed , there was one<br>female patient (3.7%) got pregnancy and devise was deactivated. One patient (3.7%) complaining from pain<br>and discomfort at the device site was treated conservatively.<br>Conclusion: Sacral neuromodulation is FDA approved as option for treatment of refractory OAB. There is<br>expanding of utilizing of SN in the past two decades. According to multiple studies in addition to our study<br>results. The sacral neuromodulation is safe and efficacious treatment option for refractory OAB.</p> Mohammed Bassil Ismail1 , Wameedh Qays Abdullhussein2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Retinoic Acid Treatment of Human Hematological Malignancies Induces Caspase Dependent and Independent Apoptotic Cell Death <p>The unprejudiced of this education is to gauge the ability of the retinoic acid to induce apoptotic cell death<br>in hematological tumors through caspase dependent or independent apoptotic pathway, The cytotoxicity<br>effects of retinoic acid of different concentrations (400,350,300,250,200,150,100,50,25,12.5 µg\ml) and<br>exposure for all hematological malignancy cell lines (Human non-Hodgkin lymphoma SR and human<br>multiple myeloma (COLO 677) and Human Monocytic Leukemia THP1 and Acute promyelocytic leukemia<br>NB4) have been determined using a microtetrazolium (MTT) assay. Propodeum iodide and alcidine orange<br>(AO/PI) paired discoloration was used to study the ability of retinoic acid to induce apoptosis in the infected<br>cells and examined under fluorescence microscope and quantified for the percentage of apoptosis induction.<br>Quantitative immunocytochemistry assay was used to study the caspase dependent and independent<br>proteins expression in infected and control cells. Cells treated with Retinoic Acid showed increased cell<br>death percentage compared to the untreated cells as quantified by MTT assay. AO/PI results revealed that<br>Retinoic Acid had powerful effect on inducing apoptosis significantly (p&lt;0.001) in human cancer cell lines<br>tested, compared to control cell. Immunocytochemistry in Retinoic Acid infected human hematological cell<br>lines revealed remarkable increase in expression of caspase 8,9 (dependent pathway) and AIF, ENDOG<br>(independent pathway) induces a significant (p&lt;0.002) as compared untreated cell.<br>This study, which shows the role of the Retinoic Acid in inducing apoptosis through a dependent and<br>independent pathway in cancer cells, we anticipation these annotations will shanty light on the impending<br>exploration of retinoic acid in cancer hindrance and rehabilitation</p> Mohammed S. Mohammed1 , Maha Fakhry Altaee2 , Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in the Parotid Gland Similar to Benign Lymphoepithelial Lesion: A Case Indonesian Male <p>Background: Primary parotid non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is a very rare case. Case presentation: A<br>66-year-old Indonesian male with a complaint of a lump in front of the right ear about 1 year with a history of<br>postoperative primary parotid NHL 3 years ago. Patients underwent Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB)<br>examination, showing a distribution of lymphoid cells with a diverse population (benign lymphoepithelial<br>lesion / BLL) different from the results of FNAB 3 years ago. The patient underwent a right superficial<br>parotidectomy, and the results of the histopathological examination revealed mature lymphocyte cells mixed<br>with histiocytes, forming foci of the follicle in part with an active germinal center. Conclusion: NHL reports<br>are necessary to minimize misdiagnosis between primary parotid NHL and BLL.</p> Muhammad Arif Sudianto Utama1 , Widodo Ario Kentjono2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of the GETAR Spiritual Approach on Smoking Behavior of Junior High School Students in Palu City, Indonesia <p>Smoking cases at the age of children less than 18 years will have a very fatal impact because considering<br>the age of the child who is still growing. GETAR (Movement without Smoking) spiritual approach uses<br>the concept of religion, which in this case is exemplified by Islam by helping individuals to find their<br>nature. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of the GETAR spiritual approach on smoking<br>behavior of junior high school students in Palu City, Indonesia. This type of research is a quasy experiment.<br>The sample consisted of 35 smokers in grade 7, 8, and 9 at SMPN 1 Palu as an intervention group, with<br>saturated sampling technique, as a control group, and 35 students in grade 7, 8, and 9 at SMPN 4 Palu.<br>The data were analysis with paired sample t test and independent sample t test. This study showed that<br>there are differences in knowledge (p = 0,000), attitudes (p = 0,000), and actions (p = 0,000) students of<br>SMPN 1 Palu about smoking before and after GETAR spiritual intervention. And there are differences in<br>the knowledge (p = 0,000), attitudes (p = 0.020), and actions (p = 0,000) between students who were given<br>GETAR spiritual intervention (students of SMPN 1 Palu) and those who were not given GETAR spiritual<br>intervention (students of SMPN 4 Palu). It concludes that there is a difference in the knowledge, attitudes,<br>and actions of SMPN 1 Palu students about smoking before and after the spiritual intervention of GETAR.<br>And there is a difference in the knowledge, attitudes, and actions of students between those who were given<br>the spiritual intervention of GETAR (students of SMPN 1 Palu) and those who were not given the spiritual<br>intervention of GETAR (students of SMPN 4 Palu).</p> Muhammad Ryman Napirah1 , Ridwan Amiruddin2 , Sukri Palutturi3 , Stang4 , Aminuddin Syam5 , Darmawansyah3 , Rosmala Nur6 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Teaching-Learning Styles & Aids Student’s Preferences among first Year Undergraduate Medical Students in the College of Medicine, University of Missan, Iraq <p>Objectives: to collect feedback from first year medical students on their perceptions and preferences of<br>different teaching, learning, and aids methods that are currently used in medical chemistry teaching course.<br>The aim of our study was to compare the more acceptable teaching &amp; aids methods among the first stage<br>medical students, Missan Medical College. So that best teaching aid and method can be adopted to improve<br>their academic performance<br>Materials and Methods: a well-structured electronic questionnaire based study was carried out on<br>undergraduate medical students at department of clinical biochemistry, medical college, Missan University,<br>Missan province, Iraq in second semester of academic year 2020-2021. 197 students participated out of 204<br>total, giving 97% response rate, the questionnaire was properly explained. The students were asked to grade<br>teaching, learning, and aids methods that were used to teach Medical Chemistry module. The responses was<br>analysed according to the Likert scale to detect their preferences and favourites toward the statements in the<br>questionnaire.<br>Results: In our study many items with high satisfaction and least preferences grades was noticed for<br>combination of teaching, learning, and aids methods. The majority (76%) of the students like the subject<br>of medical chemistry. Exams preparation techniques, practical exercise lectures, various teaching aids<br>and other methods have been found excellent and very good methods by the majority of the students. For<br>effective teaching of medical chemistry, students opinions and preferences were suggesting a clear mandate<br>in different issues such as usefulness of more preparations techniques for main exams, using more than one<br>teaching aids (white board + power point presentation) in the lecture. By understanding students perceptions,<br>teaching learning precesses in medical chemistry can be improved 1.</p> Mustafa M. Al-Yassiry1 , Farah K. Aloraibi2 , Haider Saadoon Qasim Alhilfi3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Exposure of Gap Competence causes in Stunting Children Ages 0-12 Months in Makassar Indonesia: Cross-Sectional Study <p>Introduction, The parenting gap is believed to be one of the variables that influence stunting. The Objectives<br>of this study to identify gaps in care (feeding practices, care, hygiene, and treatment of children) and<br>incidence of stunting. Method this study is a cross-sectional, conducted in March-June 2020 in Makassar City<br>Indonesia. The sample size was 82 people, of children aged 0-12 months. The data collectors are alumni of<br>applied nutrition and dietetics degrees, trained for 2 days in health protocol, interviews, and anthropometry.<br>The instrument in this study was developed from the UNICEF. The result, found that mothers and fathers<br>graduated from high school, 43% and 59.8%, respectively. The work of mothers as housewives is 84.1% and<br>fathers are private employees as much as 36.6%. The parenting competency gap in the feeding practice of<br>children aged 0-6 months, 7-9 months, and 10-12 months is 20.9%, 71.79%, and 92.31%, respectively. The<br>results of statistical analysis showed that there was an effect of parenting competency gaps on stunting (p<br>= 0.000). The conclusion is that the parenting competency gap is proven to affect the incidence of stunting.<br>The suggestion is that it is necessary to increase the capacity of mothers in child care practices/</p> Mustamin1 , Sirajuddin2 , Mahmud3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Interleukin-6 (rs1800797) Variant in Healthy Individuals at Medan City, North Sumatera Province <p>The Interleukin-6/IL6 (rs1800797) variant play a role in several diseases pathogenesis. The frequency<br>genotype of IL6 (rs1800797) varied based on different race, ethnicity, and underlying character in<br>population. This study aimed to assess the frequency of genotype and allele of IL6 (rs1800797) in healthy<br>individuals at Medan city, North Sumatera Province Province and this study can be used as a reference in<br>determining of several diseases for further studies. Genotyping of IL6 (rs1800797) in the promoter region<br>using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method, analysis using FokI<br>restriction enzyme. This study showed that the genotype frequency of GG, GA, and AA were 95.8 %, 4.2<br>%, and 0 %, respectively. The allele frequency of G and A were 97.9 % and 2.1 %, respectively. The results<br>indicated that the homozygous wild-type (GG) of IL6 (rs1800797) was higher than the heterozygous mutant<br>(GA) and there was absent of homozygous mutant (AA) in this population. The frequency of G allele also<br>higher than A mutant allele.</p> Mutiara Indah Sari1*, Siti Syarifah2 , Milahayati Daulay3 , Zaimah Z Tala4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Malus sylvestris Extract on Histopathological Features of Hypercholesterolemic Wistar Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Fatty Liver <p>Objective: To evaluate the effect of Malus sylvestris extract on improving the degree of steatosis and portal<br>inflammation histopathological features of hypercholesterolemic Rattus norvegicus strain wistar. Method:<br>Forty-two male rats were divided into 6 groups randomly. Hypercholesterolemic fatty liver induced by<br>giving high-fat diet (HFD) for 46 days on groups 1 to 5, while group 6 given standard diet with the same<br>amount of time. Simvastatin was administered in group 2 at a dose of 0.36 mg/day. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were<br>given Malus sylvestris extract (MSE) as a treatment at doses of 90 mg/day, 180 mg/day, and 360 mg/day in<br>sequential order. Simvastatin and MSE were administered for 14 days, from day 33 to 46. On day 47, all rats<br>were sacrificed and the liver was removed for histopathological slides preparation with hematoxylin-eosin<br>(HE) staining. Histopathological results were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis test followed by Mann Whitney<br>test. Result: Histopathological analysis showed that Malus sylvestris extract improved steatosis and portal<br>inflammation features compared to HFD-fed rats in group 1 (p&lt;0,05). Conclusion: Malus sylvestris extract<br>improved the degree of steatosis and portal inflammation histopathological features of hypercholesterolemic<br>rat fatty liver.</p> Nadhifa Tanesha Aufazhafarin1 , Alphania Rahniayu2 , Ema Qurnianingsih3 , Arifa Mustika4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hyperglicemia in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia During Induction Chemotherapy <p>Background: Hyperglycemia is a recognized side effect of the corticosteroids and asparaginase given<br>during induction chemotherapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The ALL is the malignant<br>tumor with the highest incidence in the childhood. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of<br>hyperglycemia during induction chemoteraphy in childhood ALL.<br>Methods: This prospective study was done in Dr. Soetomo hospital from January to April 2018. The subject<br>was newly diagnosed as ALL under the age of 18 years, treated with Indonesian childhood ALL 2013<br>protocol (Standard Risk (SR) group and High Risk (HR) group). Hyperglycemia was defined as at least<br>two separate random plasma glucose levels &gt; 200 mg/dL, which was evaluated before and during induction<br>chemotherapy. Statistical analysis using Paired T-test for parametric and Wilcoxon Test for nonparametric.<br>Results: Thirty-three children were enrolled, 18/33 boys with mean age 5.8 (SD 3.78) years, compromised<br>as ALL-L1 30/33. They were treated with ALL-HR 19/33 and ALL-SR 14/33. In overall groups, the mean<br>random blood glucose level significantly increased from 108 (SD 21.3) mg/dL to 147 (SD 48.1) mg/dL,<br>(mean difference 38.67 mg/dL; 95% CI 18.08 to 59.26 mg/dL, P=0.008). In SR group, there was a significant<br>increased of mean random blood glucose level from 102 (SD 13.5) mg/dL to 133 (SD 37.3) mg/dL, (mean<br>difference 31.8 mg/dL; 95% CI 8.78 to 54.8 mg/dL; P=0.01). In HR group, the mean random blood glucose<br>level increased from 113 (SD 51.9) mg/dL to 165 (SD 25.4) mg/dL, (mean difference 51.9 mg/dL; 95% CI<br>18.6 to 85.2 mg/dL, P=0.004).<br>Conclusion: Blood glucose level is significantly increase during induction chemotherapy in both SR and HR Indonesian childhood ALL 2013 protocol.</p> Nengcy Erlina Tasik Rerung1, Andi Cahyadi2 , Nur Rochmah3 , Maria Christina Shanty Larasati4, Mia Ratwita Andarsini5 , Muhammad Faizi6 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Hot Work Climate with Dehydration on Bricks Workers <p>Each workplace must have its own source of danger which can cause health problems or occupational<br>diseases due to the exception of informal sector workers such as brick workers. Health problems that can<br>be experienced are dehydration caused by exposure to hot working climate. Incidence of dehydration can<br>cause workers to get tired quickly and decrease productivity. The purpose of this study was to analyze the<br>correlation between hot working climate with dehydration on bricks workers in one of Mojosulur’s brick<br>home industries. Methodes of his research is an analytic observational study, with cross sectional design.<br>The subjects of this study were all brick workers in one of the brick home industries in Mojosulur by 30<br>respondents. The results of the study showed that most brick workers were dehydrated, varying in level,<br>both moderate and severe dehydration. The results of statistical analysis show that the correlation coefficient<br>(r = 0.638) which can be interpreted as a work climate factor has a strong correlation with the incidence<br>of dehydration Conclusion of this research on work climate and dehydration of brick workers in one of<br>Mojosulur’s brick home industries have a very strong correlation.</p> Nesya Shera Putri Iksani1 , Endang Dwiyanti2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Equality of Suffrage for People with Mental Disorders in Malang City <p>Constitutional Court of Indonesia in 2015 established Constitutional Court’s Decision Number 135 / PUUXIII / 2015 that revoked the provisions of Article 57 paragraph 3 letter a of Indonesian Law Number 8 of<br>2015 concerning Amendment of Law Number 1 concerning the Stipulation of Government Regulation in<br>Lieu of Law Number 1 of 2014 which the substance prohibited person with disabilities for voting in election.<br>Then, Law Number 7 of 2017 concerning General Elections, which exclusively gave political rights for<br>people with disabilities to implement their political rights.<br>Qualifications for people with mental disabilities in elections of The Constitutional Court decides that the<br>phrase “mental disorders/ memory impairment” must be interpreted as “experiencing mental illness and/ or<br>permanent memory impairment which according to mental health professionals, has abolished one’s ability<br>to vote in elections”. It means that sufferers with mental disorders and/ or impermanent memory impairment<br>must still be registered as voters and they have the opportunity to use their voting rights in elections.<br>Equality of political rights for people with mental disorders (Orang Dengan Gangguan Jiwa (ODGJ)) in<br>elections is very important because general election gives opportunity to increase participation and change<br>public perception for the ability of people with disabilities. As the result, people with disabilities can have<br>stronger political voice and they are recognized more as equal citizens. Moreover, this research was in<br>category of normative research with normative juridical approach. In conclusion, the equality of political<br>rights for people with mental disorders (orang dengan gangguan jiwa (ODGJ)) in elections is very important<br>because general election gives opportunity to increase participation and change public perception for the<br>ability of people with disabilities. As the result, people with disabilities can have stronger political voice and<br>they are recognized more as equal citizens.</p> Nofi Sri Utami1 , Nanik Prasetyoningsih2, Kuswanto Kuswanto3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determining the Exposure of Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (in Condensate ) in a Chemical Laboratory of Natural Gas Company by Chemical Health Risk Assessment (CHRA) <p>Introduction: Chemical risk assessment is needed to find out how high the hazard level of chemicals in the<br>laboratory. This chemical health risk assessment will assess how often the chemical is exposed to workers,<br>how much exposure it is so that the level of risk can be understood. The purpose of enabling decisions to be<br>made on appropriate control measure, training of employees, monitoring and surveillance activities as may<br>be required to protect the health of employees who may exposed by hazardous chemicals to health at work.<br>Methods: This research is research with a qualitative approach. Based on the data collected, this study is<br>observational. This study uses the Chemical Health Risk Assessment (CHRA) method. This method is carried<br>out by identifying chemicals, determining Hazard Rating, evaluating exposure, assessing the adequacy of<br>the control measures that have been carried out, concluding the CHRA results, and identifying the efforts<br>that need to be made.<br>Result: In this study, there are three work units, namely a wet laboratory, oil laboratory, and gas laboratory.<br>The chemicals analyzed are benzene, toluene, and xylene in the condensate. The hazardous chemical have<br>significant risk now and already adequately controlled could increase in future (C2) which mean that the<br>employees are at risk due to hazardous chemicals and it adequately controlled but the risk can increase in<br>the future.<br>Conclusion : Therefore, several steps can be taken to control the risk of health hazards from benzene,<br>toluene, and xylene in the condensate, for example: determine precaution to maintain controls and minimize<br>chances of higher exposure occurring; determine additional measures for regaining control if a high-risk<br>event occurs despite precaution; identify measures, procedures, and equipment to prevent or control any<br>accidental emission of chemical hazardous to health, determine if monitoring or health surveillance is<br>required to check on the effectiveness of controls; and review assessment every five years or when is a<br>change in circumstances</p> Nora Putri Sabilla1 , Noeroel Widajati2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A questionnaire-based Study of Knowledge and Attitude in Healthcare Professionals about Child Sexual Abuse related to POCSO (Protection of Children from Sexual Offences) Act: A Cross-sectional Study <p>Introduction: The Government of India has passed special law, The Protection of Children from Sexual<br>Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012 which provides strong shield for protection of children from heinous crimes<br>of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography, there by safe guarding the interest of children at every<br>stage of judicial proceeding.<br>Methodology: A questionnaire based study was carried among 100 healthcare professionals working at the<br>tertiary care Hospital, randomly selected. The questionnaire had 15 Multiple Choice Questions about Child<br>Sexual Abuse related to POCSO Act. Collected data was analysed statistically.<br>Objective: The study is aimed to assess knowledge and attitude about Child Sexual Abuse related to POCSO<br>Act among healthcare professionals.<br>Result: Greater percentage of healthcare professionals have knowledge about major aspects of POCSO<br>Act, as related to its full form (75%), enactment (62%), definition of child (62%), different types of sexual<br>offence (86%), its mandatory reporting (81%), and trial in child friendly special courts (64%). But in few<br>areas, knowledge related is scarce as only 40% participants knew punishment scales of POCSO Act and 46%<br>knew failure to report is punishable offence. 84% participants suggest multidisciplinary approach is the need<br>of hour to tackle cases of child sexual abuse.<br>Conclusion: To curb this menace educating health care professionals along with children, spreading<br>knowledge and awareness at community level with strict law enforcement will play a key role.</p> Nowsheen Goni1 , Mukesh Kumar Goyal2 , Chahat Shikarwar3 , Chahat Jangir4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Level of Knowledge and Family Support toward Medication Adherence among Patient with Diabetes Mellitus in Malang, Indonesia <p>Patient compliance with long-term therapy for chronic diseases in developing countries is still low. Efforts to<br>control blood sugar levels remain normal with medication adherence depending on family support and patient<br>knowledge of the disease. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the level of knowledge<br>and family support with medication adherence in patients with diabetes mellitus in Malang, Indonesia. The<br>study design was cross-sectional. The sample of this study was 48 people with diabetes mellitus recorded<br>in Ciptomulyo Health Center. This study uses a simple random sampling technique. The questionnaire used<br>consisted of demographic data, knowledge, family support, and medication adherence. The results of the<br>study were that there is no relationship between the variable level of knowledge and medication adherence<br>in patients with diabetes mellitus with a significance value of p = 0.561. There was a relationship between<br>family support and medication adherence in patients with diabetes mellitus with a significance value of p =<br>0,000 and a Correlation Coefficient value of 0.616 which indicates a significant relationship with a strong<br>degree of relationship strength. There is a relationship between family support and medication adherence<br>in patients with diabetes mellitus at the Ciptmulyo Health Center. The better the family support, the more<br>obedient the patient is undergoing treatment.</p> Nur Lailatul Masruroh1*, Alifia Fatehana Pangastuti2 , Nur Melizza1 , Anggraini Dwi Kurnia1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Exercise Classics on the Development the Volume of Attention of Schoolchildren Aged 8-9 <p>The aim of the study: To determine the influence of exercise Classics on the development of the volume of<br>attention of children 9-10 years old in physical education lessons.<br>Methods and Material: The study was conducted over a period of 9 months, in which 40 9-10-year-olds<br>took part. Physical education classes were held 2 times a week for 40 minutes each lesson. The level of<br>development of coordination abilities was assessed on the «Shuttle run» test, and the indicators of attention<br>volume on the «Schulte Table» test. The programs bio-stat 2009, Microsoft excel 2016 and t-student were<br>used for mathematical and statistical processing of results.<br>Results: Before the beginning of the pedagogical experiment, the indicators of school children between the<br>groups did not have significant differences (P&gt;0.05). After the end of the study, the indicators in both groups<br>improved. In CG, in the «Shuttle run» test, the indicators improved from 10.2±0.6 to 9.9±0.5 (P&gt;0.05), and<br>in the volume of attention test, the indicators improved by 6.1% (P&gt;0.05). In EG, in the «Shuttle run 3x10<br>m» test, the indicators improved from 9.9±0.5 to 8.5±0.4 (P&lt;0.05), and in the «Schulte Table» test, the<br>indicators improved by 32.1%. These results indicate the effectiveness of using exercise Classics in physical<br>education lessons in working with younger schoolchildren.<br>Conclusion: if schoolchildren will perform exercise Classics in physical education classes at school, they<br>will improve not only coordination abilities, but also the volume of attention.</p> Polevoy G. G Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Possibility of Healing Deep Wounds in Rats Using Helium Neon Laser <p>Laser treatment is generally used for tissue restoration. Restorative soft tissues include objective, practical<br>and difficult responses.<br>The goal of the research have being to estimate the irradiation capabilities the helium neon laser irradiation<br>on three different types of wounds depth.<br>Sixty young male rats were used in this study, divided into three groups. (20 per group) Wounds were created<br>with different depth for the first, second and third group have been irradiated by the laser using He-Ne<br>energies flowing 4 minutes, five out of twenty animals left without radiation is considered to control.<br>Biopsy was taken from all rats for histological examination at 1, 3 and 7 days after surgery. The results<br>showed a clear enhancement of treatment wounds from control, Helium neon laser failure in the treatment<br>of very deep wounds.</p> Rabab Hajwal Al-Zamily Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Legal Sociology in Terms of Covid-19: Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB) in Indonesia <p>The study of legal sociology is a study that has legal phenomena, but uses social science and sociology<br>theory. The role of Legal sociology is so tight when juxtaposed with a problem that is emerging, namely<br>the global pandemic Coronavirus Disease (Covid)-19. The juridical normative research with a method of<br>approach to the law, conceptual and comparative. Legal materials that have been collected are analyzed by<br>content analysis. Some affected countries that successfully handled the COVID-19 pandemic, including:<br>South Korea, New Zealand, Singapore. Italy and United States containment strategy for handling Covid-19<br>are contradictory from those countries above. PSBB has been applied in Indonesia and other countries. The<br>PSBB must be accompanied by other programs so that the government can successfully handle COVID-19..<br>PSBB does not guarantee that the community will obey the regulation. The most effective action with all<br>the consequences is regional quarantine or lockdown accompanied by other supporting programs from the<br>government.</p> Rahayu Hartini1 , Yusufa Ibnu Sina Setiawan2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors affecting The Occurrence of Tuberculosis Destroyed Lung <p>Introduction: Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) disease remains a public health. In recent years, the prevalence<br>of TB has increase. Dangerous complication of Pulmonary TB can destroy lungs. In 83.3% cases of<br>destroyed lung, the patient are found to have a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Objective: The aimed<br>of this study was to identify factors affecting the occurrence of Tuberculosis Destroyed Lung in Lampung<br>Province, Indonesia in 2017. Method: This study is an analytic observation with a case control design. The<br>sample were obtained through total sampling. Primary and secondary data were obtained from interview<br>and medical records. The samples were taken from 64 patients in several hospitals in Lampung, Indonesia.<br>Results: The results showed the relationship between age with destroyed lung (p = 0.897), gender with<br>destroyed lung (p = 0.511), education level with destroyed lung (p = 0.754), occupation with destroyed lung<br>(p = 0.060), income with destroyed lung (p = 0.482), cigarette smoking with destroyed lung (p = 0.013),<br>and the presence of multiple diseases with destroyed lung (p = 0.748). Conclusions: There is a significant<br>relationship between Cigarette Smoking to the incidence of destroyed lung.</p> Retno Ariza Soeprihatini Soemarwoto1,2, Anse Diana Mesah3 , Hetti Rusmini2 , Muhammad Arlek4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Health Rights for Indonesian Migrant Workers in Malaysia: A Legal Perspective <p>Work is an application of the human beings’ responsibility in existing. The type of work may be chosen<br>freely whether it is within the country or abroad. This is a normative law research which is supported by<br>empirical study. The normative law study is used to analyze the constitutional regulations regarding the<br>health rights of the Indonesian migrant workers. Meanwhile, the empiric law study is used to analyze the<br>implementation of the regulations. The health right implementation of the Indonesian migrant workers in<br>Malaysia is applies through health insurances based on the sosco regulations. The payment of the health<br>rights for the Indonesian migrant workers is the responsibility of the employer. The research results show<br>that in the aspect of health, the work agreements do not go according to the contract. The health security<br>of the Indonesian migrant workers in Malaysia is still not effective as it only covers accidents within the<br>working hours.</p> 1 Rizka Rizka, 2 Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho, 3 Arief Budiono, 4 Wafda Vivid Izziyana, 5 Ayesha Hendriana Ngestiningrum Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Neuroimaging of Cerebral Palsy with and without Epilepsy in Children <p>Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the main causes of limited activity in children. The prevalence<br>of CP ranges from 2.6 to 2.9 per 1000 live births. Most of children with CP have at least one comorbid,<br>including epilepsy. Epilepsy in CP is difficult to control, and can increase the severity of motor impairment<br>and cognitive function, therefore the prognosis is poor. The incidence of epilepsy in CP is associated with<br>a specific clinical profile. This study aimed to analyze the comparison of clinical characteristics of cerebral<br>palsy in children with and without epilepsy.<br>Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using medical record of children with cerebral palsy in<br>pediatric neurology outpatient clinic in Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya in March - May 2020. Children<br>with CP who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. The variables studied included sex,<br>perinatal history (preterm birth, low birth weight, and neonatal asphyxia), neonatal seizures, spastic type,<br>level of GMFCS, head circumference, neuroimaging features, hearing loss, and eye abnormalities. The<br>study subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of children with CP and epilepsy. Group 2<br>consisted of children with CP without epilepsy. Data analysis was performed using the Chi-square test and<br>fisher’s exact test using SPSS.<br>Result: Significant comparison of the characteristics were found in the history of neonatal seizures and<br>the level of GMFCS. The percentage of neonatal seizures was higher in group 1 at 61.3% (p=0.049). The<br>degree of GMFCS in group 1 was dominated by GMFCS III while in group 2 it was dominated by GMFCS<br>IV (p=0.047). Subjects with GMFCS I and II levels were only found in group 2, while in group 1 with<br>higher level of GMFCS, they were GMFCS III, IV, and V. More abnormal neuroimaging was found in<br>group 1, namely 64.3%, while in group 2 it was 57.1%. There was no statistically significant difference of<br>neuroimaging characteristics between the two groups (p= 0.911).<br>Conclusion: There were differences in clinical characteristics associated with neonatal seizures and GMFCS<br>between CP with and without epilepsy.</p> Rizka Yulianti1 , Prastiya Indra Gunawan2, Darto Saharso3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association of rs865429 C/T polymorphism in SOST gene with Coronary Heart Disease in Iraqi Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients <p>Sclerostin, encoded by the SOST gene, It has also been shown that sclerostin is expressed in aortic VSMC<br>(vascular smooth muscle) and upregulation of SOST gene has inhibitory effects on the aortic aneurysm<br>and atherosclerosis development. Aims: The current study aims to explore potential the association<br>between SOST gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs865429 C/T) and coronary artery diseases (CHD)<br>in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, in addition to the effect of this SNP on the level of serum<br>sclerostin and other glycemic parameters. Material and methods: From the Iraqi population, we enrolled<br>300 T2DM patients (150 T2DM with CHD and 150 T2DM without CHD). Serum blood glucose, serum<br>insulin, HbA1C, and sclerostin were estimated. Genotyping for rs865429 C/T in SOST gene was achieved<br>by RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism). Results: T2DM patients<br>having CT + TT genotype included in the studied were at increased risk for CHD in T2DM (odd ratio:<br>0.4444 CI: 0.2800 to 0.7054) and related to a high serum sclerostin level in comparison with type 2 diabetic<br>patients with CC genotype. Conclusions: Type 2 diabetic patients with T allele who have elevated plasma<br>concentrations of sclerostin are at high risk for coronary artery diseases.</p> Ruaa Ali Mohammed Ali1 , Rasha Shaker Nima2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge of HIV Transmission and Factors Related to the Incidence of HIV/AIDS in Adolescents in Indonesia <p>Adolescents are vulnerable to various health risk, especially caused by social interactions, like juvenile<br>delinquency and drug abuse, premarital sex and unwanted pregnancy to an increased incidence of sexually<br>transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. The number of AIDS cases in students is 282 cases, more<br>than double prostitutes who are 137 cases. The purpose of this study is to find out how is the knowledge of<br>young people about HIV / AIDS, how HIV are transmitted and what are the factors that associated with HIV<br>incidence in adolescents in Indonesia. This paper uses a qualitative method with literature study or library<br>research, then data obtained is analyzed using descriptive analysis methods. HIV/AIDS can be transmitted<br>through bodily fluids contact and is related to several factors such as gender, family factors, community<br>environment, technology and communication. Cooperation of all sectors, parents, social institutions, and<br>society to support government programs for HIV/AIDS-free Indonesia.</p> Ruri Kharisma Fitriani1 , Lutfi Agus Salim2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular& Antifungal Suceptibility Identification of Candida albicans Isolated from Samples of GIT Children with Diarrhea in Diyala Province Iraq <p>Diarrheal diseases in children are a major public health concern in developing countries. especially species<br>of Candida, responsible for causing candidiasis infection(diarrehea), require fast and accurate identification,<br>The correct identification of Candida species is of great importance, as it presents prognostic and therapeutical<br>significance, allowing an early and appropriate antifungical therapy. This study was conducted to investigate<br>the incidence of Candida albicans associated with diarrhea in children<br>This study was included isolates of Candida spp. from stool of 100 patients samples with diarrhea and<br>100 without diarrhea evaluated in AL-Batool Teaching Hospital by phenotypic methods , antifungal<br>susceptibility of C. albicans and determination of the C.albicans genotypes by Nested PCR, discriminating<br>C. albicans from the other Candida species. The tests used for phenotypic analysis were culture in SDA and<br>CHROMAgar™ Candida, Phenotypic tests showed green colonies in chromogenic medium, The antifungal<br>susceptibility results of 43 C.albicans isolates present that all of Candida isolates tested were susceptible<br>to Amphotericin B and fluconazole (100%), while no resistance was observed in C.albicans toCaspofungin<br>and Micafungin.<br>Finally, only one isolate was resistant to flucytosine . Genomic DNAs of all C. albicans isolates were<br>amplified by PCR to detect their genotypes using. polymerase chian reaction amplification shows four<br>genotypes(A,B,Cand D).A-genotype showed 4 subtypes and most common subgenotypes(1,3,4 and 5).</p> Sabah M.Ali1 , Sarah A. Dawood2 , Luma T. Ahmed2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Markers of Bone Turnover in the Evaluation of Diagnosis and Prognosis of Multiple Myeloma in a Sample of Iraqi Patients <p>Subjects /This study is aimed to evaluate the bone resorption marker CTX, B-CTX, and bone formation<br>marker Osteocalcin in relation to the clinical presentation as well as to investigate the evidences of the<br>osteoporotic processes by assessing osteoclast bone markers in the different stages of MM patients and<br>comparing these markers- in relation to standard prognostic markers in sample of MM Iraqi patients. – in<br>addition to interpretation of soluble CD138 in relation to prognosis.<br>Methods/Sixty-five MM (males=41, females=24) patients distributed to different hematology centers in<br>Iraq were enrolled in this cross-sectional study.Their age range was 39-81 years, twelve of them were newly<br>diagnosed and the others were under treatment and distributed all on three stages from the disease according<br>to the international staging system (ISS) : Group A – Stage I (n=21 patients, age mean 57.14±12.25 years),<br>Group B – Stage II (n= 22 patients, age mean of 56.45±11.33 years), and Group C-Stage III (n=22 patients,<br>age mean 60.59±11.55 years). Seven milliliters of venous blood samples were taken from each patient just<br>prior to starting the chemotherapy for the measurement of blood hemoglobin (Hb), serum Creatinine, ,<br>Calcium , Beat 2 Microglubulin Osteocalcin (OC), Total and Beta C-terminal telopeptide (CTX, BCTX),<br>Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Syndecan-1 (CD138), and both kappa &amp; lambda Free light chain (FLC?,<br>FLC?).<br>Results/Anemia was a general feature of all patients, with a gradual rise (from stage 1 to 3) in the concentrations<br>of creatinine and B2M P=&lt;0.001, calcium P=0.01 and, all other studied markers CTX, BCTX, CD138,<br>FLC? and FLC? has significant elevation in comparison among studied groups P=&lt;0.001 with the exception<br>of Osteocalcin ,which showed a general reduction.<br>Conclusion/Multiple Myeloma patients have increased in bone remodeling throughout the disease course<br>with progressive increment in relation to disease stage --. Plasma cells in MM leads to disturbance in<br>expression and secretion of CD138 in association with disease advancement.</p> Sadik A. Abdullah1 , Waseem F. Al-Tameemi2, Ghassan A.A. Al-Shamma3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histological Effect of Androgenic Anabolic Steroids on Liver <p>Abstract: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) they are the synthetic type of the natural male sex hormone<br>(testosterone), they are widespread used amongst athletes to enhance performance. Abuse of AAS is common<br>amongst players and it is usually accompanied by a many medically based complications. It was reported<br>that hepatic problems include cholestasis, elevation of liver enzymes e.g. aminotransferases, as well as,<br>benign hepatic adenomas, jaundice and to less extent of hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with their<br>use.<br>A total of (12) adult New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) male, aged one year was selected. 2<br>control animals and 10 were treated with injections intramuscularly of the AAS, nandrolone decanoate<br>(15 mg/kg) three times a week for 12 weeks. At the end of experiment the animals were sacrificed and the<br>liver was dissected out and fixed using 10% buffered formalin-saline to prepare blocks for staining with<br>haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination using the light microscope.<br>The liver of treated animals reveals that there are a mild to severe vascular congestion. There is swelling of<br>hepatocytes, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Perivascular fibrosis, cellular necrosis was observed in other<br>slides with sinusoidal congestions and extrabiliary bile pigments deposits.<br>The benefit of AAS comes with unwanted side effects. The total volume of the hepatocytes and sinusoids<br>were increased in the studied animals. The total number of hepatocytes nuclei in experimental group also<br>increased. The damage of the liver cells or at least increased permeability of the hepatocellular membrane<br>which is noticed in the present work could explain the increment of plasma levels of liver enzymes<br>which was studied by other researchers, as they notice an elevation liver enzymes activity such as alanine<br>aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl<br>transpeptidase (GGT), and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)..<br>Patients and physicians must kept in mind that the sequelae of AAS abuse are life threatening. So people<br>should be aware about the complications of AAS use and a periodic examination of liver function and check<br>out should be done to those treated groups.</p> Sahar Dakhil Yonis1 , Asaad Abd Al-Hussain Mohammad Al-Shouk2 , Alaa S. Hachem3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Teachers’ Attitude Toward Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) at Primary Schools in AlNasiriyah City, Iraq <p>The aim of the current study is to identify teachers’ attitude about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder<br>(ADHD) and its relation to their demographic characteristics. A descriptive study design was carried out<br>among 250 teachers at primary schools in Nasiriyah city was selected by using convenience sample type.<br>The data is collected by using Google classroom through distribution of the attitudes questionnaire to<br>primary school teachers which composed of 22 items. The highest percentage 36.8% of teachers at age<br>41-50 years old, 52.8% were females, 70.8% were urban residence, 54.5% were married, 53.6% had barely<br>sufficient income, 62.8% had bachelor graduated, 56.4% teach the classes (4-6) and 48.8% teach in male<br>school. The majority 95.6% of teachers had neutral attitude toward ADHD and the grand mean was 1.93.<br>There is significant statistical difference in teachers’ attitude with regard to their gender. Majority of teachers<br>had neutral attitude About ADHD among children. Teachers attitudes is affected by gender. It is important to<br>teach teachers about how to deal with child who had ADHD. Assign work that suits the student’s skill level,<br>and give appropriate supervision to ADHD students.</p> Saja Mahdi1 , Ali Kareem Al-Juboori2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Guidelines for Maintaining Physical Fitness During COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The ongoing corona virus outbreak (COVID-19) has turn into pandemic, by rapidly spreading and infecting<br>all over the world. It left no other choice than implementing the lockdown all over the country. This lockdown<br>has lead to the development of sedentary lifestyle among the people leaving them with inactivity, anxiety,<br>depression and with an elevated chance of a potential aggravation of the health problems. Therefore, not just<br>modifying people’s lifestyles during quarantine and keeping an active lifestyle at home, it is very necessary<br>for the overall population’s safety, but particularly for those with additional risk factors and the elderly to<br>conduct daily physical indoor activities and exercises. The data was collected from the electronic databases.<br>The review includes the quarantine population of all age group and gender. After reviewing the articles<br>it was concluded that the multi-component full-body programs should be carried out by the population,<br>including aerobic, strengthening, balancing and stretching exercises by modifying and utilizing both the<br>space and material available. Doing physical exercise will help us to stay active during quarantine period so<br>that after the end of the crisis we will be able to resume our work without lethargy.</p> Sakina S. Saifee1 , Angela Kapoor1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Hemodialysis on Some Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Nephropathy Patients <p>Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide epidemic and is associated with long-term damage and causes dysfunction<br>of several organs like kidney leading to diabetic nephropathy. This study was designed to evaluate some<br>biochemical aspects.This study was conducted on 95 patients which included (35) HD patients with diabetes<br>and (35) HD patients without diabetes and (25) Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, who attended at Ramadi<br>General Hospital. For the purpose of comparison, (25) samples as control. Several tests were performed such<br>as FSB, urea, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), albumin, sodium ion, calcium ion, Phosphorus<br>ion, potassium ion and magnesium ion were calculated. This study showed the level of urea and creatinine<br>were a significant increase in HD patients with diabetes(128.29±22.59 and 7.1±1.76) mg/dl respectively,<br>and HD patients without diabetes were (125.74±23.28 and 6.80±2.71) mg/dl respectively. The levels of Na+<br>and Ca++ were decrease in HD patients with diabetes (137.6±4.8 mmol/L and 6.72±1.76mg/dl) respectively.<br>The levels of P, K+ and Mg++ were a significant increase in HD patients without diabetes(6.26±0.84 mg/dl,<br>5.52±0.61 mmol/L and 2.2±0.13mg/dl) respectively. The urea, creatinine and GFR are simple and useful<br>biomarkers which can serve as predictor tests for assessing kidney functions in diabetic patients.</p> Salahaldin M. Fahad1 , Rashied M. Rashied 2, Waleed N. Jaffal3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Submaximal Exercise Task Post Clinical Balance in COPD Patients and its Correlation with Quadriceps Girth, Body Mass Index and Disease Severity <p>Purpose: To study and compare the effect of submaximal exercise on static and dynamic balance in patients<br>with severe and moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and correlation of the balance<br>impairments with disease severity, quadriceps girth and body mass index (BMI).<br>Methods: A sample of convenience of 45 middle aged participants (mean age 53.47 ± SD 4.775), including<br>15 with severe COPD, 15 with moderate COPD who were not undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation program<br>and 15 healthy controls were included. The subjects performed Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) for dynamic<br>balance and quiet standing to assess postural sway using sway meter with eyes closed and opened in narrow,<br>semi tandem and tandem stance for 30 seconds. The balance variables were then correlated to forced<br>expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), quadriceps girth and body mass index. Significance was set at<br>alpha less than 0.05.<br>Results: when compared to healthy controls, significant differences were found in postural sway in all the<br>stances in severe COPD patients, and in semi tandem and tandem stances in moderate COPD patients. TUG<br>test significantly differed in both severe and moderate COPD (p=0.0001) and no difference between severe<br>and moderate COPD TUG test was found. Moderate negative correlation was found between FEV1 and<br>postural away in few stances whereas no correlation was found with quadriceps girth and BMI of COPD<br>patients.<br>Conclusion: Static as well as dynamic balance are affected in COPD patients with postural sway affected<br>more in severe COPD than moderate COPD leading to functional disability and risk of falls which increases<br>with increase in age. Balance alterations can be moderately correlated to FEV1.</p> Samana Sayed1 , Waqar M. Naqvi2 , Pratik Phansopkar3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation the Effect of Disclusion time Reduction (DTR) in Management Myofacial Pain Syndrome in Iraqi Patients Using the Digital Occlusal Analysis (T-scan) <p>The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of disclusion time reduction in treatment of myofacial<br>pain syndrome using immediate complete anterior guidance development (ICAGD) protocol monitored<br>by digital occlusal analysis (T-scan). Methods and materials: Subjects with full dentition and angle class<br>I relation. DC/TMD criteria were used to diagnose the patients with various MFDS symptoms including<br>mouth opening (assisted and unassisted), excursion movements (mediotrusion and protrusion) and painful<br>masticatory muscles involvement. A visual analog scale was used to assess the pain intensity. Disclusion<br>Time Reduction (DTR) of all molars and premolars to &lt; 0.5 second on all studied locations include: (Centric<br>relation, Maximum intercaspation, Right lateral, left lateral and protrusion) have been made, the patients<br>were recalled tow times at the 7th day and 14th day for the follow up and the subjects were assessed for the<br>symptoms relief. Results: Highly significant difference P? 0.001 in period (1st day pretreatment -7th day<br>post treatment) and(1st day pretreatment- 14th day post treatment) related to changes in disclusion time<br>and all symptoms of MFDS but in period (7th day post treatment -14th day post treatment) ,the data outside<br>the comparison limited (OCL) was stated according to the pain intensity, mouth opening (assisted and<br>unassisted)and excursion movements while a non- significant difference P&gt;0.05 were documented related<br>to changes in disclusion time and painful masticatory muscle involvement . Conclusion: The results showed<br>the DTR less than 0.5 seconds reduces musculoskeletal-based symptoms of MFDS patients, and this method<br>can be used clinically with highly success in treatment MPDS.</p> Sanaa Abdul Hameed Hussein1 , Jamal N. Ahmed2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Selenium and Toxic Metals (Mercury, Lead) in Some Type of Canned and Fresh (Meat and Fish) <p>The present study was aimed to estimate the concentration of selenium Se and toxic metals( mercury Hg and<br>lead pb) in canned and fresh (meat and fish) from different countries, the results show that the concentrations<br>of Se were above the limits and was ranged between 6.25 ppm to 19.12 ppm in fresh and canned meat and<br>between 0.27 ppm to 9.23 ppm in fresh and canned fish, the concentration of Hg was also above the permitted<br>limits and was ranged between 0.002 ppm to 2.1 ppm in fresh and canned meat and between 0.1ppm to 3.5<br>ppm in fresh and canned fish, while the concentration of pb was within the limits and was ranged between<br>0.029 ppm to 2.3 ppm in fresh and canned meat and between 0.095 ppm to1.59ppm in fresh and canned fish.</p> Sanaa K. Shanan1 , Nadhum A. Awad2 , Bassam A.B.Alabdul Aziz3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Profile of Contralateral Patent Processus Vaginali in Pediatric Patients with Unilateral Inguinal Hernia <p>Objective: Reporting the incidence of contralateral patent processus vaginali (CPPV) in pediatric patients<br>with unilateral inguinal hernia. Methods: The study was conducted from November 2010 - February<br>2012. Patient’s identity were recorded for registration number, name, age, gender, address and date of<br>examination. The surgery was conducted by a trainee pediatric surgeon as a researcher and resident. High<br>ligation procedure and diagnostic of contralateral PPV. Results: This study included 40 pediatric patients of<br>various ages diagnosed with lateral inguinal hernia. There were 31 male patients (77.5%), 24 patients (60%)<br>with right inguinal hernia patients, and 14 patients (35%) aged 0-1 years. Conclusion: The transinguinal<br>laparoscopic contralateral PPV technique is helpful in diagnosing the presence of contralateral PPV. The<br>incidence of contralateral PPV in this study was 27.5%. Furthermore, early age increased the incidence of<br>contralateral PPV.</p> Sapta Prihartono Rachman1,2, Kustiyo Gunawan1 , I.G.B. Adria Hariastawa1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Medicolegal Analysis of Sodomy Cases at Beni-Suef Governorate From January 2011 to December 2015 – A Retrospective Study <p>Sodomy is anal intercourse between 2 men (homosexual sodomy) or a man and a woman (heterosexual<br>sodomy) also known as buggery, when the passive agent is a child, sodomy is referred to as paederasty.<br>This study sheds some light on one sensitive Egyptian issue, sodomy cases, with quantification of the<br>demographics and medico legal findings, related to female child and male cases presenting to Beni Suef<br>governorate Forensic Medical Authority, Egypt, between 2011 and 2015. 51 cases of sodomy were analysed,<br>the mean age of victims is 9.79 years in children and 24.30 years in adults. 74.19% of cases were male<br>children while 85% were adult females. Cases occurred mainly in urban areas for both child (61.29%)<br>and adult (55%) victims. Frequency of sodomy cases shows an ascending manner. Most child victims had<br>primary education 77.42%, unlike 35% high education in adult victims. 96.67% of assailants had no relation<br>to children, 50% were relative in adult cases. Multiple assailants were present in 13% of child victims,<br>30% in adult victims. Physical force was the commonest in child 51.62% and adult 50% victims. assailants<br>were guilty in 54.84% of child victims, 50% in adult victims. Forensic examination of children took (2-5<br>days) in 61.30%of child cases and (1-2 weeks) in 50% adult cases. Semen was detected in 19.35% of<br>child cases and in 15% of adult cases. Genital Injuries were found in 45.16% of children and55% in adult<br>cases. Rape accompanied sodomy in 19.35% of child cases and 25% of adult cases. Conclusion—these<br>analyses demonstrate that the very low incidence may also suggest gross underreporting; making awareness<br>of importance of reporting of sexual offences is mandatory</p> Sarah A. Khater1 , Sherien Salah Ghaleb 2, Lamiaa Ewis Abd Alfatah3 , Manar .A Ahmad3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Modification of Mitochondrial DNA in Cancer Cells <p>Mitochondria is one of the most energy source in the cells, in addition to DNA encoded to several genes<br>which relatively associated with several disease, researchers proved the role of mitochondrial in energy<br>demand to tumor cells in addition to mitochondrial DNA role in cancer initiation and development. The<br>present review explained different objectives related with the mitochondrial role in tumor incidence ;<br>these included Tumor cells energy demands, Mitochondrial Mutations redundancy and allocation, Genetic<br>disparate natural Selection in Tumor initiation, Mitochondrial Modifications Clinical Translations in Cancer,<br>Association Mitochondria, epigenetics and Cancer and finally Injury of Mitochondria in Cancer. The present<br>review concluded that the most important role of mitochondrial as cells an organelles for energy suppliers<br>to tumor cells metastasis and immorality also the mutations of mtDNA and their role in carcinogenesis were<br>well proved in different cancer types.</p> Shaimaa A. Al-Oubaidy1 , Asmaa Mohammed Mekkey2 , Ahmed Zuhair Alwaeli3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Deleted <p>s</p> Shaimaa A. Shlash1 , Noor M. Hasnawi 2 , Hussein A. Kadhum3 , Ali A. Al-fahham4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Dynamic Changes in Salivary Cortisol and Protein among Dental Students <p>Background: Student assessments are the traditional methods of assessing academic success, and they are<br>considered to affect one’s career. This study evaluated the levels of salivary stress biomarkers represented by<br>cortisol and total salivary protein during final academic assessments of dental undergraduates.<br>Methods: Saliva samples were obtained, one before the exam another afterwards. Concentrations of salivary<br>stress biomarkers were obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).<br>Results: Before the exam, the two parameters were dramatically higher than afterwards, with a substantial<br>difference between the levels of salivary protein and cortisol (p=0.000, 0.000 consecutively).<br>Conclusion: Stress induced by academic examinations may increase the level of salivary stress biomarkers<br>in the short term.</p> Shaimaa Hamid Mudher1 , Elham Hazeim Abdulkareem 2 , Hanaa Abdul Jabbar Saleh3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Smoking among Iraqi Female Medical Providers in Baghdad <p>Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Healthcare providers who smoke are less likely to advise patients to quit smoking. Being a female and smoker adding more burdens on society. The obkecibe o the studu is to assess the prevalence of smoking among Iraqi female medical provider.A descriptive cross-sectional study with an analytic element. Data collection was done via electronic questionnaire forms distributed online to contact list for 450 -easy to reach- female health providers (doctors, dentists, pharmacists) who work in different hospitals, PHCs and health institutes in Iraq.Nearly 15.3% of the samples were smokers, 53% of sample was 20-29 years while nearly 62% of sample was married. About two third of sample had bachelor degree (66.2) while nearly half of the sample (52.9) were doctors. Regarding the place of work about (55.6) of sample were working in hospital and the years of service were equally distributed between &lt;5 years and &gt;5 years. Nearly half of the sample has husbands or friends who are smokers. The smoking environment was significantly affecting the smoking status while there is no association between age, marital status, education, field of work, place of work and years of service.The percentage of female smokers among medical service providers is high, and female doctors got the highest rate. With regard to age, the age group between 20-29 was the highest among female smokers. The results also showed a higher percentage among those who work in hospitals, and the largest proportion of female smokers was among those who had spouses or friends who smoked.</p> Shawq K. Alashab1 , Alkhudhairi Jamal Mahmoud2 , Hamsa J. Mahdi3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Retrospective Study of Acute Pediatric Intoxication Cases by Household Products Presented to the Poison Control Center of Ain-Shams University Hospitals <p>Background: Acute poisoning in children is a crucial pediatric emergency and may be a worldwide problem.<br>This study aims to acknowledge the incidence of acute poisoning by household products in children regarding<br>demographic factors, common clinical presentation and outcome of management.<br>Methods: this is often a descriptive retrospective study conducted on patients admitted to the Poison Control<br>Centre of Ain-Shams University Hospital. The duration of the study was one year, from the beginning of<br>January, 2016 till the top of December, 2016. the entire number of cases was 846 cases collected and analyzed<br>regarding the demographic data, condition of poisoning, common clinical presentation, and management<br>plan. Data was analyzed using computer software package SPSS 15.<br>Results: a complete of 846 cases were reviewed, the varied age groups involved ranged from but one year to<br>18 years, with a mean age of 10.22 ± 6.83 years. Most cases were females (67 %), living in urban areas (52.4<br>%) and therefore the majority of cases were accidental (74 %). the foremost common offending agent was<br>pesticides (71%). Most of the patients were vitally stable on admission and therefore the commonest clinical<br>presentation was gastrointestinal symptoms (31.3%). Most of cases received medical treatment within the<br>inpatient wards (80.5%) and (96.7%) improved while (3.3 %) died.<br>Conclusions: Acute poisoning by household products is common among adolescents and pre-school age<br>children. Pesticides were liable for the bulk of cases. Supportive and symptomatic therapy is that the main<br>method for treatment.</p> Sherien Salah Ghaleb1 , Lamiaa Ewis Abd Alfatah2 , Hoda Sayed Mahmoud3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Maternal Comorbidities Associated with Preterm Deliveries in Comparison with Full Term Delivery in Al-Zahraa Teaching Hospital in Al Najaf City <p>Background: Preterm birth is one of the major conditions that affect on infant mortality and morbidity,<br>many of maternal comorbidities effect on the fetus outcome, in this study we evaluate some of maternal<br>condition that effect on preterm birth and compare them with full term birth to know the most common<br>factors associated with this condition to decrease the rate of preterm birth and reduce neonatal mortality and<br>morbidity<br>Methods: A case control study was conducted at first of April to thirty of September 2018, in Al Zahra<br>Teaching Hospital in Al Najaf City, 300 delivered pregnant women were participated divided to 100 cases<br>as preterm delivery women and 200 controls as full term deliver women enrolled in the study, maternal<br>comorbidities were recorded and binary regression analysis was used for analysis of the study.<br>Results: The study show many significant association between preterm birth and maternal risk factors<br>include, urinary tract infection (OR = 7.32), lower number of antenatal visit (OR=2.52), interval between<br>pregnancy ?2 year (OR =1.973), premature rupture of membrane (or =6.55), oligohydramnios (OR =6.55),<br>gestational diabetes (OR =3.45), abruptio placentae (OR = 5.06) and previous preterm labor (OR=3.68).<br>Conclusion: Based on the results in the study the most determinants that affect on preterm birth were urinary<br>tract infection, premature rupture of membrane and abruption placenta.</p> Shymaa Nema Hamed Alsaltani1 , Samer Nema Yassen Alkemawy2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Cause of Switching Shorter Regimen to Longer Regimen in Multidrug-Resistant/ Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis Treated Patients in Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia <p>Background: Indonesia started to implement the Shorter Regimen (STR) since 2017, but not all of MDR/<br>RR-TB patients were treated with STR until the end of treatment. The presence of side effects of one or<br>several drugs in the STR and the resistance to fluoroquinolone and or 2nd line injection drug after starting<br>treatment caused a switch in regimen from STR to a longer regimen. This study was conducted to evaluate<br>the factors that caused switch STR to the longer regimen.<br>Methods: This was a descriptive study in MDR/RR-TB patients who received STR from October 2017<br>to December 2019. Patients who switch their regimen were analyzed and determine the factors cause of<br>switching STR to a longer regimen.<br>Conclusion: The major cause of switching was due to the presence of resistance to fluoroquinolone and 2nd<br>line injection drugs and incidence of prolonged QT. A diagnostic rapid test such as the line probe assay 2nd<br>line TB drugs is absolutely a screening tool to determine MDR-TB patients, pre-XDR-TB or XDR TB as<br>soon as the regimen is given. Monitoring and efforts to overcome prolonged QT side effects are also needed<br>to prevent switch regimens that can affect the patient’s psychological condition.</p> Soedarsono Soedarsono1,2, Tutik Kusmiati1,2, Prastuti Asta Wulaningrum1 , Ariani Permatasari1 , Dwi Wahyu Indrawanto1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Novel Combination of Andrographis paniculata and Phyllanthus niruri to Improve Performance of Laying Hens Infected with Escherichia coli <p>The study aims to learn the efficacy combination of Phyllanthus niruri and Androgaphis paniculata to<br>improve the performance of laying hens infected with Escherichia coli pathogen. Fifty laying hens of Isa<br>Brown strain were randomly divided into 5 treatments, each treatment was divided into 10 replications<br>(n=10). Treatment P0- (control group without infected), P0+ (hens group infected with Avian Pathogenic’s<br>Escherichia coli without given extract), P1 (hens group infected with Avian Pathogenic’s Escherichia coli<br>with 10% Phyllanthus niruri extract and 30% Androgaphis paniculata), P2 (hens group infected with Avian<br>Pathogenic’s Escherichia coli with 20% Phyllanthus niruri extract and 20% Androgaphis paniculata) and<br>P3 (hens group infected with Avian Pathogenic’s Escherichia coli with 30% Phyllanthus niruri extract and<br>10% Androgaphis paniculata). Performances observed were feed consumption, Hen Day Production, eggs<br>weight and feed conversion. Data analyzed by ANOVA and tested with the F test. The feed consumption<br>showed in P1 was different from P3, P2, P0+ and P0-, P1 was different from P2 but not with P3, P0+, and<br>P0- showed significantly different in each treatment. In P3 showed no differences with all treatments. The<br>eggs weight showed different in P0+ for all treatments, while the other treatments in P1, P2, P3 and P0-<br>showed no differences. The feed conversion showed in P0+ was different for all treatments, while other<br>treatments showed no difference. P0+ treatment compared to (P0-, P1, P2) was significantly different, P0+<br>treatment compared to P3 treatment was not significantly different, between P3 and P1 treatment was not<br>significantly different, and between P1 and P2 with P0- was not significantly different, also between P3 with<br>P2 and P0- treatments was significantly different. Supply of P. niruri extract. and A. paniculata in laying<br>hens can improve the performance of laying hens infected with Escherichia coli pathogen.</p> Sri Hidanah1 , Emy Koestanti Sabdoningrum1,2, Sri Chusniati3 , M. Bagus Kurniawan Saputra4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Activity of Extract Ethanol Bidara Leaves (Ziziphus spina-Christi L) on Enteropathogenic coli <p>Prokaryotic bacteria are microorganisms can beneficial as normal flora, but also can have health due to<br>disease pathogens and is for the host. The purpose of this study is to find compounds in extract ethanol<br>bidara leaves those compounds and activities against bacteria Enteropathogenic coli. This study shows the<br>flavonoid compounds and tannin in extract ethanol bidara leaves (Ziziphus spina-Christi L) to minimum<br>inhibitory zone at concentrations 50% and minimum bactericidal at concentrations 75%. The higher<br>concentration extract ethanol Bidara leaves the larger the drag zone produced. The research is experimental<br>study looking the extract ethanol antibacterial activity Bidara leaves with the methods in vitro test diffusion.<br>This study found a chemical compound which is found in extract ethanol Bidara leaves (Ziziphus spina<br>Christi L) is flavonoid and tannin have antibacterial activity106 CFU/ml against bacteria Enteropathogenic<br>coli to minimum inhibitory zone at concentrations 50% and minimum bactericidal at concentrations 75%.</p> Sri Mulyani1 , Merryana Adriani 2, Bambang Wirjatmadi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Chemical and Physical Parameters as Indicator of Office Air Quality at PT X Coal Mining Company <p>Background: Coal still ranks the second largest source of total global energy demand, which is complemented<br>by the high-risk nature of coal mining activity. Therefore, it is important to discuss the health issues of coal<br>workers. One of the risks associated with coal mining activities is poor indoor air quality (IAQ) due to the<br>high concentration of airborne pollutants. Methods: This study aims to evaluate the results of air quality<br>measurements in the PT X office, and the method used was a descriptive approach with quantitative secondary<br>data. Furthermore, the measured variables are NO2, SO2, CO2, CO, Pb, PM10, temperature, humidity, and<br>noise. Conclusion: The results showed that there was an IAQ problem, namely noise, temperature, and<br>humidity which exceed the recommendations. Therefore, the IAQ management implemented by PT X was<br>still systematically and comprehensively developing.</p> Tiara Nurhafizhah1 , Indri Hapsari Susilowati2 , Bonardo Prayogo Hasiholan3, Abdul Rohim Tulaeka4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Deleted <p>a</p> Trias Mahmudiono1 , Aprilia Durotun Nasikhah2 , Roy Januardi Irawan3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors that Contribute to the QTc Interval Prolongation in DR-TB Patients on STR Regimen <p>Introduction: QTc interval prolongation is one of the adverse drug reaction of several drugs used in DR-TB<br>patients treated with STR regimen. Drug-induced QTc prolongation can predispose patient to develop lifethreatening arrhythmia, increasing hospital length of stay and mortality. This study aims to determine factors<br>that contribute to QTc prolongation in DR-TB patients on STR regimen.<br>Methods. This was an observational retrospective study using medical records of DR-TB patients who<br>received STR regimen from August 2017 to March 2019 in tertiary hospital DR Soetomo, Surabaya,<br>Indonesia. QTc interval was calculated by Fredericia formula. The influence of risk factors (age, body<br>weight (BW), Body Mass Index (BMI), gender, comorbid, potassium, sodium and QTc baseline) with QTc<br>prolongation was analyzed using multiple regression. The relationship between Moxifloxacin dosage and<br>QTc was analyzed using Chi-Square test.<br>Results Out of the 113 DR-TB patients who received the STR therapy regimen, 98 patients were eligible for<br>this study. They consist of 62 (%) male; 36 (%) female. Thirty-five (35,7%) of them had Diabetes Mellitus<br>as a comorbid disease. The mean age of the patients was 44±11 years, with the mean of BMI was 20.20±<br>3.73. Potassium and Sodium levels at the baseline were 4.192 ± 0.58 and 138.05 ± 4.562 respectively. The<br>QTc baseline before receiving STR regimen was 431.9±30,617ms. Patients received a dose of moxifloxacin<br>400 mg (5.1%) , 600 mg (59,2%), and 800 mg (35,7%) according to body weight. There were no correlation<br>between age, BW, gender, comorbid, and sodium baseline with QTc. There were correlation between<br>potassium (p=0,001), BMI (p=0,006) and QTc baseline (p &lt;0,001) with QTc.<br>Conclusion QTc baseline and potassium level are factors that contribute to the prolongation of the QTc<br>interval.</p> Tutik Kusmiati1 , Ni Made Mertaniasih2 , Johanes Nugroho Eko Putranto3 , Budi Suprapti4 , Desak Putu Agung Krisdanti5 , Yulia Devina Suci Kusumastrini 5 , Soedarsono6 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Discordance between Genexpert, Line Probe Assay and Drug Susceptibility Test in Assessing Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis <p>Background: Rapid molecular diagnostics have potentially revolutionized early detection of drug-resistant<br>tuberculosis (DR-TB) in Indonesia. However, there is discordance between conventional culture using<br>drug susceptibility test (DST) and rapid diagnostic tools using GeneXpert and line probe assay (LPA).<br>This discordance result can cause confusion to clinician in determining diagnosis of DR-TB. Objective:<br>This study aimed to identify discordance between GeneXpert, LPA, and DST. Methods: A retrospective<br>study was conducted at Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Data were collected<br>based on medical record between third to fourth quarter of 2018. Rifampicin resistant-tuberculosis (RR-TB)<br>proven by GeneXpert, were further analyzed with second-line LPA and DST. Discordance result between<br>it was analyzed using McNemar. Results: Among 81 patients diagnosed with DR-TB, 59 patients RR-TB<br>were eligible in this study. There were 13 (22.0%) DST rifampicin result showed sensitive but resistant<br>to GeneXpert. Among 53 samples from LPA, there were 3 (5.7%) result showed LPA fluoroquinolone<br>resistant but sensitive to DST ofloxacin; 10 (18.9%) result has LPA fluoroquinolone sensitive but resistant<br>to DST ofloxacin; 2 (3.8%) has LPA second-line injectable drug (LPA SLID) resistant but sensitive to DST<br>kanamycin; 5(9.4%) has LPA SLID sensitive but resistant to DST kanamycin. The McNemar analysis showed<br>discordance between GeneXpert and DST rifampicin was 13 (22.0%; p=0.046); LPA fluoroquinolone and<br>DST ofloxacin was 13 (24.6%; p=0.042); LPA SLID and DST kanamycin was 7 (13.2%; p=0.183). No<br>variable that can be used to analyze discordance result between GeneXpert and LPA. Conclusion: There<br>is significant discordance between GeneXpert and DST; LPA fluoroquinolone and DST ofloxacin, while<br>neither LPA SLID nor DST kanamycin shows no significant discordance.</p> Tutik Kusmiati1 , Kristin Purnama Dewi2 , Yulia Devina Suci2 , Soedarsono3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) for University Students <p>Complex posttraumatic stress disorder is a diagnostic construct which tries to capture complex trauma<br>reactions in face protracted and repeated psychological trauma. These reactions which compromise specific<br>symptom constellation may be missed if there is focus on classical posttraumatic syndrome. Iraqi population<br>endured four decades of instability which created atmosphere of protracted repeated trauma situation which<br>necessitate examining complex trauma reactions. The aim was to create a tool for examining complex<br>trauma reactions within Iraqi population and examining rates and nature of these reactions in a sample of<br>Iraqi population. Random sample of medical students were examined for exposure to traumatic events and<br>complex psychological trauma reactions. The tool used for examining complex trauma was made according<br>to criteria of disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified; validity and reliability of the tool was<br>verified and rates of traumatic events and rates and nature of reactions were examined. Most of participants<br>confirmed exposure to more than one traumatic event and 25% fulfilled criteria of complex trauma syndrome.<br>Rates of complex trauma reactions are high in this study. Large population studies are needed to confirm this<br>fact, which means extensive efforts are needed at clinical and social levels for proper help to be provided to<br>traumatized individuals.</p> Natik Fahal Al-Kubaisy1, Uday Khalid Abdul Jabbar Al Qaisy2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Revealing Potency of Bioactive Compounds as Inhibitor of Dengue Virus (DENV) NS2B/NS3 Protease from Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Leaves <p>his study aims to identify the potency of bioactive compounds of sweet potato leaf as inhibitory agent<br>to dengue virus (DENV) NS2B/NS3 protease by using computational study. The 3D structure of NS2B/<br>NS3 protease was collected from PDB and the 2D structure of several bioactive compounds of sweet<br>potato leaf were obtained from PubChem. The visualization and data analysis were performed by using<br>the PyMol software. According to the in silico analysis, result demonstrated that dehydroabietinol had the<br>lowest free energy binding. However, based on the protein-ligand analysis, all the compounds showed the<br>hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction. All the compounds with hydrogen bond could not be interacted<br>with catalytic domain, but hydrophobic interaction could be interacted to the target domain via Ser135 by<br>?-Selinene and His51 by ?-Caryophyllene. In summary, we conclude that ?-Selinene and ?-Caryophyllene<br>might have potencies as a therapeutically drug for dengue.</p> Viol Dhea Kharisma1,2, Rasyadan Taufiq Probojati1 , Ahmad Affan Ali Murtadlo1 , Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori3 , Yulanda Antonius4 , Muhammad Badrut Tamam1,5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of EMMPRIN in Perirenal Fat Invasion Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma <p>Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is a common malignancy of the kidney, and Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma<br>(CCRCC) is the most common type. Accurate prediction of prognosis is valuable for therapy and follow<br>up. EMMPRIN is a transmembrane protein of the immunoglobulin family and is associated with tumour<br>proliferation, invasion and metastasis. This study aims to prove the role of EMMPRIN in perirenal fat<br>invasion CCRCC. This analytic observational study with a cross-sectional approach conducted in Anatomical<br>Pathology Institute of Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya that used 44 samples of paraffin blocks from radical<br>nephrectomy preparations for CCRCC patients at the period of January 2013-December 2018, which were<br>divided based on perirenal fat invasion status. The analyzed was using Spearman test. EMMPRIN expression<br>is positively correlated with perirenal fat invasiveness (p = 0.019) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.<br>EMMPRIN expression is related with perirenal fat invasiveness, in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.</p> Vira Yasmina Ramadhani1,2,3, Anny Setijo Rahaju4,5,6, Nila Kurniasari4,5,6 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Measuring the Health Impact of Drinking Water Sources in El-Fashir, Sudan <p>The study aimed to assess the physical and chemical condition of drinking water in El-fashir city, Sudan. The<br>parameters studied are; Electrical conductivity (EC), nitrates, pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) and fluorine<br>were analyzed at water points and in the laboratory. Results were processed on SPSS software. The study<br>revealed the pH results, which were distributed between 6.8 to 8 for samples from hand pumps 1 and 2 and<br>tank water, respectively. The residual chlorine concentration (RC) in the water supply system of the selected<br>stations ranged between 0.2 to 0.6 mg /L. The concentration of nitrate level ranged from 3. 4.5 mg/L, which<br>is within the acceptable range of the standards for WHO and SSMO standards. The study also determined<br>the level of fluorine, which ranged between 0.17 - 0.41 mg/L, which is within the acceptable range of the<br>standards for WHO and SSMO standards. This study found that all results fall within the permissible limits<br>of the standards of WHO and SSMO standards except the hand pumps.</p> Waed Alahmad1 , Ahmed Abu-Rayyan 2 , Najm Eldinn Elsser Elhassan 3,4, Mohammed Ismail Humaida 3,5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Incidence of Toxoplasma Gondii and Relationship with Some Inflammatory Factors in Babylon Province <p>The study included collecting (60)-blood samples from people who were attending the Children’s Maternity<br>Hospital in Babylon Province ,then the Latex test was used to diagnose Toxoplasmosis. The results of the<br>study showed that the percentage of infection with toxoplasmosis in Babylon Province was(11.66%),the<br>infection (IgG) for females was (9.61) out of (52)-samples, and the injury (IgM) for females was (3.84) out<br>of (52) samples, whereas the infection was for males in relation to:<br>IgG (0%) out of (8 samples) for the total percentage of IgG-against is(8.3%)<br>IgM (0%) out of (8 samples) and the total percentage of IgM- antibody is(3.3%).<br>Upon detection of (CRP)-proteins, the study included collecting (60)blood samples for people who were<br>referred to the Children’s Maternity Hospital in Babylon Governorate, and then the(CRP)-test and its<br>relationship to toxoplasmosis were used. The study results showed that the total percentage of active phase<br>proteins for people with toxoplasmosis in Babylon Province, it reached 50% ((the percentage was in females<br>by(53.84%) while the percentage in males was 25%)). The current study showed that the percentage of<br>sensitivity of (IgG ,IgM)-antibodies is (8.3%, 3.33%) respectively while the percentage of specificity of<br>(IgG) and (IgM)-opposites was (91.66% ,96.6%) respectively.<br>Objectives of The Study: Because of the recent spread of toxoplasmosis infection and the increase in<br>miscarriage rates among pregnant women, the present study aimed to determine the infection of this parasite<br>in Babylon Governorate between males and females alike, as well as to know the prevalence of toxoplasmosis<br>and its relationship to the active phase proteins CRP</p> Widad Hashim Yahya Almuhana1 , Ahmed Khudhair Al-hamairy2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phylogenetic Analysis of TTV (TorqueTeno Virus) in Iraqi Woman Suffering of Failure Kidney Disease <p>There are still very few studies of the Torque Tenovirus infection rate between hemodialysis patients in<br>Iraq. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the frequency of TTV viremia in hemodialysis Iraqi patients.<br>This study has carried out in Baghdad city from October 2019 to February 2020 and included 150 patients<br>with kidney failure disease undergoing hemodialysis and 50 control subjects .Blood samples have been<br>obtained for serological TTV detection. The result shows PCR has been used to detect TTV, isolates have<br>been identified through N22 region sequencing and phylogenetic analysis has also been performed. Of the<br>150 patients, 2 (1 male and 1 female) were TTV positive.The results shows in ( isolate 14) substitution<br>four Transversion A&gt;C, C&gt;G,A&gt;T, and T&gt;A three Transition T&gt;C,A&gt;G, and T&gt;C of Specific region within<br>TTV(N-22) and showed 94% identified with a standard in Gene Bank while having 99% identified with<br>a standard in Gene Bank with (isolate 17) substitution fiveTransversion A&gt;T,A&gt;C,T&gt;A, A&gt;Tand C&gt;G<br>threeTransition A&gt;G,A&gt;G and T&gt;C . The phylogenetic analysis showed that identical among themselves<br>and the world with 100% compatibility values.</p> YasameenHasan Ali1 , Tariq M Quasim2 , DBEL Wahab R.Alshaikly3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Different Diagnostic Techniques for the Identification of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Using Serum Tnf-? Levels as a Biomarker for Evaluating the Severity of Tuberculosis <p>Background and Objective: Pulmonary tuberculosis(PTB) is a serious disease that mainly affects the<br>lungs. The aim of this study was a Comparison between conventional, and molecular methods to diagnose<br>M.tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and using serum TNF-? levels as a biomarker for evaluating the severity of<br>the disease. Methodology: The study analyzed 586 sputa collected from suspected pulmonary tuberculosis<br>patients (217 female and 369 male) their ages ranged from 16 to 66 years for mycobacteriological study,<br>while the immuno-study included 85 blood samples that collected from eighty patients and five healthy<br>persons (45 male,40 female) their ages (18-66) years. We tested all sputum samples by AFB direct stain and<br>GX methods, while we cultured sputum restrictively for Patients who have two different outcomes by AFB<br>direct stain and GX methods. TNF-? levels have been measured by sandwich ELISA in patients and healthy<br>persons. Results: Our result showed detection of (135\586) patients infected with M.tuberculosis complex<br>(MTBC) and (1\586) patient infected with non-mycobacterium tuberculosis(NMT) by AFB direct stain and<br>GX methods comparing with culture method as a gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity for AFB direct<br>stain and GX techniques for diagnosis PTB were (15.0% and 100% ) and (95.0% and 66.7% ) respectively.<br>On the other side, TNF-? levels were elevated in inpatient groups compared with healthy persons. The mean<br>of TNF-? levels measured in multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients was higher than in other<br>cases. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the sensitivity of the GX technique is higher compared<br>to other techniques, and serum TNF-? levels can be used as a biomarker for evaluating the severity of<br>pulmonary tuberculosis.</p> Yaser Jasem1 , Al-khatony2 , Halah Abdulkhaliq Awadh Alhadethy3 , Mahmood Abduljabar Altobjy4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Resveratrol in Expression of Caspase-7 and Retinal Ganglion Cells in a Rat Model With Traumatic Optic Neuropathy <p>Objective: To analize the effect of resveratrol to the expression of caspase-7 and density of retinal ganglion<br>cells in a rat model with Traumatic Optic Neuropathy (TON) compared to control.<br>Methods: This is an experimental study using Wistar rats. Samples were divided into four groups. One<br>normal control group, 1 TON control group and 2 TON resveratrol groups. TON induced by clamping the<br>optic nerve retrobulbar with Hartmann Mosquito 2,5 inch. Resveratrol was given 10 mg/Kg and 20 mg/Kg<br>in two resveratrol groups. Enucleation was performed 1 day after to evaluate the expression of Caspase-7 by<br>immunohistochemistry and density of retinal ganglion cell by hematoxicilin eosin staining.<br>Results: Caspase-7 expression was lowest in the resveratrol 20 mg/kg treatment group (4.00 ± 2.00)<br>compared to resveratrol 10 mg/kg treatment group (6.00±2.23), TON control group(6.00 ± 6.78) and normal<br>control group(7.20 ± 2.58). Retinal ganglion cell density was highest in the resveratrol 10 mg/kg treatment<br>group (27.23±2.75) compared to resveratrol 20 mg/kg treatment group (24.89±5.83), normal control<br>group(24.19±2.39) and the lowest in TON control group (22.96±4.62). Based on the Pearson correlation test,<br>it was found that there was no correlation between Caspase-7 expression and retinal ganglion cell density in<br>a rat model with TON (p: 0.178; r = 0.314)<br>Conclusions: Resveratrol administration shows effect in lowering apoptosis marker caspase-7 and preserving<br>retinal ganglion cell in traumatic optic neuropathy.</p> Yunita1,2 Budu3 , Andi Muhammad Ichsan4 , Habibah S Muhiddin4 , Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Selenium intake on serum Cortisol in rats Under Restraint Stress <p>Over the recent years ,vitamin C and selenium have been a clear line of defense against the effects of stress.<br>The goal of the study is to indicate the effect of restraint stress in rats on the serum levels of cortisol, the role<br>of vitamin C and selenium supplement in stress relief by determining their effect on serum cortisol . forty<br>Wistar rats were divided randomly into four equal groups (n=10), all the animal except negative control<br>exposed to restraint stress for six hours a day . the first group were supplemented with vitamin C in a dose<br>of (50 mg/kg bw/day) orally, the second included given selenium in a dose of (0.02 µg/kg bw/day) orally,<br>the control included ten rats . Blood was collected on 20th days, and serum cortisol were measured by<br>enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that supplement of rats with vitamin C had<br>high significant increasein serum cortisol in stressed rat (14.65 ± 5) compared to those with no stress (8.77<br>± 4) which constitute the negative control . The study also revealed that supplement of rats with vitamin C ,<br>Selenium and (vitamin C + Selenium) have highly significantly increased serum cortisol level to be (10.42 ±<br>3.78), (10.29 ± 4.54) and (12.77 ± 3.57) respectively compared to stressed rats . It is concluded that chronic<br>stress restriction can result in cumulative initiation of cortisol secretion in rats. Intake of vitamin C can<br>relieve stress by increasing decreasing cortisol .</p> Zahraa Abdel Al-Jawad1 , Ali A. Al-Fahham2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Gene Expression and Serum IL-23 in Asthmatic Iraqi Children <p>Asthma is a non-communicable inflammatory airway disorder in which patients present with recurring bouts<br>of breathlessness and wheezing. IL-23 is a proinflammatory cytokine its biological functions have been<br>well known for the capability to enhance Th17 cell functions. Current study aimed to estimate the gene<br>expression and serum level of IL-23 and to investigate whether IL-23 plays pivotal roles in the development<br>of asthma in asthmatic Iraqi childhood . This study was conducted on two groups: seventy five asthma<br>patients (27 female and 48 male) and twenty five apparently healthy as a control group (10female and 15<br>male).The age of the samples ranged from (1-10) years old. Recruited from admitting the Central Teaching<br>Hospital Pediatrics and Alzahra’a Center for Asthma Allergy in Baghdad during the period extended from<br>October /2019 to last February/2020. Subject information’s were collected using a specific questionnaire<br>form as a descriptive study; on the other hand, the present study was approved by the council of institute<br>of genetic engineering and biotechnology for post graduate studies / University of Baghdad. The RNA was<br>extracted from the blood sample of asthma patients and apparently healthy subjects by using TransZol Up<br>Plus RNA Kit (blood) .The acceptable purity of RNA in asthmatic patient is range between 1.84-1.99 and for<br>apparently healthy group is range between 1.84-1.96.mRANA expression were determined by real time PCR<br>assay and detect the concentration of IL-23 using ELISA technique. For IL-23 gene expression that showed<br>the Ct of asthma patient group (22.82) and control group (23.33) and the 2-??Ct of asthma patient group<br>(5.35) and control group (3.70) and the fold of gene expression was statistically significantly (P?0.05).<br>in the asthmatic group than healthy non asthmatic group that show in ratio (1.44: 1.00) . Human IL23concentration was estimated by ELISA, the results were statistically significant (P?0.002), the level of<br>IL-23 in asthma patient group (451.80 ± 91.80pg/ml) while the level of IL-23 in Control group(182.36 ±<br>58.21 pg/ml) as well as increase concentration of IL-23 in severe asthma patients than mild form asthma<br>726.91 ± 142.98 and 133.72 ± 79.56 respectively.</p> Zahraa Tahsen Abdulkareem1 , Basima Q. Hasan AL-Saadi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effect of Ultrasonic Agitation on Push - Out Bond Strength of Three Root-End Filling Materials: An In Vitro Study <p>Aim: To evaluate the effect of ultrasonic agitation for retrograde biodceramic root repair, MTA and biodentine<br>filling materials on push-out bond strength to dentine walls.<br>Materials and Methods: Ninety extracted human teeth with single straight roots were selected randomly.<br>After disinfection and cleaning, the coronal portions were sectioned to standardize the root canal length at<br>15mm. following root canal shaping, obturation and apical roots resection, retrograde cavities were prepared.<br>Teeth were categorized depending on the filling material used into three groups, 30 teeth each. Group A<br>filled with bioceramic root repair material, B with MTA and C with Biodentine material. These groups were<br>divided in to three subgroup (n=10). Subgroups:A1, B1, and C1 cavities were filled with the aid of condenser.<br>A2, B2, and C2 with ultrasonic agitation of material for 30 seconds. A3, B3, and C3 with ultrasonic agitation<br>of material for 60 seconds. Push-out bond strength test was done for the samples to specify bond strengths at<br>the cement/dentin interfaces. The specimens were examined using a stereomicroscope to estimate the mode<br>of failure. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Bonferonni test.<br>Results: Ultrasonic agitations increase the bond strength for all cements. BiodentineTM, PD™ MTAWhite<br>and TotalFill®BC RRM™ were significantly increased (P&lt;0.05). While, increasing the time of ultrasonic<br>was statically non-significant among groups.<br>Conclusions: Ultrasonic agitation of root-ending filling materials showed increase in push-out bound<br>strength to dentine walls.</p> Zainab M. Abdul- Ameer1 , Samar Abdul Hamed2 , Rasha H. Jehad3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Drinking Water Quality on Some Hematological Parameters In Female Laboratory Mice <p>The present study was designed to determine the effect of two sources of drinking water on some<br>hematological parameters in female laboratory mice The animals were divided into three groups: First group<br>(control ) it given a physiological solution, Second group: the RO water was given and third group: the river<br>water was given.<br>Results: the results of the study showed a significant increase(p?0.05) in the erythrocyte, leukocytes count,<br>percentage of lymphocytes and granular cells ,significant decrease in Hb concentration and PCV percentage<br>in the second and third group when compared with the control group. while mean corpuscular volume<br>insignificantly decrease in the second group and significantly increased in third group. Results also showed<br>a significant increase in platelet count and monocytes percentage in the second group while it decreased in<br>the third group.<br>Conclusion: we conclude from this study that the water source and its quality have a significant effect on the<br>blood parameters of laboratory animals, and then influence on the animal’s health.</p> Zaman Subhi Madlool 1, 2, Sara Omran Issa 1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge Concerning Early Detection for Hypothyroidism/Hyperthyroidism in Baghdad Teaching Hospitals <p>Abstract: Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorders in clinical<br>practice. Critical illness is often associated with dysfunctions of thyroid hormone. Thyroid dysfunction is a<br>serious matter if managed inaccurately; it early detection may decrease morbidity and mortality. Objectives:<br>Assessment of nurses’ knowledge concerning early detection for hypothyroidism/hyperthyroidism in<br>Baghdad Teaching Hospitals and to find out a relationship between nurses knowledge with some variables<br>such as (age , gender, educational level, and marital statues ).Methodology: A descriptive study was<br>conducted in the period of December 20th 2019 up to the end of 28th May 2020. The sample consisted of (50)<br>nurses who were systematically selected one by one. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version<br>22.0. Results: The majority of the study were female who accounted for (72%) of the total participants<br>while male constituted (28%). Most of the study participants (34%) were ages 26-30 years old. (44%) of<br>the nurses were diploma graduate. Fifty percent of the nurses were married. More than half (58%) of nurses<br>had experience years in nursing and (80%) of nurses had training course in hospitals, (66%) have number<br>of training were 1-5 course and (80%) had location of courses in Iraq. Conclusions: Findings of study<br>demonstrate that, nurses have good knowledge about early detection of Hypothyroidism/Hyperthyroidism.</p> Ahmed F. Hassan1 , Sabah A. Ahmed2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Employees’ Knowledge Concerning Contributing Factors and Early Detection for Prostate Cancer in Baghdad University Colleges in bab-Almudam <p>Worldwide prostate cancer is the second most frequent cause of cancer deaths. Screening techniques is<br>useful for improving survival rates and treatment outcomes can be employed to detect the disease earlier in<br>apparently healthy individuals, and increasing evidence shows that this can decrease morbidity and mortality<br>of the disease.<br>Objectives: The objectives of this study was to assess the knowledge concerning contributing factors and<br>early detection to screen for prostate cancer among male staff of the University of Baghdad Colleges in babAlmudam Area, Iraq and to find out the relationship between employees’ knowledge and their demographical<br>characteristic.<br>Methodology: This cross-sectional descriptive design study was carried out with 100 male staff working<br>in colleges of Baghdad University in bab-Almudam region. Male staff who agreed to participate and were<br>recruited on giving oral consent. Knowledge about prostate cancer and screening was operationalized<br>through 28items, including 12 items from the Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening Questionnaire,<br>and 16 items assessing contributing factors and prostate cancer screening controversy. Data was collected by<br>distributing structured a self-administered questionnaire, written in Arabic was used.<br>Results: The Majority of participants (36.0%) were ages between (38 -47) years, the median age was 36<br>years (range, 18-36) years (mean=41.8+ =10.035). Regarding marital status, the majority (77 %) was<br>married, followed by (19%) who were single and (4%) who were divorced or widowed. One third (38%) of<br>participants had PhD education, following by (26%) secondary school, (18 %) university,(9%) intermediate,<br>)5%) MSc and (4%) institute education. Furthermore, (89%) of study participants reported they had no<br>family history of prostate only (11%) reported had family history PCa. A total of (94%) were living in urban<br>area and reminder lived in rural area. About (48%, 35%) respectively, of respondents had a medium and high<br>knowledge level about prostate cancer and early detection screening methods.<br>Conclusions: This study indicated that the staffs of University of Baghdad Colleges have appreciable<br>knowledge regard contributing factors and early detection to prostate cancer screening. A significant<br>proportion of staff however, exhibited poor knowledge of prostate cancer screening and contributing factors<br>to prostate cancer.</p> Haider M. Majeed1 , Hussein Hadi Atiyah2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study Protocol for Checking Validity of Evaluation of Temporal Parameters of Gait Using Microsoft Kinect Azure in Normal Healthy Population <p>Introduction: 5In healthy population, temporal parameters of gait like step time and stride time are<br>frequently linked with gait cycle in healthy populations but can be obstructive, difficult and time taking to<br>measure. This study is to check the efficacy of kinect azure for evaluating of temporal parameters of gait in<br>normal healthy people. A kinect based recording application was started &amp; use to detect , tracks human post<br>analytical motions. Kinect is low cost, unobstructive and accurate gait analysis application with various uses<br>like monitoring, diagnosis, rehabilitation &amp; management. The end result of this study is to fed a state system<br>that analysis the present state from which the assessment are withdrawn.<br>Method: The research has been structured as an observational study. The total of 132 participants will be<br>taken from AVBRH, sawangi Meghe for study as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. With intervention the<br>period of study will be 6 months. It holds single period, concurrent validity evaluation comparing temporal<br>gait parameters derived from the Kinect system.<br>Discussion: This study protocol aims to evaluate the Validity of evaluation of temporal parameters of gait<br>using Microsoft Kinect Azure. The study’s expected outcome will concert on the evaluation of temporal<br>parameters of gait using Microsoft Kinect Azure in normal healthy population.</p> Jasraj Kaur Bhamra1 ,Waqar Naqvi1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphometry and Morphology of Acromian Process of Scapula <p>Introduction: The acromian process of scapula is project forward from lateral end of spinous process of<br>scapula. Coracoacromial ligament is extend between coracoid process and acromian process ,it help in<br>formation of coracoacromial arch, anatomy of this region is important for better understanding of pathology<br>regarding subacromial bursa ,impingement syndrome .<br>Materials and Methods: Present study was carried out on 74 dry, adult human scapulae 38 left side and 36<br>right side from teaching collection of anatomy department ,sex of the specimen not known ,Scapular length,<br>width ,acromian process length ,width, thickness ,coracoacromial distance ,acromioglenoid distance was<br>measured with the help of vernier caliper, we also found different shape of acromian process.<br>Results: We observed 74 scapula out of them 38 scapula are of type –I which was 51.35%,13 scapula<br>of type –II which was 17.57%, 23 scapula of type –III which was 31.08%, we observed mean value<br>acromian length was 4.50±0.52cm, width of acromian process was 2.10±0.26cm, thickness of acromian<br>process was 0.78±0.10cm ,acromicoracoid distance was 3.45±0.53cm, distance between acromian<br>process and supraglenoid tubercle was 2.48±0.40cm.<br>Conclusion: These findings suggest that the difference in various parameters related to acromian process<br>help in better understanding of anatomy and pathology of coracoacromial arch ,rotator cuff and also helpful<br>to other clinician.</p> Kinjal Jethva1 , Priyanka Sharma2 , Nirali Chavda3 , Hetal Vaishnani4 , K.M.Parmar5 , A.R.Gandotra6 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study Protocol for Checking Efficacy of Microsoft Kinect Azure for Evaluation of Spatial Parameters of Gait in Normal Healthy Population <p>Introduction: In healthy population, spatial parameters of gait such as stride length and step length are<br>frequently linked with gait cycle but can be obstructive, time taking and difficult to measure. This study is to<br>check theefficacy of kinect azure for evaluating of spatial parameters of gait in normal healthy population.<br>Kinect is accurate, unobstructive, low cost clinical gait analysis systems have many uses like diagnosis,<br>monitoring, management and rehabilitation.<br>Method: The research has been designed as an observational study.The total of 132 participants will be<br>taken from AVBRH, sawangi Meghe for study as per exclusion and inclusion criteria.With intervention the<br>span of the study will be 6 months. It holds single period, concurrent validity evaluation comparing spatial<br>gait parameters derived from the Kinect system.<br>Discussion: This study protocol aims to assess the efficacy of Microsoft kinect azure for evaluation of<br>spatial parameters of gait.The study’s expected outcome will concentrate on the evaluation of the usability<br>of kinect to assess spatial gait on healthy individuals.</p> Manpreet Kaur Bhamra1 , Waqar Naqvi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Levels in Sera From Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus <p>Type-2 diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevation of<br>blood glucose concentration (hyperglycemia) due to defect in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.<br>Cytokines have an important role in impairing insulin signaling and selective destruction of insulin-producing<br>beta cells. Thus, the second type of diabetes can be characterized as an immune-mediated disease. This study<br>aimed to evaluate the serum levels of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) of patients with type 2<br>diabetes mellitus among cases from Wasit province-Iraq. A total of 90 randomly selected subjects from<br>Wasit province – Iraq: (60) patients with T2DM, and (30) apparently healthy subjects with normal fasting<br>blood sugar as a control group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the<br>levels of interleukin-4 IL-4 and interleukin -6 in sera from patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The results<br>of this study showed that IL-4 concentrations had a non-significant difference when compared patients with<br>type-2 diabetes mellitus with the control group (154 ± 7.00 versus (vs) 151.49 ± 21, P-value (P) = &gt; 0.05).<br>While patients with T2DM revealed elevated serum levels of IL-6 compared to control group (B 637.1 ±<br>355.9 versus 266.3 ± 128.8, P = &lt; 0.001).</p> Mazin Maky Thamer1 , Chee Fah Wong2 , Zafir Hassan Ghali3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and Cleaved Tau Protein (CTP) Biomarkers as a Forensic Tool for Detection and Assessement of Traumatic Brain Injury <p>Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a traumatically-induced structural brain injury or physiological<br>disruption of brain function caused by an external force. Traumatic brain injury is a neuropsychiatric disorder<br>that breaks down the remaining barriers between neurology and psychiatry. Several biomarkers have been<br>developed to directly determine the pathology of the nerve cells in the central nervous system (CNS) when<br>it is injured. This review recent research on brain injury biomarkers could be used for rapid and accurate<br>diagnostics of TBI in easily accessible fluid.<br>Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess utility of GFAP-BDP for the diagnosis of intracranial<br>injury in patients with a positive clinical screen for head injury across the spectrum of TBI typically<br>presenting to ED in Kasr- Alainy hospital.<br>Subjects &amp; Methods: This prospective cohort study was based on the data collected from 90 cases presented<br>to Kasr Al-Aini Hospitals Emergency Department, Cairo University, with history of traumatic brain injury<br>through the period from April 2017 to Mars 2019. According to age, they were classified into 3 age groups;<br>age group A (18-35 years), age group B (36-50 years) and age group C (&gt; 50 years). Data were analyzed with<br>respect to socio-demographic data, type of head injury, clinical presentations, radiological investigation, and<br>management of TBI in relation to serum specific biomarkers level (GFAP, C-tau).<br>Results: The most common age group was age group B (18-35 years) (70%). Males were more common<br>than females (71.1% and 28.9% respectively). The most common cause of trauma was fall from height<br>(33.3%). Serum GFAP level and C-tau levels in studied groups show high significant correlation between<br>them (p value &lt;0.001).<br>Conclusion and Recommendations: The combination of the two biomarkers or more may be more useful<br>than either biomarker in isolation for predicting intracranial lesions on CT scanning therefor decreases<br>unwanted CT head scanning and radiological bad effect especially in young ages.</p> 1 Mohamed Kamel Mohamed1 , Mervat Hamdy Abd Elsalam2 , Eman Abd Elfattah mohammed Elzohairy2 , Dina Sabry Abd Elfattah3 , Ehab Abd Elhalim Abd Elsalam4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Deleted <p>a</p> Nikita S. Deshmukh1, Ashish Bele2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Accuracy of Intrinsic Compression Ultrasound Elastography (E-Thyroid) in Differentiating Benign From Malignant Thyroid Nodule <p>Background: Ultrasound elastography (USE) is an ultrasound-based technique that addresses the biomedical<br>properties of the nodules. Based on the stiffness of the tissue this technique differentiates between the benign<br>nodules from the malignant ones where the hard and soft tissue is determined by the high or the low elasticity<br>values respectively. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the E-thyroid in the differentiation<br>of malignant and benign thyroid nodules and also a cut off ECI value using fine-needle aspiration as the<br>diagnostic standard of reference<br>Methods: The current prospective study was done on 80 patients in the radiology department in Al Yarmouk<br>teaching hospital in Baghdad city from April 2018 to April 2019. All the patients referred from the outpatient<br>clinic. All the patients were examined sonographically starting with B mode ultrasound then elastoscan<br>examination was done.<br>Result: The study result showed that among the 80 patients 65 had a benign nodule and only 15 were<br>diagnosed with a malignant thyroid nodule. The ECI value and the histopathological result showed a<br>significant agreement in the result and a cut off ECI value of 4 were shown to be effective to diagnose the<br>presence of malignant thyroid nodule.<br>Conclusion: Overall, the present study showed that USE can be effectively used to differentiate between the<br>malignant and benign thyroid nodules and being a safe method this can be used widely. However, the result<br>of this study needs further validation with a larger study population.</p> Najlaa Hanoon Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Success Rate of Estrus and Pregnancy between Laser Puncture and Intra Vaginal Progesterone Sponge in Bali Cattle <p>The purpose of this study was to find a method of determining laser models and intra vaginal progesterone<br>sponge in Bali Cattle. An assessment was carried out at Sapi Loka Grati, Pasuruan, Indonesia. The parameters<br>observed included the symptoms of estrus, response of estrus, and the level of pregnancy. Twenty Balinese<br>cows were divided at random in two groups. P1 treated with laser puncture at a certain point and P2 treated<br>with 1.5 g of progesterone + 10 mg of estradiol benzoate intra vaginal sponge. The diagnosis of subsequent<br>pregnancies was done by ultrasonographic examination on day 40th after artificial insemination (AI). The<br>laser used in this study was a soft laser with power supply specifications as follows: 50 Hz, 220 Volts, 50<br>Watts, ranging from 0.2 Joules to 0.5 Joules. These lasers include semiconductor lasers and laser probes.<br>Three acupuncture points were used (GV 4, BL-22, and GV-2). Furthermore, the intra vaginal progesterone<br>sponge used was made from silicone plastic similar to the drugs containing medroxyprogesterone acetate.<br>Data testing was done by using the T-test. Results demonstrated that the P1 responses of estrus appeared on<br>day 3rd, while P2 on day 9th. There was no significant difference (p &gt;0.05) in the accumulation of estrus and<br>pregnancy. In conclusion, estrus synchronization and pregnancy rate could be efficiently achieved in Bali<br>cattle using either laser puncture or intra vaginal progesterone sponge. However, laser puncture treatment<br>induced more spread estrus with higher pregnancy rate.</p> R. Tatang Santanu Adikara1 , Herry Agoes Hermadi2 , Warsito Sunaryo Hadi3 , Lita Rakhma Yustinasari4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 ACO-based Type 2 Diabetes Detection using Artificial Neural Networks <p>Background: Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common diseases among people. Early diagnosis and<br>treatment can reduce mortality and morbidity. So far, various solutions have been proposed to predict this<br>type of disease.<br>Materials and Method: In this paper, a method for diagnosing diabetes was proposed using the Ant<br>Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm. To this end, data set properties are first reduced using artificial<br>neural network features and then prepared for classification purpose. Finally, some components of accuracy<br>assessment on the proposed system were calculated.<br>Results: The simulation results show that by adjusting the parameters of ANN and ACO, about 3.2% better<br>prediction accuracy is obtained than other researches.<br>Conclusion: The results of experiments represent that the proposed method is proper for health management<br>in diabetes.</p> Aliakbar Tajari Siahmarzkooh Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study for Assessment of Perception and Attitude of Medical Students about Medical Ethics, Consumer Protection Act (CPA) and its Influence on Violence against Doctors <p>Medical Profession was included under The Consumer Protection Act (CPA) in 1986 to provide a forum to<br>safeguard the rights of the customers and establish guidelines for the speedy redressal of their grievances<br>against unethical medical practices. This by far has been the most crucial legislations introduced in the<br>framework of health professionals which over the years seems to have propelled them to practice in a guarded<br>manner. In recent times this also seems to be flanked by a spurt in Violence against the Doctors enormously.<br>It is thereby imperative for all medical professionals to not only have a comprehensive knowledge of ethics<br>and laws related to health care and medicolegal issues but also its implications in their profession. In this<br>very light the current study was conducted as an attempt to assess the perception of undergraduate medical<br>students towards medical ethics, CPA and its influence on Violence against Doctors.</p> Ankita Kakkar1 , Sushil Kumar2 , Archana Verma3 , Alok Kumar4 , Raj Kumar5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Study the Intervention of Bell’s Palsy by Video Self Modelling through Kinect Azure : A Research Protocol <p>Background: Bell’s palsy is the common acute mono-neuropathy, and is commonly associated with facial<br>paralysis or weakness of facial nerve. It is unilateral facial nerve paresis or paralysis. The cause of Bell’s<br>palsy is suspected to be herpes simplex virus infection of nerve.The nerve get swollen because of this<br>viral infection and is compressed in its canal as it passes through the temporal bone. Grading systems for<br>the assessment of movements and asymmetry of face in Facial palsy are divided into computer-based and<br>traditional grading systems. The program that uses Kinect Azure provides assessment method for evaluation<br>of asymmetry of face at rest and the rating of facial palsy during voluntary activity of various areas over<br>face. This study aims to investigate the intervention of facial palsy by video self modelling with the use of<br>Kinect Azure.<br>Methods: 20 participants will be selected. Each group will include 10 subjects. Group A will receive<br>conventional treatment, electrical muscle stimulator(EMS) ,and visual feedback.<br>Group B(Experimental group) will receive conventional treatment ,electrical muscle stimulator and video<br>self modelling. Each participant would be presented with their own videotape of video self-modeling, which<br>included the best attempts at their evenest acts (smiles).Following 2 weeks of tape viewing the actions will<br>be assessed. The outcome of the treatment will be assessed by Kinect Azure.<br>Discussion: Traditional methods for documentation of treatment effect have been through scales and<br>questionnaires which at times are little complex and also difficult for patients to interpret. Hence this<br>experimental and comparative study aims at focusing on the effective use of Kinect to document outcome<br>for bell’s palsy</p> Madhura R. Darware1 , Divya Jethwani2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Bedaquiline on Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment to Mother and Baby: An Incidental Case <p>Background: Bedaquiline is a new drug which is recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) for<br>individual regiment drug resistant-tuberculosis (DR-TB). The presence of regiment DR-TB in the blood<br>is long enough with T1/2 5-6 months, that is why bedaquiline is given on six months. Bedaquiline is not<br>recommended for pregnant women because there is no data related to safety. The author will report an<br>incidental pregnant female on bedaquiline treatment.<br>Case presentation: A 24-year-old woman with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) on individual<br>regiment bedaquiline had incidental pregnancy at the 6th month treatment. In the beginning, the patient<br>used bedaquiline because of the intolerance of second-line injectable drug. Bedaquiline regiment was used<br>for 24th week. Pregnancy occured at the 6th month treatment. The patient continued the pregnancy and the<br>MDR TB treatment was continued without bedaquiline. Nausea and vomiting were getting worse. Preterm<br>labour occured in 33/34 weeks by cesarean section. The baby had severe asphyxia, used continuous positive<br>airway pressure (CPAP), treated in NICU, had low weight but there was no disability. After several days of<br>treatment, the condition of baby was improving and was able to outpatient.<br>Conclusion: The preterm labour, low birth weight, and neonatal emergency occured in a pregnant woman<br>with MDR TB on individual regiment bedaquiline. Mother and baby can survive. More case and research<br>data are needed on the safety of bedaquiline during pregnancy.</p> Tutik Kusmiati1 , Faradila Nur Aini2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Migraine Headache and Gender Differences of Bagdad City Population/ Iraq <p>Migraine headache is a very common neurobiological disorder that is caused by increased excitability<br>of the CNS. it has been increased the diagnosis of migraine headache which is based on the headache’s<br>characteristics and associated symptoms. It disturbs patients’ quality of life and weakens their work, social<br>activities, and life quality. Recently WHO organization classified migraine headache as 19the along with all<br>the disabling diseases. Data on sex related differences in migraine headache more marked overlapping iwht<br>migraine features in females’ subjects. We have conducted survey on gender difference and prevalence of<br>migraine having the sample size of 500 patients from Iraq.<br>We Selected Of 228 patients from 7-47 years who diagnosed with migraine headache according to Bagdad<br>General hospital record from December 2018 to September 2019. After consent form signed, subjects were<br>requested to fill questionnaire included demographic, clinical characteristics, history of sickness, duration of<br>it, time happened in the months, general health, and other questions<br>The primary outcome was women are more prone to migraine attacks than men. 2-4 hours of pain was the<br>most common period of headache along with triggering factor of stress and poor sleep. Migraine headache<br>is s chronic daily sickness which is severe, and major health problem and disorder that effect on life quality.<br>in summary, we would confirm that there is presence of distinct gender related differences in migraine<br>headaches add to some novel information that increase of level of migraine associated with family history.</p> Wael Waleed Mustafa1 , Samer Shukur Mohammed2, Zainab Ali Naser3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Orofacial Tuberculosis: An Uncommon Manifestation of A Common Disease- A Narrative Review <p>Tuberculosis is chronic multisystemic disease caused mostly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease<br>has its mention in the Vedas and Chakra and Sushruta described the features in the early 600 B.C. TB has<br>a known site predilection for lungs, although, extra pulmonary cases have also been reported. The oral<br>tuberculous lesions are a rare occurrence with atypical signs and symptoms, thus deferring an accurate<br>diagnosis and treatment. A plethora of standard and contemporary diagnostic adjuncts facilitate the rapid and<br>precise diagnosis. Anti-tubercular regimen forms the mainstay of treatment, although several recent drugs<br>are also in clinical trial phase.<br>This article aims to highlight the etio-pathogenesis, clinical and oral features of tuberculosis, diagnostic<br>tools, and management protocol for tuberculosis. There is also a brief mention on the various policies<br>considered by World health Organization (WHO) to combat this dreaded disorder.</p> Padma Charan Patra11 , Priyadarshini Choudhury2 , Shamimul Hasan3 , Shazina Saeed4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Vitamin D For Oral Health and Overall Health <p>Vitamin D, sometimes called the “sunshine vitamin” is produced in our skin in response to sunlight.<br>It’s a fat-soluble vitamin in a family of compounds that includes vitamins D-1, D-2, and D-3.Our body<br>produces vitamin D naturally when it’s directly exposed to sunlight. Vitamin D has several important<br>functions. Perhaps the most vital are regulating the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and facilitating<br>normal immune system function. Getting a sufficient amount of vitamin D is important for normal growth<br>and development of bones and teeth, as well as improved resistance against certain diseases. Nowadays,<br>Vitamin D deficiency patients are identified in various medical fields and it is necessary to understand the<br>symptoms, pathophysiology and therapeutic measures to overcome the deficiency of this vitamin in various<br>age groups from pediatric to geriatric.</p> K.Sheela1 , Dhanasekhar Kesavelu1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Management of Trauma to Anterior Teeth among Faculty Members and Undergraduate Students in Dental and Medical Institute in South India <p>Introduction: Traumatic dental injuries are common among children owing to their developing<br>neuromusculoskeletal responses. This study aims at assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice towards<br>management of trauma to anterior teeth among faculty members and students of Medical College.<br>Materials and Method: A cross sectional survey with pretested questionnaire was used to assess the<br>demographics of the participants along with their knowledge regarding dental trauma, their attitude and<br>practices to handle them. Total of 200 participants comprising, 150 students and 50 faculty members of<br>the dental institute were part of this study. Descriptive statistics was used to represent each category. Also,<br>inferential statistical methods were used to assess any significant differences between the groups when<br>significance level is kept at 5%.<br>Results: The findings showed that almost 40% of the participants had experienced dental trauma before,<br>the most common trauma that they encountered was tooth fracture. Faculty members had better knowledge<br>score compared to students those who have had previous knowledge before regarding this issue also had<br>better knowledge than their counterpart.<br>Conclusion: The present study showed that the participants have sufficient knowledge about dental trauma,<br>and they showed a positive attitude towards it. However, some were still reluctant to perform dental first aid<br>when required due to the lack of training availability and education. Dental first aid needs to be a part of the<br>curriculum. Training programs are even more helpful, as it will help to build the confidence of the operator.<br>This will create awareness among the public about the importance of managing dental trauma of the anterior<br>teeth.</p> Vignesh Kamath1 , Harsha Hegde2 , Vijay Namdevrao Yannawar3, Ganesh Ramesh Kotalwar4 , Amol Sangewar5 , Swapna Bettanapalya Venkatesh6 , Smitha Sammith Shetty7 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Sweet Potato Anthocyanin (Ipomoea Batatas L.) on Levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Folliculogenesis in Rattus Norvegicus Exposed to Cigarette Smoke <p>Cigarette smoke is one of the exogenous free radicals that can enter the blood circulation so that it can<br>disrupt all body cells and tissues, including the reproductive organs. The anthocyanin in purple sweet<br>potato is one of the bioactive that can counter free radicals. This study was conducted to prove the effect<br>of anthocyanin in purple sweet potato from Gunung Kawi cultivar on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),<br>and folliculogenesis levels on Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) exposed to cigarette smoke. This study was<br>an experimental study with Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, using 30 female Wistar rats<br>aged 1-2 months weighing 150-200g. The rats were divided into three groups of where they were exposed<br>to cigarette smoke and administered with anthocyanin (each group with the doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg/<br>kgbw/day). One positive control group was exposed to cigarette smoke without being administered with<br>anthocyanin for 56 days, and one more group served as a negative control. The FSH levels in the serum were<br>measured by employing the ELISA method, and the folliculogenesis (follicle amount and number of ovary<br>follicular granulosa cells) was measured from histopathological slides with Haematoxylin-Eosin staining.<br>The results indicated that anthocyanin in purple sweet potato significantly increased the FSH levels, the<br>follicle amount and the number of primary follicular granulosa cell, secondary, and Graafian on female<br>Wistar rat ovaries exposed to cigarette smoke with a p-value of less than 0.05. To ensure the anthocyanin<br>dose that had maximum effect, more research is required with more dose variations and chronic toxicity tests<br>for the safety of the anthocyanin in purple sweet potato of Gunung Kawi cultivar.</p> Astika Gita Ningrum1 , Retty Ratnawati2 , Sri Andarini3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between the Expression of E6 HPV with p53 and p16INK4A at Cervical Adenocarcinoma and Cervical Normal <p>Introduction: Cervical adenocarcinoma is the second most common type of cervical cancer. The marker<br>to predict the risk of this cancer is still need to be improved. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation<br>between expression of E6 HPV with p53 and p16INK4A in cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical normal.<br>Methods: This study was a cross sectional study conducted at the Department of Anatomic Pathology, Dr.<br>Soetomo General Academic Hospital Surabaya Indonesia using 49 paraffin blocks during period JanuaryDecember 2017. The E6 HPV, p53, and p16INK4A expression were detected by immunohistochemistry<br>staining. Results: There were significant differences between the expression of E6 HPV and p16INK4A<br>in cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical normal, but the expression of p53 was no significant difference<br>with p=0.060 (P&gt;0.05). There was a positive correlation between the expression of E6 HPV with p53 and<br>p16INK4A (p&lt;0.05) in cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical normal, and in cervical adenocarcinoma group,<br>there was a significant correlation between the expression of E6 HPV with p53 (p=0.004) and p16INK4A<br>(p=0.028), but no correlation was found between p53 with p16INK4A expression (p=0,092). Conclusion:<br>It suggests that p16INK4A might serve as marker for predicting the risk of developing cervical cancer from<br>the epithelium of cervical normal.</p> Gondo Mastutik1 , Alphania Rahniayu2,3, Nila Kurniasari2,3, Anny Setijo Rahaju2,3, Rahmi Alia4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Physical Activity with Fear of Fall in Patients with Total Knee Replacement - A Research Protocol <p>Background: An elderly patient who has undergone total knee replacement may have fear of fall. Fear of<br>fall after TKR and its impact on physical activity is sparsely researched. This study was aimed to find a<br>correlation of physical activity with fear of fall in patients with Total Knee Replacement. Physical activity is<br>assessed using the Physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE) Scale. The PASE Scale is understandable,<br>reliable, and is a valid tool to assess physical activity in the elderly. Fall efficacy scale (FES) is a valid tool<br>to assess fear of fall. Objectives: The objective of the current study is to assess physical activity and fear<br>of fall and to find Correlation of physical activity with fear of fall in patients with TKR. Methods: This<br>study will be carried out in Physiotherapy OPD, Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College and AVBRH Hospital<br>Sawangi Meghe, Wardha .100 Patients undergone TKR will be examined. Physical activity and fear of fall<br>will be assessed using the PASE scale and Fall Efficacy Scale respectively. Results: Upon completion of<br>the Study result will be estimated by statistical analysis. Conclusion: After going through various studies,<br>maximum studies indicated that there is a decrease in physical activity in patients with TKR but very few<br>studies indicated fear of fall in the patients. Therefore, the current study is being carried out which could<br>help to reach the conclusion to find whether there is any correlation between physical activity and fear of<br>fall in patients undergone TKR. Because rehabilitation after TKR is mainly concentrated on improving the<br>physical function however if the patient has fear of fall this may interfere with the patient returning to his or<br>her physical activity</p> Nupur Thombare1 Shalaka Dhankar2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Risks of Femoral Nailing in the Positioning of Hemilithotomy on Traction Table Getting A Contralateral Well-Legdrop-Foot <p>Introduction: Postoperative contra lateral morbidity following fracture fixation surgery is rare due to<br>hemilithotomy placement on traction table. Following a typical orthopedic femoral nailing, we should note<br>a case of unexplained typical peroneal nerve palsy formed on the contra lateral side, manifesting with drop<br>foot.<br>Case report: After prolonged femoral nailing, a 32-year-old male suffered an uncommon common peroneal<br>nerve palsy that manifested itself toward lateral drop foot. This iatrogenic and intermittent disorder was<br>delineated to be position-related neuropraxia after neurophysiological analysis and review of applicable<br>literature.<br>Conclusion: Place modification at intervals or complete avoidance of excessive hyperflexion of the knee is<br>advised to prevent typical peroneal nerve morbidity against the lateral.</p> Jasraj Kaur Bhamra1 , Manpreet Kaur Bhamra1 , Waqar M. Naqvi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between Workload and Work Environment with Work Stress <p>Competition in the business world nowadays caused many pressures on workers and resulting in work stress.<br>During 2001, the problem of stress had cost the organization up to $ 300 billion in terms of reimbursing<br>maintenance costs, workers’ compensation, absenteeism and labor turnover. In Indonesia, especially Jakarta,<br>around 1.33 million residents experience stress. This figure reaches 14% of the total population with severe<br>stress levels of 7-10% and acute stress of 1-3%. It was also reported that Health care costs were almost 50%<br>higher for treating workers who experienced high levels of stress in their work. Previous studies had found<br>out that work stress was caused by several factors including work environment and workload. The purpose<br>of this study was to analyze the correlation between workload and work environment with work stress on the<br>Maintenance and Repair Division workers of PT. PAL Indonesia (Persero). This research design was a crosssectional study. The population in this study were all technician workers on the Maintenance and Repair<br>Division of PT. PAL Indonesia (Persero) as many as 51 workers. The sample was calculated using a simple<br>random sampling technique so that a sample of 49 workers was obtained in the Production Department,<br>Maintenance and Repair Division of PT. PAL Indonesia (Persero). The study was conducted in June 2019.<br>Variables in this study were work climate, noise, lighting, physical workload, mental workload, and work<br>stress. The data were analyzed by using the chi-square test and spearman test because there are differences<br>in the scale of the data on the variables. The results are: work climate is not related to work stress (sig 0.715<br>&gt; ?), noise is not related to work stress (sig 0.380 &gt; ?), lighting is not related to work stress (0.322 &gt; ?),<br>physical workload is related to work stress (sig 0.004 &lt; ?), mental workload has no relationship with work<br>stress (sig 0.377 &gt; ?). The conclusion of this study is that only physical workload has a correlation with<br>work stress.</p> Shabrina Firsta Aulia1 , Putri Ayuni Alayyannur2 , Endang Dwiyanti3 , Tri Martiana4 , Shintia Yunita Arini2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Ultrasonography in The Diagnosis of Oral and Maxillofacial Disease <p>Objective: Ultrasonography, as a diagnostic tool, constitutes a non-invasive, cost-effective, readily-available<br>and repeatable imaging technique. Ultrasonography has been used as a means of diagnosing various medical<br>conditions for many years. However, in the field of maxillofacial surgery it represents a relatively new aid<br>in the diagnosis of various diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. These include: infection,<br>soft-tissue related diseases and vascular anomalies which can be detected using Doppler ultrasonography.<br>This article presents four cases, in which ultrasonography was employed to confirm diagnoses and act as a<br>guide to treatment. Methods: Four cases of soft tissue swelling and enlargement were diagnosed with the<br>aid of ultrasonography, namely: a submasseteric abscess, a nasolabial cyst, a dermoid cyst and a left buccal<br>space abscess caused by a foreign body (i.e. a fish bone). Result: In the case of a submasseteric abscess,<br>ultrasonography was used in confirming the diagnosis and therapy, while determining the maximal point of<br>the abscess. In the cases of both cysts, ultrasonography highlighted well-defined cystic lesions with internal<br>echo showing fluid accumulation, while in the buccal space abscess, an ultrasonogram confirmed the exact<br>location of the fish bone. Conclusion: Ultrasonography is a quick, widely-available, relatively inexpensive,<br>painless procedure which can be repeated as often as necessary without risk to the patient. Thus, ultrasonography<br>is a valuable diagnostic aid to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon in achieving early and accurate diagnosis.</p> Ni Putu Mira Sumarta1 , David Buntoro Kamdjaja2 , Roberto Manahan Yantie Simandjuntak3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Gamma-GT Serum and Nerve Conduction Velocity of Nervus Peroneus Motor Vehicles on Diabetic Polyneuropathy Patients <p>Background and Objectives: Diabetic Polyneuropathy is one of the common complications of diabetes<br>mellitus (DM) and can lead to foot ulcers or amputation. The pathophysiology of Diabetic Polyneuropathy<br>includes several factors such as metabolic, vascular, autoimmune, oxidative stress and neurohormonal<br>growth-factor deficiency. The recent studies have suggested the use of serum gammaglutamyl transferase<br>(GGT) as an early marker of oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated whether serum GGT may be useful<br>in predicting Diabetic Polyneuropathy.<br>Methods: The study was conducted in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy who meet the criteria for<br>inclusion and exclusion in neurological outpatient clinic and EMG room departments of Neurology<br>Dr.Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya consecutively started in June 2014 to April 2015.<br>Result: We obtained 20 study subjects (8 subjects with increased serum levels of gamma GT and 12 subjects<br>with normal serum levels of gamma GT). There was statistically no significant between serum levels of<br>gamma GT with motoric nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of peroneal nerve (p = 0.582 ; Odds ratio 0.600).<br>Conclusion: There was no relationship between elevated levels of serum gamma GT with decreased motor<br>nerve conductivity velocity peroneal nerve in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy.</p> Januar1 , Mudjiani Basuki2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In situ Molecular Hybridization of Kaposi, s Sarcoma Associated Virus (Human Herpes Virus 8) in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Tissues <p>Background: Viral, dietary and genetic factors are implicated in the etiology ofnasopharyngeal cancer, a rare<br>type of head and neck cancers. Unlike other viruses, HHV-8 encodes several human cytokines homologues<br>and regulatory genes that play important roles in the viral pathogenesis.<br>Objective: To analyze the rates of HHV-8 infection in tissues obtained from a group of patients with<br>nasopharyngeal carcinoma and inflammatory nasal polyps (INP) .<br>Patients and Method: One hundred- thirty formalin-fixed, paraffin- embedded nasopharyngeal carcinoma<br>and nasal inflammatory polyps tissues enrolled in this study; 65 nasopharyngeal tissue biopsies from<br>nasopharyngeal carcinoma; 35 tissue biopsies from nasal inflammatory polyps and 30 nasopharyngeal<br>tissues with unremarkable pathological changes, as apparently healthy tissuecontrol. Detection of HHV-8<br>was done by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) technique detection system.<br>Results: In nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues, the HHV-8- DNA positive CISH reactions were detected in<br>23.1% while in nasal inflammatory polyps tissues HHV-8-positive CISH reactions were found in 8.6% of<br>the examined tissues. The correlation between HHV-8 and NPC &amp; INP was highly significant (P= 0.001).<br>Conclusion: Significant HHV-8 detection in nasopharyngeal carcinoma &amp; inflammatory nasal polypstissues<br>could point for their possible role in either pathogenesis or carcinogenesis of both these lesions.</p> Zainab A. Hamid1 , Zahraa Ali Abdullah2 , Isra’a Mahdi Al-Sudani3 , Saad Hasan Mohammed Ali4 , Shakir H. Mohammed Al-Alwany5 , Khalil Ismail A. Mohammed4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Smoke Exposure at Home to the Incidence of Pneumonia in Children Under 5 Years Old <p>Increased levels of pollutants in the room, apart from the penetration of outdoor pollutants, can also come<br>from indoor pollutant sources such as cigarette smoke, smoke from using firewood, and the use of mosquito<br>coils. Pneumonia is the ultimate overlooked child killer (major “forgotten killer of children”). In Klaten<br>District, pneumonia cases in the last 3 years have increased, 1,068, 1,244, and 1,705. This study was to<br>determine the relationship between the incidence of pneumonia and exposure to smoke at home in children<br>under 5 years of age in Klaten Regency, Central Java Province. This type of research is observational analytic<br>with case-control studies. The total sample of 278 (139 cases and 139 controls) children under 5 years of<br>age resided in Klaten Regency and were recorded as pneumonia cases in the public health care register<br>in 2012 that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The research instrument consisted of a structured<br>questionnaire. The results of data analysis showed that the relationship with the incidence of pneumonia in<br>children under five was the variable exposure to cigarette smoke (OR=2,053; p=0,017 and 95% CI=1,137-<br>3,705) and exposure to kitchen smoke (OR=2,664; p=0,003 and 95% CI=1,4002-5,0680). Factors associated<br>with the incidence of pneumonia in children under 5 years of age in Klaten Regency, Central Java Province<br>are exposure to cigarette smoke and exposure to kitchen smoke.</p> Eny Dwimawati1, Galuh Pradian Yanuaringsih2 , Resmi Pangaribuan3 , Nina Olivia3 , Fitriani Pramita Gurning4 , Muchti Yuda Pratama5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting Romantic Relationship Satisfaction of University Students <p>Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting romantic relationship<br>satisfaction of university students<br>Methods/Statistical analysis: This study was conducted with 187 students from four universities in cities<br>and provinces nationwide. Data were collected from September to October 2019 using a self-administered<br>questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed through the stepwise regression analysis using the SPSS<br>statistics program.<br>Findings: The final regression model showed that self-esteem, anxiety attachment, and avoidance attachment<br>were significant predictors related to romantic relationship satisfaction in university students and explained<br>34.7% of the variance in romantic relationship satisfaction.<br>Improvements/Applications: The university student period is a time to form an adult attachment, thereby<br>preparing for a happy marriage in the future by increasing the romantic relationship satisfaction. Therefore,<br>it is necessary to develop and apply the educational programs that can increase self-esteem and positive<br>heterosexual relationship for university students.</p> Kyu Eun Lee1 , Hae Kyung Chang2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Video Self Modelling - An Intervention to Study Bell’s Palsy through Kinect Azure: A Research Protocol <p>Background: Bell’s palsy is the common acute mono-neuropathy, and is commonly associated with facial<br>paralysis or weakness of facial nerve. It is unilateral facial nerve paresis or paralysis. The cause of Bell’s<br>palsy is suspected to be herpes simplex virus infection of nerve.The nerve get swollen because of this<br>viral infection and is compressed in its canal as it passes through the temporal bone. Grading systems for<br>the assessment of movements and asymmetry of face in Facial palsy are divided into computer-based and<br>traditional grading systems. The program that uses Kinect Azure provides assessment method for evaluation<br>of asymmetry of face at rest and the rating of facial palsy during voluntary activity of various areas over<br>face. This study aims to investigate the intervention of facial palsy by video self modelling with the use of<br>Kinect Azure.<br>Methods: 20 participants will be selected. Each group will include 10 subjects. Group A will receive<br>conventional treatment, electrical muscle stimulator(EMS) ,and visual feedback.<br>Group B(Experimental group) will receive conventional treatment ,electrical muscle stimulator and video<br>self modelling. Each participant would be presented with their own videotape of video self-modeling, which<br>included the best attempts at their evenest acts (smiles).Following 2 weeks of tape viewing the actions will<br>be assessed. The outcome of the treatment will be assessed by Kinect Azure.<br>Discussion: Traditional methods for documentation of treatment effect have been through scales and<br>questionnaires which at times are little complex and also difficult for patients to interpret. Hence this<br>experimental and comparative study aims at focusing on the effective use of Kinect to document outcome<br>for bell’s palsy</p> Madhura R. Darware1 , Divya Jethwani2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Association between Teeth Loss and Oral Health Problems <p>Background: The teeth play various functional roles, from the most basic functions to more subtle functions.<br>One of the most tragic events that can happen to the teeth are loss it, as a result trauma or dental diseases.<br>Tooth loss has esthetic, functional, positional and psychological impacts on the life of individuals.<br>Objectives: To investigate the association between tooth loss and oral health problems among partially<br>and completely edentulous patients. Method: (Questionnaire and Clinical Examination). Self-administered<br>questionnaire was distributed to the patients to collect information relating to demography and cause of<br>tooth loss, in addition to mastication and speech state after tooth loss. Four clinical conditions including<br>supra-eruption, drifting teeth, temporomandibular disorders and bone resorption were used to recognize the<br>effects of missing teeth. Patients seeking dental treatment at General Hospital, Morzuk, Libya were recruited<br>for the study. Criteria included age of 16 years and above with one or more missing teeth except for third<br>molars. Results: altogether 58 participants, 31 (53.4 %) were males while 27 (46.6%) were females. The<br>participants were aged 16–&gt;45 years, among them, 44 patients (75.9%) are partially edentulous, and 14<br>patients (24.1%) were completely edentulous. The patients with complete teeth loss and the patients with<br>missing both the anterior and posterior teeth are most groups suffer problems among patients who involved<br>in the study. patients who loss posterior teeth are the lowest group had, suffer of health problems due to loss<br>of teeth among all of them.<br>The general relationship between tooth loss and the oral health problems was positive and strong. Conclusions:<br>there are statistically significant relationship between tooth loss and oral health problems, where the strong<br>value of this relationship (0.614) and significance within less than (0.05).</p> Aesa Alzaroug Jaber1 , Alshame M.J.Alshame2 , Khaled Owidat Abdalla3 , Prabhu Manickam Natarajan4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between inflammatory Response and Pathology of Listeria monocytogenes <p>Listeria monocytogenes is a feebly pathogenic, Gram-positive bacterium and ready to develop additionally<br>at the temperature of 4 C. A man frequently gets influenced by expending tainted water and food. 150 aborted<br>placentas were achieved from women and cultured directly, while other were fixed in formalin buffer to<br>study the effect of CD 45 and CD74 in pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes associated with placentitis<br>in aborted women. Results showed six placental samples from out 50 were positive for listeria culture, were<br>exhibited high expression of CD 45 and CD74 aborted placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes as a<br>compared to uninfected placenta. This study concluded that a relationship between inflammatory response<br>and pathology of L. monocytogenes in placental tissue that were collected from aborted women in AlMuthana City</p> Ali Anok Njum1, Jabbar Afate ALwan2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Epidemiological Study of Burn Deaths at a Tertiary Care Centre in Mumbai <p>Death due to burns is an important cause of unnatural death commonly encountered in Medico-legal Practice.<br>This prospective study was conducted on 100 cases of burn deaths caused by flames, hot liquids and flash<br>of electricity. This study was conducted to know the demographic profiles, common risk factors, causes and<br>manners of death in fatal cases of burns. Most of the cases were in the age group of 21 to 50 years with a<br>peak incidence in 21-30 years age group, with female predominance. In the study, maximum cases were due<br>to kerosene stove blast leading to accidental burns, followed by pouring of kerosene as a source of burn..</p> Babaso Kalel1 , Pawan Sabale2 , Shailesh Mohite3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Occupational Stress in Medical Doctors Working in Tertiary Care Hospital <p>Background: Nowadays, stress has commonly been assessed especially in medical doctors. The reason for<br>the same is that medical doctors have to play high competitive roles and in turn have so many responsibilities<br>keeping in mind the holistic care to patients.<br>Aim/objective: To assess occupational stress in medical doctors working in tertiary care hospital of<br>Bhavnagar, Gujarat.<br>Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2017 to December<br>2017 after prior approval of institutional ethics committee. Total 75, both male and female medical doctors<br>were enrolled as study participants after written informed consent and based on inclusion criteria. Along with<br>case record performa, self-administered pre-tested questionnaires having stress scale namely Professional<br>Stress Scale (PSS) and Perceived Stress Scale 10 items (PSS-10) were given to all participants as a study<br>tool. The data of scores received on scales was and entered in Microsoft excel and the same was analyzed<br>by using GraphPad Prism 5 software for various proportions, associations and frequencies. The associations<br>were considered significant if the p value is less than 0.05.<br>Results: Out of 75, total 50 participants filled and submitted the questionnaires. The mean age of participants<br>was 31.96 years. As per the stress scales used, moderate stress was observed among medical doctors<br>irrespective of sex. The commonest symptom observed among stressed doctors was sleep disturbances<br>(insomnia).<br>Conclusion: Moderate to mild stress was found among medical doctors. Stress in medical doctors is never<br>underestimated irrespective of sex. Insomnia is the commonest symptom observed among stressed doctors.</p> Dipika Baria1 , Tejas J. Shah2, Shruti Brahmbhatt3 , Mahavir Rajput4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pre-Analytical Errors in Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory: A Crucial Step to Look for Accuracy and Reliability <p>Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL) plays a very important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases.<br>Total testing process (TTP) of laboratory includes pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases. To<br>have an accurate and reliable results, detection and prevention of errors is must from all these phases.<br>Chances of errors are more in pre-analytical phase as compared other two phases. Though standards have<br>been made to control error occurrence in pre-analytical phase, errors still noticed in this phase. The reason<br>is all the steps involved in this phase are dependent on humans and thus it is out of control of laboratory.<br>Therefore it is necessary to generate proper guidelines or manual to minimize errors in pre-analytical phase.<br>This is also an important step to achieve Total Quality Control (TQC). We have tried in this review to<br>summarize important pre-analytical errors, their occurrence at various stages, prevalence and preventive<br>aspects.</p> Tejas J. Shah1 , Roshni Sadaria2 , Smita Vasava3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Primary Prevention of COVID 19 <p>Coronavirus disease - 19 is caused by a newly discovered virus called coronavirus. Coronavirus is a spherical ,<br>enveloped particle with a single stranded RNA which causes acute mild respiratory illness. The transmission<br>is via airborne droplets. It multiplies in the nasal mucosa causing cell damage and inflammation. COVID<br>19 has been increasing exponentially as it spreads very fast and in a country like India with a population of<br>135 crore it is difficult to curtail the spread of the virus. The steps taken to control this spread such as social<br>distancing, nation-wide lockdown were important to restrict the geographical spread of coronavirus. The<br>virus is transmitted by droplets which can travel in air when an infected person or carrier coughs or sneezes.<br>Therefore, primary preventive measures like practicing hygiene with soap and water for at least 60 seconds<br>or using alcohol-based hand rub, social distancing and lockdown were implemented. This article covers the<br>method of hand washing, steps of hand washing and gives information about the do’s and don’ts of alcoholbased hand rubs. It also covers the importance of social distancing and lockdown with the social distancing<br>methods adopted in India.</p> Preksha Luthra Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Appraisal of Inclusions of “Bioethics in Laboratory Medicine” into the Existing Postgraduate Curriculum of Pathology, Microbiology and Biochemistry <p>Introduction: Laboratory physicians confront with ethical issues in routine practice, but still ethics does not<br>draw the importance it deserves. A critical appraisal of the existing postgraduate curriculum of Pathology,<br>Microbiology and Biochemistry with reference to its Bioethical inclusions to their conformity with reference<br>to Bioethical principles applicable to profession as included in UNESCO Declaration is needed.<br>Aim: To critically analyse the inclusions of “Bioethics in Laboratory Medicine” into the Existing<br>Postgraduate Curriculum of Pathology, Microbiology and Biochemistry with reference to Bioethical<br>principles incorporated in UNESCO Declaration<br>Material and Methods: It was a descriptive study for rapid review of literature for the purposes of<br>identification and critical appraisal of bioethical considerations in Laboratory Medicine in existing<br>Guidelines for Competency Based Postgraduate Training Programme for MD in Pathology, Microbiology,<br>Biochemistry with reference to Bioethical principles included in UNESCO declaration specially those<br>applicable to profession and not propagation or advocacy.<br>Observations and Results: Upon critical analysis and mapping of the competencies in the Guidelines for<br>Competency Based Postgraduate Training Programme for MD in Pathology, Microbiology, Biochemistry<br>with the principles in the UNESCO universal declaration, 16 competencies were identified as professional<br>ethical inclusions. 19 Competencies suggested in regards to “Bioethics in Laboratory Medicine” for<br>Guidelines for Competency Based Postgraduate Training Programme for MD In these subjects to make<br>them commensurate with UNESCO universal declaration<br>Conclusion: This has brought out subsequent omissions which need to be managed in order to make<br>competencies in Existing PG curriculum of Pathology, Microbiology and Biochemistry comparable with the<br>UNESCO universal declaration and therefore, make it better and standardised on global and international<br>level.</p> Anjankar Ashish P1 , Ninave Sudhir2 , Mishra Gaurav V3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Personal Hygiene Practices and Morbidity Pattern among A Tribal Primary School Children Of Maharashtra <p>Background: Scholastic performance of the child depends upon the overall health of the child. Methods:<br>A cross sectional study was conducted among 162 tribal school children. Results: Prevalence of anaemia<br>was 54.9%. Second most common morbidity was dental caries (31.48%) followed by underweight (27.77%)<br>Head louse infestation was common among girl students. Conclusions: Most common morbidities present<br>among primary school children of a tribal school were anaemia, dental caries, underweight and refractive<br>errors. Girl students had better hygiene than boys.</p> Ashish Wasudeo Khobragade1 , Ninad Nagrale2, Mohd. Junaid1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diabetes in COVID-19: Management <p>The COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease-19) has become the most critical health problem worldwide. It was<br>first started from Wuhan, China and now it has affected more than 230 countries and millions of people.<br>The diabetic patients with uncontrolled glycemic state for long term can result in many microvascular and<br>macrovascular complications. Hence they are most commonly affected individuals during COVID-19. In<br>this review we have briefed about the impact of COVID-19 in diabetes, the different pathophysioloy and<br>management of diabetes in this phase.</p> Shruti Brahmbhatt1 *, Vihang Brahmbhatt2, Maulin Mehta3 , Tejas Shah4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Communication Ability of Care Workers in Charge of Visiting Care in Elderly at-Home Welfare Centers on Quality of Service: with Empathy as Mediator <p>Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to provide data for nursing intervention development<br>that increases the quality of service of care workers by identifying the mediating effect of empathy in the<br>effect of communication ability on quality of service.<br>Methods/Statistical analysis: Data were collected for 93 visiting care workers. Data were analyzed by<br>descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlational coefficients, multiple regression and Sobel’s test.<br>Findings: Subjects’ quality of service and communication ability (r=.62, p&lt;.001), and empathy (r=.56,<br>p&lt;.001) showed high positive correlation. As a result of the mediating effect of empathy, communication<br>ability had a significant effect on empathy in step 1 (?=.64), in step 2, communication ability affected the<br>quality of service (?=.62), in step 3, communication ability had a positive effect on the quality of service<br>(?=.45), and empathy also had a positive effect on quality of service (?=.28) and showed 42.2% explanatory<br>power. It was found that empathy had a partial mediating effect.<br>Improvements/Applications: Care workers should make efforts to provide services by understanding and<br>listening to and empathizing with the expressions of the elderly. The directors of the visiting care center<br>should develop and train programs that can improve effective communication, empathy and quality of<br>service.</p> Hee Kyung Kim Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the Training Needs Regarding ‘Breaking Bad News’ amongst Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Professionals in Pune India <p>Introduction:‘Breaking Bad News’ (BBN) in the scenario of poor prognosis or death is considered to be<br>one of the most stressful aspects of the duties of a Healthcare professional. In the recent years, the subject of<br>BBN has gained traction among healthcare professionals and psychologist leading to the creation of some<br>comprehensive models to train professionals. Emergency Medical Professionals are among the likeliest to<br>encounter BBN situations. Hence it is imperative that they be formally trained to deal with patients and their<br>families effectively<br>Objective: To assess the training needs regarding ‘Breaking Bad News’ (BBN); amongst Emergency<br>Medical Services (EMS) Professionals.<br>Methodology: The study was conducted amongst 150 Emergency Medical Professionals in Pune, India. A<br>previously tested and validated questionnaire developed by Rasmus etal in June 2020 was utilized for the<br>study. Questionnaire was administered to the respondents through online mode after obtaining informed<br>consent. Responding to all questions was mandatory. The respondents were given one day to fill the<br>questionnaire. Any queries pertaining to questionnaire were clarified during data collection.<br>Discussion: The present study was done to assess the baseline awareness of EMS professionals about BBN<br>and to devise a customized training program for them. Unfortunately, majority of the respondents were<br>not even aware that BBN is a separate subject having specific procedures and protocols followed globally.<br>The lack of training instils fear of facing such situations and adversely affects the mental health of EMS<br>professionals. This can be corrected by utilizing tools like simulation and role play to provide adequate<br>exposure to EMS professionals in a safe environment.<br>Conclusion: The findings of the study point towards an emergent need of formal practical training on this<br>crucial yet ignored aspect of the health care professionals’ duties. Comparative Studies can be conducted in<br>the future to assess the effectiveness of this training program.</p> Parag Rishipathak1, Shrimathy Vijayaraghavan2, Dr. Anand Hinduja3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Awareness and Preparedness regarding Management of Major Traumatic Haemorrhage in Prehospital Settings amongst EMS Professionals, Pune, India <p>Background: In trauma cases acute major hemorrhage in the first few hours of injury is the leading cause of<br>death in as many as 30% – 40% cases. Major hemorrhage can result in the collapse of the circulatory system<br>and the patient can present to the emergency room in a state of shock. EMS professionals are expected to<br>have high degree of awareness as well as should possess the requisite skills and preparedness in the various<br>techniques utilized to control life threatening hemorrhage.<br>Aim: To assess the Awareness and Preparedness regarding management of major traumatic hemorrhage in<br>prehospital settings among EMS students.<br>Methodology: The study was conducted amongst 141 Emergency Medical Service professionals. The<br>original questionnaire consisted of 2 parts, first containing two clinical scenarios testing the awareness level<br>and the second one containing twenty four items pertaining to the preparedness of EMS professionals in<br>major traumatic hemorrhagic situations.<br>Result: The mean score obtained for the parameter awareness was 18.32 out of maximum score of<br>28.Respondents scored well on the parameter pertaining to the management of venous bleeding and amputated<br>limb while scored relatively lower on the items pertaining to the management of capillary bleeding.<br>Conclusion: The present study provides encouraging results with regards on the awareness and preparedness<br>levels of EMS professionals. It also provides insight into future training needs to enhance preparedness in<br>cases of infrequent hemorrhagic emergencies.</p> Parag Rishipathak1 , Navnita Sengupta2 , Anand Hinduja3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Assess Awareness Regarding Child Abuse and Neglect , amongst Emergency Medical Professionals in Pune, India – A Pilot Sludy <p>Introduction: Violence against children is widespread and affects millions of children globally. Violence<br>against children occurs in various forms including physical violence, maltreatment, bullying, emotional or<br>psychological violence, forced and bonded labour, and trafficking.<br>To prevent child abuse, it is essential that a high degree of awareness is essential amongst all stakeholders<br>including parents, educators and medical professionals. The common thread among all studies conducted in<br>medical professionals is the lack of focused training and sensitisation that can enhance the ability to detect<br>such cases and respond to them promptly<br>Objective: To Assess Awareness Regarding Child Abuse and Neglect among Emergency Medical<br>Professionals in Pune<br>Methodology: As part of an awareness initiative by the Institute, an online session was conducted for the<br>Emergency Medical Professionals (EMP) in Pune city. 65 Emergency Medical Professionals working in<br>various hospitals located around all parts of Pune participated in the session. After the session was completed,<br>informed consent was taken from the participants for answering a questionnaire based on the subject.<br>The questionnaire chosen for the study was Child Abuse and Neglect Awareness Scale (CANA-S) a pretested<br>and validated tool. The CANA-S tool comprises 4 sections, each section comprising a subscale dedicated<br>to one of the major categories of child abuse and neglect i.e. physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse,<br>and neglect.<br>Conclusion: Though the overall awareness about Child Abuse and Neglect is satisfactory, further training<br>programs should be encouraged, to achieve near 100 % awareness amongst EMS professionals in order to<br>prevent and report every single case of Child Abuse and Neglect.</p> Parag Rishipathak1 , Monesh Bhandari2 , Anand Hinduja3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Assess Preparedness in Disaster Management among EMS Professionals in Pune, India <p>Introduction: Natural disasters cause an estimated 60,000 deaths every year. Although low-frequency, highimpact events like earthquakes and tsunamis are not preventable, albeit loss of human lives can be prevented<br>by developing an efficient disaster management system. In the last few decades robust emergency response<br>systems, emergency preparedness, resilient infrastructure and accurate forecasting have significantly<br>reduced the death rate caused due to such calamities. Similar to natural disasters, MCIs drastically impact<br>the healthcare system and society at large.<br>Emergency medical services (EMS) professionals play a pivotal role during disasters, mass casualty incidents<br>etc. and are an integral part of disaster management apparatus. The level of awareness and preparedness<br>amongst EMPs with regards to disaster management is primordial. The areas requiring improvement include<br>skillset training strategic and operational planning and familiarity with the emergency preparedness in<br>disaster management. Designing an effective training program for Indian EMS professionals, would require<br>a thorough understanding of the baseline level of preparedness among them.<br>Objective: To assess preparedness in disaster management among Emergency Medical Professionals.<br>Methodology: The study was conducted among Emergency Medical Professionals (EMPs) employed in<br>various hospitals in the city of Pune, India. The questionnaire tool utilized for the study was Emergency<br>Preparedness Information Questionnaire (EPIQ) a pretested and validated tool. The revised EPIQ tool<br>comprises of 42 items and is divided into eight sections.<br>All 42 items were required to be mandatorily filled. The tool was administered through online mode. 119<br>respondents reverted with completely filled questionnaire.<br>Conclusion: Disasters although infrequent, cause significant morbidity and mortality. A high degree of<br>preparedness is expected amongst EMP’s which can only be achieved with regular training and feedback.</p> Parag Rishipathak1, Monesh Bhandari2, Anand Hinduja3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study Between Nineveh and Tikrit Medical School Teachers Perceptions regarding the Effectiveness of OSCE in Clinical Examination <p>Assessment students competence is of much importance especially when evaluation the expected learning<br>out come of medical education and because of increasing students number enrolled in medical colleges , this<br>lead to enhance the chance of malpractice that compromise patient conditions , therefore it is challenging to<br>develop and implement such an objective assessment method in clinical examination. Objective of the study:<br>The study aim is to compare the traditional and innovative medical school teachers perceptions regarding<br>the effectiveness of OSCE in clinical examination . A descriptive cross sectional study has been conducted<br>in both (Nineveh and Tikrit medical college from the period of 15th February till 20 th April / 2014.<br>The study was included 95 medical teachers from both traditional and innovative schools .( 55 teachers<br>from the traditional school and 40 from innovative school). A special questionnaire form was prepared by<br>the researcher through direct interviewing with the study sample. The results show that 63.1% of medical<br>teachers are male , 49.5% aged between 40-49 years ,65.3 % from basic specialty sciences , 51.6% having<br>a period more than 10 years in teaching, 70.9% of traditional school teachers agree that OSCE evaluate the<br>practical objectives in comparison to 67.5% of innovative school teachers agree with that OSCE evaluate<br>knowledge, understanding , practical , and intellectual objectives. The study concluded that more than half<br>of traditional medical teachers agree with the affectivity of OSCE in assessing large number of students<br>without bias while medical teachers from innovative school agree with the objectivity of OSCE in clinical<br>evaluation.</p> Wafa Mahmood Jasim1 , Zahraa Ahmed Hassan2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Nurses Knowledge about Alzheimer’s disease <p>Insufficient information regarding Alzheimer’s disease (AD) among the healthcare workers can harmfully<br>affect outcomes of the patient. This designate the necessity for constant knowledge supplement on AD<br>among them in order to deliver the best care to AD patients as possible and propose the necessity to evaluate<br>the level of AD understanding among nurses and identify their shortages so as to improve care quality and<br>promote life quality for individuals with AD. Aims of the study: Current study designed to (i) evaluate the<br>knowledge concerning AD among the nurses working in the hospitals of Thi-Qar governorate/Iraq, and<br>(ii) measure the relationship between selected nurses’ demographics and their knowledge on AD. A survey<br>design was applied to assess the nurses’ knowledge regarding AD.<br>(i) Self-designed questionnaire was used to collect Socio-demographic characteristics of the participants<br>which included of 7 items (age, gender, years of experience, educational level, department of work, previous<br>training, and previous caregiving experience).<br>(ii) Alzheimer’s Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) were used to assess nurses’ knowledge regarding<br>AD. This study was conducted in four Teaching Hospitals in Thi-Qar governorate /Iraq. A 622 nurses<br>were participated in the study. The results involved answers from 622 nurses. Nurses knowledge was in<br>average (Mean=15.93). Also, there were a statistically significant relationship between certain demographic<br>characteristics (Age, previous training, and previous caregiving experience) and knowledge of the nurses<br>concerning AD. This study exhibited many findings on this important subject, in addition to the demographic<br>characteristics and its relation to nurses’ knowledge.</p> Hussein A. Dabis1 , Amer A. Sachit1 , Fatima J. Shinjar1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Demographic and Clinicohistological Profiles of Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer at Al-El Wiya Maternity Teaching Hospital / Baghdad: A Retrospective Study <p>Knowing the incidence of, breast cancer, diagnosis, and treatment methods given a strategic approach for<br>community awareness and rapid management. This study was aimed to: Estimate the demographic pattern<br>including age, marital status, number of children, mass location, lactation, using contraceptive and smoking<br>habit and to estimate the pattern of BC risk factors including family history, histological type, grading, and<br>staging. The retrospective cross-sectional descriptive design was utilized. A total of 282 confirmed breast<br>cancer female patients for the years 2016 to 2018 were included. Overall result showed that the age of<br>Breast cancer female patients ranged from (25-80) years with a mean (49.12±0.67). Most Breast Cancer<br>cases were diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (73.4%). The percentage of the discovered tumor<br>was dominating the right side of the breast (52.8%). Also, 11% of BC females were diagnosed with stage<br>IIa. And 31.2 % of BC cases were diagnosed as grade II. However, 20.2% of the cases were having a family<br>history with breast cancer. Most of the cases (94.7%) were did not checked for biomarker testing, just 12<br>cases (4.3%) were positive ER. And 3.9% of cases tested for PR only 11 cases were positive. While negative<br>results for HER2/neu was only in 9 cases (3.2%). Current study validates scientific knowledge about BC in<br>Baghdad. Each year, the incidence rates increase especially for age above 49.</p> Zaynab S. Abdulghany1*, Najim Al-Kalidy2 , Maeda H. Mohammad1 , Noor H. Ismail1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge about COVID-19 among Citizens in Thi-Qar Governorate/Iraq: an Online Survey <p>Epidemics of infectious disease, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), necessitates knowledge<br>assessment of pertinent populations as fast as possible because the findings are of great importance to the<br>public health response. This study aims to (i) Assess the knowledge of Iraqi residents about COVID-19 and<br>(ii) Identify the relationship between certain demographic features and the overall knowledge. This study<br>was conducted in Thi-Qar governorate/Iraq, the researcher used an electronic survey questionnaire (using<br>google form), the Uniform Resource Locator was distributed through social media platforms with brief<br>introduction concerning the study. The tool of the study (questionnaire) involved of two parts: demographics<br>(4 items) and knowledge questionnaire (3 sub-domains including 12 items). The total correct answers rate<br>was (88.1%). Lowest answers rate scored in routes of transmission sub-domain (82.5%) while control and<br>prevention (92.7%) sub-domain scored the highest rate. Mean knowledge score of 10.57 (standard deviation:<br>1.5, Range: 0-12). Also, results display highly significant relationships between overall knowledge and<br>demographic characteristics (P &lt;0.001).<br>Conclusion: Most well-educated Iraqi residents, particularly males, are knowledgeable about COVID-19.<br>However, this result should be generalized with caution due to limited sample representativeness.</p> Fatima J. Shinjar1 ., and Ali T. Hameed2, Hussein A. Dabis1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Prevalence of Placenta Previa and Circumstances among Pregnant Women in Fallujah Hospital <p>Placenta previa refers to placenta which is totally or partly implanted in lower segment of the uterus.<br>Mortality and morbidity of mother increase with placenta previa due to the increase in the incidence of<br>bleeding during pregnancy. This study aims to define placenta previa prevalence among pregnant women<br>at AL-Fallujah teaching hospital and to determine the risk factors and their association with placenta previa<br>incidence in al-Fallujah city population.<br>This retrospective cohort study investigated medical registry of 6339 gravid women in al-Fallujah teaching<br>Hospital in Iraq. We find 13 cases of placenta previa (0.21%) amongst the 6339 cases registered. The risk<br>factors that strongly appeared to affect the complication of pregnancy with placenta previa were; advanced<br>maternal age of ? 35, parity, previous curettage and previous cesarean section (P&lt;0.01).<br>The most important pregnancy outcomes of the placenta previa were lost blood of mother more than five<br>hundred cubic centimeter (P = 0.000) and Apgar score of the baby at first minute equal or less than 7 (P =<br>0.003), Placenta accretta and cesarean hysterectomy (P&lt; 0.01).<br>These findings are the same as those recorded in other research for Asian, American and European gravid<br>women, with some other detected factors.</p> Eman Gadban Saleh1 , Yousra Abdulaziz Mohammed2 , Mahmood Nezar Mustafa3 , Zahraa Mohammed4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment the effects of Mastic Gum Resin, Lawsonia Inermis and Quercus Brantii on Cutaneous Wound Healing in BALB/c Mice <p>The request for more efficient and lower-cost therapeutic methods for wound healing remains a challenge<br>for modern medicine. The goals of this investigation were to recognize and look at the impacts of Mastic<br>Gum Resin, Lawsonia Inermis, and Quercus Brantii in wound healing by using histopathological study and<br>blood parameters in BALB/c Mice. Mice were comprised into four groups: Control negative group (n=10),<br>mice were not treated with plant suspension only applied with normal saline; Treatment group I, mice were<br>applied by Mastic Gum Resin (MGR) (n=10), Treatment group II, mice were applied with the Quercus<br>Brantii (n=10), and the last group, Treatment III which were applied with Lawsonia Inermis (LI) (n=10).<br>One ml for each suspension of Mastic Gum Resin (MGR), Quercus Brantii (QB), and Lawsonia Inermis<br>(LI) was applied to the wound directly without suturing for 4 days/week for about 3 weeks. Wound healing<br>effects were evaluated by utilizing the hematological profile for each group with the histopathological study.<br>The cutaneous wound in Mastic Gum Resin and Quercus Brantii treated groups were more effective in<br>progressing wound healing than Lawsonia Inermis treated group regarding histological changes at day 8 and<br>day 18, respectively and blood parameters at day 21.</p> Kwestan Najm Ali1, , Hardi Fattah Marif1 , Hana Sherzad Raoof1 , Snur M. A. Hassan2 , Dereen Omer Ramzi3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical and Histopathological study of black and red grape seed extracts (Vitis Vinifera) effects on the Albino Mice <p>Grape seed extract (GSE) is a complex mixture of several compounds, mostly represented by polyphenols<br>and phenolic acids. The goal of the pilot study was to illustrate the safe dose of GSE in mice model and<br>to assess toxicity that may be initiated by the different concentrations of this plant. Forty-two mice were<br>divided equally into 7 groups; groups 1 attended as control, were only received water, whereas animals of<br>groups 2, 3, 4 were treated orally with 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg b.w. of black grape seed extract respectively,<br>and the remaining groups including 5, 6, and 7 were treated orally with 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg b.w. of<br>red grape seed extract respectively. The animals were observed daily for any sign revealing for activity<br>alterations and toxicity along with their body weight measurement during the experiment for 21 days with<br>histopathological examination. The results gained from this pilot study were recording that the 200 and 400<br>mg/kg b.w. doses of GSE were safe compared to the 800 mg/kg both black and red grape seed extracts<br>because the higher dose led to a reduction in body weight gain and produce changes in the mentioned organs.</p> Snur M. A. Hassan1 , Shno N. Hassan2 , 3 Nian N.N.Maarof Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Pork in Canned Meat Products by using DNA-based Methods <p>Adulteration of meat products became a matter of great concerns of religious, economical, legal and hygienic<br>aspects. Canned meat is one of the most favorable in a lot of countries, which makes it prone to adulteration.<br>The objective of the current study was to identify pork in canned meat for the presence of adulteration in<br>commercial market of Basrah city/Iraq. Thirty canned meat were collected from commercial market. The<br>possibility of a species mixture was tested with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), targeting pork (290bp).<br>Analysis of canned meat revealed negativity results of all samples to pork meat. In conclusion, samples<br>analysed in the current study showed that there was no adulteration by mixing pork meat in canned meat<br>products due to absent production of pork flesh for religion and hygienic aspects. Beef and mutton flesh<br>might be replaced in chicken, horse, and donkey flesh for economic reason.</p> Alaa Tariq Abdulwahid Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Adding Dry Mulberry Leaves (Morusalba) in the Concentrate Diet on Digestibility and Some Blood Parameters in Female Goats <p>This experimental study was conducted at the animal farm of the College of Veterinary Medicine of<br>Baghdad University during the period 15/3/2019 until 30/4/2019. Fourteen female local breed goats, at<br>aged between 1.5–2 years and range weight 23–27kg.The animals were divided into two equal groups as<br>following G1(control) was fed on concentrate diet 2% B.W and alfa - alfa hay .G2 group was fed the same<br>diet and 2% grinding Mulberry leaves of concentrate diet .water was offered freely. For evaluation some<br>animal performance. Bodyweight, some nutrients digestibility, blood picture and biochemical parameters.<br>Results revealed that an excellent improvement was observed in body weight and nutrients digestibility<br>were significantly (P&lt;0.05). Similar effects in blood biochemical parameters (total protein and urea),<br>while no differences were determined in triglycerides and cholesterol. other blood parameters showed that<br>hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) which were significantly higher (P &lt;0.05) and further<br>improved in erythrocytes, leucocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils in the group received Mulberry leaves<br>than control groups.</p> Jassim E. Q. Al-Musawi1 , Wathiq A.H. AL-Jbory2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In Vitro Production of Ovine Embryo in Non-Breeding Season <p>This study was undertaken to show the effect of follicular size and culture media on the results of IVF<br>and IVEP in sheep. A hundred ovaries of slaughtered ewes were taken during non-breeding season. The<br>total number of follicles were 256, while the number of recovered oocytes were 189. The recovery rate<br>of oocyte from large and small follicles were 85.8% and 64.7% respectively. Only grades A and B oocyte<br>have been used with a total number of 148 oocytes. Maturation and fertilization rates in different media;<br>MEM, RPMI1640, DMEM low glucose and DMEM high glucose were 64.4%, 51.2%, 32.4% and 26.6% for<br>maturation rate and 66.6%, 55%, 50% and 37.5% for fertilization rate respectively. There was a statistical<br>difference (p?0.05) in maturation and fertilization rate between different media; the total fertilization and<br>cleavage rate was 56.7% and 70% respectively. The numbers of morula and blastocyst stage were 40% and<br>35% respectively. There was a statistical difference (p?0.05) in morula and blastocyst production in different<br>media. It was concluded that abattoir was a good source of oocyte recovery, and the large follicle give the<br>best morula and blastocyst stage. MEM was a good diluent of semen. mMEM give the best result as cultured<br>media as compared with the other media used in this study.</p> A. A. Omar1 , M. N. Ahmed2 , Audai Sabah Asker3 , A. F. Majeed1 , T.M. Faraj4 , S.J. Rejah4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Buffalo’s Raw Milk in Basrah Province by Sequencing the 16S rRNA. <p>Milk is a nutrient substance that screted from mammary glands of mammals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)<br>of raw milk are natural microflora and might be starter cultures for milk fermentation. This study aimed to<br>isolate LABs from raw buffalo’s milk and identify them by 16S rRNA sequencing for possible uses in the<br>manufacture of food product., A total of 30 buffalo’s raw milk samples were collected from different areas<br>of Basrah province (Shut-Alarab,Al-Zubair,Al-Qurna, Basrah conter and Abi-Elkhasib through the period<br>extended from October to December 2019 to isolate the LABs using conventional bacteriology test and<br>identify them by 16S rRNA sequencing using Polymerase Chain Reaction assay (DNA-based method).<br>DNA extraction was carried out in duplicate for all raw milk samples. The results showed buffalo’s milk<br>raw showed positive result for bacteriological test (Gram positive-catalase negative)and for the presence<br>of the 16S rRNA gene. There was no significant difference among ages, months, and area of the current<br>study. Buffalo’s raw milk at &gt;4-8 year of age showed a higher ratio of LABs (71.43%) compared with that<br>of buffalo at &gt;1-4 year of age (47.83%). In addition, the highest ratio of LABs in buffalo’s raw milk was in<br>October (66.6%) and the lowest one was in November (36.3%). Furthermore, the highest ratio of LABs in<br>buffalo’s raw milk was in Abi- Elkhasib (100 %) and the lowest one was in AL-Zubair (20%). In conclusion<br>Lactic acid bacteria were found in buffalo’s raw milk. Biochemical and genotypic tests are effectively used<br>to identify the LABs. All LABs isolates could be survived well in buffalo’s raw milk in any age per year,<br>months, and area of study. These findings suggest the possibility that LABs isolates from buffalo’s raw milk<br>might use to inhibit pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in the food products and might improve flavour and<br>quality of the food products.</p> Hiba A .Nasear1 , Samar S. Ghazi1 , Alaa T. Abdulwahid2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Efficacy of Some Disinfectants, Sterilizers and Detergents Against Streptococcus Pyogenes Isolates from Tonsillitis Patient in Kirkuk City <p>The aim of the study was to evaluate the inhibitory effectiveness of some disinfectants, sterilizers and<br>detergents commonly used, including: Dettol (Sabtol( ,Bleach, ethanol alcohol, liquid soap, dishwashing<br>liquid, ActiveX and Sterile Gel 85 on bacterial growth Streptococcus pyogenes, The study included<br>collecting (150) swabs from Patients referred to the hospital and from private medical laboratories (age<br>groups were16-40 years) ,the swabs were taken by (Transport media) containing the prepared agricultural<br>medium and transported to the laboratory for the purpose of isolation and diagnosis.<br>The results of the bacterial sensitivity test under study for these disinfectants, sterilizers and detergents<br>according to the type and concentrations of the preparation (50,25,12.5)%, and that alcohol ethanol,<br>hypochlorite sodium and sterile gel(Gel 85)have a high effect on the growth of bacteria Streptococcus<br>pyogenes and with all the concentrations prepared, and while detergents Liquid and liquid soap, dishwashing,<br>had less effect on the bacteria under study, according to the prepared concentrations.</p> Aylan Arslan Ali1 , Shymaa Hassan Ali2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Role of Selenium or Zinc as Organic form on some Antioxidant and Liver Enzymes of Rams <p>This study was conducted to detect the role of the organic form of Selenium or Zinc that supported with<br>yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the liver function and antioxidant enzymes. Twenty-one rams that their<br>average weight of 38±2 kg. The males divided into three groups. The first group (G1) late without treatment,<br>group two (G2) was administrated with (Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Zinc) (0.2 g/kg/ body weight), while<br>group three (G3) was administrated with (Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Selenium) (0.03 g/kg/ body weight).<br>Blood samples were collected from males at zero 45 and 90 days of experiment. The results of AST, ALT and<br>ALP showed non-significant differences between different groups. While the activity antioxidant enzymes<br>recorded a significant improvement, through a significant increased (P?0.05) of Glutathione peroxidase and<br>catalase concentrations of the group that treated with organic selenium or zinc compare with a control group,<br>from another hand, the treated group with organic selenium has been shown the significant increases (P?0.05)<br>of Glutathione peroxidase compared with the animals that treated zinc at the third period. Whereas, the treated<br>groups recoded a significant increment (P?0.05) with the progress of ages. From results concluded that the<br>feeding selenium and zinc as an organic form that fortified by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae significantly<br>increases antioxidant enzyme activity and have a protective role to the liver.</p> Mohannad. K. Aremmt1 , Saad Thabit Jassim Alrawi2 , T.R. Mohammed3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cytotoxic activity of Green Zinc Selenide Nanoparticles Against Hep-G2 Cell Lines <p>In the current study a new technique between the plasma physics, nanoparticle and Biotechnology,structured<br>(ZnSe) prepared by cold plasma technique using atmospheric pressure plasmajet system, Znse NPs were<br>prepared from selenium nitrate and zinc metal sheets to reduce selenium toxicity. The structural and optical<br>properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and absorbance measurements of ZnSe green<br>NPs. The liver cancer cell line (hepG2) was exposed to the ZnSe nanoparticles, and The percentage of<br>cytotoxicity was suppressed after 24, and48 from exposure, induced cytotoxicity is found to be 70.3% in<br>hepG2 after exposed 48h ZnSe green nanoparticle, and the maximum cytotoxicity of the normal cell line<br>(REF) was also examined 42.62% when exposure ZnSe nanoparticles and 16.6% when exposure ZnSe green<br>nanoparticles.</p> Sabah N. Mazhir1 , Kadhim A. Aadim2 , Mohammad M. F. Al-Halbosiy3 ,Nisreen Kh.Abdalameer4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cytotoxicity of lipopolysaccharide extracted from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on Breast Cancer Cell Line mcf-7 <p>Lipopolysaccharide was selected to investigate its effect on cell line of breast cancer in vitro, therefore<br>lipopolysaccharide was extract from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium followed by evaluation of its<br>cytotoxicity. The experiment was divided into three parts. The first part included isolation and identification<br>of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium from 302 samples included 201diarrheic patient samples and 101 food<br>samples of poultry meat and as well as the isolates identification on molecular level through used of three<br>genes (invA, STM4497 and Stn) genes detected using the technique of PCR, the results shown there were<br>seven bacterial isolates diagnosed as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The second part of the experiment<br>was extract of LPS from 10.66 g of dry weight of bacteria by hot phenol method. The concentration of LPS<br>in phenolic phase was 435.57?g/ml while in aqueous phase was 381.76 ?g/ml. The LPS molecular weight<br>was estimate which was equivalent to 93325 for phenolic and 71614 Dalton for aqueous phases. The third<br>part of experiment was to study the effect of cytotoxicity in cell line of breast cancer by used different<br>concentrations of lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide showed cytotoxicity on the breast cancer cell line<br>mcf-7 in both phenolic and aqueous phases of LPS. The results showed the highest rate of inhibition of<br>breast cancer cells at the concentration of 350 ?g/ml by 61.67% in the phenolic phase while the rate of<br>inhibition was 53.33% in the same concentration of the aqueous phase.</p> Wissam Qadry Mutaab Alqaissy1 , Aziz L.M.2 , Abdul-Rahman Ibrahim A.3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Antiseptic Resistant Genes in Colistin- Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MDR Klebsiella penumoniae <p>Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect the existence of developments in resistance to biocide of<br>Pseudomonas aeruginosa resist of colistin and in multi-drug resistance Klebsiella pneumonia in the hospital<br>environment. Materials and Methods: The study included 25 isolates of K. pneumoniae and 30 isolates of<br>P. aeruginosa. Isolated from different clinical and environmental samples in Baghdad hospitals. Antibiotic<br>sensitivity tests and their susceptibility to multiple antibiotic resistance and sensitivity tests were studied for<br>the most commonly used antiseptics at the preventive level (benzalkonium chloride). The test was carried<br>out using the micro dilution broth method, following Institution of Clinical and Laboratory Standards<br>guidelines, PCR was performed for detection of blaTEM, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , qacC/D, qac?E1and qacE beta<br>lactamase and antiseptic genes. Results: A high rate of multiple resistance to the most used antibiotics<br>was observed, so the rate of resistance to all antibiotics that was used was 16.0% of P. aeruginosa and 4%<br>of K. pneumoniae possesses comprehensive resistance to all antibiotics that were used and the resiste of<br>colistin in P. aeruginosa was 36% .The prevalence of ESBLs was 36.0% and 48.0 % of P.aeruginosa and<br>K.penomoniea respectively ,in addition to their strong ability to form biofilms 80 % in P.aeruginosa and<br>94% in k.pneumoniea and their ability to resist Antiseptics . The percentage of resistance to antiseptic of<br>benzilkonium chloride showed the highest concentration of P.aeruginosa was 33.3% and K. pneumoniae<br>37.5% . The result of ESBL and antiseptic genes detection clarify, the percent of production genes were<br>(10%), (40%) blaTEM; (6.66%),(56%)blaSHV ;(33%),(64%) blaCTX-M ;(70%),(44%) qacC/D; ( 80% ),(56%)<br>qac?E1 in P.aeruginosa and K.pneumoniea respectively and no any isolate carried qacE gene. production of<br>extended spectrum ?-lactamase genes in addition to their strong ability to form biofilms 80 % in p.aeroginosa<br>and 94% in k.pneumoniea and their ability to resist a antiseptics . The percentage of resistance to antiseptic<br>of benzilkonium chloride showed the highest concentration of P. aeruginosa was 33.3% and K. pneumoniae<br>37.5%, the result of beta lactamase and antiseptic genes detection clarify PCR was performed for detection<br>of blaTEM, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , qacC/D, qac?E1and qacE beta lactamase and antiseptic genes . Conclusion:<br>Our observations indicate that there is a significant correlation between the ability of bacteria to resist<br>multiple antibiotics in addition to their ability to resist the most commonly used antiseptics, due to their<br>physiological nature and increased virulence factors.</p> Noor S. Hassan1 , Mohamed F. Al –marjani2, Nadema H. Hussain3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of HMA5, PCs and MT2 Genes Expression in Vicia faba Under Heavy Metal Stress Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR <p>In order to achieve phytoremediation during agricultural production, it is essential to identify high genotypes<br>yield that is able of accumulating many types of heavy metals not in the edible parts which have significant<br>nutritional value but in the non-edible parts. This study conducted to estimate the heavy metal ATPases 5<br>(HMA5), Phytochelatins synthase (PCs) and metallothionein 2 (MT2) genes expression in plant Vicia faba<br>in response to an elevated concentration of copper and zinc in nutrient media. Using Quantitative RealTime PCR (RT-qPCR) technique, the results of hydroponic culture methods with high concentrations of<br>copper (75 µMol / L) and high concentration of zinc (500 µ Mol / L) showed high expression level for the<br>three genes of Vicia faba plant compared with control. Established that the expression of the genes under<br>the influence of copper ion was higher than the expression under zinc ion influence. Besides that, gene<br>expression increased with increased exposure time to zinc ion, also in the case of copper ion exposure time,<br>all genes expression slightly increases with increased exposure time. In response to excess copper and zinc,<br>an increase in the expression of genes (HMA5, PCs and MT2) involved in plant protection, providing the<br>possibility of its transfer from the cytosol to the apoplast demonstrate that this plant might be useful for<br>phytoremediation of moderately polluted areas with copper or zinc.</p> Khalid H. Alobaidi1 , Zaid N. Altememi2 , Dhafar N. Al-Ugaili3 , Jameel R. Al-Obaidi4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Tn916 Conferring Tetracycline Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes <p>Background: During the past twenty years, tetracycline resistance average has increased in Streptococcus<br>pyogenes in many countries. Pneumococcal resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline is associated with<br>the insertion of the erm(B) into the transposons of the Tn916 family. To get datum that may be beneficial in<br>resolving the diffusion of antimicrobial resistance, therefore, we can be specified antibiotic resistant genes<br>and their corporation with mobile genetic elements. This study was proceed to explore the genetic regulation<br>of Tn916-carrying tet(M) in clinical isolates of S.pyogenes . Methods: A twenty two of S.pyogenes isolates<br>were assemble from patients suffering from upper respiratory infection, and the susceptibility of these<br>isolates to tetracycline antibiotics was examined. Molecular detection of Tn916 was carried out by employ<br>certain primers to amplify tet(M) gene in each isolates.<br>Results: The results appeared that the resistance of the tetracycline group was 68.1%, 54.5%, 36.3% and<br>31.8% for minocycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline, respectively. Genetic analysis showed<br>that Tn916 was detected in eight of the S.pyogenes clinical isolates resistant to tetracycline. Conclusions:<br>Our findings suggest that clinical isolates of S. pyogenes harboring a copy(s) of Tn916 conferring tetracycline<br>resistance. One possible explanation for resistance to tetracycline in these isolates is due to tet gene, which<br>was most likely located on Tn916.</p> Hameed M. Jasim1 , Abbas Aboud Farhan2 , Hanan Raheem Hassooni3, Adil Hassan, Alhusseiny4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Soft Cheese in Reducing of Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes for Rats with Fat Disorder <p>Aim: This study was designed to determine the impact of soft cheese upon total cholesterol (TC),<br>triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL),<br>very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and the efficacy of liver enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP in<br>hyperlipidemia experimental Sprague-Dawley rats. Materials &amp; Methodology: Rats were divided into five<br>groups (six rats each), healthy control group, hyperlipidemia control group, and three hyperlipidemia groups<br>were fed on regular soft cheese (T1), cheese supplementation with probiotics (T2), and cheese supported<br>with Nigella sativa L (T3). Following 28 days, Result: the results revealed a significant decrease (p&lt;0.05) in<br>total cholesterol in groups of rats that were feeding on chees T1, T2 and T3 (179.83, 138.71 and 135.06 mg/<br>dl, respectively) compared to hyperlipidemia control group (250.98 mg/dl), T1, T2 and T3 groups showed a<br>significant decrease in LDL levels (153.45, 104.39, 97.47 mg/dl respectively) compared to hyperlipidemia<br>control groups (246 mg/dl). However, an increase of HDL levels were noticed in the same groups in contrast,<br>T3 group revealed significantly decreased in the liver enzymes(28.45, 67.29, 98.16 IU/L) of ALT, AST and<br>ALP respectively compared to hyperlipidemia control group (41.27, 88.35, 108.72)IU/L respectively.</p> Hiba Sabah Elttayef1, Mohammed Ahmed Jassim2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus in Baghdad City <p>In this study, the lumpy skin disease virus was isolated on the lamb testis cell culture for the first time in<br>Iraq. Forty skin nodules were collected from cows suspected with lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Baghdad<br>governorate. Real-time PCR detected LSD virus in 100% of these skin nodules. After that, the lamb testis<br>cell culture was prepared for virus isolation. The prepared samples (0.5 ml) were inoculated into prepared<br>lamb testis cell culture. Cytopathic effects (CPE) of the virus have appeared after 24hr post-inoculation and<br>completed within 72hr. The noticed CPE were cell rounding, aggregation of cells, syncytia formation, and<br>detached of the cells from the cell sheet. Fluids of lamb testis cell culture were examined by the real-time<br>PCR to confirm that the observed CPE was due to the LSD virus. Cell culture fluids were positive by the<br>real-time PCR (100%). Real-time PCR was sensitive for the detection of the LSD virus DNA in skin nodules,<br>and it was a suitable confirmatory diagnosis tool of the virus in the tissue culture fluid. Finally, the locally<br>isolated LSD virus in this study is valuable in future studies for making a vaccine to control the disease.</p> Rasha Basim Abdullatif1 , Aida Bara Allawe2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Laboratory Evaluation of the Entomopathogenic Fungi Penicillium Marneffei and Verticillium lecanii Against Culex Pipeins Molestus <p>Background:The biological efficacy of Penicillium marneffei ,Verticilluim lecanii in the biological control<br>of the second and third larval phases and adult male and female mosquitoes was studied.Culex pipeins<br>molestus. Aim of the study: This research aimed to isolate P. marneffei and V.lacanil associated with C.<br>pipeines mosquitoes and compare the biological efficiency of P. marneffei and V. lecenii in their biological<br>control second and third instar and adult for the Cx.pipeins.Materials and methods: study was conducted for<br>a period of 3 months from March 2020 to May 2020. Results: killing increased with increasing concentration<br>due to an increase in the number of developing spores The results of the laboratory tests are shown V.lecanii<br>fungi. at concentration 2 × 67 spore / ml highest mortality ratio 89.63% for the second larval age after 72<br>hours, the killing rate was 81.59 % for males and 92.67% for females after 72 hours when using 2 × 67 spore<br>/ ml . Conclusion: Entomopathogenic Fungi P. marneffei and . lecanii can use secondary metabolites in the<br>manufacture of a fungicide for the purpose of controlling Cx.pipines mosquitoe.</p> Rabah H Saady1 , Abdulrahman Jihad Mansoor2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Characterizations of a High Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 in Iraq <p>High pathogenicity avian influenza subtype H5N8 viruses were detected in different areas in Iraq at the<br>last 2017 and early 2018 and 2019 and the disease was detected clinically. This disease is responsible for<br>high economic losses for poultry industry and threat human health, so that, this study was conducted for<br>molecular detection, characterization and phylogenic analysis of avian influenza in Iraq. AI subtype H5N8 is<br>an infectious disease primarily in birds and responsible for severe respiratory illness which associated with<br>a high percentage of morbidity and mortality in wild and domestic birds. During this study one hundred fifty<br>different samples including (trachea, larynx and lung) were collected from different areas of broiler chicken<br>from Baghdad and its surrounding regions during winter 2019. Avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 was<br>detected by using real time RT-PCR technique, and specific kits (KyltR Germany) for AIV subtypes H5 and<br>N8 were used respectively. The results revealed that (15) samples out of (150) collected samples were gave<br>positive results for avian influenza H5 these positive samples were prepared for a second step of detection<br>by RT-PCR test specific for N8 subtype the results revealed that only (12) out of (15) tested samples were<br>positive for H5N8 (8%).Genetic sequencing of isolates and phylogenic analysis of three selected isolates of<br>(H5N8) bellowing to different areas indicate that all strains bellowing to H5 class ( high pathogenic<br>avian influenza revealed that they are closely related to Egyptian strain (A/ duck/ Egypt/ F446/2017.<br>H5N8-MH893737.1) (with 97.6% identity). Analysis of the mono-basic amino acid (PQIEPR / GLF) at<br>the hemagglutinin cleavage site revealed there is no deletion of the stalk region with the neuraminidase<br>indicated that the isolates is a typical HPAI strain (A / duck / Egypt / F446/2017). The similarity of the<br>nucleotide sequence analysis of hemagglutinin gene revealed that there was a high homology (97.6%) to that<br>of A/duck/Egypt/F446/2017 H5N8 .</p> Ahmed Neama Mahmood1 , Aida Bara Allawe2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Novel Molecular Detection of BPV-10 and BPV-11 Genotypes in Al- Anbar, and Baghdad Provinces <p>In this study, the prevalence of diverse bovine papilloma viruses in cutaneous lesions was investigated in Iraqi<br>cows. Fourteen specimens were taken from udder growths of Iraqi dairy cows, which demonstrated rice grain-like<br>and small, raised flesh-like appearance. DNA was extracted from the teat wart samples, then was amplified by the<br>polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers against BPV-10 (403 bp) and BPV-11 (560 bp). PCR results revealed<br>mixed infections of BPV-10 and BPV -11 in four samples, while the remaining ten samples were infected with BPV10 only. These findings demonstrate the presence of bovine papillomaviruses 10 and 11 in rice grain-like cutaneous<br>lesions on the teats of cows and multiple elevated growths on udder. The detection and report of the BPV-10 and<br>BPV -11 genotypes in the current study is for first time in Iraq, which are known in the Middle East region, are crucial<br>for disease control measurements.</p> Mohammed A. Hamad1 , Murtadha A. Al-Mudhafr2 , Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari3, Ahmed J. Neamah4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Stimulation of Staphylococcus aureus Ligase Enzyme by Magnesium Ion <p>Ligases enzymes were discovered as a member of the nucleotidyl transferase family. Here in this paper, DNA<br>Ligase is extracted from S. aureus works with the cofactor NAD+ to make a phosphodiester bond and reform<br>between the 3’hydroxyl and 5’phosphate DNA end. Staphylococcus aureus-DNA Ligases Enzyme type A<br>(SLE-A) contains two essential domains; NTase and OB- fold domain, which are the most essential domains<br>for the enzyme function. The main aim of the study is to investigate the activity of SLE-A in the presence<br>of magnesium ion (Mg+2) by evaluating several kinetic parameters on a time course. The result showed that<br>SLE-A has optimal activity at 500 µM of Mg+2. Furthermore, the low number of Equilibrium Association<br>Constant (Km value) explains the binding affinity between DNA ligase of Staphylococcus aureus SLE-A<br>enzyme and Mg+2 ion was very high and sold.</p> Arqam Mohamad Alomari1 , Aseel A. H. Al-Layla2 , Ibrahim Faris Ali3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Bacterial Contaminants and some Chemical Elements of the Euphrates River and Al-Fallujah City Drainage <p>This article included bacteriological and some chemical elements study of pollution from Euphrates river<br>and Al-Flalloja city drainage. The study of four selected sites which are Euphrates river (T), Al-Falahat (F)<br>drainage, Al-Ne’emya (N) drainage, and Al-Bo Alwan (B) drainage in the period 11-13/December/2016<br>Bacteria were isolated and diagnosed in water samples depending on their cultural, microscopic biochemical<br>tests. Results showed that the water samples were polluted with bacteria produced by human and animal<br>wastes, 7out 20 isolates were selected and diagnosed. The study included counting the concentration of<br>some chemical ions such as Sodium, Potassium using a flame photometer, the highest concentration of<br>Sodium was in station F and the highest concentration of Potassium was at the station B, concentrations of<br>carbonates and bicarbonates were measured using titration method, the highest concentration of bicarbonates<br>ion was at station T, it also showed no carbonates in a water sample</p> Shaimaa M. Dawd Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of some immunological variables resulted from Balb/c mice injection with Hydatid cysts protoscolex antigens <p>Human cyst disease is a common epidemic disease between humans. The current study was carried out to<br>study some of immunological parameters (the immunoglobins IgG, IgA, the complement proteins C3, C4,<br>the MIF of PMNs cells, the reducing of NBT and the phagocytosis of Candida albicans) in the Balb/c mice<br>injected with antigen of protoscolex. By using (15) BALb/c mice and the antibodies IgG, IgA in addition to<br>the complements (C3, C4) that were measured as well as the Migration Inhibition Factor (MIF). The results<br>showed that there were significant differences in IgG (13458) mg/dl. IgA (4773) mg/dl, C3 (359.7) mg/dl,<br>C4 (90.80) mg/dl levels with injection of 0.5 ml in muscle and the MIF levels (1.49) with injection of (0.75)<br>ml. so between the test and the control up (p?0.05). This might be a good candidate for immunization and<br>diagnosis of Hydatid cysts in the intermediate host of E. granulosus.</p> A. O. Humide1 , Abbdalwahab Hussain2 , Ezeddin A. Albayyar3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of the Biochemical Markers of Liver and Renal Function in Moderate -To- Heavy Cigarette Smokers’ Men in Mosul City <p>Smoking has been associated with adverse health effects on body organs. The effect of smoking on the<br>liver’s enzymes and kidney’s parameters, and their relationships with some blood parameters need more<br>evaluation. This study aimed to investigate the association of cigarette smoking to liver and kidney functions<br>in 68 males, all of them not suffer from chronic disease and their ages were between (25-45) years, by<br>estimating the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline<br>phosphatase (ALP) as liver enzymes as well as estimating of creatinine, urea, and uric acid in the serum<br>of smokers comparing with non-smokers groups (control). Also, this work aimed to study the effects of<br>smoking on some blood profiles, white blood cell counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), hemoglobin<br>(HB), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and platelet (PLT) . The results showed a significant increase in<br>(ALT), (AST), (ALP) enzymes, urea, creatinine (WBC), (RBC), (HB) and (MCV) ,the result also showed<br>a significant decrease in uric acid while no significant decrease in (PLT) in smokers comparing to nonsmokers’ group. In conclusion a cigarette smoking negatively affected in biochemical markers of liver and<br>kidney function.</p> Enaam Ahmed Hamza Al-Dagestani Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Dual-Species Biofilms, Monosaccharide and D-Amino Acids on Pseudomonal Biofilm <p>Background: The major therapeutic failure in clinical settings is due to problematic biofilm-producing<br>bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study aims to investigate the effect of dual-species biofilms,<br>monosaccharide, and D-amino acids on pseudomonal biofilm. Methodology: A total of 130 patients with<br>catheter-associated urinary tract and wound infections were involved in this study. Quantitative biofilm<br>assay by alginate beads was performed. The dual-species biofilms have been done, and the effect of<br>ciprofloxacin, monosaccharides, and D-amino acids on sessile cells was detected. Conclusion: This study<br>suggested that the combined action of both monosaccharides (glucose and galactose) and the combination of<br>each one with ciprofloxacin is the enhancing of P. aeruginosa biofilm and increases survival strategy against<br>ciprofloxacin. In contrast, a noticeable biofilm reduction and marked synergistic action for ciprofloxacin<br>have been determined in the combination of the two D-amino acid, alanine, and glycine in comparison to<br>the effect of each one alone. Furthermore, the dual biofilm of P. aeruginosa with each of K. pneumonia and<br>E. coli, markedly reduced pseudomonal biofilm, while co-culture with S. aureus revealed strong support of<br>pseudomonal pathogenicity and increased its biofilm production.</p> Al-Moghira Khairi Al-Qaysi1 ; Safaa Abed Latef Al-Meani2 ; Mushtak T.S. Al-Ouqaili3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Analysis of Nucleotide Sequences of the 16S rRNA Gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Clinical Samples <p>Pseudomonas aeruginosa consider one of the opportunistic pathogens is able to infection almost all body<br>tissue as a result of having it a variety of virulence factors that contribute greatly to pathogenic events in the<br>host this bacterium has been responsible for 30% of pneumonia, 19% of urinary tract infections and 10%<br>of bloodstream infections. And leads to nosocomial pathogens causing infections that usually develop late<br>during hospital stay. Consequently the aim of this research was to classify and characterize P. aeruginosa<br>isolated from various clinical samples from Iraqi patients by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene.</p> Atheer Abdulameer Raheem1 , Hasanain Khaleel Shareef1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Different Intensive Physical Performances by athletes on Selected Hematological Parameters <p>The aim of this review study is to compare the effects of different intensive physical performances and<br>competitions from several studies include (football, basketball, 24h marathon race and cycling) games on<br>hematological parameters of males players. And to find the one with strongest effect on those parameters<br>among the performances. The Hematological parameter include white blood cell count (WBC ) , red<br>blood cell count (RBC) count , hemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV) , mean<br>corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelet count<br>(PLT). Iron and Feritten level also estimated in one study. When comparing the blood values for all the<br>players before and after the competitions period, there were significant differences in prevalence of most of<br>blood parameters in all studies but the most impact was in 24 h marathon performance of 11 male runners<br>who raced for 24 hours around a 400 m oval track, covering at least 100 km of distance. The runners changed<br>course every 4 hours and were allowed to rest and freely consume food and water. The blood samples were<br>obtained from subject in 2 and 9 days prior to competition and after competition. The result was showing that<br>the the runners suffering from distinguish blood anemia appear after competition in 2 day. The findings show<br>that the hematological parameters could be affected by endurance of performance depending on competition<br>time period and intensity of physical performance.</p> Shumoos H Alwaid Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of CoQ10 and IGFBP-1 in Obese Male Patients with Diabetic Mellitus Type II <p>Study the role of CoQ10 and IGFBP-1 in obese male patients with diabetic mellitus type 2. ELISA method<br>was used to assay Serum CoQ10 and IGFBP-1. Blood was taken with drawn sample from 30 obese normal<br>patients with age range (40-60) years, 30 diabetic patients with age range (40-60) years at duration of disease<br>(1-5) years and 30 normal healthy patients. The mean difference between T2DM according to CoQ10<br>(12.5±1.1) was decreased than the mean of IFG (21.8±3.2) (P 0.002) and the mean difference between<br>T2DM according to IGFBPs (0.65±0.06) was decreased than the mean of IFG (3.2±0.3) (P 0.000). While<br>no significant difference between mean age of DM2 patients (55.5±1.06), and IFG (55.6±0.9) (p 0.90), no<br>significant difference between mean BMI of DM2 patients (27.7±0.8), and IFG (27.8±0.5) (p 0.94). there<br>were significant differences in DM and IFG obese groups (G1 and G2) according to age (51.66 ±2.10,<br>51.80±1.16) P (0.02), however, there were significant differences between DM and IFG in Normal weight<br>groups (G5 and G6) according to age (59.93±0.94, 51.13±1.80) P (0.00), while no significant differences<br>between DM and IFG in Over weight groups (G3 and G4) according to age (54.93±1.17, 58.00±1.73) p(0.21),<br>there were significant differences between DM2 and IFG in obese groups (G1 and G2) according to BMI<br>(33.70±1.20, 31.11±0.37) P (0.01), ), no significant difference between overweight (G3 and G4) according<br>to BMI (27.72±0.30, 27.52±0.34) P(0.66), and no significant difference between normal weight (G5 and G6)<br>according to BMI (21.84±0.45, 21.53±0.50) P(0.65). There were significant differences between DM and<br>IFG in obese groups (G1 and G2) according to CoQ10 (7.2±0.4, 4.9±0.4) P (0.002), and IGFBP (0.3±0.02,<br>1.2±0.19) P (0.005).</p> Dina A. M. Al-Khafajy1 , Maysaa J. Majeed2 , Omar F. Al-Azzawi3 ; Ayad Ismael Khaleel4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histological and Morphological Study of Carcinoma Breast of Women <p>Previous studies have referred that the breast cancer, with particular histological traits, can be affected by<br>the reproductive factors. In the current study, we employed 30 breast cancer cases for women in age (15-55<br>years) to study how factors such as microscopic screening, gross examination, as well as the age, can impact<br>on histological type and grade of tumor. After the organ eradication from the patients, the tissue samples<br>were picked, as fast as possible, and placed in 10% formalin directly. In such a way, we maintained the<br>cells and cellular components in a situation that can be described as similar as possible to the living cells<br>and preserved the antigenicity in order to be processed without any modification. Samples were divided<br>depending on various factors, such as anatomical location, the nodal status, and tumor relationship to<br>surgical margin, weight, size, and age. Each sample was sectioned and fixed onto a private embedding<br>cassette to keep the tissue treatment. The histochemical stains, which is include the eosin and hematoxylin,<br>had utilized to afford a disparity to tissue sections. We found that the majority of the 30 women with breast<br>cancer were at age (31-40 years) and that 12 patients of them were involved left breast, while the other 18<br>patients included right breast. In agreement with previous studies that have investigated the level of risk<br>of histological subgroups, our study concludes that the link between breast cancer risks and reproductive<br>factors is vary depending on the histological structure of the tumor.</p> Aaya Hamid Al-Hakeem1 , Marwa Ahmed Meri1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Molecular Identification of proteus mirabilis isolated from hospitals in the capital Baghdad <p>Proteus mirabilis a Gram-negative bacteria belonging the Enterobacteriaceae family and that causes several<br>infections to patients such as urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, wounds and burns, in addition<br>to other infections. This study aimed to isolate and diagnose Proteus mirabilis bacteria collected from<br>different samples of infection sources from patients present in many hospitals using traditional diagnostic<br>like morphological and biochemical tests as well as molecular methods. The Identification system for Gram<br>negative bacteria GN24 KIT had used to detect Proteus mirabilis species . The results of using this kit were<br>confirmed by the molecular diagnosis of bacteria through the PCR technique of the 16S rRNA gene, where<br>the confirmation rate was 100%. The PCR sample was analyzed in Macrogen Corporation–Korea for Sanger<br>sequencing using ABI3730XL, an automated DNA sequences. the findings were obtained and analyzed via<br>genius software in order to Synthesis of the phylogenetic tree of the isolated strains that resulted from the<br>discovery of a new global strain of Proteus mirabilis bacteria and was recorded in NCBI genebank with<br>accession number (MN 700085) and name (M.K.84 ).</p> Mohammed Kaittan Abed1 , Hasanain Khaleel Shareef2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diabetes and COVID-19 Pandemic: A Potential Mechanisms: A Review <p>Diabetes is the greatest public condition among patients with coronavirus disease and has been found to<br>affect prognosis worldwide. It is revealed that hyperglycemia is one of the elements that elevates the risk of<br>consequences in these persons. This study designed to analysis the overall features of the novel coronavirus<br>and provide an understanding of the coronavirus disease in diabetic patients, and its treatment.<br>These patients are usually treated with various medications and this review clarify the role of metformin<br>and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors as helpful factors in these patients. Recommendations are made on<br>the probable pathophysiological mechanisms of the association between coronavirus and diabetes, and its<br>management. Additional study about this association and its clinical managing is necessary</p> Hind Shakir Ahmed1 , Hiba Shakir Ahmed2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Training with Rubber Ropes and Controlling the Resistance Arm on the Response Time and some Biomechanical Variables for the Skill of Sending for Wheelchair Tennis Players <p>Training with rubber ropes is one of the modern training methods that help to develop the absolute strength<br>of specific parts of the body and according to the skill performance, especially when training with different<br>muscle moments that cause the movement of those limbs according to variable resistances, especially for<br>wheelchair tennis players, so the research was applied to a sample of tennis players with chairs Using these<br>exercises to find out their effect on the serve skill mechanism, this exercises were applied for a period of (10)<br>weeks, on (6) players who are the best players in this competition, and the researcher used foreign and Arab<br>sources and the international information network, observation, experimentation, tests and measurements as<br>means of collecting information.<br>A video camera for filming and using kinematic analysis to extract the mechanical variables, and the<br>researcher came up with several conclusions, including that training according to the results of the analysis<br>and using the change of resistance arms when training with rubber ropes was effective in developing the<br>speed of the centers of the striking arm parts of the research sample. The exercises led to an improvement in<br>the technical performance interdependence (the research sample), which inevitably affected the achievement<br>of good achievement, as well as in improving the response time of the research sample</p> Maytham Hadi Mahdi Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antioxidant Activity and Phytominerals Study of Some Asteraceae Species Growth in Western of Lraq <p>The antioxidant efficacy of aqueous extracts of twelve plants of the Asteraceae family, which is from natural<br>flora, was investigated by the method of scavenging free radicals of the compound Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl<br>(DPPH) namely Aster subulatus, Calendula officinalis, Carduus pycnocephalus, Carthamus Oxantea, and<br>Carthamus Oxantea. linearis, Launaea nudicaulis, Sonchus maritimus and Sonchus oleraceus, this activity<br>is compared to an inhibition ratio (IC50) half of the maximum inhibitor concentration of 50 of the standard<br>ascorbic acid (vitamin C) antioxidant. the most effective of which was Carhamus oxyacantha, which<br>reached 68.430% and Centaurea pallescens 66.432%, and the lowest effectiveness in, Launaea nudicaulis<br>was 40.430% and Koelpinia linearis was 43.816%. The mineral elements were analyzed in the aerial part<br>of plants : (K, Na, , Mg, Ca, and P) using Atomic absorption (Spectrophotometer apparatus 5000 (Atomic) -<br>the results showed that plants contain very good ratios of elements as the best plant in terms of content was<br>Carduus pycnocephalus and Carthamus oxykontha.</p> Ashwaq Talib Hameed1 , Nbaa Mutea Abid Al-alh2 , Asmaa Wajeh Jumaa2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Cement Spacer Thickness on Retentive Strength of Monolithic Zirconia Crowns Cemented with Different Luting Agents (A Comparative in-vitro Study) <p>Aims of Study: to evaluate and compare the retentive strength and the failure-modes of monolithic zirconia<br>crowns with different cement spacer thickness, cemented with two different types of luting agents.<br>Materials and Methods: Forty sound maxillary first premolar teeth were divided into two main groups<br>(n=20): Group A: cement spacer thickness of 80?m; Group B: cement spacer thickness of 120?m. The<br>groups were further subdivided into two subgroups (n=10): (A1, B1) cemented with Panavia F2.0 resincement; (A2, B2) cemented with Riva luting plus RMGIC. All the teeth were prepared to receive monolithic<br>zirconia crowns with the following features: (6º convergence angle, 0.8mm deep chamfer finishing line,<br>4mm axial wall height with planar occlusal reduction). Afterwards, the teeth were scanned and the crowns<br>were fabricated and cemented. Zirconia crowns were pulled-out along its path of insertion using universal<br>testing machine. Failure stresses were calculated in MPa. Failure-modes was assessed using magnifyinglens (2.5X).<br>Results: The highest mean retentive values (in Mpa) was recorded by subgroup B1 (8.651); followed by<br>subgroup B2 (7.765); subgroup A1 (7.309) and subgroup A2 (6.875). Independent t-test showed a statistically<br>significant difference between A1 and B1 subgroups. Concerning the failure-mode, the majority of samples<br>revealed adhesive failure between teeth and cement.<br>Conclusion: All the tested crowns have mean retentive values within the clinically acceptable limit,<br>increasing cement space resulted in a significant increase in the retention when Panavia F2.0 used as a luting<br>agent, while, it has no significant effect on the retention when RIVA luting plus was used.</p> Reyam H. Ali1 , Mohammed Kassim2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 HIV/AIDS Status in Baghdad/ Iraq Over Ten Years (2010-2019) <p>Background: Human immunodeficiency Virus and/or Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS)<br>hitherto represents a serious global health problem.<br>Objective: To disclose the status and trend of HIV/AIDS in Baghdad/ Capital of Iraq throughout the last ten<br>years (2010 -2019).<br>Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of the available data on new HIV cases for the last ten years<br>was conducted in Baghdad/ Capital of Iraq from August 2018 to December 2019. The data included age,<br>sex, annual number of new HIV cases, AIDS-related deaths, years of diagnosis, and risk factors associatedHIV transmission. All suspected HIV/AIDS cases were examined clinically and tested initially for anti-HIV<br>antibodies by ELISA and confirmed by western blot technique.<br>Results: A cumulative annual number of new HIV cases registered for the last ten years was 287. The trend<br>of number of new HIV cases increased gradually and steadily over successive ten years 2010-2019. The<br>majority of them were males (79.1 %) and adults (?15 years old) (98.2%). Sexual transmission had a higher<br>rate of new HIV infection (81.9%) mainly through heterosexuals (79.2 %).<br>Conclusion: Although the trend of the annual number of HIV cases increased with time, Baghdad remains<br>within the area of low HIV prevalence, and there is a potential risk for exposure to an outbreak or epidemic/<br>endemic if no implementation of proper and effective national strategy plans on HIV/AIDS in place. Adult<br>males play a role in rising the risk of illness. Sexual practices mainly through heterosexuals was the major<br>route of HIV transmission.</p> Jalil Ibrahim Saleh PhD1 , Haitham Numan2 , Nawar Sahib Khalil Ph.D.1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Detection of nan, tly and dsA gene of Propionibacterium acnes Isolated from acne vulgaris in Babylon Province <p>Propionibacterium acnes virulence factors can be divided into chromosomal, plasmid and bacteriophages<br>encoded virulence factors. Many of the Propionibacterium acnes virulence factors, are camp5, gehA, tly,<br>sialidases, neuraminidases, endoglycoceramidases, lipases, and hemolysins genes are clustered in certain<br>areas of the chromosome. A total of 200 clinical acne samples were collected during this study which<br>obtained from patient Suffering from acne vulgaris who to the out-patient clinics and delivery dermatology<br>unite of acne, in hospitals of Babylon Province: AL-Hashmeia general Hospital and Marjan hospital,<br>during the period from April to November 2019. Out of 200 specimens 14 (7.7%)were detected by culture<br>and vitek2 compact9 (64.3%)of them were confirmed by PCR using target gene of Propionibacterium acnes<br>PCR was conducted to determine the some virulence genes of the isolates by using primers nan, tly and dsA<br>gene. The PCR amplification products were visualized by electrophoresis on 1% agarose gels for 35min at<br>70v. The sizes of the amplicons were determined by comparison to the 200 bp allelic ladder. Among isolates<br>studies it was found that nan gene present in 6/9(66.7%). isolates, dsA gene it was found in only 3isolates<br>(33.4%) while tly gene it was found in all isolates(100%) .</p> Rabab J H AL-Hasseny1 , Lamees A. Abdul-Lateef 2 , Hussein Abbas AL-Sultany3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Cinnamon Gargel on Healing of Aphthous <p>This study aimed to show the impact of cinnamon mouth gargle on Aphtous ulcer and there role on recovery<br>process of this ulcer.<br>This take a look at became carried-out on one hundred sufferers affected by Aphtous ulcer that typically<br>visitor clinics.<br>The sufferers have been divided into groups, Cinnamon dealt with institution: Their wide variety 50 affected<br>person, the aphthus ulcer dealt with Cinnamon gurgle wash 3-instances every day and Placebo dealt with<br>institution. The affected person wide variety became 50 affected person suffered from aphthus ulcer and<br>dealt with placebo 3-instances every day.<br>Prior to the take a look at, all assigned clinicians from the exclusive medical facilities have been skilled with<br>the aid of using the most important examiner for the same old working way that covered the measurement<br>of ulcers, undertaking the visible analog scale (VAS),and record it.<br>This study concluded that, the maximum of the sufferers that suffered from Aphtous ulcer typically arise<br>at (30– 40) day of age. Also, the occurrence of Aphtous ulcer decreased in the institution dealt with with<br>Cinnamon also, the ache of Aphthus ulcer decreased with Cinnamon mouth gurgle wash.</p> Raida Noori Hamid1 , Rehab Faisal Ahmed2 , Wedad Farhan Jabber2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 GC-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Iraqi Moringa Oleifera Seeds Extract <p>Moringa oleifera is an important traditional medicinal plant usedfor the treatment of many health problems.<br>It is widely cultivated across the world but it has not well known orwell-studied in Iraq. Therefore, the aim<br>of this study is to identify the bioactive compounds present in acetone:methanol (1:1) seeds extractof Iraqi<br>Moringa olieifera by using GC-Mass Spectrophotometry.<br>The results of this analysis revealed 41 compounds which include ,terpenes ( cis-beta-Ocimene 0.97%,<br>Cedrene 0.20%, Cedrenol 1.40%, Verrucarol 0.29 , Dehydroxy-isocalamendiol 0.09% , beta-Myrcene<br>0.14% , 3-Thujene 0.06%, Ocimene 0.72% , Sabinene 0.37% Aromadendrene 1.54%) , phenols (0.34%,<br>Eugenol 0.49%, cis-Isoeugenol 1.21%, Methoxyeugenol 0.26%, Ferrocene 0.57%, Phenol, 2-methoxy-4-<br>(1-propenyl)-, (Z) 0.34 , Oxabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-2-one -7-neopentylidene) 0.61% ) , fatty acid methyl esters<br>( n-Tridecanoic acid 0.15% , Undecanoic acid 0.09% , Pentadecanoic acid 34.43%, 4-Hexadienal 1.52% ,<br>Dodecanoic acid 11.02% , cis-Vaccenic acid 21.39%, Hexadecenoic acid 0.15% , Eicosanoic acid 0.03%), acid<br>(myristicin,7.8%), Phenyl propanoid (Asarone, 4.99%), Antioxidant (-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 1.38%),<br>Drug (Berbine, 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxy, 0.73%), Drug (Thiazolo, 0.63%), aldehyde (Trimethylsilyl vanillin,<br>0.61%), hormone (Octenoic acid, 0.46%), Amine (ethyl ester, 0.42%), Carboxylic acid (Dimethylandrost5-en-3-one, 0.28%), Terpenoid (Lavandulol, 0.19%), Heterocyclic compound (Buten-3-one, 1-(2-carboxy4,4-dimethylcyclobutenyl, 0.18%), Volatile oil (Butanoic acid, 0.16%), Fatty alcohol (1-Heptatriacontanol,<br>0.12%), Hydroxy carbon-alkene-(Carene, 0.11%).<br>It can be concluded from this study that the seeds are considered a rich source of bioactive compounds.</p> Fiham Jassim AL-Obaidi1, Abid A. Thaker2 , Asmiet Ramizy3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation Between Serum Ferritin And Liver Function in Thalassemia Patients <p>Thalassemia ,is one of the most important hemolytic genetic, diseases that break down red blood cells,<br>Children with thalassemia cannot produce. enough hemoglobin because; the bone marrow cannot produce<br>enough red blood cells to meet their needs and the red blood cells produced ,by them are almost devoid of<br>hemoglobin, and the disease is divided into alpha, and Beta thalassemia.<br>The current study was designed with the aim of .investigating the relationship between serum ferritin and<br>hepatic enzymes in thalassemia. patients, iron is stored primarily in the form of ,ferritin in liver cells. The<br>study included 60 patients with thalassemia in; Dhi Qar governorate, distributed between. the two gender<br>during the, research period, their ages ranged between (2 -26) years old, blood samples were taken in order<br>to testing of. hemoglobin, ferritin, and liver enzymes (ATP, GOT, GPT) , and the same, tests were performed<br>on healthy people 40 person ;as they are a control group.<br>The results recorded; a high percentage of ,thalassemia incidence in males and a decrease in females. The<br>study also showed; that the incidence of thalassemia reached its peak in the age. group (2-6) years and<br>decreased with age, as it reached its lowest levels in the age, group (22-26) years.<br>The study revealed .a significant decrease (0.05&gt; P) in hemoglobin concentration in thalassemia, patients<br>compared with the ;control group, and the results recorded a significant; increase (0.05 P &lt;) in the<br>concentration of ferritin in thalassemia, patients compared with the control group.<br>The current study; also showed a significant increase (P &lt;0.05) in GPT enzyme concentration in thalassemia.<br>patients compared with the control group. There was a significant increase (P &lt;0.05) of GOT enzyme;<br>concentration in patients compared to the ,control group.<br>The results indicated. that there was a significant increase (P &lt;0.05) in the concentration of the ALP enzyme<br>in the patients. compared with the control group.</p> Zainab Qasim Muhammad Al-Yasiri Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histo-morphomertic, Histochemical Solidity Ruling of the Small Intestine in Hamsters and Rabbit According to Different Food <p>In the present study, the histo-morphometric comparison study of small intestine in hamsters and rabbit<br>was aimed. Ten of clinically healthy animals of both sexes were collected by Al-Simawa city, age ranged<br>between 6 month to 1 year, which was estimated according to the dental equation of the animals. The small<br>intestine was cut and stained alternatively with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H &amp; E) and (Lilles Alchrome stain).<br>The current study aims to discover the structures and measurement of small intestine belonging to these<br>animals specifically their histo-morphometric textures. The anatomical studies revealed that small intestine<br>of both animals consists of: duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Histological exam was showed that the wall of<br>small intestine composed of four layers including: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa and adventitia.<br>The epithelia of villi small intestine were simple columnar cells for each animal.</p> Raad Shaalan Ibrahim1 , Farah Jameel Alhnon2 , Sarah Shareif Akool3 , Najlaa Awaied Al-Mansour4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of Health Workers in Premature Units At Kirkuk City Hospitals Concerning Neonatal Jaundice <p>Objective: this study aimed to assess the awareness of the health workers in premature units regarding<br>neonatal jaundice at Kirkuk city hospitals, as well as to find out the socio demographic characteristics of the<br>study sample<br>Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out at premature units of Azadi Teaching Hospital, Kirkuk<br>General Hospital and Pediatric Hospital of Kirkuk city, for a period from the 1st February and up to the 15th<br>of May, 2019 and to achieve the objectives of the study. A non-probability (purposive) sample of (62) health<br>workers working at premature unit were recruited. Developed questionnaire was constructed for the purpose<br>of the study which consisted of two parts: the demographic characteristics; awareness part (knowledge and<br>practices). The data were collected through the use of self- administered technique. They were analyzed<br>through the application of descriptive statistical analysis (Frequency, Percentage % and mean score) data<br>analysis.<br>Results: The findings of the study indicated that (45.2%) of the staff were from pediatric hospital. (40.3%)<br>were graduated from Nursing Institute, (43.5%) had experience from 1&lt;5 years and (74.2%) had participated<br>in a training course mostly inside the country. The total grand mean score for the staff awareness (knowledge<br>and practices) were adequate (1.73).<br>Conclusions and Recommendations: Assessment for the study sample awareness was adequate.<br>Educational programs should be designed to increase the health workers awareness working at pediatric<br>departments regarding management of neonatal jaundice especially those with less than 5 years’ experience.</p> Wijdan Abdullameer Kamel1 , Chateen Jihad Rauf2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Some Immunity Characters Results of Injection antigenic Staphyloccocus sp. in Local Rabbits <p>This study was conducted to identify some immune manifestations resulting from the injection of<br>staphylococcal bacterium antigens Heat-killing with a concentration of 0.75 ml in muscle and concentration<br>0.5 ml subcutaneous in local rabbits to see how immune response of these antigens achieve. Tests were<br>carried out (late hypersensitivity, phagocytosis of candida albicans, and NBT dye reduction).<br>The results showed that the highest level of skin thickness was 9.50 ml compared to control 1.48 ml after 24<br>hours of antigen injection. The results also showed that the highest level of candida yeast is 81.30% when<br>injecting concentration 0.5 ml under the skin compared to control 79.33%. As for the reduction of NBT dye,<br>the highest level of dye reduction was 14.70% when the concentration was injected 0.75 ml with the muscle<br>compared to 10.63% control.<br>We conclude that the injection of staphylococcus antigens (killed by heat) has the potential to induce immune<br>response in local rabbits</p> Roua Jamal AbdulKhaliq1 , Hiba M. AlKhateeb2 , Abdalwahab Bdewi Hussain3, A. O. Humide3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between Women’s Attitudes and Abstain (Used/ Unused) Contraceptive Methods at Primary Health Care Centers in Baghdad City <p>Background: family planning is a preventive service that allows married couples achieving their desired<br>number of children and deciding the spacing of pregnancies according to their economic opportunities and<br>personal wishes, and to ensure that the births are at appropriate intervals for the mother and child health.<br>Objective: To find out the correlation between women attitudes and abstain and to find out the relationship<br>between demographic characteristics and obstetrical history.<br>Methodology: A descriptive and analytic (cross sectional) study, was started at 16th September 2019 to<br>16th September 2020, conducted at Primary Health Care Center in Baghdad City,Iraq. Non probability (a<br>purposive sample) the study sample consist of (150) women that attending Primary Health Care Center in<br>Baghdad City,Iraq.<br>Results: indicates that there is significant relationship between women’s attitude and abstain of contraceptive<br>methods as presented by significant correlation at p-value= 0.038.<br>Conclusions: there is significant relationship between women’s attitude and abstain of contraceptive<br>methods related to Iraqi social habits that make men compel women to become pregnant and have a lot of<br>children and there are other causes prevent women using contraceptive methods.<br>Recommendation: Designing programs to educate couples about family planning and using of contraceptive<br>before marriage, Empowering the role of nurse in family planning to educate the women about contraceptive<br>methods and how to use it and help them to choice the appropriate method, Activate the role of media in<br>increase awareness of families in the Iraqi society about disadvantages of unplanned pregnancies and do<br>not using contraceptive methods on women well-being and the luxury of community, and further studies to<br>identifying the causes that make women do not use of contraceptive methods.</p> Maha Khaled Rida1 , Hawraa Hussein Ghafel2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical and Histopathological Study of Diclofenac SodiumAcetylsalicylic Acid Toxic Effect on Liver of Mice <p>Both over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription analgesics-antipyretics like ibuprofen which is nonsteroidal<br>anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have effective as well as safe use for long time. Reversible inhibition<br>of cyclooxygenase enzymes is the mode of action of NSAIDs over all. Use of NSAID lead to drug adverse<br>reactions such as cardiovascular and gastrointestinal bleeding also effects of renal. Drug–drug interactions<br>(DDIs) within the NSAID and a concomitant medication cause adverse drug reaction to several cases.<br>DDIs have been reported for example, when commonly used medications as well as some antihypertensive,<br>alcohol, aspirin, antidepressants are coadministered with NSAIDs. Dependent on total drug exposure cause<br>a continuous risk in that the potential for an ADR due to interactions pharmacologic nature. When assessing<br>ADRs potential risk is important to consideration the use of NSAID dose and duration, also the comedication<br>type or class administered. The sub acute toxicity were carried out on thirty mice divided to three equally<br>groups (10 mice in sub group) which were dosed for two weeks daily as follows: group one (control) was<br>givin distilled water, the group two was get diclofenac (voltaren) (100mg/kg B.W.) and group three was<br>givin diclofenac (voltaren) with aspirin (100mg/kg B.W.) for each together. Clinical signs of toxicity appear<br>as following: abdominal pain, nausea, dizziness, anorexia, ataxia, blueness of the chest area, shortness of<br>breath and Paralysis of the posterior limbs and recumbence, finally the death of mouse. Serum liver enzyme<br>(ALT and AST) were elevated in all groups (diclofenac and diclofenac with aspirin) as compare to control<br>after two weeks. Considering histopathological studies of liver tissue after two weeks of daily treatment,<br>which showed moderated mononuclear cells infiltration in portal area around blood vessels and bile duct<br>for voltaren group and fatty vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatic cells, single cells necrosis and severe<br>inflammatory cells infiltration in the capsular area for voltaren with aspirin group. We concluded that<br>diclofenac and diclofenac with aspirin have toxic effect appear by clinical symptoms and damage to liver,<br>furthermore, don’t administration of more than one NSAID at same time.</p> Rana Abdulla salih Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Dietary Habits of Iraqi Women with Breast Cancer at Oncology Hospitals in Baghdad City: Comparative Study <p>Background: Dietary pattern explains the overall diet; the food, food groups and nutrients included; their<br>variety and combination. Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women worldwide. Many risk<br>factors for breast cancer contribute to personal habits, such as diet and exercise. Certain risk factors linked<br>to lifestyle include decisions to have children and to take medicines containing hormones.<br>Objectives of the study : To assess women’s dietary Habits, Foods Choices, and to find out the relation<br>between demographic characteristics and breast cancer.<br>Methodology: Adescriptive and analytic study, non-probability (a purposive sample) consist of (100)<br>women was carried out at three Oncology Hospitals in Baghdad City, Iraq.The study group consist of(100)<br>women divided in two groups the first one include (50) women as a (study group) that attending An oncology<br>Hospitals and the second include (50) women as a (control group) that attending the Primary Health Care<br>Centers.<br>Results: women in both groups are consuming red meat with low frequency and amount than normal<br>consumption . More than half of women with breast cancer are eating red meat one time per week (54%)<br>while those without breast cancer are eating red meat two times per week (50%).<br>Conclusion: women in both groups are consuming red meat with low frequency and amount than normal<br>consumption<br>Recommendation Avoid eating canned and processed red meat with preservatives and replaced it with<br>fresh well cooked meat. Community orientation towards a healthy, balanced nutrition that contains the basic<br>elements that the body needs without focusing on a specific food. Activation the role of media in increase<br>the awareness of women in the community about healthy diet. Instruct women with breast cancer to follow<br>a healthy diet guideline and avoid eating canned and processed red meat with preservatives during their<br>treatment courses.</p> Hadeel Mousa Mahalhal1 , Hawraa Hussein Ghafel2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Parents’ Knowledge Concerning School Phobia of their Children in Baghdad City, Iraq <p>Background: Fear from school can also be described as any rejection by a child to join a school or to have<br>difficult time attending the school for a complete day by a child. Aims of the study: To describe parents<br>knowledge of their children with fear from school. Methodology: This study examined the analysis on the<br>data collected by the Ibn Alhythm primary School all through from the middle of October till the end of<br>January 2011school year. The sample data took the form of surveys, questionnaires , and interviews by a<br>researcher with parents who have been analyzed to investigate the associations among variables related to<br>fear from school behaviour. “Ibn Alhythm primary School District ‘s Special Education Department collected<br>data during the 2010-2011 school year. In hopes of identifying a representative sample of the school-refusing<br>students in the district, the Special Education Department sent participation requests to a random sample of<br>40 of the 40 families described as having students who missed 18 or more days of the Ibn Alhythm primary<br>School during the 2010-2011 school year. The information obtained did not include information from any<br>students who were in Ibn Alhythm primary School through 1st grade or who missed fewer than 18 days<br>of school, the information has been analyzed through data analysis. The results: The results of the study<br>revealed that the educational program had a positive impact on the knowledge of family members. The<br>results of the study have demonstrated that there is a correlation between the mothers’ knowledge and their<br>demographic characteristics (age of parents, educational level, occupation, residential area). In general,<br>knowledge of parents related to fear was low. However, the parents applied preventive measure towards<br>their children with fear .A quasi-experimental study was conducted in the Ibn Alhythm primary school from<br>the middle of October till the end of January 2011.Recommendation: Keep the sample group large. The<br>author should get a fair representation of the population in doing so. Parents having a minimum level of<br>experiences at school phobia, need a specific education program and training sessions. A specific education<br>program can be designed and described to parent’s who have a minimum level of knowledge to enhance<br>their level of knowledge.”</p> Abdulmahdi A. Hasan Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Maternal Anxiety Levels with Newborns in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Hilla Maternity and Childbirth Hospital in AL-Hilla City <p>Aims: To comparing maternal anxiety levels for infants in the NICU and mother in the postnatal care-service<br>(PCS) for stable newborns. Methodology This descriptive study was carried out in Al-Hilla Children’s and<br>Birth Hospital, Al-Hilla City . The 1st 200 families, counting pregnant mother in personal care services<br>(n=100) and pregnant women in neonatal intensive care unit (n=100), backed up by participant as of<br>May , 2018. As data gathering tools, including the STAI TX-1-STAI TX-2 inventory, questionnaires were<br>used to detect the characteristic of mother and newborn. Results Characteristic rates of anxiety were not<br>substantially different between NICU neonate mothers and PCS neonate mothers (t = 0.588, p = 0.557),<br>while status level of anxiety varied greatly among the 2 classes (t = -5.109, p = &lt; 0.001). Motherland anxiety<br>level were determined to be higher for mother whose children in the NICU compared with those of mother<br>whose children were on personal care-services. Conclusion It can boost anxiety and lead to mothers being<br>a mother to a newborn sick. During this difficult time, nursing care may rise mothers’ ability to deal with the<br>sick stresses of the newborn</p> Abdulmahdi A. Hasan Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pathological Study of Reproductive Tracts of Awassi Ewes in Fallujah, Iraq <p>A total of forty female genital tracts of local sheep, collected from Al-Fallujah abattoir, were utilized for<br>this study during the period from October 2018 to March 2019. Among these 20% of the samples were<br>pregnant with out any abnormality, and 80% were non pregnant (55% without any problem and 25%<br>showed abnormal macroscopically lesion. The main type of abnormalities were, ovarian adhesion, uterus<br>unicornis, inactive ovaries, cystic ovaries, ovarian germ cell tumor and cervical tumor, metritis, salpingitis<br>and hydrosalpinx with an incidence of 10%, 10% , 10%, 20%, 10% , 10% , 10% , 10% and 10% respectively.<br>The histopathological study revealed that there were a histopathological changes in the previous cases, the<br>ovarian giant cell tumor reported at first in this study in Iraq</p> Ahmed Sami Jarad1 , Abdul Sattar Faraj Majeed2 , Qusay Mohammed Aboud2 , Mustafa Salah Hasan3, Waleed Hamid Farhan1 Ahmed Emad Aboud2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Incidence Rate and Risk Factors of Ectopic Pregnancy at Maternity Wards in Baghdad City’s Hospitals for the Year 2019 <p>Background: Ectopic pregnancy is a condition of immense gynecological importance, particularly in the<br>developing world, because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with it and the enormous threat<br>to life.<br>Objectives:To assess the incidence rate and the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy at Maternity Wards in<br>Baghdad City’s Hospitals for the year 2019.<br>Methods:The study included a non-probability (convenient) sample consisted of (90)pregnant woman who<br>have ectopic pregnancies. The study subjects are recruited from 10 teachinghospitals in Baghdad,in theirfirst<br>trimester of gestation age. The studydata is collected from pregnant women’ edical records in the Department<br>of Statistics, data are analyzed using descriptive and inferential data analysis process.<br>Results: the results of the current study indicate that the incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy is (2.217)per<br>1000 of population at risk for the year 2019. Smoking is accounted as the most predominant risk factor<br>for ectopic pregnancy (55.6%),Most of these pregnant women are between the ages of (15-24) years old<br>(40.0%), college graduates (26.7%), government employees (52.2%), and have a monthly income (901.000-<br>1.200.000) ID (32.2%).<br>Conclusion:: Incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy at the maternity wards in Baghdad City’s hospitals is<br>(2.217) per 1000 of population at risk for the year of 2019, The incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy has not<br>been affected by the risk factors of infertility, previous ectopic pregnancies, IUCD, assisted reproductive<br>techniques and smoking of ectopic pregnancy and the incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy has not been<br>affected by pregnant demographic characteristics of age, education, occupation and monthly income.</p> Heba Samir Naje1 , Hala Saadi Abdul Wahid 2 , Ekhlas Ali Hussein3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Lip Thickness with Tongue Space Area Assessment By Cephalometric Analysis for Iraqi Adult Sample with Class II Dental and Skeletal Pattern <p>Background: With different skeletal classes, there may be some variability among the lip thickness and<br>tongue space area that could be the causative factor for skeletal malrelationship so that this study was aimed<br>to determine the tongue and the available boundary space area with lip thickness and correlate them together<br>in sample with class II skeletal pattern.<br>Methods: Seventy Iraqi adult subjects (32 males and 38 females) with cl II skeletal pattern who have<br>increased over jet and ANB angle greater than four degrees. The cephalometric measurements include upper<br>and lower lip thicknesses with height and length of tongue and position of tongue base and hyoid bone<br>from the cervical line. The cephalograms were analyzed using AutoCAD program to measure demanded<br>areas. Results: This study revealed that a significant gender difference was found between T-Area, V-TT,<br>TH, V-FP, AH-CL, AH-FP, and upper and lower lip thickness in which higher mean value in males than<br>females. The correlation between all the measured variables of present sample with SNA, SNB and ANB<br>angles a non-significant difference was found except for V-CL which shows significant difference. Strong<br>correlation was found among the T-Area with V-TT, TH, V-FP, AH-CL, AHFP, upper lip thickness and lower<br>lip thickness.<br>Conclusions: In skeletal class II, the associated cranial base angles shows independent association from the<br>boundary soft tissues so that these variations not always contribute to be the causative factor for skeletal<br>disharmony</p> Laith Hamood AL-Salmany1 , Zena Hekmat Altaee1 , Ahmed Jassam Al-Naqeeb 2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Study of New Heterocyclic Coumarin Derivatives <p>The inflammation is one of the most central processes in animal cells defense versus certain injuries or<br>infections of microbes. The most essential metabolic precursor for many inflammatory pathways is PGH2<br>(prostaglandin), which catalytic synthesis from the AA (arachidonic acid) by COX enzymes. COX can be<br>divided in to three isomer COX-1 has important role in many physiological function like hemostasis, platelet<br>aggregation, and protection of gastric mucosa, COX-2 when stimulate cause formation of PGE2 excessively,<br>with other prostaglandin then decrease the pain threshold and nerve ending sensitization, which induce<br>pain, increase permeability of vascular and then enhance the inflammatory associated diseases pathway, and<br>COX-3 has special characteristic, its higher sensitivity to acetaminophen and present in brain. The NSAIDs<br>are therapeutic agents used for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and fever, they work by decreasing the<br>production of prostaglandins due to inhibiting the function of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, we have<br>two types nonselective and selective COX-2 inhibitors. In order to design new agents with no or low side<br>effect, the COX-2 selectivity should be increased, this achieved by design molecule structurally similar to<br>approved selective COX-2 inhibitors. The synthetic compound in this study contain three pharmacophores,<br>a nucleus of coumarin and substituted oxazole moiety, separated by a hydrazonoethyl spacer, which have<br>structural similarity properties to selective COX-2 inhibitors.</p> Muthanna S. Farhan1 , Maadh H. Ahmed1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Sensitivity of some Types of Citrus Fruits, the role of the Propolis and the Color of Storage Bags in the Development of Green Mold Caused by Fungi Penicillium Digitatium <p>The results of the study indicated that green mold caused by Penicillium digitatium was noticed in all types<br>of citrus fruits (orange, mandarin, bitter orange, lemon). The most sensitive among these fruits was the<br>mandarin with 56.12% infection, followed by orange with 40.18%. On the other hand, the bitter orange<br>and the lemon showed more resistant to the disease, and the their infection percentages were (32.14% and<br>30.55% respectively. The results indicated that the color of the bags had a great effect on the development<br>of the disease where the infection percentages when using light green bags and light yellow bags were<br>(19.68%, 17.24%) respectively. While for the dark black bags, the infection percentage was 13.73%. The use<br>of porpolis in all concentrations (6, 8, 10, 12) g/l did not lessen the size of the infected area compared with<br>contaminated treatment by pathogen.</p> Hiba Hashim Younes1 , Wa’ad Hamoudi Awad1 , Theyab A. F .Al- Esawee2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The response of Brahimi apple’s Cultivar to Foliar Application of Glycyrrhizin Extract (GLE) and Humic Acid (HA) <p>The research team had conducted this work at a private orchard in Saqlawiya – Falluja district in 2019 to<br>investigate the influence of foliar application of liquorice (glycyrrhizin) extract (GLE) and humic acid (HA)<br>on some vegetative growth traits and yield of Al-Ibrahimi apple cultivar. The factorial experiment consisted<br>of 2 factors; the first one was GLE which consisted of 3 levels (L0, L1, L2) of (0, 3, and 6 g.L-1) respectively;<br>while the second one was HA with 4 levels (0, 2, 4, and 6 g.L-1) had symbols of (H0, H1, H2, and H3)<br>successively. Thus, the total number of treatments was 12 of 3 replications. Every apple tree considered as an<br>experimental unit. The HA treatments were applied 7 times to soil every 20 days starting from 20th February<br>2019 while the foliar applications of GLE were 5 times starting from the 1st April in the same year.<br>A significant improvement in vegetative growth, quantity, and quality of yield due to GLE and HA<br>applications has been shown in increasing individual leaf area (LA), length of branches (LOB), number of<br>leaves (NOL), total chlorophyll content in leaves (TCL) , and total carbohydrates content in leaves (TCCL),<br>average weight of fruits (AWF), and number of fruits per tree (NFT) that reflected positively on increasing<br>yield per individual tree (YPT), total percentage of soluble solids (PSS), vitamin C content in fruits (CC) ,<br>and decreasing acidity of fruits (TPA). The interaction between factors had significant influence in most of<br>studied traits. Thus the L1H3, L2H2, and L2H3 treatment had the best results.</p> Duaa Flaih Hasan Al-Mehemdi1 , Ali Ammar Ismaeel Al-Ani2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study of Cognitive Achievement in Football Among Students who Have Different Learning Styles <p>The study aims at identifying the differences in cognitive achievement in football among students with<br>different learning styles. The researchers used the descriptive approach with a comparative study method for<br>its suitability for the nature of the problem, and the sample of the examined students who are the fourth stage<br>students in the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Science - Samarra University for the academic year<br>2018-2019. The number of students is (108), and the researchers used the Learning Styles Scale (VAK) that<br>was developed at the Qattan Center for Educational Research and Development and a measure of cognitive<br>achievement in football The main experiment was carried out on Sunday 5/5/2019 to statistically manipulate<br>data, the researchers used the Statistical Package (SPSS) to find: (mean, standard deviation, simple correlation<br>coefficient Pearson, F test for variance analysis, and L.S.D test). The researchers concluded that there were<br>significant differences in cognitive achievement in football among students with different learning styles.<br>students who preferred visual learning style over students who preferred auditory and kinesthetic learning<br>styles, and students who preferred auditory learning style superior to students who preferred learning style<br>Sense - kinesthetic</p> Mohammed Saad Jebur1 , Jasim Saleh Majon2 , Hayder Abdulhafdh Shehab1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Guggulsterone Suppresses Ovalbumin- Induced Inflammation in Rat Asthmatic Model <p>Background: Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease, which is characteristic by wheezing, chest<br>tightness, dyspnea and cough, all symptoms that are occupied with obstruction of respiratory airway. Aim:<br>investigate guggulsterone activity on improve inflammatory events that associated with asthma. Method:<br>48 healthy rats (albino, male) divided to 6 groups, rats were sensitized with OVA and preparation lung tissue<br>homogenate for measurement of inflammatory parameters by ELISA and RT-PCR. Also, preparation of lung<br>tissue for histopathological examination. Results: All parameters are significant reduction in treated group<br>with guggulsterone than sensitized group. Also, gugglsterone-treated group’s slides with less inflammatory<br>signs compared to sensitized group slide. Conclusion: Guggulsterone improve inflammatory events that<br>associated with asthma.</p> Zainab H. Ahmed1 , Munaf H. Zalzala2, Manal A. Ibrahim1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Role of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in a Group of Iraqi Patients with Colorectal Cancer <p>Background Increased developed of colorectal tumor may be linked with Helicobacter pylori. However, the<br>underlying mechanisms were still uncertain.<br>objective: Helicobacter pylori infection in the world, in particular in developing countries, is one of most<br>common chronic bacterial infections, This bacterium is responsible for many diseases such as gastritis,<br>peptic ulcer, lymphoma and in some patients may lead to gastric cancer, it is in the world has known 2nd<br>major cause of death from cancer. H.pylori infection may likely raise the risk of colorectal cancer, according<br>to recently published studies. The aimed of this study to detected the role of H. pylori in colorectal cancer.<br>Methods: Serum of 50 colorectal cancer and colorectal normal with positive H. pylori infection patients<br>were estimated by 14Urea breath test and 25 subjects with no any inflammatory disease as the control group.<br>from each patient were collected Blood samples to investigated of H. pylori specific immunoglobulin G<br>(IgG) and CagA IgG antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).<br>Results: A total of 50 patients in this study 25 had colorectal cancer and 25 had colorectal normal with H.<br>pylori infection (immunoglobulin G (IgG) P ? 0.01 and CagA IgG antibodies P &lt; 0.01) were significantly<br>more prevalent in the patients with colorectal_ cancer and colorectal normal with Helicobacter pylori<br>_infection compared with the healthy controls (P= 0.00019, P= 0.00022 respectively) The relation was<br>statistically non-significant between the antibody seropositivity and gender but Highly significant with age.<br>Conclusion: The findings indicate that Helicobacter pylori_ infection can be regarded as a contributing<br>influence for progressive tumor in colorectal.</p> Walaa Talal Abdul-Lateef 1 , Essam Mohammed Abdullah2 , Jassim Mohsen Ghadhban3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Reliable Quantification Method for Trimethoprim in Pharmaceutical Samples by HILIC-HPLC <p>Trimethoprim is sometimes used in conjunction with sulfonamides for drug therapies Herein. A practicable<br>method has been developed to determine trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations by hydrophilic<br>interaction liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector. The development and investigation<br>of a new HLIC assay of trimethoprim. The separation was made in the HALO-HILIC column using a<br>NaOAc/HAc buffer (40 mM-pH 4.75) with acetonitrile (10:90) (v/v) as mobile phase and was quantified<br>by UV detection at 280 nm. The limit of quantification was about 0.0242 ppm and the limit of detection<br>0.008 ppm. The calibration curves were linear in the investigated range (0.01-3 ppm). The recovery of<br>trimethoprim was 99-102.5%. The method was applied in pharmaceutical formulations.</p> Zahraa Muhsen Hussein1 , Ashraf Saad Rasheed2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Serum Concentration of Ghrelin and Obestatin in Giardia lamblia Infected Patients: A Case Control-Study <p>Background: Globally, Giardia lamblia is one of the major causes of diarrhea in humans and it is the<br>commonest reported gastrointestinal parasite. Thus, the present research work aims to investigate the<br>serum concentration of ghrelin and obestatin in patients with giardiasis. Objective: The current study was<br>designed to determine of G. lamblia infection effects on some biomarkers such as ghrelin and obestatin.<br>Methods: The study was conducted on 48 patients infected with G. lamblia and 48 healthy persons, who<br>attended the general hospital of AL-Hakeem in Najaf city from September to December 2018. The results:<br>The results showed a highly significant decrease (P&lt;0.0001) in serum concentration of ghrelin and a highly<br>significant increase (P&lt;0.0001) in serum concentration of obestatin in G. lamblia infected patients (28.85ng/<br>ml ±3.2) and (186.53ng/ml ± 1.56) respectively, in comparison to the control group (81.39ng/ml ± 3.8) and<br>(92.89ng/ml ±2.9) respectively, with a significant positive association between the concentrations of ghrelin<br>and obestatin (r = 0.0954). Conclusion: Ghrelin and obestatin are important physiological biomarkers that<br>can support the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia parasite.</p> Rana Talib Al-Nafakh1 , Hawraa Ameer Mubark1 , Raad Abdul-Ameer Al-Asady2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana in Controlling the Periplaneta Americana in Iraq <p>The current study was conducted from the ninth month of the year 2019 to the end of the sixth month of 2020<br>aiming and evaluating the effectiveness of the fungus Beauveria bassiana in controlling the Periplaneta<br>americana.<br>More than 250 samples were collected, and the most of them were collected for the purpose of studying<br>Biology control. The fungus Beauveria bassiana was used in the control, where the fungus was used in four<br>different concentrations and kneaded by mixing with water and dilution, where the concentrations were<br>used (0.25 × 107, 0.5 × 107, 0.75 × 107.1 × 107) and all recorded death rates of 100% in nymphs after the<br>passage of (244,168,120,96) respectively, and in adults, a murder rate was recorded after (244,192,144,120)<br>hours respectively, and there were significant differences in the percentage of homicide between adults and<br>nymphs.</p> Qutebh Ahmed Hajm1 , Hushm Naje Hmed2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Biomarker (IL-8) on the Tissue of Colorectal Cancer Patients by using IHC Technique <p>Aim: The search to evidence a link between the molecular markers (IL-8) with colorectal cancer. The aim<br>of the presented work is examining the relation regarding the biomarker (IL-8) in colorectal cancer (CRC)<br>tissues as well as its relation with the other clinic pathological variables.<br>Methods: The detection of IL-8was confirmed using histopathological examination of colonic biopsy of<br>tissue section fixed on slides previously coated and analyzed by immunohistochemistry method (IHC),<br>hence to detect the variable regarding IL-8 expression in normal as well as CRC tissues including (adjacent<br>normal tissue and healthy controls tissues); in addition to its association with other clinic-pathological<br>variables (intensity, gender and age).<br>The results of the study specified the enrichment regarding IL-8 expression in the samples of CRC with the<br>use of IHC approach. No considerable relation has been indicated between the expression of IL-8 with the<br>other clinical-pathological variables (gender and age), yet there has been considerable relation between the<br>expression of IL-8 and the stain’s intensity (grade), while it has been increased in tissues of CRC; this might<br>be specified as one of the risk factors with regard to the CRC’s development and the metastasis in the samples<br>of CRC, also it might be significant marker to predict insignificant prognosis in patients experiencing CRC,<br>also it can be utilized as possible therapeutic target in the CRC.</p> Zinah Saad Madhloom1 , Aqeel Shakir Mahmood2 , Alice Krikor Melconian3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Risk of Leukemia Reported Cases, Observational Descriptive Statistic from Iraqi Center for Hematology in Baghdad Province <p>Background: Leukemia is one type of blood cancer developed in the bone marrow and other blood-forming<br>organs. Based on a combination of onset speed and cell origin, leukemia can generally be divided into<br>four subtypes: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML‚ (chronic lymphocytic<br>leukemia (CLL), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).<br>Methods: A total of 3102 eligible leukemia cases were documented in the Iraqi Center for Hematology in<br>the City of Medicine in Baghdad between January 2018 and December 2019. 1402 documented in 2018 and<br>1700 in 2019 for all types of cancer, Patients ages were between 1 year and 90 years, among all leukemia<br>cases, the mostly 36% (n = 730) were aged ?15 years. Results In our study males accounted for a higher<br>proportion of leukemia patients, 58 % compared to 42% females, ALL was the more prevalent type among<br>the studied group for both years ; contribute% 55.17 din male %53.45 in female, followed by AML 36.87%<br>vs 40.27% , CLL 5.23% vs 2.22% and CML 2.73% vs 4.06% in male and female respectively. Conclusion<br>It was observed that the prevalence of leukemia in Baghdad increased between (2018 -2019) from 1402 to<br>1700, the youngest age 15 registered most of leukemia cases. . Males were mostly victim of the disease as<br>compared to females which were less frequent. It was observed that acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)<br>was most common type of leukemia.</p> Ruaa Hameed Abdulridha1 , Nada Kadum Jawad2 , Ahmed Tariq Numan2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Fungal Toxins Produced by Dermatophytes by using Thin Layer Chromatography <p>Dermatophyte fungi include a wide range of filamentous fungi that are pathogenic to humans including<br>three superficial cutaneous genera such as ; Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton. However,<br>the aim of this study isolation and identification of fungi responsible of dermatophytosis and detection of<br>the dermatophyte ability to produce mycotoxins. The results of this study showed that 49(69.01%) out of<br>71 specimens were gave positive results , while 22 (30.98%) were gave negative results by examination<br>on 10%KOH and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar with cyclohexmaide. Out of 49 culture positive<br>isolates, 31(63.3%) T. rubrum isolates was the most frequent etiological agent followed by 11( 22.4%)<br>T.mentagrophytes ; 5(14.3%) M. canis and 2<br>(4.1%) Epidermophyton floccosum isolates. The use of the TLC method to detect of mycotoxins in chloroform<br>extracts for 49 dermatophyte mycelia. It was found all dermatophyte isolates are able to produce fluorescent<br>stains with different colors under UV light at 365 nm , also these stains may be act as a non-enzymatic<br>virulence indicator ( mycotoxins).</p> Abeer Mohammed Ali Al-garawyi1 , Adnan H. Al-Hamadani2 , Adnan waheed AL- Bederi3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Possible Protective Effects of high- versus low- dose of lutein in combination with irinotecan on Liver of Rats: Role of Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis <p>Objectives: The current study was designed to describe roles of oxidative stress via the measurement<br>of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant markers, and apoptosis through the measurement of caspase 3<br>marker, as mechanisms of liver toxicity induced by irinotecan; and to explore the possible protective effects<br>of high- and low- doses of lutein against irinotecan induced toxicity in the liver of rats.<br>Methods: Thirty six (36) Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: Groups ?, rats<br>received single oral daily dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (4 ml/kg); Group ?? (irinotecan-treated), received<br>single oral daily dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (4ml/kg) for 25 days by oral gavage and subsequently received<br>irinotecan (50mg/kg) on days: 5, 10, 15 (total dose=150 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection; Groups ???<br>and ?V, received oral dose of lutein (6mg/kg/day) and (24mg/kg/day), respectively by oral gavage for 25<br>successive days (lutein-treated); Groups V and V? (lutein+ irinotecan), received oral dose of lutein (6mg/<br>kg/day) and (24mg /kg/day), respectively by oral gavage for 25 successive days, and subsequently received<br>irinotecan (50mg /kg body weight) on days: 5, 10, 15 (total dose=150 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection.<br>Results: Orally-administered lutein with total cumulative dose of irinotecan (Groups V and VI), resulted<br>in significant reduction (P&lt;0.05) of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and<br>significant reduction (P&lt;0.05) of malondialdehyde; but, significant elevation (P&lt;0.05) of serum total<br>antioxidant capacity; and there was significant reduction in caspase 3in liver tissues homogenates compared<br>to the corresponding levels in the group of rats administered irinotecan (Group II).<br>Conclusion: Results of the current finding suggested that administration of lutein may be a useful compound<br>that alleviated irinotecan induced toxicity to the liver</p> Alaa Radhi K1 , Nada N. Al-Shawi Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The association between severity of dental caries and salivary immunoglobulins in asthmatic adult patients <p>The salivary samples were collected adequately from 80 subjects distributed equally (40 asthmatic subjects<br>and 40 control subjects) of ages range between 20-60 years. This comparative survey was determining the<br>caries index(DMFT),Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sobrinus ,salivary IgA and IgE. So this study<br>have shown highly significant difference P ? (0.01) found in effect of age on salivary IgA in control adult<br>subjects and non-significant difference (P &gt; 0.05) displayed in influence of age on salivary IgA. So this<br>comparative investigation have demonstrated that non-significant difference (P &gt; 0.05) found in influence<br>of age on salivary IgE to both groups of study. However, the correlation between age and salivary IgE is a<br>weak negative relationship.</p> Ahmed AbdulRazzaq Hammoodi Al-Anbari,1 Maha Adel Mahmmod AL-Ani) Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of biofilm and other virulence genes in E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from healthy dairy cow, human and environmental sources <p>Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae for ones role in opportunistic infections and pathogenic methods<br>in veterinary and human medicine, including the formation of biofilms. 33 E.coli and 8 K. pneumoniae<br>isolates of these micro-organisms isolated from cow’s milk, stools and utensils. Identification were done by<br>biochemical reaction and confirmed by Polymerase Chain (PCR). These isolates exhibit biofilms formation,<br>as strong, moderate, weak capacities. The expression of the fimA gene. The percentage (84.8%)28/33 of<br>E.coli was able to produce biofilm while (100%)8/8 in K. pneumoniae The virulence factors of all bacterial<br>isolates were also studied to determine hylA and bla-CTX-M genes in E.coli and, magA and bla-CTX-M<br>genes in K. pneumoniae were results presence extended spectrum ?- lactamases (ESBLs). bla-CTX-M gene<br>in E. coli and K. pneumoniae (78.7% , 87.5%) It also emerged that not all isolates carry other virulence genes<br>for this study</p> Ali A. Kadhum1 , Mohammed H. Khudor2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of Exercises By Pressing -Style to Developing A Man-to-Man Defense For Young Football Players <p>The importance of the research is that it is a research attempt that is concerned with consolidating the idea<br>of a pressing play style in the reality of Iraqi clubs and teams training through this defensive method to<br>achieve the desired goal, as well as experimenting with the use of defensive exercises characterized by rapid<br>application and high accuracy together, and to know the extent of the impact of exercises in a pressing style<br>of play in developing defense man to man for young football players in a step aimed at strengthening the<br>sports field with practical experiments and service to researchers in the sports field. The research objectives<br>to prepare pressing play style exercises to develop defense, man to man, for young football players. To<br>identify the effect of exercises in a pressing play style in developing defense, man to man for young football<br>players. The researchers used the experimental method to design the two equivalent groups (experimental<br>and control) with a pre and post- test that is consistent with the nature of the research problem. The research<br>sample was chosen by a simple random method (lottery), where the experimental group was represented by<br>the Al Shuohda youth sports club, whose number was (22) players, and the control group was represented in<br>the Nahrain youth sports club, whose number is (21), (10) players were chosen from each group, experimental<br>and control group by the deliberate method, and the research variables included the defense man to man<br>(Close defense - flexible defense - cutting and acquisition - cutting and farthest). The researchers used<br>statistical methods (mean, standard deviation, coefficient of torsion, Levin’s coefficient, t-test for correlated<br>and non-correlated samples), and after presenting, analyzing and discussing the results, the researchers<br>reached the following conclusions: pressing play style exercises developed man-to-man defense with two<br>types of close defense and flexible defense for the experimental group under study. pressing play developed<br>cutting, possession, cutting and farthest.</p> Qasim Muhammad Ali Hazim1 Ahmed Abdulameer Hamzah2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Mothers' Knowledge about Febrile Convulsions of Children at Ibn- Albalady Hospital in Baghdad City <p>Background: In terms of occurrence, about of children in the age group of one to five years have at least<br>one episode of febrile convulsion. These, have recurrent seizures and many get admitted to the hospital.<br>Aims: This study was conducted to assess the level of mother's knowledge about Febrile Convulsions<br>Methodology: A descriptive study design has been conducted with pediatric emergency unit at the IbnAlbalady Hospital in Baghdad City during the period from the 3rd March 2020 up to the 13th 2020. A<br>purposive non probability sample of (100) mother were selected from emergency pediatric unit. Out of the<br>women questioned, febrile convulsion was reported by 100 mothers. Table (2) summarizes that the mothers<br>knowledge items concerning child with febrile convulsion. In general, their knowledge were poor to fair<br>in all items, and they are accounted for 2(18.1%), 9(81.9%) respectively, and overall mothers knowledge<br>about febrile convulsion were fair. The results illustrate that (48%) of the study sample represent fair<br>knowledge, (39%) were having poor information and (13%) were having good information about child<br>with febrile convulsion at emergency ward of Ibn- Albalady hospital. The data were collected by using<br>constructed questionnaire, which consisted of 11 items self-administrated method used and filled by using<br>the questionnaire. Been described of data analyzed through using of two statistical approaches. Descriptive<br>statistical analysis and inferential statistical analysis.<br>Results: The study results revealed that (48%) of the mothers under study were having fair knowledge.<br>Mothers' knowledge regarding febrile seizures was non-significantly associated with positive history of<br>febrile seizures, urban residence, higher parental education, and working mothers.<br>Conclusions: Generally, mothers’ knowledge regarding their children with febrile convulsions was poor to<br>fair.</p> Ali Obaed Shneshil Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 IS There an Impact of PAI-1 on the Thrombotic Episode in Iraqi Obese Patients with Corona Virus -19 <p>Objective: firstly To assess the incidence of Corona Virus -19 covid-19 as risk factors in obese individuals<br>leading to thrombotic episode, and secondly to compare the effects Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)<br>on the occurrence of this thrombotic status in obese and normal body weight individuals. The pathogenesis<br>of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is gradually demonstrated and explained around the world A high<br>and a great number of thrombotic episodes are reported, in present study can be consider the COVID-19 as<br>a prothrombotic disease.<br>Design and Methods: The experiments comparing the PAI-1 in 90 obese and 30 normal body weight<br>participants aged 32-62 years. The obese patients subdivided to three groups: first group consisted from 30<br>over weight individuals and the second group comprised from 30 obese patients, while third group consisted<br>from 30 morbid obesity patients. All participants underwent to the medical examinations to make sure they<br>were infected with covid-19. The activity of PAI-1and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) was determined<br>by applied ELISA method by certain kit in all study groups individuals.<br>Results: Three study groups (overweight, obese, and morbid obesity) elicited significant (p&lt; 0.05) elevation<br>in metabolic characteristics such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin and lipids variables, as well<br>as increasing in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and D-dimer fractions, in addition to there were significant<br>augmentation in PAI-1 and t-PA in three study groups when comparing with those of normal or healthy body<br>weight<br>The present results show a positive relationship between PAI-1 and body mass index, t-PA, D-dimer and<br>metabolic characteristics which include fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin and lipids fractions, also<br>HOMA-IR.</p> Elham Abed Mahdi Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular, Biochemical, and Phenotypic Identification of Phenol and Cresol Degrading Acinetobacter baumanni Strain Selected from Al-Rumaila Oil Well <p>Background: phenol and cresol are dangerous compounds that have harmful effects on aquatic life, plants<br>and, many other organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to effectively eliminate these compounds to protect<br>the environment.<br>Aim: The aim of this study is to select and characterizebacterial strain(s) from oil contaminated soils and<br>testing its ability for biodegrading phenol and cresol.<br>Methods: Biochemical tests were performed in addition to morphological and molecular detection through<br>16S rRNA analysis to identify the selected strain after growing on Mineral salts medium (MM) containing<br>phenol or cresol . The residual concentration of phenol and cresol was analyzed over the time period by<br>means of the 4-aminoantipyrine assay .<br>Results: the selected strain was identified as Acinetobacter baumannii strain HILLA-1, and it was able to<br>remove 100% of the phenol at all the used concentrationsafter 48 h. This strain was also able to degrade 100%<br>of cresol at concentrations (25,50,75,100,200 ppm /L) and99.37%,88.69%,and 94.73% at concentrations<br>(300,400,500 ppm /L) respectivelyafter 48 h.<br>Conclusion: The selected and identified Acinetobacter baumannii strain HILLA-1 can provide a putative<br>source for bioremediation of phenol and cresol contaminated environments.</p> Noor Mohammad Ali1 , Aamal Ghazi Mahdi Al-Saadi1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating Growth Charts Use among Children Less Than Five Years of Age at Primary Health Care Centers in Al-Hillah City <p>The study was conducted at two primary health care centers in Al Hilla city which covered Al Gameyah<br>primary health care center and Al Kawthar primary health care center for the purpose of evaluating the use<br>of growth chart and to determine mothers understanding toward the meaning of the weight chart in terms of<br>growth. All registered children aged 0-5 years who were living in areas served by the above two mentioned<br>primary health centers were included. The following results may be drawn on the objectives of the study.<br>The proportion of registered children who possessed a chart was very high (99.8%). The proportion of<br>registered children who acquired a chart at birth was high too (99.6%). It is of interest to find that the date<br>of birth of (99.6%) of children was registered and the weight at birth of (99.2%) of them was known too. It<br>was found that only (90%) of study population had their weight charted on the curve of growth charts. The<br>study showed that no children of both sexes were attending regularly to have their weight charted in most<br>months of the year. The study generally depicted that the level of immunization of the children in study area<br>was remarkable and high.</p> Muna Abdulwahab Khaleel Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Complications of Kalazar among Children in Hilla-city <p>Objective: This study aimed to detect the types of complications of children suffering from kalazar; also to<br>identify the reason of these complications.<br>Methodology: A descriptive study carried out from Feb15th to June 15th of the academic year 2017. The<br>sample consisted (109) children from general maternal and children hospital in Hilla/Babylon. The study<br>designed and data was collected using structural questionnaire which was prepared by consulting panel<br>research expertise, also by assessment approach and interview was done with parents of children. The<br>collected data were analyzed through descriptive statistics by frecuency and percentage.<br>Results: The results of the present study indicated that most of the children age were (13-18) yrs.(40.4%);<br>male gender more involved (67%) and (27%) were from Mesaib city. The education level of parents were<br>within secondary school, mothers (52%) fathers (43%). The income of affected children families involved<br>in the study were (51%) poor, which isn’t enough to maintain healthy well being status and medical<br>requirements. Complications revealed that children suffers from bleeding tendancy (13.5%) sever animea<br>were (20%) hepato spleenomegaly were (14.0%) , finally death occurs because of septicemia (37%).<br>Conclusion: Complications accurs because of poor and inappropriate medical diagnosis, also infective<br>medical treatment during hospitalization and lake of medical follow up to children suffering from kalazar by<br>the health team after hospital discharge.</p> Ibtesam Khalid Kamil Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Diabetes Patient Adherence to Dietary Recommendation in Diabetics Center in Al-Najaf city <p>Objective: This study aimed to assess of diabetes patient adherence to dietary recommendation in Diabetics<br>center in Al-Najaf city and to find out the relationship between the diabetic patient adherence to dietary<br>recommendation and their demographic and clinical data. Methodology: Descriptive analytic design was<br>carried out to assess of diabetics patient adherence to dietary recommendation in Al-Najaf City/ Health<br>Directorate of Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf / Al-Sadder Medical City / Al-Najaf Center for Diabetes and Endocrine.<br>The study was carried out from February 1st, 2018 up to March 28th, 2018. A non-probability (accidental)<br>sampling technique was used consisting of (100) female and male those who visit Al-Najaf Center for<br>Diabetes and Endocrine. Data collected through using of a well-designed questionnaire consist of three<br>parts: Part I: Socio-demographic Characteristics, Part II: Clinical Data: consists of (6) items and Part 111:<br>Patient adherence to dietary recommendation. This part of the questionnaire consists of (16) items.<br>Conclusion: It is concluded that the Majority of the stay sample have fair adherence to diabetics dietary<br>recommendations.<br>Recommendation: Based on study conclusion, its need for a good relationship between the patient and<br>health- care provider in order to provide more understanding and knowledge about the disease and its nonmedical management and diabetic’s patients need dietary recommendations with means of education, such<br>as published materials with regard to dietary regimen.</p> Iman Qasim Kteo Al-hussein 1 , Zahraa Abdull Abbass Taher Al- Khafajy 1 , Haider Mohammed Haloob ALAbedi 1 , Athraa Abbas Al-Zeyadi 2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Adolescents’ Life Style and Reasons of Skipping Essential Meals upon their BMI at Secondary Schools in Baghdad City <p>Background: Excessive harmful and unhealthy weight-control behaviors have potential serious consequences<br>due to impact on their life style. Specifically dieting is considered a major risk factor for eating disorders.<br>Unhealthy dieting can also decrease intake of energy and essential nutrients .<br>Objective: The study aimed to identify the adolescents’ lifestyle, and reasons of skipping essential meals<br>and find out the relationship between adolescents’ lifestyle and reasons of skipping essential meals and their<br>demographic data (gender and Body Mass Index).<br>Methodology: A descriptive study design was conducted on impact of lifestyle and reasons of skipping<br>essential meals upon adolescents’ Body Mass Index in secondary schools at Baghdad city, starting from<br>20th of April 2013 to the end of October 2014. Non- probability (purposive) sample of 1254 adolescents<br>were chosen from secondary schools of both sides of Al-Karkh and Al-Russafa sectors. Data was collected<br>through a specially constructed questionnaire format include (20) items multiple choice questions. The<br>validity of the questionnaire was determined through a panel of experts related to the field of the study, and<br>the reliability through a pilot study. The data were analyzed through the application of descriptive statistical<br>analysis frequency, &amp; percentages, and inferential statistical analysis, chi-square, are used.<br>Results: Regarding the gender, finding indicates that males and females (48.7, and 51.3%) respectively,<br>were approximately equal, and the result study samples find more than one forth BMI were almost equal in<br>under and normal weight percentile (27.8%, and 27.8%) respectively, they spent mostly time (5 hours and<br>more) in watching TV, and use the computer for playing games, and sometimes eat during watching TV or<br>playing computer games. Adolescents’ gender has highly significant association with times sharing with<br>physical activity per week but the other items have no significant association. Adolescents’ Body Mass Index<br>has highly significant association with their lifestyle. Adolescents’ gender has highly significant association<br>with the reasons of skipping breakfast meal and the adolescents’ Body Mass Index have no significant<br>association with the reasons of skipping meals</p> Buthainah Basheer Saleh1 , Eqbal Ghanim Ma?ala2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Some Relaxation Exercises Use by Nurse in Assessment of Vital Signs <p>Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the short term effect of relaxation exercise on vital<br>signs measured at baseline.<br>Method: A quasi-experimental design with pre and post-intervention with a group control method. Sixty<br>subjects, divided to study and coronal group measurement of vital signs (Temperature, pulse, respiration and<br>blood pressure) done by researchers, by using a calibrated sphygmomanometer, mercury thermometer, and<br>done of four relaxation exercises include (deep breathing, leg relaxation exercise, arm relaxation exercise,<br>and face muscles relaxation exercise).<br>Results: The findings of research appear there is a significant difference between the study and control<br>sample in vital signs after applied relaxation techniques, and This table reveals the statistical significance<br>and high significance between study and control study for the physical parameter (vital signs) after applied<br>the relaxation technique.<br>Conclusions: The currents study concludes, some relaxation exercises such as (deep breathing, leg relaxation<br>exercise, arm relaxation exercise, and face muscle relaxation exercise) after application for a study group,<br>make a slight alteration in vital signs. And there is no significant association among the control group. The<br>authors recommend the training of the office employees about some relaxation exercises.</p> Alaa Abrahem Saeed1 , Sabah Abdullah Jaafar2, Dergham Majeed Hameed3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Diabetes and Hypertension on Right Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness and Variable Spectral Waveform Indices And Parameters in Relation To Age for Iraqi Patients <p>Background: Arterial stiffness is related with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease events. Patients<br>with atherosclerotic disease show to have larger diameters, reduced arterial compliance and lower flow<br>velocities.<br>Aim of study : To compare between patients of two age groups with concomitant diseases diabetes and<br>hypertension in regard to intima media thickness and blood flow characteristics in order to estimate the<br>blood perfusion to the brain via the common and internal carotid arteries.<br>Subject and Methods : 40 patients with (diabetic and hypertension) diseases were enrolled , they were<br>classified according to age. Color Doppler and B mode ultrasound was used to determine lumen Diameter<br>(D), Intima – media thickness (IMT), end diastolic velocity (EDV), peak systolic velocity (PSV), Resistive<br>Index (RI), Pulsatility Index (PI), and the flow rate indices were calibrated and calculated .<br>Results:- Results show that the change in the lumen diameter between the old patients group and the younger<br>group were (2.02%) with insignificant (p value &gt;0.05), and the difference in the in intima-media (IMT)<br>thickness between the two age groups (35- 55) and (56-75) are (33.8%) with significant (p value &lt;0.05).<br>The change difference in peak systolic velocity was (-13.29% ) with insignificant (p value &gt;0.05), while the<br>difference in the (EDV) between both age groups was (-38.02%), with significant p value &lt;0.05. Pressure<br>gradient and flow rate have given insignificant difference between both age groups.<br>Conclusion: The intima media is significantly thicker for the old age group than in the younger group. The<br>increased thickness of intima media did not influence the lumen diameter significantly. A clear change in<br>PSV, EDV, RI, and PI was observed which have influenced blood perfusion to the brain.</p> Samar I. Essa1 , Ahmed Abduljabar Al-Sabbagh2 , Satar M. Kadam3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Using Competitive and Traditional Methods in Learning Some Basic Gymnastics Skills <p>The research aims to identify the effect of using competitive and traditional methods on learning some basic<br>skills in gymnastics. The research sample was selected from third stage students in the College of Physical<br>Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Kufa. The research aims to identify the effect of using<br>competitive and traditional methods on learning some basic skills in gymnastics. The researchers assumed<br>that there were statistically significant differences between the pre and post-tests in favor of the post-test<br>between the two methods separately, as well as the existence of statistically significant differences between<br>the two methods in favor of the competitive method. In learning some basic skills in gymnastics, among the<br>most important conclusions and recommendations made by the researchers are:<br>1- The group that learned the competitive method achieved an improvement in learning most skills in<br>gymnastics than the group that learned the restrictive method.<br>2- Directing the attention of teachers and trainers in the sports field by using the competition method as a<br>means of learning basic gymnastics skills.</p> Zaid Sami yasir1 , Diaa Fadel Abbas1 , Hayder Naji Habash Alshawi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of antioxidants capacity of non-enzymatic antioxidants and its effect in glucose level in diabetic patients <p>Background: Oxidative stress might participate in the pathophysiology of diabetes type 2. Systems of nonenzymatic antioxidants are made up of scavenging molecules that are formed endogenously.<br>The Study Objective: This study’s aims were evaluation of the non-enzymatic antioxidants and their effect<br>in levels of glucose among diabetic patients.<br>Methodology: A total of eighty patients with DM type 2 and forty healthy persons (control) were enrolled<br>within this study. Serum and plasma were obtained from collected blood samples. The Ferric Reducing<br>Ability of Plasma (FRAP) method was used for detection of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Ellman’s<br>method was used to determine the level of reduced glutathione. The serum CAT activity was detected by the<br>technique explained by Sinha.<br>Results: The findings revealed that, among diabetic groups, there was a significant elevation in glycosylated<br>hemoglobin and glucose levels; HbA1c and FBG levels were significantly higher; MDA, NO, LPI, TAC and<br>GSH showed significant greater values. The activity of SOD showed significantly greater mean value among<br>the control group.<br>Conclusion: The results suggest that antioxidants defense might be decreased in T2DM, as TAC levels<br>were decreased. The increased levels of MDA, NO, LPI, TAC and GSH were associated with oxidative<br>stress. Assessment of GSH could help in recognition of the extent of oxidative stress in diabetes as well as<br>prevention and control of diabetic complications.</p> Rana Fadhil Mousa Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Measurement of GSH, SOD and MDA some Antioxidant level after Excises Athletes <p>Antioxidants are a line of defense that protects the cells of the body. Attacking the stray oxygen molecules.<br>The function of these antioxidant is to add a group of electrons to the blood vessels to give them to<br>electrolytes or monovalent free radicals so that they stabilize and calm down and do not destroy cells. Thus,<br>antioxidants work to achieve a balance between free radicals and antioxidants In the cell and keeps the cell<br>from being damaged. Increased electrolytes or free radicals work To weaken the ability of antioxidants’ and<br>enzymes secreted by cells despite the fact that the cell has a self-protection and a defensive line to secrete<br>self-antioxidants, and here the importance of antioxidants arises. These metabolic changes increase the<br>oxidative effort and affect the ability to achieve and the efficiency of athletes, as well as the body contains<br>a lot of antioxidant systems Oxidative stress that includes enzymes such as GSH) Glutathione Dos) Super<br>oxide D ismutses. Exercise can produce an imbalance between ROS and antioxidants, which is referred<br>to as oxidative stress. Dietary antioxidant supplements are marketed to and used by athletes as a means<br>to counteract the oxidative stress of exercise. Whether strenuous exercise does, in fact, increase the need<br>for additional antioxidants in the diet is not clear. This research showed the role of free radicals in causing<br>oxidative stress during exercise. The results showed significant increased in malondialdehyde (MDA) level<br>(as an index of lipid peroxidation) glutathione (GSH) superoxide dismuatse activity (SOD) in subjects after<br>efforts of exercise in comparison with the control group.</p> Harith Abdelelah Alshukri 1 , Mazin Hadi Kzar 2 , Aied Kareem Abdaun3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Health Consequence of Gas Filling on the Workers’ Health of Two Cities in Iraq (Comparative Study) <p>A gas is a sample of matter that conforms to the shape of a container in which it is held and acquires a uniform<br>density inside the container, even in the presence of gravity and regardless of the amount of substance in the<br>container. If not confined to a container, gaseous matter, also known as vapor, will disperse into space . The<br>term gas is also used in reference to the state, or condition, of matter having this property.<br>Aims: To identify the demographic data of the worker and to comparative beteen kirkuk gas filling company<br>and Tikrit gas filling company among work hazards like health, physical, chemical, physiological, mechanical<br>hazards.<br>Methodology: Quantitative design (comparative study) was conducted for worker in company gas filling<br>in Tikrit (Salah aldin )and Kirkuk city the study was carried out from the 10th February 2020 to 13th Augst<br>2020. This study was conducted in Kirkuk city and Tikrit (Salah aldin ). The present study was conducted<br>in two company of gas filling:Company gas filling / branch Kirkuk and Company gas filling / branch salah<br>Eldin. The data was prepared, organized and coded into the computer file; Statistical Package for Social<br>Science (SPSS) version (24) was used for data analysis<br>Results the result of demographic data for both kirkuk and Tikrit city shows that the age group (20-29<br>years) represents a high percentage in the Kirkuk gas and Tikrit city and represent (40.0%) and (38.0%)<br>respectively , with regard to the gender the results shows high percentage from gender were male in kirkuk<br>and tikrit and represent (95.0% )and (98.0%) respectively ,also the result shows the kirkuk workers were<br>more less effected than tikrit workers also the results shows the chemical ,mechanical and psychosocial<br>hazard was effect in tikrit workers more than kirkuk workers .</p> Hussein Ali Mohammed 1 , Wijdan Abdulameer Kamel 2 , Abid Salih Kumait 3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Non COVID Symptoms and its Impact on Quality of Life among the Professionals Residing at Pune City <p>Introduction: COVID-19 has made all of us understandably too much cautious to visit the physician’s.<br>We have rescheduled the appointments and trying to manage our care viva virtual visits, Also trying to<br>stay safe by restricting movements. It’s important to keep taking precautions like handwashing, avoid<br>touching face area and also wearing the masks in public. Hence it’s very important for all of us to know<br>when to seek medical help.<br>Objectives of the study: 1.To assess the Non COVID Symptoms among working professionals in Pune<br>City 2.To assess the impact of Non Covid symptoms on quality of life among working professionals in<br>Pune City 3.To associate the selected Demographic variable with the Non COVID Symptoms among<br>working professionals in Pune City<br>Methodology: Survey study was conducted among 265 working professionals in Pune City. Non<br>probability convenience sampling technique was used to select the samples. Informed consent was obtained<br>from all participants, and made them aware that the information gathered is used only for research purpose.<br>Structured questionnaires were prepared to elicit information from the participants.<br>Result: The study result says that are various Non Covid symptoms which the general population is facing<br>in the current scenario which are being identified in the study result and also the Non Covid symptoms are<br>being associated with the various selected demographic variable the result pertaining to that shows that<br>there is significant association between working profession and monthly family income with Non COVID<br>Symptoms as the P value is less than 0.05.In this current situation the investigator wanted to recommended<br>further studies to find out the various other Non covid symptoms faced by the general population an should<br>be paid attention and treated on time.</p> Sharadha Ramesh1 , Poonam Yadav2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Years’ Experience upon Nurses’ Knowledge and Practice concerning Infection Control at Critical Care Units in Baghdad City <p>Introduction: Infection control or hospital-acquired infections are the major concern of the health care<br>system and agencies. Critical care nurses are on the first-line contact with the patients, so on, they are most<br>vulnerable to acquired infections. It is really important to regularly check their knowledge and practices<br>concerning infection control. Objectives: The study aims to identify the impact of years’ experience on<br>nurses’ knowledge and practices concerning infection control in three hospitals and center (Baghdad<br>teaching hospital, Ibn Al-Nafees hospital, and Ibn al-Bitar center) Methodology: Cross-sectional study was<br>conducted, the study starting from 4th of July 2020 to 13th of November 2020. Non-probability (purposive)<br>sample was used to select 110 nurses who work at critical care units in three hospitals and center (Baghdad<br>teaching hospital, Ibn Al-Nafees hospital, and Ibn al-Bitar center). The years of experience should no<br>less than one year. The instrument was composed of two parts. Firstly, covers the nurses’ demographic<br>characteristics. Secondly, included self-report questions about nurses’ knowledge and an evaluation sheet<br>concerning nurses’ practices of infection control with 24 questions for knowledge and 12 questions for<br>practices checklist. Results: The study revealed that the nurses’ knowledge toward infection control record<br>38%, 41%, and 21% for low, moderate, and high knowledge respectively. In comparison, nurses practices<br>record 47%, 42%, and 11% for low, moderate, and high practices respectively. Most of the study sample<br>62% was females while 38 % of the subject was males. The age group (20-29) takes the highest percentage<br>(38%), In addition, about (27.3%) of the nurses who works in critical care units have 1-5 years of experience.<br>Significant statistical associations were found between nurses knowledge and practice from one hand and<br>years’ experience on the other hands p ? 0.05. Recommendation: Based on this finding, the researcher<br>recommended further studies involve more nurses and other health professionals regarding infection control<br>and highlight the importance of infection control to nurses with (1-5) years’ experience by symposium or<br>teaching programs.</p> Wafaa Abd Ali Hattab1 , Alaa Jawad Kadhim2 , Musaab Majid Abdulwahhab1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Biochemical Causes the Diabetic Retinopathy in Diabetes (Type II) Patients in Al-Muthanna Province <p>Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress, imbalance between reactive oxygen<br>species production and antioxidant scavenging that may play a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus<br>and occurrence diabetic retinopathy as a result from increasing activity of free radicals and accumulation of<br>lipid peroxidation products.<br>Aim: To investigate the association between glycemic control, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status.<br>Methodology: A descriptive cross - sectional study on non- probability was conducted (sample collection)<br>of (232) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Plain tubes, the tools and instruments that were used to collect<br>data.<br>Results: The results of the study revealed that dyslipidemia and hypertension were found to be more<br>prevalent in the diabetic retinopathy subjects than the regular diabetic subjects. Plasma antioxidant levels<br>were higher in the diabetic subjects than the diabetic retinopathy subjects while malondialdehyde levels<br>were found to be higher in the diabetic retinopathy subjects.<br>Conclusion: Duration of diabetes has very important effect on both MDA and uric acid levels for diabetic<br>patients with/without retinopathy. Oxidative parameters value not influence by residence as well as body<br>mass index not has any effect on uric acid level.</p> Yusra Ali Hameed1 , Jawad Kadhum Muraih2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Marginal adaptation at Interfaces Using Composite Resin to Different Setting Amalgam Filling in Class II Cavity Preparation <p>Aim: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the microleakage of composite restorations alone or<br>with amalgam base in proximal box of class ? cavity preparation.<br>Methode: Eighty proximal cavities (Mesio-occlusal and disto-occlusal) were prepared in 40 premolars<br>with carbide bur and randomly divided into four groups. Group A restored with composite resin; the other<br>three groups restored with combined amalgam-composite restoration as follows. Group B the composite<br>inserted immediately after insertion of amalgam, group C the composite inserted after 5 minutes of amalgam<br>insertion while in group D the composite inserted after two days of amalgam insertion. Marginal adaptation<br>was evaluated at the following interfaces: tooth-amalgam(T-A), tooth-composite resin (T-C) and amalgamcomposite (A-C). Microleakage was evaluated by means of methylene blue infiltration after 21 days water<br>storage and thermocycling aging. Microleakage was assessed by measuring the depth of horizontal dye<br>penetration. Image J analysis software was used to measure the penetration of dye in the tooth- filling<br>interface and in the amalgam- composite interface. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey HSD tests (?<br>=0.05) were used statistically for analyzing gather data.<br>Results: There were a significant statically showed by ANOVA test between teeth -fillings interface,<br>according to Tukey’s test there were a significant difference between teeth-composite interface and teethamalgam interface (p&lt;0.05), while between composite- amalgam interface, ANOVA test showed a significant<br>difference between groups and Tukey’s test showed a significant difference between groups according to<br>time of placement of composite on amalgam filling (p&lt;0.05).<br>Conclusion: Using of amalgam at the cervical base of the box in Class II combined amalgam-composite<br>restoration has better result than using of composite from marginal leakage view.</p> Mohammed Kassim Gholam 1 , Biland MS Shukri 2 , Haider Hasan Jasim 3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Brain habits, Accuracy and Its Relationship to Self-Confidence for Handball Players <p>The current research aims to identify the struggle for accuracy and its relationship with self-confidence<br>among players of the Baghdad and Middle Euphrates clubs with handball, to achieve this goal, two tools<br>have been prepared, one of which is to measure the struggle for accuracy and the other to measure selfconfidence after finding their psychometric characteristics represented in honesty and constancy, the two<br>tools were applied on the research sample of (152) players from the clubs of Baghdad and the Middle<br>Euphrates with youth handball and after analyzing the data using statistical means the research resulted in<br>the research sample enjoying the struggle for accuracy and self-confidence in them, as well as the existence<br>of a statistically significant correlation between the struggle for accuracy and self-confidence of the players<br>of Baghdad and Euphrates clubs with handball.</p> Ali Hussein Ali1 , Muntadhar Saheb Mahdi2 , Ahmed Khudhair Abbas3 , Wissam Salah Abdul Hussein4 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Associated Oral Manifestations <p>Background: Leukemia defined as a hematological disorder associated with proliferating white blood cellforming tissues as resultant increasing of circulating immature white blood cells or abnormal cells.<br>Aims of the study: To investigate clinically the oral manifestations or discomfort oral features in patients<br>with chronic myeloid leukemia.<br>Subjects, Materials and Methods: Thirty- three patients participated (17 males and 16 females) in the<br>current study with chronic myeloid leukemia already.<br>Results: Total numbers of cases were (33). (17 males and 16 females), the percentages of these results<br>showed gingival bleeding (87%), fungal infection (84%), oral petechiae (72%), gingival overgrow (63%),<br>and then finally painless oral ulceration (60%), The early diagnosis of this disease knowing that the first<br>clinical symptoms of leukemia happen in the oral cavity with normal or show challenging changes in initial<br>laboratory tests.<br>Conclusions: Because of their clinical importance for early diagnosis, all such lesions or pathological status<br>deserves the full attention of the doctors (like oral physician and general physician).</p> Suha Abdulhussein Hindy1 , Ali M. H. Alyassiri2 , Ali Q.L. Lilo3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Legalizing speed Endurance Training According to Some Physiological Indicators for 800-Meter Runners for Youth <p>The importance of research lies in the preparation and codification of speed endurance exercises according<br>to some physiological indicators for 800-meter runners for youth and to identify the effect of codifying speed<br>endurance training according to some physiological indicators of 800 meters for youth, as the researcher<br>adopted the experimental approach in designing the two equivalent groups (control and experimental) to suit<br>the nature of the research, where the research sample was determined by deliberate selection of young runners<br>in athletics at the age of (18-19 years) according to the classification of the international athletics federation,<br>as the research sample included (10) runners representing Baghdad clubs who were distributed randomly (by<br>lot) into two groups control and experimental group each consisting of (5) runners, physiological tests were<br>performed, including the maximum consumption of oxygen and lactic acid, and the physical tests included<br>(1000) meter endurance test and (800) meter achievement test on the research sample, and the researcher<br>came to the following conclusions that the speed endurance training gave progress in the level of the (800)<br>meter running in this test, and they need to be stable and avoid fluctuation in the variation in the values of this<br>test, the results showed that the experimental group members outperformed the control in the physiological<br>indicators (lactic acid concentration, the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) in the post-tests. The<br>researcher recommended the necessity of conducting physiological tests to legalize training loads because of<br>their effective role in the training process, focusing on developing and rationing the speed bearing capacity<br>because of its direct impact on the development of achievement in the activities of middle-distance athletics.</p> Mohammed Amanah Kaittan1 , Emad Amanah Kaittan2 , Ahmed Abdulrazzaq Fadhil3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Salivary Changes with the age and their effect on plaque related disease <p>Background: Saliva is an exocrine clear oral fluid predominantly secreted by salivary glands both major and<br>minor. It consists of many constituents, mainly water and others are electrolytes, enzymes, immunoglobulins<br>and other antimicrobial factors.<br>Saliva plays an important role in the oral health, the level of its components change with age, and that has<br>direct effect on teeth and periodontal tissue, because saliva plays a critical role in the development of dental<br>caries and periodontal diseases.<br>The objective of this study to estimate salivary changes by investigation the level of alpha- amylase and<br>MMP-8 enzymes, sIgA, and salivary minerals (Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorus) in relation to age.<br>Materials and Methods: Ninety persons were chosen from different age groups (60) males and (30)<br>females, the age ranged between 20 up to 50, and divided into three subgroups.<br>ELISA technique was used to evaluate the level of salivary alpha-amylase, MMP-8, and sIgA. Salivary<br>electrolytes were evaluated according to their kits.<br>Results: Results showed that the level of sIgA significantly decreased with the age, salivary alpha –amylase<br>decreased with the age but not significant statistically, and MMP-8 increased with age but not significant<br>statistically. Regarding salivary minerals (Ca, P, and Mg) results showed that calcium and magnesium<br>levels significantly increased with age, while phosphorus level increased with age also but not significant<br>statistically.<br>Conclusion: Decrease in the level of sIgA and alpha-amylase with age, while increase in the level of MMP8 and salivary minerals (Ca, P and Mg) with age, may indicate decrease in the incidence of dental caries and<br>increase in the incidence of periodontal disease with age.</p> Haider Adnan1 , Suha Abdulhussein Hindy2 , Ali Zaki Naji3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Morphological (Macroscopic and Microscopic) Parameters of Placentas in Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia, Diabetes and Preeclampsia and Diabetes <p>This study was done to compare the morphometric parameters of placentas in well controlled patients with<br>preeclampsia, diabetes, and preeclampsia-diabetes with that of normal uncomplicated placentas.<br>Patients &amp;Methods: A total of Twenty four placentas were freshly collected. Six placentas for control<br>group and eighteen placentas for complicated group (preeclamptic- diabetic and preeclamptic--diabetic<br>subgroups). The placentas were grossly examined (shape, number of cotyledons, weight, and thickness).<br>After suitable fixation, tissue processing and sectioning, the sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin<br>to study the general morphology and morphometry of the following parameters: number of terminal villi,<br>number of syncytial knots, number of apoptotic cells and number of fetal capillaries.<br>Result: The weight of the baby in D- subgroup was significantly increased when compared with control<br>group and with P and P-D subgroups . Microscopical morphometry regarding number of terminal villi,<br>apoptotic cells, syncytial knots and fetal capillaries were increased in complicated subgroups. The thickness<br>of basement membrane was 0.8µm in control group and it was increased in all complicated subgroups. The<br>highest value was reported by D- subgroup (2 µm).</p> Malak A. Al-yawer1 , Nameer F. AL-Kalifa2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Parenting Styles and Children’s Behaviors Difficulties <p>The descriptive-correlation study design used to investigate the relation between parenting styles and<br>children’s behavior difficulties by using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, and Strengths<br>and Difficulties Questionnaire to achieve study objectives. An online questionnaire applied as a method of<br>data collecting on 101 parents (majority of them mothers) and their 4-11 years old children, 58 of them were<br>males and 43 were females. The finding of the current study reveals that the authoritative parenting style was<br>used more than other styles and correlated significantly with good child behaviors while the authoritarian<br>and permissive style used less and correlated negatively with child’s behaviors. In conclusion, when parents<br>use an authoritative or democratic style enhances children’s positive behaviors more than other styles.</p> Ali Fadhil Obaid 1, Ali Ibrahim Rashid 2, Nuhad Mohammed Kassim3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Children with Thumb Sucking Habit in Babylon City <p>Aims: The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of thumb sucking habit between preschoolers<br>and the effect on their occlusion of the habit.<br>Materials and Methods: 42 of pre-school children aged 4-5 years who were inspected by questioning for<br>the presence or absence of thumb sucking habit, and thumb examination, and the teeth were examined for<br>the presence of decreased over flight and overbite or open bite.<br>Results: Total number children have thumb sucking habit, and open bite of them.<br>Conclusion: In this age group (4-5) years , the number of children with thumb sucking habit was considered<br>high and the habit was found to increase the prevalence of malocclusion of deciduous.</p> Abdulmahdi A. Hasan Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Quality of Death Registration And Possibility of Introducing Verbal Autopsy Into Kurdistan Region of Iraq <p>Aim : To explore stakeholders’ perspectives on the quality of death registration and possibility of introducing<br>verbal autopsy into the Kurdistan Region, Iraq.<br>Methods: Qualitative interviews conducted with 15 stakeholders from the Ministry of Health, Directorates<br>of Health, and Medico-legal Institutes of Erbil, Sulaymaniyah, and Duhok of the Kurdistan Region of<br>Iraq. Stakeholders were selected through the purposeful sampling method. Responses were analyzed using<br>qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis. Responses were categorized into three main categories:<br>strengths, gaps, and suggestions for improving the death registration in the Kurdistan Region.<br>Results: The strong points in favor of the current death registration were: easy and good practice, it was easy<br>for people to get a certificate, the existence of laws and regulations related to death registration, having a<br>“standard death certificate,” and follow-up and monitoring of the process of death registration at the Medicolegal Institutes. The gaps were incompleteness and inaccuracy in most of the locations, staff ignorance, no<br>checking of data, missing cases, no use of the data, and no standardized process for compiling data.<br>The stakeholders emphasized on implementing the existing rules and regulations, building staff capacity,<br>systematic processes for data management, and follow-up and monitoring as strategies for improvement.<br>All the stakeholders reported that verbal autopsy is appropriate for solving problems related to cause-ofdeath data. However, the feasibility of verbal autopsy will be a challenge for several reasons, including the<br>current economic crisis.</p> Ahmed Mohammed Amin Ahmed1 , Tariq Salman Al-Hadithi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Ultrasonic Activation of Two Different Sealers on the Fracture Resistance of Obturated Root Canals <p>The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic activation of two sealers: EndoSequence<br>BC and AH Plus on the fracture resistance of obturated roots.<br>Materials and Method: Forty eight mandibular first premolars were decoronated to a length of 13 mm<br>from the apex. The roots were divided into two groups (24 samples) to be obturated with gutta percha using<br>either EndoSequence BC(Group I) or AH Plus (Group II) sealers. Each group was further subdivided into<br>two subgroups (n=12). Subgroups IA and IIA were obturated without ultrasonic activation of the sealers.<br>Subgroups IB and IIB were obturated with ultrasonic activation of the sealers. The activation of the sealers<br>was performed using size 15 ultrasonic K-file for a total of 20 seconds 2 mm short of the working length. The<br>samples were subjected to fracture resistance test using a universal testing machine at a across head spead of<br>0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed using One way ANOVA and Tukey tests at a significant level of 0.05.<br>Results: The fracture resistance mean values of the EndoSequence BC subgroups with and without activation<br>were significantly higher than those of AH Plus sealer (P&lt;0.05).<br>Conclusion: The ultrasonic activation of both sealers did not enhance the fracture resistance of obturated<br>roots.</p> Hussain Khaleel Mohammed 1, Manal Hussain Abd-alla2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hepato-nephroprotective Role of Lepidium sativum against Oxidative Stress Induced by Dexamethasone in Rats <p>The current research was prepared to explore the hepato-nephroprotective effect of Lepidium sativum seed<br>aquatic extract against oxidative stress stimulated by dexamethasone in rats. Animals were classified as<br>follows; group one was used as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with Lepidium sativum<br>seed extract (LSSE; 20 mg/kg, daily), interperitoneally with dexamethasone (DEX; 1 mg/kg BW) and<br>LSSE plus DEX for 14 days, respectively. Administration of DEX elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive<br>substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and kidney and liver function biomarkers level, and<br>lactate dehydrogenase activity. While enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST) and non-enzymatic (GSH)<br>antioxidants, protein content, and alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly decreased. Otherwise, rats<br>supplemented with LSSE singly declined lipid peroxidation and improved most of the studied parameters.<br>Moreover, rats pretreated with LSSE then received DEX showed significant alleviation in lipid peroxidation,<br>antioxidant status and biochemical indices with respect to DEX treated group. Conclusively, LSSE has<br>beneficial protective effects and has the capability to counteract the harmful influence of DEX. So, Lepidium<br>sativum might represent a novel approach in the therapy of dexamethasone because of its antioxidant<br>properties.</p> Sawsan Agbashee Abraheem Alsadee Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Updated Review on Some Neurotoxic Pharmacological Agents Along with their Neurotoxic Mechanisms <p>This review will provide the vital information about some pharmacological agents which are Neurotoxic.<br>Through this update, Anti-cancer, Anti-bacterial, Analgesic, Psychoactive drug and Anabolic steroid<br>medication are reported briefly regarding their neurotoxic mechanisms. In this review all information<br>regarding neurotoxic drugs is collected from 2020 published work by Web of science, Scopus, PubMed and<br>Google Scholar. It is concluded that all these drugs which the part of our study are neurotoxic. There is need<br>to discover some method to reduce their toxicity and to avoid the chronic use of these medications.</p> Muhammad Irfan Bashir1 , Nur Hidayah Kaz Abdul Aziz2 , Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 CT scan Findings of COVID-19 in Patients with Fatty Liver <p>Purpose: COVID 19) is a respiratory disease caused by a member of the coronaviruses family, named<br>(SARS-CoV-2), discovered in December 2019 in China. This study aims to assess the association of the<br>simple fatty liver disease with the severity of the chest computed tomography (CT) scan findings in COVID<br>19.<br>Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 322 patients with positive (RT-PCR)<br>tests and chest CT scan findings. Patients with chronic lung and liver disease, alcoholics, and abnormal liver<br>function tests excluded from the study. The liver CT scan density assessed, accordingly the patients divided<br>into fatty-liver and non-fatty liver groups. The severity of lung CT changes compared between them, using<br>Chi-square test.<br>Conclusion: COVID patients with fatty liver have more progressive changes in the chest CT scan. They<br>have similar lung lesion distribution to non- fatty liver patients. Crazy paving lesions, septal thickening,<br>Lymphadenopathy and plural effusion in fatty liver patients occurs in the same frequency as non-fatty liver<br>patients</p> Israa Mohammed Sadiq1 , Kermanj Ismail Bakr1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 tudying the Relationship between the Lund Mackay Score and Response to Medical Treatment in Patients with Chronic Sinusitis <p>The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the Lund Mackay score and<br>response to medical treatment in patients with chronic sinusitis. The present study was performed crosssectionally on 150 patients referred to Khatam-ul-Anbia Hospital in Zahedan for whom the diagnosis of<br>chronic sinusitis was confirmed and met the study criteria. Demographic data and clinical signs of patients<br>were recorded and for based on CT scan, The Lund Mackay score was evaluated. Patients were treated for 4<br>to 6 weeks and finally re-evaluated for symptoms and response to treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS<br>software version 24, McNemar test, Mann-Whitney and other necessary tests for descriptive statistics. A<br>significance level of 0.05 was considered. 3.55% of patients were male (83 patients) and 7.44% were female<br>(67 patients). The mean score of the Lund Mackay in the present study was 92.11 with a standard deviation<br>of 2.3. Symptoms of olfactory dysfunction, sinus pain, nasal obstruction and nasal discharge showed<br>significant improvement after treatment (p &lt;05.0). Based on the results obtained at the end of the study, the<br>presence of nasal polyps (p = 001.0) and nasal obstruction (p = 003.0), after the end of the treatment period,<br>showed a significant relationship with the response to treatment. In general, this study suggested that the<br>mean score of The Lund Mackay had a significant positive relationship with the severity of patients’ clinical<br>symptoms and the severity of sinusitis. Therefore, it can be considered as a suitable criterion in diagnostic<br>and therapeutic evaluations of patients.</p> Gholam-Ali Dashti Khavidaki1 , Reza Gharibi1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Meningitis on Cognitive Skills and Development in Children <p>The present systematic review aims to investigate the impact of meningitis on the cognitive skills and<br>development of children. In this systematic review, relevant studies were identified via searches through<br>medical information databases of MEDLINE, PubMed, ISI, EMBASE, Cochrane with the keywords of<br>Meningitis, Meningitis and Complications, Meningitis and Children, Meningitis and Intelligence Quotient<br>(IQ), Meningitis and Development, and their derivatives. In this study, amongst 198 articles reviewed,<br>11 articles met the inclusion criteria. All studies, except one case, reported a decrease in growth and IQ<br>in children who experienced meningitis. Based on the results of the present study, children who have<br>experienced meningitis at a younger age are more prone to disability, growth retardation, and lower IQ than<br>other children throughout the later years of their life.</p> Seyedeh Mahsa Mahmoudinezhad Dezfouli1 , Shaqayeq Khosravi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Association between Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Diabetic Retinopathy in the Patient with Type 2 Diabetic <p>The present study aimed to determine the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic<br>retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this cross-sectional analytical study, 150 patients<br>with type 2 diabetes mellitus were assessed. The eye fundus examination was performed using fundoscopy<br>to confirm or rule out retinopathy. Thyroid hormones were also measured by special kits to diagnose<br>subclinical hypothyroidism. The criteria for diagnosis of this disorder include the high serum thyrotropin<br>concentration (? 4mIU/L) plus normal serum free thyroxin levels. Statistical analyses were done using IBMSPSS. In the study, 34.66% suffered retinopathy. A total of 24.0% suffered subclinical hypothyroidism with<br>higher prevalence rate in those with retinopathy as compared with the group without retinopathy (p = 0.001).<br>Those with diabetic retinopathy also experienced longer duration of diabetes than those without this event.<br>(p = 0.006). Analysis show a significant role for type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.121, P = 0.003), and high<br>TSH level (OR = 1.342, P = 0.006) to predict diabetic retinopathy.This study showed an association between<br>hypothyroidism, diabetes and increased TSH with retinopathy. Retinopathy is significantly predicable with<br>the presence of subclinical hypothyroidism and longer duration of diabetes.</p> Alireza Hejrati1 , Maryam Hadad2 , Atousa Najmaldin1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Survey of Knowledge Level about Pediatric oral/dental Health among Pediatricians <p>Pediatricians play a central role in children’s health care and are the first line of care for oral/dental<br>conditions. The level of pediatrician knowledge about oral/dental health is not accurately determined.<br>In this cross-sectional study, a previously adapted questionnaire was used to evaluate the level of oral/<br>dental health knowledge among pediatricians affiliated with medical universities in Tehran, Iran. The data<br>were summarized through descriptive statistics and central index tests. In this study, 263 pediatricians<br>(49.4% male) completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 43.9 years. Only 17 individuals (6.5%) had<br>completed a course of oral/dental health during their residency. The mean score was 5.9 ± 1.7. Questionnaire<br>scores were similar between male and female pediatricians. Time from graduation and completion of an<br>oral/dental health course was not associated with better performance according to the questionnaire. The<br>level of knowledge about oral/dental health among pediatricians is inadequate. Most pediatricians have<br>not completed a training course on this matter. These findings highlight the need for integrated training<br>programs to improve pediatrician knowledge about oral/dental health.</p> Masoud Haghighikian1 , Mohsen Khaleghian1 , Ali Saberi1 , Mohammad Nasiri1 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Characteristics and Short-Term Outcomes of Patients with Severe COVID-19 <p>We Report the demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, vital signs and outcomes of 19 laboratoryconfirmed COVID-19 patients who admitted to ICU; from 15 Feb to 15 March 2020 in Arak, Markazi<br>Province, Iran. Data showed that the most common laboratory findings on first day of ICU admission, were<br>leukocytosis (52.6%), neutrophilia (73.6%), lymphopenia (100%), anemia (100%), hyperglycemia (78.95),<br>increased levels of INR (100%); AST (66.66%), ALT (50%) and LDH (100%). 36.36% and 45.45% of<br>patients had elevated total and direct bilirubin, respectively but all of patients had normal range of ALK-p<br>(Table 1). In term of vital signs (3 first days); SBP, DBP and PR did not have significant changes but O2<br>saturation increased from 82.9 % to 93 % and the number of mechanical ventilated patients increased from<br>36.8% to 73.3%</p> Morteza Mousavi-Hasanzadeh1 , Alireza Kamali2 , Fatemeh Safi3 , Hossein Sarmadian4 , Amir Almasi-Hashiani5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Deleted <p>a</p> Iman Qasim Kteo Al-hussein1 , Zahraa Abdull Abbass Taher Al- Khafajy1 , Haider Mohammed Haloob ALAbedi 1 , Athraa Abbas Al-Zeyadi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Application of an Indigenous Polymer for the Plastination of Teaching Anatomical and Biological Specimens <p>Plastination was fabricated in 1978 by Dr. Gunther Von Hagens at the University of Heidelberg,, Germany,<br>which Kept for the good conservation of anatomical and biological material. The present goal was to utiliz a<br>cost- effective plastination polymers as compared to the standard S10 technique using silicone polymers. The<br>S10 is the original silicone polymer used for the preparation of plastinated specimens and whole dissecting<br>body.<br>. Specimens were fixed in formalin 10%, dehydrated and decreasing in acetone, and at last,impregnated by<br>local commercial unsaturated polyester resin and ultimately hardening at 50 °C temperature.<br>The plastinated specimens were clean, durable ,odorless ,portable and non-toxic ,it can be kept for long<br>durations without any changes .The usage of widespread S10 silicon method is high costs so with the aid<br>of using indigenous chemicals it is possible to produced low costs anatomical models for education and for<br>studying anatomy.</p> Alaa A. Sawad Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluations of Inflammatory Status in Chronic Renal Failure Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis and Conservative Treatment <p>Introduction: - Chronic inflammation is a basic feature of end stage kidney disease and is associated with<br>increasing risk of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing dialysis.The aim: - the study amid to<br>evaluate white blood cells and IL-6 in patients undergoing hemodialysis and without hemodialysis. Methods<br>and Subjects:- The study was designed on 106 patients with chronic renal failure age range (20-69years).<br>The patients divided in two groups according to treatment, 40 patients with conservative treatment and<br>66 patients with hemodialysis treatment. IL-6 were determined by using a commercially available ELISA<br>Micro wells kit. Total white blood cells count and differential count were determined by using an automated<br>hematology autoanlyzer XT2000i. Results:- showed a significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease of total white blood<br>cells count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils in hemodialytic group when<br>compared with conservative group. But IL-6 levels was higher significantly (p&lt;0.01) in hemodialytic group<br>when compared with conservative group. Conclusion: - hemodialysis session impaired immune system and<br>activated anti-inflammatory factors.</p> Fatimah Kadhim Ibrahim AL- Mahdawi1 , Ali Shalash Sultan2 , Nabeel Khalid Mohamed Ali AL-Wandi3 , Mazin Razooqi Mohammed4 , Hayder Abdulhafdh Kurji5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Medical Induction of First Trimester abortion by Misoprostol or Misoprostol with Letrozole <p>Background: Managing of abortion is an important subject in gynecology. Millions of patients had suffered<br>from spontaneous abortions that occur per year.<br>Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of misoprostol alone and misoprostol with<br>letrozole in the induction of abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy.<br>Patients and Methods: In a single –blind clinical trial ,128 female applicants for legal abortion within the<br>first trimester of pregnancy that referred to AL-Batool hospital , were divided in to two groups: intervention<br>(misoprostol with letrozole) and control groups (misoprostol alone). The complete abortion, drug-induced<br>side effects of misoprostol and letazole were noted and evaluated.<br>Results: The complete abortion rate was93.2% in intervention group and in68.7% in the control group<br>(misoprostol) only, which was significantly higher in intervention group (p = 0.001).<br>Abdominal pain in the intervention group is also significantly lower than that of the control group (p =<br>0.013). Intervention group also had significantly lower duration of bleeding rather than control group (p =<br>0.006).<br>Conclusions: Based on our results, pretreatment with letrozole plus Misoprostol was more effective for<br>prompting abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy without increasing side effect compared to misoprostol<br>alone.</p> Myasar Jasim Mohammed AL-taie1 , Enas Jaleel Alobaidy2 , Hayder Abdulhafedh Kurji 3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study Some Haematological And Biochemical Parameters in Patients with Renal Failure in Diyala Province <p>Current study was happened in Baqubah province for kidney failure patients ( in Ibn Sina Center ) for<br>dialysis in Baqubah teaching hospital and started from September (2016) to march (2017). (100) samples of<br>blood collected from patients of renal failure, males number (61) and females (39) with age range (10–88)<br>years and collected (50) samples of blood from healthy individual have been accredited as group control ,<br>males number (25) and females (25) with age range (10–88) years . Result of current study appeared that the<br>ratio of disease rate among males (61%) than females (39%) with no significant different between groups<br>( P&gt;0.05). Result of biochemical parameters expressed increased levels of B.urea, and S.creatinine For<br>patients when compared with control with significant different between groups (P&lt;0.05), so uric acid was<br>raised For patients when compared with control but with no significance different between groups (P&gt;0.05),<br>either albumin and total protein parameters were lowest For patients when compared with control with<br>significance different between groups (P&lt;0.05). The hematological parameters (HB, PCV, WBC and PLT)<br>result were noticed decreased For patients when compared with control with significance different between<br>groups (P&lt;0.05). The conclusions of our study showed the percentage of male patients are more than female,<br>age periods (31-50 and 51-70) years have high percentage of patients, low levels of all hematological<br>parameters (HB, PCV, PLT and WBCs) in patients than controls, high levels of biochemical parameters ( B.<br>urea, S.creatinine, Uric acid) in patients than controlsm , while (Albumin and protein) were low in patients<br>than controls. The aim of current study is detecting hematological and biochemical parameters changes in<br>patients with Renal failure in Baqubah province.</p> Alaa Mohammed Albayati 1, Eman Adnan Mazher2 , Marwan A.Ahmed 3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Thyroid Carcinoma Patients Correlated With Cytomegalovirus by using Insitu Hybridization <p>Worldwide, the most common cancer-related deaths and poses one of the top ten most risk cancers globally<br>in many countries, is the thyroid carcinoma. In human cancers, there are important factor associated with<br>it . The viral agent is one of them which is involved in the spread of tumors, including thyroid cancers. So,<br>the present study was designed to determine the relationship between Cytomegalovirus infection with some<br>Iraqi patients who suffer from the thyroid carcinoma in tissue cancer from different site (papillary, follicular<br>and lymph node) by using In Situ Hybridization Technique, related to their age, gender, site distribution,<br>histological grade and the tumor stage. The sixty biopsies were randomly collected during the period between<br>June 2017 until October 2018,CMV was detected in(28.3%)(17 out of 60 patients, the mean age was 39<br>years old, ranged between ( 27-72) years old, female to male ratio was (1.3 : 1) with 34 women and 26 men.<br>The most of these cases were papillary carcinoma 39, followed by follicular 13 and the rest 8 cases were at<br>the lymph node. Histological grades that involved were 37 well differentiated, 18 were poorly differentiated,<br>and 5 were moderately differentiated. Tumor staging included 43 patients who fall in stage I and II, while<br>the rest 17 patients fall in stage III and IV. Regarding to the positive results, CMV correlates in a highly<br>significant association with each of (age, gender, grading, tumor stage, and site distribution at p&lt;0.01).<br>It could be concluded from that the in situ hybridization is useful in the clinical evaluation of patients with<br>thyroid carcinoma. And suggested that the viral agent cytomegalovirus is involved in thyroid carcinogenesis<br>and may play an important role in the malignant transformation of thyroid cancer.</p> Noor Al-Huda Ali A.H. Saeed 1 , Ban Talib Elhaboby 2 , Wasan A. Wahab Alsiadi3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevention And First Aid of Mechanical Airway Obstruction Among Children: Supportive Stratiges For Mothers <p>Children considered as one third of today’s population and the whole future for us. For raising society<br>being healthy, it is vital of having children being healthy. Mechanical airway obstruction is a communal<br>and fatal fortune in group of pediatric age. It needs prompt treatment and recognition for avoiding outcomes<br>as fatal. Despite aspiration of foreign body (FBA) could be event as threatening of life, it can be still<br>preventable. The mostly significant risk factor for FBA is caregivers knowledge lacking. A pre/post quasi<br>design of experimental was implemented in the outgoing study. Three hundred mothers as purposive were<br>included in the current study. The study aim was to assess the supportive strategies influence for mothers<br>in respect to prevention and first aid of mechanical airway obstruction among children. The work was<br>performed in the outpatient pediatric department of El Sayed Galal University hospital. Tool I: data sheet<br>as socio-demographic for children and their mothers, Tool II and Tool III: sheet of questionnaire in respect<br>to knowledge of mothers besides reported practices of mothers. Results showed that the mean age of the<br>studied mothers was (34.13± 8. 97), and more than three quarters of them (%76.7) were didn’t receive<br>previous training program. Differences of significant were detected between post and pre supportive strategy<br>in knowledge of mothers and reporting practices in prevention and first aid of chocking that wasn’t affected<br>by their socio-demographic characteristics (P value ?0. 05).</p> Nadia Abdel-Latif Ali1 , Huda Shawky Mahmud2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Deleted <p>a</p> Israa Mohammed Sadiq1 , Kermanj Ismail Bakr2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Work Environment upon Respiratory Tract Health Problems among Workers at Textile Industries in Baghdad City <p>Objective: To evaluate the effect of the work environment on the respiratory health problem of workers in<br>the textile labs in Baghdad city.<br>Methodology: The sample consisted of 100 workers working in the wool and cotton fabrics in the General<br>Company for Textile Industries in Baghdad for the period from 3 Jan of 2017 to 20 of May 2018. A<br>randomized structured sample of (100) workers was selected using the probabilistic selection method. The<br>questionnaire was built for the purpose of the study and the reliability of the questionnaire was verified<br>through a pilot study and then it was presented to (10) experts to establish its credibility. (20) Items in<br>the questionnaire divided into three sections, namely demographic information, symptoms and signs, and<br>finally diseases that affect the respiratory system. The data were collected using the questionnaire method<br>and analyzed the data by applying statistical descriptive analysis, which includes frequency, the mean and<br>the computational mean, and the deductive statistical analysis, which included the Kay square test.Results:<br>Results of the study show that the results of the study indicated that most of the workers suffer from frequent<br>coughs due to allergies to cotton and wool (68%) with persistent respiratory infections. The study concluded<br>that most of the workers suffer from persistent cough due to the sensitivity of the raw material that enters<br>the textile industries namely cotton and wool. Recommendation: The study recommended that further<br>studies be carried out with the possibility of carrying out an educational program for workers to reduce the<br>occupational hazards of the respiratory system in textile factories</p> Wissam Jabbar Qassim1 , Rajaa Ibraheem Abed2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Addition of Melatonin and L-Arginine on Cooled Semen Parameter of Iraqi Local Breed Rams in Vitro <p>The current study was carried out on six Iraqi breed rams, aged between 2 to 4 years, during the period from<br>Nov. 2018 to the Mar. 2019. Semen samples were collected from each ram with electro ejaculator at the<br>morning, one ejaculate per week over a time of 16 weeks. Pooled semen for all rams were used to evaluate<br>the characteristics of semen to avoid individual variation between the animals. The volume and the color<br>offresh semen was recorded directly, then semen was evaluated for mass and individual motility, live/dead<br>percentage and sperm abnormalities. Semen samples were diluted 1:10 with a Tris-based extender, and<br>divided into seven parts (each part 2ml), 0.1µml, 1.0µml &amp; 3.0µml concentration of melatonin were added<br>to the T1, T2 and T3 respectively, L-arginine were added to the T4, T5 and T6 in 0.001µmol, 0.1µmol and<br>1.0µml concentration respectively while T7 serve as a control without any addition. All treatments cooled at<br>4°c. Then semen parameters evaluated. It was concluded from this study that addition of 0.1 µmol melatonin<br>significantly protected ram sperm cell from cold storage that induced negative effects on sperm function.<br>However the addition of L-arginine have no beneficial effect on cooled ram semen.</p> A. A. Omar1, M. N. Ahmed2, Audai sabah Asker3, A. F. Majeed4, R.M. Awad5 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of IL-25 and IL-35 in Amoebiasis <p>Bacground: Amoebiasis is a protazon infection of the human intestine spread through the world the most<br>prevelant form of the disease is amebic dysenterywhich characterizes acute diarrhoea with observable blood<br>and mucus in stools.<br>Aims: This article aimed to detects the role of IL-25 and IL-35 in the immune response against amebic<br>dysentery.<br>Methods: This study was conducted in Thi-Qar province-Al-Nasiriyah city in Muhammad Al-Mousawi<br>Hospital for Children, the study included collection of (60)blood samples from amebiasis patients and (30)<br>apparently healthy children at a period from September 2019 to March 2020 with the age less than one<br>year to 15 years that divides to four age groups, the levels of IL-25 and IL-35 were determined by ELISA<br>technique.<br>Results:The results indicate that the IL-25 and IL-35 concentrations in serum samples from amoebiasis<br>patients were significantly higher when compared with that from healthy controls. The highest level of IL-25<br>was recordsin the third age group of patients with level 1677.2 ± 867.2ng /ml,compare with the high level in<br>the third age group of control with level 450.40 ± 97.31ng /ml.Also, the findings indicates the highest level<br>of IL-35 records35 in the second age group of patients with level 291.0 ± 62.3ng /ml, while the high level<br>recorded in the first age group of control with level 8.246± 0.60 ng /ml.</p> Adnan S. Khalaf AL-Majid1 , Alyaa A.Hafez2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Inpatient Settings and Its Impact on 30-days Readmission and Mortality Rate <p>Background: Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is a lower respiratory tract infection with bacteria<br>as the most frequent causative agent. Therapy for pneumonia includes appropriate antibiotic usage.<br>Inappropriate antibiotic use supposedly increase 30-days readmission and mortality rate.<br>Objective: To evaluate the antibiotic use and the impact of appropriate antibiotic use on the 30-days<br>readmission and mortality of CAP patients in inpatient non-ICU settings.<br>Method: A cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted. We collected data from Universitas Airlangga<br>hospital’s medical record to obtain the details of antibiotic usage. Result were evaluated using the Gyssens<br>algorithm. A chi-square test was used to identify the impact of appropriate antibiotic use on the 30-days<br>readmission and mortality.<br>Result: A total of 90 patients with CAP fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One gram of ceftriaxone IV was<br>the most prescribed antibiotic for therapy of CAP. The amount of appropriate antibiotic use is 85.6%. Five<br>patients (5.6%) went through the 30-days readmission. There was no death reported. The statistical test<br>between antibiotic use and 30-days readmission obtained p value=0.894 (p&gt;0.05).<br>Conclusion: There was no significant impact of appropriate antibiotic use on the 30-days readmission rate<br>and the mortality rate could not be assessed.</p> Rafida Sofi Kamila1, Maftuchah Rochmanti2*, Arief Bakhtiar3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Knowledge and Perceived Practice on Using Eco-Friendly Toys among Mothers of Under Five Children <p>Introduction: Plastic is one of the most toxic substances in the world and there are several hazards of plastic<br>usage. Plastic is a non-biodegradable product and do not decompose by biological actions of microbes. It<br>takes about 1,000 years for plastic products to break down. They remain in the same state in the environment<br>as we throw them whereas e-friendly are environmentally safe because the materials used to create the toys<br>are natural, biodegradable and also recyclable.<br>Objectives of the Study: 1.To assess the level of knowledge on using ecofriendly toys among mothers of<br>under five children. 2.To assess the perceived practice on using ecofriendly toys among mothers of under<br>five children.3.To determine the correlation between knowledge and perceived practice on using ecofriendly<br>toys among mothers of under five children. 4.To find the association between socio-demographic variables<br>and the level of knowledge and perceived practice on using ecofriendly toys among mothers of under five<br>children.<br>Methodology: Survey study was conducted among 60 mothers with underfive children at MK Pet, Tiruttani.<br>Non probability convenience sampling technique was used to select the samples. Informed consent was<br>obtained from all mothers, and made them be aware that information used only for research purpose.<br>Structured interview schedule was conducted to elicit information from the participants.<br>Result: The inferences made are: Majority 40 (67%) had inadequate knowledge, 19 (31%) had moderate<br>knowledge whereas least number 1 (2%) had adequate knowledge on using on ecofriendly toys whereas 24<br>(40%) had fair perceived practice, 23(38%) had poor perceived practice and only 13(22%) had good perceived<br>practice on using ecofriendly toys. There was a significant positive correlation between the mean score of<br>knowledge 381 with S.D 6.35 and the mean score of perceived practice 724 with S.D 12. The calculated<br>Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation r=0.07 was positively significant with low correlation at p &lt; 0.05*<br>level. there was significant association established with the type of family and mothers educational status at<br>the level of P &lt; 0.05* level. There was no statistically significant association found with the demographic<br>variables of age of the mother, religion, education, number of children, occupation, monthly income with P<br>&lt; 0.05 *level. The analysis revealed that there was significant association established with the religion and<br>number of children variable at the level of P &lt; 0.05* level. There was no statistically significant association<br>found with the demographic variables of age, education, monthly income, type of family, number of children<br>with P&lt;0.05* level.</p> Sharadha Ramesh1 , M.Vatchala Devi2 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Canine-premolar Transposition, Family Pedigree and Related Dental Anomalies <p>Maxillary canine-premolar transposition is a rare and complicated dental anomaly that needs special<br>consideration by the orthodontist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical features of<br>maxillary canine-premolar transposition and report the family pedigree to determine the mode of inheritance.<br>A cross-sectional study was performed on 39 patients having maxillary canine-premolar transposition in<br>which both clinical and radiographic examination were performed. Moreover, 112 family members were<br>clinically examined looking for canine transposition. Variables such as location, sex and the presence of<br>hypodontia and peg-shaped lateral incisors were investigated. The study found that unilateral transposition<br>(89.7%) was more common than bilateral occurrence (10.2%) affecting the left side (64.1%) more than the<br>right side (35.9%). Females were affected more than males (74.4% and 25.6% respectively). Congenitally<br>missing teeth were reported in 12.8% and lower second premolar was the most commonly missing tooth.<br>Peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor was reported in 7.7% of the sample. Family pedigree confirmed the<br>presence of a history of transposition or ectopically positioned canine in 15.3% of the sample suggesting<br>an autosomal dominant inheritance of the trait. In conclusion this study suggested an association between<br>genetic factors and maxillary canine-premolar transposition. Further studies are required using genetic<br>testing to confirm the findings of the present study.</p> Mushriq Abid1 , Samher A. Al-Shaham2, Zaynab MR. Al-Chalabi3 Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Potential of Chlorogenic Acid from Coffea canephora to Improving Innate Immunity System Components among BALB / c Mice <p>The aim of this study was to verify the phagocytosis activity which displayed in CD11b and B220 markers<br>and also the markers of erythroid 2 nuclear factor related factor 2 (Nrf2) as a key regulatory transcription<br>factor on various antioxidant gene expressions and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) as an antioxidant marker<br>that related with protein. Nrf2 plays an important role to inhibit the ROS accumulation and eliminate free<br>radicals. The active compound of chlorogenic acid in robusta coffee type (Coffea canephora) in Indonesian<br>Coffee and Cocoa Research Center was used in three groups of mice in this study and it was gave different<br>dose in each groups. The assessment samples were taken from the peritoneal fluid of mice than it was<br>analyzed by using Flow Cytometry method to find phagocytosis function and antioxidant activity. The<br>results of ANOVA statistical test was p &lt;0.05 in all parameters, this mean that there was indicated that the<br>active compound of chlorogenic acid in coffee was involved in natural immune system mechanism and it<br>was seen in increasing of phagocytic activity and antioxidant levels.</p> Christina Destri1, Jusak Nugraha2, Muhammad Amin3, Djoko Agus Purwanto4 Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 04 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000