Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt <p>Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology is a double-blind peer reviewed international journal. The frequency is quarterly. It deals with Forensic Medicine, Forensic Science, Toxicology, DNA fingerprinting, sexual medicine, environmental medicine, Forensic Pathology, legal medicine and public health laws. It has been assigned International standard serial No. p-0973-9122 and e-0973-9130. The Journal has been assigned RNI No. DELENG/2008/21789. The journal is indexed with Scopus, EMBASE. The journal is also abstracted in Chemical Abstracts (CAS) database. The journal is also indexed /abstracted with many databases. </p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> en-US <p><strong>Re use and mixing of content policy</strong>- We follow Creative Commons Licence Policy. We follow CC BY. Please refer below for all details</p> <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/</a></p> <p><strong>CC BY</strong></p> <p>This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon our work, even commercially, as long as they credit us for the original creation.</p> <ol> <li>The journal allows readers to <em>read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles</em> and allow readers to <em>use them for any other lawful purpose</em>.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions</li> </ol> editor.ijfmt@gmail.com (Prof (Dr) R K Sharma) editor.ijfmt@gmail.com (kavita) Thu, 16 Jul 2020 05:57:45 +0000 OJS 3.2.0.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Morphology of Palatal Rugae in Various Sagittal Skeletal Malocclusions in Kerala Population- A Retrospective Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2693 <p>The present study was designed evaluate the structural morphology of palatal rugae in Kerala orthodontic<br>subjects with varying Sagittal Skeletal Malocclusions. Pretreatment maxillary casts of 105 patients were<br>analyzed for rugae patterns qualitatively and quantitatively using modified Thomas and Kotze classification.<br>The data were statistically analyzed. According to the Fishers exact test, the most common type of rugae<br>pattern in all the groups (Class I, Class II, and Class III) were observed to be wavy followed by curved.<br>Skeletal Class III had the highest number of straight rugae 71.4% among the three groups which was<br>statistically significant. Direction of rugal alignment was horizontal and droplet-shaped incisive papilla<br>was identified among different skeletal dysplasia groups.Palatal ruage may serve as valuable indicators for<br>population identification and help in facial reconstructions through their association with varying skeletal<br>malocclusions.</p> Crystal Runa Soans1, Azhar Mohammed2, Murali PS1, Mcqueen Mendonca3, Prajwal Shetty3, VartikaKumari4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2693 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Hospital Deaths at Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2694 <p>Recording of Death and its causes constitute an important component of health information system. The study was conducted on 90 hospital deaths during the period of six months from July-December of 2017, at Great Eastern Medical School and Hospital. Males more than 60 years of age group were the major victims in our study. Improving primary health care facilities in rural areas may reduce the Mortality and Morbidity.</p> Jeeveswararao Bagadi1 , Srinivasulu Pothireddy2 Sujan Kumar Mohanthy3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2694 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Fingerprints in Relation to Dental Caries http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2695 <p>Fingerprints of 40 individuals of age group 4-18 years were sampled from Agyaram Kherbari L.P. School, D. L. P School and J.N. M. E school (Dhubri District) to study the pattern of fingerprints and their relation with dental caries as they may be associated with the disease and serve as a predictor for early detection of it. Analysis was carried out in the affected individuals and it was found that the per centage of ulnar loop is highest (23.75%) in females and also in males (19.7%) and per centage of lateral loop is lowest (1.25% and 1.24%), whereas the control had more per centage of ulnar loop in both males and females. The study shows an association of dermatoglyphic pattern of fingerprints and prevalence of dental caries.</p> Maitrayee Dutta Swargiary1, Bhanukul Barman2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2695 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Trends & Pattern in Unnatural Female Death Cases Due to Burn: A One Year Retrospective Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2696 <p>Burns are the injuries that are produced by application of dry heat such as flame, radiant heat or some heated soiled substance like metal or glass from the surface of the body resulting in tissue destruction. According to WHO estimates about 2,65,000 deaths occur each year from fires alone globally, with more deaths from scalds, electrical burns, and other forms of burns for which data are not available. The majority of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, with almost half occur in the WHO South-East Asia Region. In India around 7 million people suffer from burn injuries each year with 1.4 lakh deaths and 2.4 lakh people suffer with disability. Burn death rates have been decreasing in high income countries.1Burn injury are higher in females than males. The higher risk for females is associated with open fire cooking, or unsafe cook stoves, loose clothing. Self-directed or interpersonal violence is also a factor for burn injuries. The present study is retrospective study which was carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology at B. J. Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad during the period from January 2018 to December 2018 to determine trends &amp; pattern in unnatural female death due to burns cases and their practical approach to shrinkage the incidence of female burns cases as much as possible. In study we come across some particularized factor which exaggerated the recent condition in the society. The various facets are investigated and conferred in specifics.</p> Manjit Nayak1, Saumil Merchant2, Kalpesh Shah3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2696 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Structured Exercise Programme Versus Elastic Band Exercie on Individuals with Rounded Shoulder http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2697 <p>Background: Rounded shoulder is a common postural abnormality in young adults due to abnormal posture adaptation while working. It may lead to decrease in thoracic mobility and increase in intradiscal pressure. In severe cases breathing problem may occur due to changes in the anterio-posterior diameter. Few studies have shown the effect of elastic band exercise on rounded shoulder to improve the postural alignment. Shoulder stabilization exercises and pectoralis minor stretching is also effective in rounded shoulder. In these study structured exercise were use to correct the rounded shoulder posture and to prevent the further complication. Objective: To find out the effectiveness of structured exercise programme on subjects with rounded shoulder. Material and method: In this pre-post intervention study 32 individuals with rounded shoulders were included. They were randomly divided into 2 groups with 16 individuals in each group. Group A were treated with structured exercises and Group B were treated with elastic band exercises for 4 weeks. After pre-post assessment, data was analysed with the help of appropriate statistical methods. Results: According to the statistical analysis there is significant decrease in measurement of rounded shoulder in both Group A and Group B with p value &lt;0.0010 and &lt;0.0001 respectively. Conclusion: Structured exercise and elastic band exercises both are equally effective in improving the rounded shoulders.</p> Geetan Manoj Pathak1 , Khushboo Chotai2 , Smita Patil3 , Amrutkuvar Rayjade4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2697 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Cognitive Therapy in Post-Menopausal Women http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2699 <p>Objective: To find the effectiveness of cognitive therapy in post-menopausal women. Method: The study group consisted of 50 post-menopausal women, aged between 45-65 years, screening of 100 women was done and 50 women having cognitive changes and fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected. They were given exercises for 4 weeks,4 times per week and pre-post result were calculated on the basis of attention, memory, anxiety and depression. The scores were measured by using mini mental scale, mood scale and Hamilton depression rating scale. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that there is statistically extremely significant difference in cognitive changes in post menopausal women. (p &gt;0.0001)</p> Mrunal V Ghangrekar1, Trupti Yadav2, Amrutkuvar Jadhav3, Smita Patil4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2699 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Meditative Movement Exercises with Breath Control on Depression in Nulliparous Women http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2744 <p>Background: The prevalence of nulliparous women in India is 66% out of 8 million married women. In nulliparous women depression is the most common factor due to various other factors as single mother, or are not able to conceive, low income earners and those in unsupportive social situations. So as to reduce the depressive symptoms or thoughts we can teach them a set of meditative movement exercises specially in women who are nulliparous. Objective: To study the effect of meditative movement exercises with breath control on depression in nulliparous women. Methodology: The study was conducted in and around Karad, Maharashtra, and was carried over a period of 12 weeks. Study was conducted using sample size of 22 nulliparous women with minimal to moderately severe depression. The inclusion criteria was age group of 25 – 35 years females with exclusion criteria as history of high blood pressure, chronic medical illness and major psychiatric problem. Results: Statistical analysis for effect of meditative movement exercise on depression in nulliparous women was extremely significant (P value=0.0001).It was extremely significant during pre-test as well as post- test. So there is improvement in the depression score after teaching the exercises to the individuals. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the individuals showed improvement in depression levels after teaching them the meditative movement exercises.</p> Mrunmayi Sandip Gadre1, T Poovishnu Devi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2744 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Assess Dentist Knowledge About Lipid Treatment of Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2701 <p>Background: The present study was conducted to assess dentist knowledge about lipid treatment of local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Materials &amp; Method: This study was conducted on 260 dentists of both genders. All were provided with a questionnaire. Information regarding LAST, signs of LAST they encountered and treatments for LAST, the length of professional experience, training on local anesthesia, LAs used most often, side effects seen most often were recorded. Results: Out of 260 dentists, 140 were male and 120 were female. 0-5 years experience was seen in 20, 5-10 in 70, 10-15 years in 50 and &gt;15 years in 120 dentists. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). 62% had no idea of lipid treatment, 23% had heard but did not have enough knowledge of it, 13% had read an article about lipid treatment and 2% knew how to use lipid treatment. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). 85% had never seen LA toxicity, 12% had not use lipid treatment in local anesthesia toxicity and 3% had use lipid treatment in local anesthesia toxicity. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Conclusion: Authors suggested that dentists must be aware of LA toxicity and knowledge of how to treat it.</p> Nitin Bhagat1, Rohit Sharma2, Siddharth Rawat2, Sheikh Abrar3,Singh Priyanka Jaiprakash3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2701 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Medico- Legal Awareness of Practicing Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2702 <p>Background: In the care of suffering the medical professionals need scientific knowledge, technical skill, moral understanding of profession and awareness about the relevant laws of the land. The present study was conducted to assess medico- legal awareness of practicing obstetricians and gynecologists. Materials &amp; Method: The present study was conducted on 156 gynecologist. All were provided with standard questionnaire consisting of ten questions was given to them and their response was collected. Results: Age group 30-45 years had 30, 35-40 years had 45, 40-45 years had 50 and &gt;45 years had 31 subjects. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Questionnaire used was promptness in examination of victim of sexual assault, procedure related to Death Certification in MLCs, evidence Preservation in rape cases, awareness of Laws related to Obst.&amp; Gynac Practice, real Causes of the Negligence Complaints, Awareness Regarding the provisions of PCPNDT Act and awareness about need of examining genuine MLCs. Most of the subjects was aware. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Conclusion: Most of the gynecologist had sufficient awareness regarding medico- legal issues.</p> Ajay V Patil1, Rajendra Bangal2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2702 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of Cranio-Cerebral Injuries at a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2740 <p>Head injuries are accounting for most serious injuries in terms of morbidity and mortality1. The present study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital, Maharashtra for duration of three years. This study was conducted on 173 cases, which were directly brought to mortuary for postmortem examination from the site of incidence. The objective of this study is to find out the pattern of skull fractures irrespective of cause of injury. Linear fracture was found to be more common among the total no of cases. In the present study it was observed that skull fractures are more commonly seen in assault cases. In this study it is observed that extradural hemorrhage is most commonly associated with motor cycle riders. It has been also noticed that younger age group (21-30 years) are most commonly effected age group. In this present study it is noticed that abrasions are the most common type of injuries associated with skull fractures.</p> Anand Patil1, Tasgaonkar V N1, Rakesh M Marigoudar2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2740 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Profile of Deaths Due to Poisoning: Autopsied at Ssims & Rc - A Cross Sectional Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2704 <p>Poisoning is an important health problem in every country of the world and it is a known fact that the incidence of poisoning in India is highest and it is estimated that more than 50,000 people die every year from poisoning1. Poisoning affects all age groups from infants to seniors, but poisoning in teens and adults are more serious and it contributes to morbidity and mortality. Due to easy accessibility of poisons and lack of awareness, self-poisoning deaths are more common. In most of the poisoning deaths, the poison consumed was unknown at the time of autopsy but Forensic Science Laboratory plays a vital role in detection of poison. With this background, the present study has been carried out to determine the profile of poisoning cases, autopsied at SSIMS&amp;RC, DAVANGERE, KARNATAKA. The study revealed that more number of poisoning is seen in males (62.3%) as compare to females (37.7%). Common age group affected is 21 to 30 years, followed by 31 to 40 years and least in 41 to 50 years. Agriculture group is commonly affected, followed by unemployed and least in government employees. Majority of victims belongs to lower socioeconomic group (84%). The suicidal deaths by poisoning (97%) being highest followed by homicidal and accidental.</p> Anand Patil1, Rakesh M Marigoudar2, Vijayakumar B. Jatti3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2704 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Scope of Periodontium in Forensic Science http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2705 <p>Forensic odontology is the application of dental knowledge in forensic science in identification of victims during criminal justice. This article highlights the important role of gingiva and the surrounding periodontal structures in forensic field. Evidence can be collected only with proper documentation of the dental records. The importance of dental records plays a key role not only in identification but also in terms of dental malpractice or in insurance claim. Recent studies have established ante mortem and postmortem changes in gingival and periodontal tissues. Thus periodontitics has a scope in forensic odontology.</p> Gayathri S1, Gomathi M2, Nandhini V3, Sumathi H R4, Geetha T5, Dona Samm2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2705 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Touch Dna as Forensic Aid: A Review http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2706 <p>Touch DNA technique which is being used in many advanced countries as a modern tool in criminal justice system. It is basically meant for acquiring genetic information from biological substances (cells released from epidermal surfaces) left on touched samples to establish it’s relatedness. It refers to recovery of traces of DNA from the biological cells released during the contact which is in a very low quantity, for further analysis and generation of a DNA profile of a person. Released dead cells are not visible to naked eyes and hence it is difficult to locate and recover successfully. DNA profiling from touched samples is difficult and hence require sensitive approach in recovery, extraction and amplification. Success of Touch DNA analysis, therefore, depends upon various factors like collection, sampling and preservation, removal of contaminations, quantification, amplification, analysis and interpretations. Various methods have been developed for the collection of Touch DNA over the time. Sophisticated kits and instrument and well equipped forensic laboratories help to provide concrete DNA profiles thus helping to the Criminal Justice System.</p> Indresh Kumar Mishra1, Bhoopendra Singh2, Amarnath Mishra3, Braja Kishore Mohapatra4, Ruchika Kaushik5, C Behera 6 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2706 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Flibanserin: A Miracle Drug in Management of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Female http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2709 <p>Female sensuality encircles wide range of behaviours and activities, including female sexual identity and etiquette. Many dimensions of female sexuality have been addressed by various societies and religions of the world, pertaining to biological sex, orientations and attitudes. A sufficient sexual appetite and libido in adults are essential for continuation of race. It also nurtures psychological health and immune functions. In case of hypoactive sexual desire, there will be recurrent deficiency or absence of interest and receptivity to sexual activities which causes distress and many interpersonal difficulties in fledged adult life. Flibanserin is the latest approved drug for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in female. It generally functions on the activity and the role of neurotransmitters affecting mood and drives. Flibanserin has affinity with serotonin autoreceptor (5-HT1A) and dopamine receptor (D4). It is a full-fledged agonist of 5-HT1A in prefrontal cortex region and partial agonist in the CA3 region of hippocampus. It also acts as partial agonist of dopamine receptor (D4) but it has poor antagonist property with 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors. Flibanserin declines neuronal firing rate generally in the cells of hippocampus, dorsal raphe and cortex region of brain. Hence, it can assist to improve the brain activation pattern and drives of hypoactive women.</p> Jeetendra Kumar Gupta1, Ahsas Goyal1 , Kajal Thareja2, Bhavini Saraf2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2709 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Canine Width as a Means for Stature & Sex Prediction http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2717 <p>Background: Estimation of stature, along with sex, age and race, is one of the four pillars of forensic anthropology and is considered a preliminary screening in identification of skeletal remains. Teeth, particularly the canines form an excellent material for such forensic investigations as they resist decay due to caries or other diseases of tooth as well as remain highly stable during natural calamities. Materials &amp; Method: Study was conducted in SSSMC, Dehradun among 100 healthy subjects (&gt;17 years), comprising 66 males and 34 females. Mean mesio-distal width of mandibular canine tooth was measured on both side on dental casts and mean stature measured by anthropometer. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis; correlation and sexual dimorphism was calculated for both sexes and a linear regression formula obtained for estimating stature. Observations &amp; Result: Mean canine width on both right and left side as well as height was more in males as compared to females. Sexual dimorphism was more involving right canine width. The findings were found to be statistically significant for right canine width (RCW) and for height, between male and females. Accuracy for sex prediction was high in females (F= 64.7%, M=59.1%). Using the values of RCW and LCW, regression equations were obtained for estimating height. Conclusion: Width of mandibular canine is reliable for stature estimation but for sex prediction it is not much reliable on the left side. However these parameters can be used as an adjuvant in situations when only single tooth is available for identification.</p> Jyoti Barwa1, Rattan Singh2, Shipra Agarwal3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2717 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Introducing Micro-hardness Test in Forensic Odontology as an Aid in Solving Crimes: Multidisciplinary Approach http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2745 <p>Background: Many studies have used dental radiography, light microscopy and electron microscopy to study the incinerated tooth for a possible estimation of temperature. However, no study so far has focused on measuring the change in hardness of dental hard tissue owing to higher temperatures. Objective: To introduce a novel method which may indicate the approximate temperature to which dental hard tissues (teeth) might have been exposed. Methods: We utilized Vickers hardness testing machine on a set of unrestored, non-carious extracted human teeth which were grouped and exposed to particular temperature of 200, 400, 600 and 800 degree Celsius respectively. Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) was obtained by measuring the diagonals formed after indentation at specific weight and time (constant) for all specimens in every group. Optical Photomicrography was used to view the enhanced images of indentation. The value was computed for all specimens in every group. Results: We observed overall reduction in VHN values with increase in specified temperature. VHN of enamel was limited to 200 and 400 degrees Celsius, whereas VHN for dentin greatly reduced at 600 and 800 degree Celsius by 10 times. Surprisingly, VHN values for enamel were higher for incinerated tooth (at 200 and 400 degrees Celsius) than VHN reported in literature for non-incinerated tooth. Conclusion: We suggest that micro-hardness test in forensic odontology is feasible and can be added in the list of already existing techniques for temperature estimation however, further experiments are recommended for its reproducibility.</p> Kuldeep Singh Shekhawat1, Arunima Chauhan2, Manoj Varma3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2745 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Plyometric Training on Vertical and Horizontal Jump in Recreational Athletes Indulging in Jumping Activities http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2749 <p>Background: Plyometric training is effective to improve the performance of the athletes by increasing the speed power and ability to do the activity. Most of the recreational athletes have no idea about the proper training in the field and they are very prone to get injury. This study was designed to provide the proper training and prevent further injuries in the athletes. Objectives: To find out the effect of plyometric training on vertical jump height and horizontal jump height in recreational athletes indulging in jumping activities according to age, gender, body mass index and years of playing. Methodology: 61 subjects participated in this study according inclusion and exclusion criteria. Prior consent was taken. Pre and post assessment of the vertical and horizontal jump height was taken. The protocol was for 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Later evaluation and interpretation of data was done. Result: There is significant comparison between the pre and post treatment (p=&lt;0.0001) of horizontal and vertical jump height. Even there is positive correlation of years of playing in week 6(p=0.58) for horizontal jump height and in week 6 (p=0.43) for vertical jump height. There is negative correlation of age in week 6(p=0.002) of horizontal jump height in week 6(p=0.31) of vertical jump height . Conculsion: This study concluded that the effect of plyometric training was seen in recreational atheletes indulging in jumping activities.</p> Prina Y. Patel1, Trupti Yadav2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2749 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Risk factors in Implant Placement: A Retrospective Analysis http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2753 <p>Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of implant failure and its associated risk factors using a single implant system in our clinical setting Method: Patients who received implant treatment with a single implant system (MIS, Confident India) at Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore from 2010 to 2016 were enrolled. The following data were collected for analysis: patient details, field of expertise to which the surgeon belonged ,diameter and length of the implant, The outcomes assessed were early or delayed failure on the basis of operator , implant, anatomy and patient related factors . Results: This study analyzed 363 implants in 327 patients, who comprised 136 females and 191 males and were followed up until failure was reported after implant placement. 22 implants failed prior to final prosthesis delivery (early implant failure), and 5 implants were lost after prosthesis delivery. Out of 363 implants 206 (57%) implants were placed by the Department of Prosthodontics, 77(21%) by the Department of Periodontics and 69 (19%) by the Department of Oral surgery and remaining were placed by a single Endodontist (3%) specialized in Implantology.. (9/206=4%) failures were reported from Prosthodontics and 18 (18/69=26%) failures from Oral Surgery No failures were reported from Periodontics and Endodontics. Conclusions: Prospective studies are warranted to further elucidate the factors contributing to implant failure. In the meantime, surgeons should receive appropriate training and carefully select the bone bed in order to minimize the risk of implant failure.</p> Thilak Shetty1, Shobha Rodrigues2, Sharon Saldanha3, Umesh Pai3, Mahesh M3, Puneeth Hegde3, Manawar Ahmad4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2753 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Short Term Effectiveness of Maitland Mobilization Along with Neurodynamics Vs Maitland Mobilization in Subjects with Cervical Spondylosis with Radiculopathy- A Randomized Control Trial http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2756 <p>Objectives: To determine and compare the effectiveness of Maitland mobilization alone and Neural tissue and Maitland mobilization in cervical spondylosis with unilateral radiculopathy. Methodology: An experimental study was carried out at Physiotherapy Outpatient Department, Krishna Hospital, Karad. By convenience sampling 30 subjects with cervical spondylosis with unilateral radiculopathy were divided into two groups. Baseline treatment of intermittent cervical traction and interferential therapy was given to both groups. Group A received Neural Tissue mobilization and Maitland mobilization while group B received only Maitland mobilization. Result: The statistical analysis was done by Wilcoxon matched pairs test and Mann-Whitney test. The preinterventional mean pain scoring using VAS was 6.867 ± 1.642 in Group A and 6.533 ± 1.767 in Group B and post intervention score was 2 ± 1.195 in Group A and 3.33 ± 1.113 in Group B between group statistical analysis showed significant difference between group A versus group B (p= 0.0072). The pre-interventional mean score of NDI was 35.733 ± 6.59 in Group A and 34.8 ± 7.993 in Group B and post intervention score was 9.33 ± 2.795 in Group A and 11.33 ± 3.75 in Group B, between group statistical analysis showed no significant difference between group A versus group B (p= 0.1698). Conclusion: It can be concluded that combination of Neural tissue mobilization and Maitland mobilization is effective in reducing pain in cervical spondylosis with unilateral radiculopathy.</p> Trupti Yadav1, Amrutkuvar Rayjade2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2756 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Upper Body Strength Training in Spatiotemporal Parameters of Gait In Individual with Thoracic Kyphosis http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2758 <p>Background: The human spine is an integral part of the human body. Its function includes mobilizing the torso, controlling postural stability, transferring, loads from upper body to lower body, all of which is essential for the activity of daily living. Spine deformity affects spinal mobility and trunk balance, thus altering locomotion pattern during each step. Spinal deformity also alters the center of body mass (com) during gait which leads to gait abnormality. Exaggerated thoracic kyphosis is common in the elderly as there is age related increase in thoracic spine curvature. Generally, patients with thoracic kyphosis mostly have gait impairment with reduced movement in upper limb strength and muscle mass gets altered in upper limb. Objective: The objective of the study is to study the effect of upper body strength training on spatiotemporal parameters of gait in individuals with thoracic kyphosis and to find out the effect of upper body strength program on gait parameters after thoracic kyphosis. Material and Method: In this interventional study a total of 25 individuals with in the age group of 20 to 50 years, were selected. Pre-test and post-test assessment was done using the outcome measures of flexi curve ruler to assess kyphosis index and spatiotemporal measurement. Exercises were administered for 6 weeks. Later, post-test assessment and statistical analysis was done to determine its significance. Results: According to the result, there was a considerable change in the stride length(p-value&lt;0.0001) step length(p-value&lt;0.0001) and cadence (p-value&lt;0.0001). There was also a marked change in the kyphosis index. (p-value&lt;0.0001). Conclusion: As per the result of this study, we conclude that the effect of upper body strength training on spatiotemporal parameters of gait in individuals with thoracic kyphosis was extremely significant.</p> Vinayak Sawant1, Poonam Patil 2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2758 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Related to Alzheimer’s Disease, Tau Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease: Possible Treatments for Tau Pathology http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2759 <p>The Tau protein is a microtubule-associated protein that acts as a three-dimensional “railroad tie” for the microtubule. Accumulation and Aggregation of the Tau is the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Risk factors like ApoE risk alleles, changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, and Kinases and phosphatases dysregulation have identified as the most critical factors. In Tau pathology, the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau appears as its accumulation in the affected neurons in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurofibrillary Tangles has shown truncated tau in both Glu-391 and Asp-421. Truncated tau associated with apoptosis in cultured cells. All six molecules of tau are the hyperphosphorylated state in PHF. In AD, hyperphosphorylated tau is present as a cytosolic protein and PHF. Treatments related to tau pathology are under research. Tau phosphorylation inhibitors and Tau aggregation inhibitors tested in people with AD. In tau phosphorylation inhibitors, Lithium has multiple targets and inhibits GSK-3b, and in tau aggregation inhibitors, many drugs block aggregation of tau in cell-free conditions. Methylene blue has multiple targets; it slows disease progression. Tau pathology appears to be a primary cause of neurodegeneration in AD. Risk factors showed a relation between AD and Tau pathology clearly. Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau leads to AD, and truncated tau is the main finding in tau pathology. Tau phosphorylation inhibitors and Tau aggregation inhibitors are emerging treatments.</p> Vityala Yethindra1, Narsimharaj Alenur2, Lakkam Saicharan3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2759 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association between Running Activity and Pronated Foot Posture in East Java Puslatda Athletes http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2762 <p>Background: Athlete begins intense exercise at a young age when the musculoskeletal system is still immature, thus it has the potential to cause specific changes in body. A more pronated foot have a greater mobility in both lateral medial plane and vertical plane. Hyperpronated foot allegedly can increase injury risk because it will cause a great moment of force and instability. The research aimed to determine correlation between running activity and pronated foot posture, and to obtain foot posture description of East Java puslatda athletes during running activity in their exercise. Methods: The research employed cross sectional design using 75 athletes, consisting of 43 athletes who run more than 20 km per week and 32 athletes who run less than 20 km per week. The research variables were running activity obtained from questionnaire and foot posture obtained from the Foot Posture Index examination. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital (Surabaya, Indonesia). Results: The subjects’ demographic data characteristics based on age and exercise duration showed no difference between the two sample groups. On the other hand, the research found a significant difference between age (p = 0.001) and body mass index (p = 0.049). There was no significant correlation between running activity and pronated foot posture, with p = 0.293. Conclusion: The study found that running activity more than 20 km per week had no correlation with pronated foot percentage. Pronated foot posture was commonly found in the sample group with running activity more than 20 km per week, but it was not statistically significant.</p> Yani Christina1, Indrayuni Lukitra Wardhani1, Bayu Santoso1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2762 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphometry Study on Thoracic Vertebrae Pedicle with Computed Tomography Scan in Population of Surabaya, Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2763 <p>The fixation technique with pedicle screw is widely used for stabilization as well as deformity correction. However, data on vertebral morphometry have not been obtained. Most previous studies were conducted on the Caucasian race and slightly in the Asian race considering that there was a significant difference in pedicle morphometry of vertebrae between races and age. The objective to examine the morphometry of the thoracic vertebral pedicle in young adult population of Surabaya, comparing with the pedicle morphometry in the overseas population. The method we collected patients’ data of thorax CT Scan in Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital and Airlangga Hospital Surabaya. Patients with spinal deformities including congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, and tumors were excluded. The variables to be measured were pedicle diameter (Pedicle width), pedicle depth to anterior cortex corpus vertebrae (Cord Length), and transverse pedicle angle. The result CT scan data collected was 123 consisting of 56 males and 67 females with an average age of 18.1 years old. The average pedicle width, cord length, and transverse pedicle angle in Surabaya population differed significantly from the Caucasian population of the previous study. Conclusion there were no significant differences in transverse pedicle angle between males and females. There was no significant difference in morphometric data compared to the Asian population.</p> Yoki Surya1, I Ketut Martiana1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2763 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness about Whole Slide Imaging and Digital Pathology among Pathologists - Cross Sectional Survey http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2768 <p>Aim: To assess awareness of pathologists on whole slide imaging and digital pathology Method: An online, structured questionnaire was sent to pathologists of various dental and medical colleges in Chennai. The data was collected using Microsoft excel version 2011 and statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Results: 28.6% of pathologists were only aware of the fact that whole slide imaging can perform a live scanning of digital images. 81% said the magnification produced by WSI were greater than conventional microscopy. 52.4% agreed on the time taken to perform the whole slide scanning to be one minute. 85.7% were convinced that diagnostic difficulties could be best consulted through the digital slides. 52.4% agreed integrated automated image analysis increased the diagnostic efficacy of WSI in routine histopathology. 62.5% of them felt that the high cost of the equipment and infrastructure was the major impeding factor in usage o f WSI. Conclusion: Whole slide imaging and digital pathology is a promising future of pathology as it can significantly reduce the workload and enhance the diagnostic efficiency in various aspects. There was a reasonable awareness among the pathologists. Until hospitals collaborate and take initiative to bring whole slide imaging into practice, its difficult to make the best of its advantages.</p> Sandhya Sundar1, Pratibha Ramani2, Herald J Sherlin3, Gheena Ranjith3, Abilasha Ramasubramani4, Gifrina Jayaraj4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2768 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Alteration in Physicochemical Parameters of Soil Beneath Rabbit Carcass: Consequence of Carcass Decomposition http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2771 <p>Forensic taphonomy involves the use of decomposition to estimate post-mortem interval (PMI) or locate cadaveric grave. The process associated with carcass decomposition in outdoor setting. Some other methods are available to determine the accurate post mortem interval (PMI). Instead of these methods, a soil-based approach one of the best methods to determine post mortem interval. As a consequence, we investigated the physical characteristics of the carcass, soil pH, soil moisture content, electrical conductivity and the concentration of total carbon, total nitrogen and soil-extractable phosphorus in soil beneath rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) carcass which was placed on soil surface up to skeletal stage of decomposition. The significant increases were observed in concentration of soil pH, moisture content, soil-extractable phosphorus and total carbon.</p> Sarabjit Singh1, Madhu Bala2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2771 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Awareness of Medical Students about Injuries in Forensic Perspective http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2772 <p>Introduction: Injury is any harm caused illegally to a person, which may be caused by any mechanical force which results in a break in natural continuity of any tissue.Each and every injury as its own medico-legal importance which is the key in interpretation of specific injury. Thus every medical student must be clear about this, which helps in concluding different injuries as every medical practitioner has to deal with injuries throughout their life. This can be dealt only when there is proper knowledge and awareness about different injuries in medical field. Objective: This study was done to study knowledge and awareness of medical students about injuries in forensic perspective. Materials and Method: It is a cross-sectional study done at Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Students of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th year M.B.B.S participated after giving informed consent. 115 students participated in the study. Questionnaire containing 20 questions were distributed and responses were obtained and analyzed. Results: Out of 115 students, 95% of the students had basic knowledge on injuries. Though awareness was present, there was minimal lack in certain areas such as knowledge on contusions, grievous hurt and differentiating cut and chop wounds. Conclusion: The knowledge and awareness on various injuries is very important for every medical student and practitioner for recognizing and differentiating it. So students should gain more knowledge and awareness on injuries.</p> Sulekha Naresh Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2772 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Cross Sectional Study on the Awareness and Practice of Road Safety Measures among the Medical Students in Chennai http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2775 <p>Background: The global epidemic of road traffic accidents is still increasing. The present study was aimed to assess the level of awareness regarding road safety among the study participants and to study the behaviour patterns while using motorised vehicles among the study participants. <br>Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Saveetha medical college and hospital, Chennai. A total of 125 students were studied. The study period was from 21st January 2019 to 30th March 2019. <br>Results: In total, 125 medical students were studied, ranging from 1st to final year M.B.B.S. of age 19-24 years; the mean age being 21.4 .Only 65(52%) participants wear helmet and only 22(17.6%) participants interpreted Gap-In-Median correctly. <br>Conclusions: The awareness regarding road safety measures among the study group was satisfactory but interpretation of the road signs was not satisfactory -only 17.6% interpreted them correctly. The behavioural patterns among medical students are not satisfactory-only 52% of students wear helmet while riding, only 49.6% wear seat belts always while 41.6% wear seatbelt’s sometimes and 24% don’t follow lane rules while driving.</p> Sushil Chakravarthy. A, Magendran J, Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2775 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Awareness of Breast Cancer among Nursing Students http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2777 <p>Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide and its incidence is increasing in many countries. Breast cancer could happen to any woman irrespective of her education, social or cultural background. The lack of knowledge and incorrect perception about breast cancer prevention among females are responsible for the negative perception of the curability of cancer detected early and of the efficacy of the screening tests. It is, therefore, important to assess the level of awareness of risk factors in our communities. Therefore the present study is aimed to assess the awareness of breast cancer among nursing students. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted among nursing students of SAVEETHA MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, CHENNAI. A total of 150 nursing students were included in the study with their prior consent. The study period was from 21 st January 2019 to 30 the March 2019. Results: Our results showed insufficient knowledge of breast cancer among nursing students eventhough majority of them have heard of it. The results indicated the need for increased breast cancer awareness among university students. Conclusions: Our study participants did not have adequate knowledge on risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer .The implications of this study are to emphasize the need to teach nursing students breast cancer awareness and detection of breast cancer in the early stage their undergraduate courses</p> Tansushree. B1, Magendran.J2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2777 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the Feedback Questionnaire from Students for a Weekend Lecture http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2778 <p>Competency Based Medical Education (CBME) and Curriculum Implementation Support Program (CISP) are gaining a lot of momentum in India. Lecture still remains as a very important large group teaching method. Attendance of the students was seen to be reduced in weekend lectures. The primary objective of this research work was to estimate the understanding of learning objectives of the previous weekend lecture; and to get the students’ feedback on ‘status of attendance’, ‘relevance of weekend lectures’, ‘acceptance as adult learners’ and ‘marking proxy attendance in lectures’. The secondary objective was to find the association of the answers with that of ‘status of attendance’. The tertiary objective was to check if any association existed between students’ responses of ‘relevance of weekend lectures’, ‘marking of proxy attendance in lectures’ and ‘acceptance as adult learners’. A feedback questionnaire tool post validation was conducted unannounced following the weekend lecture and students voluntarily participated in the same – sample size was 82. The students who had attended the lecture had given the maximum number of correct responses. The largest group of responses were ‘not answered’ and they belong to those who had not attended the lecture. All these interpretations of associations were found to be highly significant statistically - p &lt; 0.001. There was an association between responses of ‘acceptance as adult learners’ with that of ‘marking proxy attendance in lectures (as bad attitude)’ - p &lt; 0.049.</p> Vishal Marwaha1, Anu Sasidharan2, Greeshma C.R3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2778 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment and Examination of Female Rape Victims and Their Genital Injuries http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2779 <p>Background: The prevalence of genital injury resulting from sexual assault has been an area of interest to the scientific and health care community. The present study was conducted to assess female rape victims and their genital injuries. Materials &amp; methods: The present retrospective study was conducted in the department of Gynaecology. It consisted of 28 female patients of rape victims. All suspected victims were examined in gynecology and forensic medicine department. A through vaginal examination was performed by gynecologist. Results: Age group 20-25 years had 16 females and age group 25-30 years had 7 females and 30-35 years had 5 females. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Tanner staging- hair stage II was seen in 8, hair stage III in 20, V- shaped notches were single in 4, multiple in 24. Notches were at 6 o clock position in 5, 9 o clock position in 6 and at both positions in 17. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Conclusion: The number of rapes is increasing day by day. A through gynecological examination is required to confirm the crime.</p> Yamini Patil1, Sanjay Kumar Patil2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2779 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Visum Et Repertum in the Evidencing Process of Rape in Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3476 <p>Rape is part of sexual crime in which its evidencing process is rather complicated if the victims do not directly report the case, or if the law-enforcing apparatus are not quick in handling it. Visum et repertum is a medical-aspect report from the doctor after a written demand from the law-enforcing apparatus of authority for the sake of the case investigation and examination in court. Thus, from this definition, visum et repertum can only be proposed by the law enforcers or the authorities such as the police department, the lawyers, or the judges in court to the special doctors who are in charge of that field. The lawyers and the judges may ask for the visum through the police department. This research uses a normative doctrinal method. The research results show that the evidencing process of rape as a criminal act of sexual crime has some different difficulties compared to other general criminal acts. This is because there needs to be visum et repertum which will uncover the perpetrator and the time of occurrence, which will ease the process of searching for and finding the perpetrator. The obstacle of visum et repertum is that its evidencing process is the same as a letter of evidence in the aspect of power.</p> Arief Budiono1, Wilma Silalahi2, Ayesha Hendriana Ngestiningrum3, Wafda Vivid Izziyana1, Suparji4, Sofyan Wimbo Agung Pradnyawan5, I Nyoman Putu Budiartha6 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3476 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Conventional Physiotherapy Exercises Versus Kinesiotaping in Recreational Football Players with Plantar Fasciitis http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2782 <p>Background: Plantar fasciitis is a disorder in which there is non-inflammatory structural breakdown of the plantar fascia. It is more common in sports that involve running and long- distance walking. Many of the literature suggest that there is 21.7 % of prevalence rate of plantar fasciitis in individuals who play sports, especially in football players who uses studs/cleats shoes. Attachment of the cleats place the foot in a dorsiflexed position throughout the stance phase of running which produces and increases pressure upon the calcaneus. This creates a pull from soft tissue attachments such as plantar fascia which further leads to disorders like plantar fasciitis which needs to be treated early and by more advanced techniques to prevent further overuse injuries. Objective: To find the effect of conventional physiotherapy exercises versus kinesiotaping in football players with plantar fasciitis. Material and Method: In this pre-post intervention study 40 football players having plantar fasciitis were included. They were randomly divided into 2 groups with 20 individuals each. Group A was treated with conventional exercises and Group B with kinesiotaping along with conventional exercises for two weeks. After pre-post assessment, data was analysed with help of appropriate statistical methods. Results: According to the result, in Group A and Group B there is significant difference in pain and measures of foot function index with p value &lt; 0.0001. Conclusion: The results obtained by studying both the groups in this study suggests that in treatment of plantar fasciitis, Conventional Therapy along with Kinesiotaping is more effective than Conventional Therapy alone.</p> Pratiksha Rahane1, Khushboo Chotai2, Amrutkuvar Rayjade3, Smita Patil4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2782 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Metanalysis of Qualitative and Quantitative improvement in Active Rehabilitation of Post ACL Repair or Reconstruction http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2784 <p>Background: Physiotherapy regimen is important in both Pre-Surgery and Post-Surgery phases. However, Despite its widespread knowledge of importance of physiotherapy in both pre and post operation phases and during conventional therapy, the efficacy of early active intervention of physiotherapy in post-operative ACL repair/reconstruction is limited on the basis of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Purpose: The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the randomized controlled trials having quantitative and qualitative improvement in parameters after active rehabilitation in subjects with post-repair/ reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament. Methods: The authors searched Google Scholar and PubMed from 2014 to 2019. Only downloadable randomized controlled trials were included in the study. Main results: Twelve trials were included in the study with. The schedule of treatments varied greatly from certain days to 6 weeks or even follow up of 12 weeks. Subgroup analysis performed on Qualitative and quantitative assessment of pre-operative and post-operative active physiotherapy regimen showed significant statistical difference. Conclusion: The result of the present study shows strong evidence to support the active physiotherapeutic treatment pre-operative as well as post-operative in subjects with ACL repair/reconstruction, which helps in improving both qualitative and quantitative parameters.</p> Radhika Chintamani Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2784 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Lifestyle Modification in Late Adolescent Females with Normal BMI Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2785 <p>Background and Objectives: The prevalence of PCOS varies from 2.2% to 26% in different countries. Between 20-50% of women with PCOS are normal weight or lean and the pathophysiology of the disorder in these women may differ from that of obese women; It has been suggested that PCOS develops in non obese women because of a hypothalamic pituitary defect that results in increase release of LH. To determine the effectiveness of life style modification in late adolescent with normal BMI polycystic ovarian syndrome . Material and Methodology: 28 Normal BMI women with polycystic ovary syndrome were selected for the study. They received the life style modification including diet plan exercise plan. Pre –assessment of body weight is measured by body mass index (BMI),waist-hip ratio(W-H Ratio) and quality of life was scored as per polycystic ovarian syndrome questionnaire(PCOSQ) and post-interventional assessment was taken for the same after 3 months. The exclusion criteria included Type II diabetes, Cardio vascular problems, any concurrent hormone therapy within 6 weeks, pregnant women’s or who are willing to conceive. Result: Statistical analysis for PCOSQ was extremely significant (P value=0.0001).Statistical analysis for BMI revealed not significant in post intervention .Statistical analysis for W-H Ratio revealed not significant in post intervention. Conclusion: Lifestyle modification helped in maintaining weight and showed increased quality of life in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).</p> Snehal Walmik Hukire1, T. Poovishnu Devi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2785 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Profile of Sexually Related Unnatural Deaths http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2786 <p>Sexual crimes against women are on the rise. It has been well documented that sexual assault cases are under reported. The study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore during the period from September 2008 to February 2010, a period of 18 months where in 52 cases were due to sexually related deaths</p> Siddaramanna T C1, Dileep Kumar R2, Girish Chandra Y P3, Shailesh V Parate4, Harish S5 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2786 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Awareness about Medical Ethics among Medical Practitioners in a Teaching Medical College and Hospital, Chennai http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2787 <p>Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge and awareness towards medical ethics among medical practitioners. The results of this study may be used to guide the tutors of medical students, curricula designers and to bring change in attitude among the doctors towards the patient. Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional analytic study was conducted to assess the knowledge and awareness towards medical ethics among medical practitioners. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was given and collected from the participants. After obtaining the data, it was entered in excel spreadsheet and was analysed using SPSS software and frequencies and percentages were obtained. Results: Most of the participants have gained their knowledge on medical ethics from seminar and workshops (40%) and clinical training (36%) followed by other sources such as journal, lectures, ethical books etc., 71% of the participated medical practitioners agreed that “During treatment , the patient’s wishes must always be adhered to”. 66% of the participants disagreed that “Privacy of one patient may be ignored for the benefit of the larger group”. Conclusion: This study highlights the lack of improvement in ethics awareness corresponding to increasing exposure to medical education in the last few years. Thus, with the help of the results obtained from this study, it can be used to devise means to sensitize them to these issues and appropriately training them.</p> Subhashree Bangaru1, Magendran. J2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2787 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Bosu Ball Exercises Versus Thera Band Exercises on Core Stabilization and Balance Performance http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2788 <p>Background: Greater core stability provides a foundation for greater force production in the upper and lower extremities. When the core muscles are functioning optimally, the person will be able to safely perform specific athletic or other functional activities. Core muscle imbalances are the cause of core instability and reduced balance performance. Few studies have shown the effect of swiss ball exercises on core stabilization and balance performance as well as few studies also shown the comparison between core exercise on stable and unstable surfaces for core stabilization and balance performance. The core stability and balance performance needs to be treated by strengthening core muscles. Objectives: To find the effect of 2 different types of strengthening exercises on core stability and dynamic balance in collegiate athletes. Material and Method: In this pre-post intervention study 26 athletes were included. They were randomly divided into 2 groups with 13 individuals in each group. Group A was instructed to perform BOSU ball exercises and group B was instructed to perform thera band exercises for 6 weeks. After pre-post assessment, data was analysed with the help of appropriate statistical methods. Results: According to the results there is significant increase in both right and left anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions with p value &lt;0.0001 as well as in core stability with p value &lt;0.0001 Conclusion: Both BOSU Ball exercises and thera band exercises are found to be equally effective in improving core stability and balance performance in collegiate athletes</p> Rasika A. Sawant1, Khushboo Chotai2, Smita Patil3, Amrutkuvar Rayjade4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2788 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Novel Method of Establishing the Identity of an Individual by Analyzing the Pattern & Volume of the Frontal Sinus Using Computerized Tomogram – A Retrospective Cross Sectional Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2789 <p>Background: The paranasal sinuses develop early in fetallife.Among the 4 major sinuses present in human skull, Frontal sinus helps in identification of an individual because of its uniqueness and so has the potential to be used as an aid for personal identification in disasters, accidents and natural calamities. Aim and Objective: To determine the volume &amp; shape of frontal sinus in individuals using CT scan and to establish the uniqueness of frontal sinus in the identification of individuals in forensic science. Methodology: CT images showing the axial and coronal sections of frontal sinus of patients above the age of 20 years were considered as inclusion criteria and patients below the age of 20 years, previous injury, surgery or pathology in the frontal bone and frontal sinus were excluded. The length, breadth and height of right &amp; left frontal sinus were measured and volume of the frontal sinus was calculated.The pattern of the frontal sinus was analysed in the axial &amp; coronal sections of CT scan by taking screen shots of the slice. The pattern of the frontal sinus was drawn and copied to Microsoft Power Point Software for superimposing over other patterns. Results: Among the 270 scans collected, the total length, breadth, height and volume of left and right side of male and females were compared by using Independent samples t-test and it showed that the frontal sinus was unique in nature. Conclusion: The observations showed that no two individuals had the same sinus morphology based on division, volume, position and symmetry of frontal sinus</p> R. Harshada1, Nalini Aswath2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2789 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) Occurring with the Drug Use in a Tertiary Hospital http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2790 <p>Aim: To study the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurring with the drug use in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Method: This observational study conducted over a period of four months (01-Nov-2015 to 29—Feb-2016). The Central Drug Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) suspect ADR forms (15) were distributed to all clinical departments personally in Kerala medical college hospital and research center, Mangode, Cherpullaserry. Regular visits were carried out twice a week for collecting data reports. They were then analyzed, compared with state data, national data, and international data. Results A total of 25 suspected Adverse Drug Reactions forms were reported during the period of four months of the study of the out patients and in patients departments of the hospital. Among all drugs NSAIDS, followed by Antimicrobials, Antipsychotics, Bronchodilators, Antihypertensive and oral hypoglycemic agent etc.. were reported to have adverse drug reactions. Most common route of adverse drug reactions was oral, followed by IV, IM, S/C, Topical and Inhalational routes. Reactions mostly seen affecting Skin, Gastrointestinal systems, Central nervous system, and Hematological system Most patients recovered from adverse events taking suitable measures like complete stopping the offending agent, or were prescribed antihistamines, steroids in addition Conclusion: Awareness about ADR reporting is still poor amongst healthcare professionals in India. The incidence and severity of Adverse Drug Reactions documented in our study are lower than those reported in other studies. NSAIDS comprise the major drug family associated with adverse drug reactions so should be rationally prescribed. Improved communication between the physicians and nurses with the pharmacovigillance centre in the hospital is suggested.</p> R. Selvaraj1, Abhay P.Betala2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2790 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of Homicidal Deaths at Raichur District Region – A Retrospective Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2791 <p>Background: It is a retrospective study carried out to find out the pattern of homicidal deaths in around the Raichur district region, among autopsies conducted at mortuary, RIMS, Raichur. Materials and Methods: This is a two year retrospective study of autopsies conducted from January 2016 to December 2017 at Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences, Raichur. The objectives of the study were to know the pattern of homicidal deaths in and around Raichur district and to study the various socio-demographic factors influencing the homicidal deaths. Using a predefined and structured Performa, all the necessary details pertaining to the cases were collected from the inquest report and were analyzed. Results: There were 757 total cases of autopsies conducted during the study period, of which there were 51 (6.73%) homicidal deaths. Male preponderance, 20-29 age group, blunt weapons - most commonly used, neck - commonest region of body involved constitutes 29.52%, most common cause of death - hemorrhage and shock 25.49%( 13) equally followed by Head injury, maximum homicide took place at the victim‘s residence (58.82%), the most common motive behind the homicide was Infidelity (21.56%), maximum numbers of homicides were committed by Spouse (27.45%). Conclusion: An attempt is made to know the socio demographic profile of the deceased so as to understand the sociological, economical, demographic and psychological aspects influencing homicidal deaths. The spurt in the homicidal deaths in our region may be attributed to the poor socio – economic condition, unemployment among young people, marital and family disputes, decreasing value based morality in the society, soft and sometimes toothless law enforcement agencies. Key</p> Ravishankar M G1, Sunil Kumar Kainoor2, Suraj1, S Sharmila3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2791 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chronic Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Behavior: A Menace to Society- A Research Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2936 <p>Background: The present study was conducted to assess chronic alcoholism and drug menace in adults. Materials &amp; Method: The present study was conducted on1026 subjects which were screened in the department. A questionnaire was given to all and response was recorded. Results: Out of 1026 subjects, male were 650 and female were 376. 340 male and 48 female were alcoholic and 126 male and 15 female were using drugs. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). 210 subjects were below 30 years of age and 319 were above 30 years of age, living standard was low in 410 and medium in 119, education standard was upto high school in 290 and graduation in 239, 380 subjects were married and 149 were unmarried. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Conclusion: Authors found that age more than 30 years, low living standard and low education level were risk factors for alcoholism and drug usage among adults.</p> Rajesh Kumar Baranwal1, Pradeep Yadav2,Sanjeet Kumar3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2936 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Physiotherapy on Quality of Life in Stroke Survivors – A Systematic Review http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2793 <p>Background: Stroke is one of the most common disease with lots of impairments and disabilities. Prevalence of stroke is increasing day by day globally. Young stroke is becoming very common. The overall functional capacity of the individual is hampered where the prognosis is question mark. It largely depends upon site, stage, duration of lesion. The overall quality of function is deteriorated. Patients live their lives with dependency. According to previous studies, role of various health care professionals have been analyzed and studied. Physiotherapy is a branch where use of exercise and electrotherapy plays their role in rehabilitating patients with stroke Aim: To study the role of physiotherapy on quality of life in stroke survivors. Methodology: A systematic narrative review was conducted to find out the efficacy of physiotherapy treatment on quality of life in stroke survivors. Conclusion: Stroke has complex process of recovery. Stroke survivors are left with disabilities. It causes depression in patients as well as their family members. Physiotherapy has a significant role in improving impairments and disabilities. This in turn helps in improving quality of life</p> Kanase Suraj B1, G.Varadharajulu2, Pragati V. Salunkhe3, Mayuri D.Burungale3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2793 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Goal Oriented Exercises Versus Combined Physiotherapy Intervention on Functional Independence in Subject With Traumatic Brain Injury http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2794 <p>Background- Traumatic brain injury is a devastating neurological disorder and a leading cause of death and acquired disability in India. Traumatic brain injury leads the damage to the brain that result in impairment in physical, cognitive, speech/language, daily activities and quality of life and behavioural functioning. These impairments have direct impact on the individuals functional outcome after traumatic brain injury. In rural areas the health care delivery system is still an upcoming area. There is scarcity in rehabilitation units to provide health care. Many researches has been done on motor and balance impairment but there is lack of researches done on goal oriented exercises and combined physiotherapy intervention on functional independence. In this study we are given goal oriented exercises mainly concentrate on problem list of patients and combined physiotherapy intervention given combining all the exercises and give it to the patients. Indeed this made us to study the effect of Goal Oriented Exercises Versus Combined Physiotherapy Intervention on Functional Independence in Subject with Traumatic Brain Injury. Objectives-1. To find out effect of Goal oriented exercises On functional independence In subjects with traumatic brain injury.2.To find out effect of Combined Physiotherapy Intervention On functional independence In subject with traumatic brain injury. Method- 44 subjects diagnosed with Traumatic Brain Injury were included in this study. Subjects were divided into two different groups. Group A was Given Goal Oriented Exercises and group B was given combined Physiotherapy intervention. These subjects were allocated by convenient sampling method. During Pre and post treatment assessment functional mobility were assessed by outcome measures Functional Independence Measure and Barthel Index. These outcome measures were analysed. Result- Pre and Post functional independence and mobility was analysed by using paired and unpaired t test. Data analysis showed significance for FIM and Barthel Index (p value less than 0.001) for both the groups but comparative to group A (Goal oriented Exercises), group B (Combined Physiotherapy Intervention) is more effective. Conclusion- Goal oriented Exercises and Combined Physiotherapy Intervention is effective in improving the functional independence and mobility in the post Traumatic Brain Injury individuals but comparative to Goal oriented Exercises, Combined Physiotherapy Intervention is more effective.</p> Pragati V Salunkhe1, Suraj B Kanase2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2794 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Structured Physiotherapy Exerciseprogramme on Lung Function in Industrial Workers http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2795 <p>Context: Repeated exposure to dusty environment in an industry causes airway diseaseswhich may affect pulmonary function over a period of time. Aim:The effects of structured physiotherapy exercises programme on lung function in sugarcane industrial workersStudy Design: An experimental study was conducted on 60 sugar factory workers at in and around karadarea.Purpose of the study: To find out the effect of structured physiotherapy exercise programme on lung function in industrial workers. MaterialsAnd Methodology: -60workers of age group 20-40 from sugar industry participated in this study. They were bounded in single group. The subjects were scrutinized based on the inclusion criteria. All the subjects signed a consent form prior to participation in the study. Before receiving any intervention, the peak expiratory flow rate and 6min walk test was taken and abdominal strength checked by manual muscle testing of abdominal muscle (graded abdominal muscle testing). After recording the pre-intervention outcome measure,The specific exercise protocol was given to the subjects which was included abdominal muscle exercises (graded abdominal muscle exercises)and 6 minute walk test as exercises purpose and diaphragmatic breathing exercises (10 repetition for 3 sets), segmental breathing exercises (10 repetition for 3 sets), incentive spirometry (20 repetition 5 sets).post treatment outcome measure were performed for peak expiratory flow rate,and abdominal muscle strength and 6 minute walk distance. Statistical analysis was done using paired’ test.Result:In this study pre-intervention peak expiratory flow rate was 290±58.251 and post-intervention peak expiratory flow rate was 307±60.914.In peak expiratory flow rate statistically extremely significant difference and increasing peak expiratory rate post intervention with (p&lt;0.0001) with t=5.633 with 59 degree of freedom.The sixminute walk distance (6mwd) increased from 215 to 297 meter.In the study the pre intervention values of abdominal muscle strength (MMT or grades of abdominal muscle) was 1.63± 0.7357 and post intervention abdominal muscle strength was 2.5± 0.7249.In abdominal muscle strength statistically extremely significant difference and increases abdominal muscle strength with (p&lt;0,0001) with t=11.851 with 59 degree of freedom.Conclusion:-Thus, the above study concluded that a structured exercisesprogramme showed a significant improvement clinically as well as statistically significanton the peak expiratory flow rate and 6-minute walk distance and abdominal muscle strength in the sugar industry workers. Hence it accepts the alternate hypothesis.</p> Patil Poonam1, Kanase Suraj B2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2795 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique on Frozen Shoulder http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2796 <p>Background: Frozen shoulder is a painful condition of the joint capsule leading to loss of range of motion of the joint. Due to pain and inability to move the involved shoulder, patients tend to avoid any movement of the involved arm. This leads to formation of Myofascial Trigger points and tender points in the muscles. This overall makes the prognosis more challenging as the focus is mostly on the joint. Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique is a soft tissue manipulation technique that has been proven to relieve trigger and tender points. Although proven to be efficiently effective in many disorders, this technique is not as such practiced as a common and regular approach by professionals. Thus, this technique was undertaken and experimented on Frozen Shoulder. Objectives: Objectives of the study were to determine the effect of Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique in Frozen Shoulder and compare the effect of Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique with conventional treatment in frozen shoulder. Material and Method: In this experimental study, 40 Frozen Shoulder subjects were assessed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Goniometer for Range of Motion (ROM) and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). The subjects were divided into 2 groups, Group A Included 20 subjects treated with Hot moist pack, Therapeutic Ultrasound, Exercises and Capsular Stretching and Sleeper stretch. Group B included 20 subjects treated with Hot moist pack, Therapeutic Ultrasound, Exercises and Capsular Stretching and Sleeper stretch and Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique. Results: Within group statistical analysis of VAS, ROM and SPADI for both the groups were found to be extremely significant with a p value of &lt;0.0001. On comparing between the two groups post treatment, there was extremely significant difference in Group B as compared to Group A regarding VAS (p=0.002), very significant difference for SPADI (p=0.0047), FLEXION ROM (p=0.0076) and ABDUCTION ROM (p=0.0026). But, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding MEDIAL ROTATION ROM (p=0.1772) and LATERAL ROTATION ROM (p=0.7602). Conclusion: The study concluded that Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique and Conventional Physiotherapy are both effective in the management of Frozen Shoulder. Also, Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique given with Conventional Treatment is significantly more effective as compared to conventional treatment alone on pain, range of motion and functional status of Shoulder and thus Alternate Hypothesis accepted</p> Amir A. Khan1, Smita Patil2, Khushboo Bathia3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2796 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises and Conventional Therapy on Cardiac Parameters in Post CABG Subjects http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2797 <p>Introduction: Cardiovascular disorders are public health problems worldwide. In industrialized world they are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has proved to be a major life saving operative method in cardiovascular disease. Physiotherapy interventions play major role in rehabilitation post CABG so the study was conducted with the aim to find the effect of closed kinetic chain exercises and conventional therapy on cardiac parameters in post CABG subjects. Method: In this comparative study 20 subjects were treated for post CABG subjects between the age group of 40-50 years. Group A were given conventional treatment and Group B were given Closed Kinetic Chain exercise. The pre and post -test was measure blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation and borg scale. Results: The statistical analysis for conventional therapy pre and post week1 day 1-systolic blood pressure(p=&lt;0.0001), diastolic blood pressure(p=0.005), respiratory rate(p=0.001), heart rate(p=0.011), oxygen saturation(p=0.081) and borg scale(p=0.003). pre and post week6 day 3- diastolic blood pressure(p=0.018), respiratory rate(p=&lt;0.0001), heart rate(p=0.005), systolic blood pressure(p=0.186), oxygen saturation(p=0.343) and borg scale(p=0). The statistical analysis for experimental group pre and post week1 day 1-heart rate (p=0.01) diastolic blood pressure(p=0.002), systolic blood pressure(p=&lt;0.0001), respiratory rate(p=&lt;0.0001),borg scale(p=0.0007), oxygen saturation (p=0.508). pre and post week6 day 3-borg scale(p=0), diastolic blood pressure(p=0.051),heart rate (p=&lt;0.0001), respiratory rate(p=&lt;0.0001), systolic blood pressure(p=0.26) and oxygen saturation(p=0.34).The study had found that conventional therapy is more effective than experimental group. Conclusion: The study concluded that conventional treatment is more effective than closed kinetic chain exercises. However, it cannot be stated that CKC has no effect because of its additional benefits on functional capacity (improve joint integrity). Therefore, it can be concluded that further studies can evaluate the improvement noted with a right combination of both and obtain greater benefit</p> Ankita Ajit Patil1, Chandrakant Patil2, Smita Patil Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2797 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Step Aerobics Applied Early in Phase 2 Cabg Subjects on Functional Capacity and Exercise Tolerance http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2798 <p>Background: In recent years, cardiovascular accidents are rising due to improper diet, ill habits, uncontrolled cholesterol levels, stress, etc. Coronary artery diseases are in the leading cause of death. After a coronary artery disease like myocardial infarction the individual’s general health is week and the quality of life of these individuals is reduced and hence, morbidity starts building, causing reduced functioning and reduction in overall health and functional capacity. 30 individuals participated in this study who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting and were under phase 2 of cardiac rehabilitation. The individuals had performed low intensity Step Aerobics for 12 weeks and were evaluated for the efficiency of step aerobics on functional capacity and exercise tolerance in such individuals. Objectives: To find the effect of step aerobics on the functional capacity and on exercise tolerance. Methodology: In this study, 30 subjects who had undergone CABG of age from 30-65 years. These individuals were selected on the basis of their inclusion criteria. They were treated with step aerobics as form of exercises for 12 weeks. After pre-post assessment, the data was analysed with help of proper statistical methods. Results: According to the result, there is extremely significant difference among the subjects six- minute walk test distance scores (p-value &lt; 0.0001). Among the vitals assessed pre and post six-minute walk test, there was significant difference between the respiratory rate (p-value=0.0219), there was also very significant difference between the heart rate (p-value &lt; 0.001). There was not quite significant change in the blood pressure levels i.e. systolic and diastolic p-value=0.0559 and 0.0862 respectively. Also, there was seen extremely significant difference in the peak O2 consumption levels according to DASI p-value &lt; 0.0001) and also in the MET scores in DASI (p-value &lt; 0.0001), making the difference to be extremely significant. Conclusion: The results obtained by studying the effects post treatment suggest that in rehabilitation of the CABG patients, implementation of step aerobics early has greater effects on functional capacity, exercise tolerance and general health including the quality of life.</p> Kaustubh G. Jadhav1, T. Poovishnu Devi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2798 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Improving the Motility of a Scleral Shell prosthesis with an Acrylic Orbital Implant: A case report http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2799 <p>Evisceration or enucleation of the eye may be performed due to ocular injury, cosmetic deformity, infection or malignancy. After the surgical management, orbital implants can be placed to improve the cosmetic appearance, improve the motility of the scleral shell prosthesis and restore the loss of orbital volume. Various type of orbital implants are available amongst which, the acrylic orbital implant has gained popularity, over the years, due to its limited complications. The following case report represents a 26 year old patient who underwent enucleation and had an existing scleral shell prosthesis. His chief concern was the motility of the prosthesis. The prosthetic rehabilitation was done with the help of an Acrylic Orbital implant and a customized scleral shell prosthesis.</p> Varsha Ignatious1, Umesh Y Pai2, Shobha J Rodrigues3, Thilak Shetty B5 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2799 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Exercise Training Program in Pain, Muscle Strength and Functional Mobility in Post Cervical Decompression Surgeries http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2800 <p>Background: Cervical disease is caused by various factors like degeneration, disc protrusion. According to previous studies, there are 20 – 30% patients with cervical disc disease. There are various complications according to the level of lesions. Cervical disc diseases are the condition which affects the motor and sensory components of the body. This study specially emphasis on the sensory and motor components. This study focuses on the stage wise progression of the patient. The patients also have reduced functional ability. This study emphasis on the increasing the functional ability of the patients. Greater efficacy of rehabilitation can be brought about by early intervention for improving strength and increase sensory integration which might achieve activities of daily living goals. Aim: To find the effect of exercise training program in patients with cervical decompression surgeries. Methodology: There were 35 participants in the study. The type of study is experimental. The participants involved were assessed for strength, pain and functional mobility. The participants are treated for pain, strength and functional mobility. Result: There is improvement seen in participants. The results of the participants are calculated by mean and standard deviation. The pre assessment is 56% and post assessment is 38% percentage for pain. The pre assessment is 1.74% and post assessment is 3.31% percentage for functional mobility. The pre assessment is 23.4% and post assessment is 50.8% percentage for right upper limb strength. The pre assessment is 23.2% and post assessment is 42.8% percentage for right lower limb strength. The pre assessment is 23.4% and post assessment is 48% percentage for left upper limb strength.The pre assessment is 23.4% and post assessment is 41.7% percentage for left lower limb strength. The pre assessment is 13.7% and post assessment is 42.8% percentage for trunk strength. <br>Conclusion: Structured exercises programis effective in reducing pain and improving muscle strength and functional mobility in patients with post cervical decompression surgeries.</p> Kamble Jyotsna Prabhakar1, Kanase Suraj B2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2800 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Bio-Medical waste Segregation Monitoring in a Tertiary Care Hospital at Telangana http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2801 <p>The most appropriate way of identifying the categories of healthcare waste is by sorting the waste into colorcoded plastic bags or containers.2,3 Since early recovery of patients and health of clinical staff directly depends on a clean and hygienic environment, excellent hygiene practices in health care facilities are the prerequisite for good medical waste management 8 Objective: Aim of this study is to see effectiveness of segregation practiced in the hospital and establish a monitoring system to monitor deficiencies in segregation. Method: This cross sectional study conducted during the period of June to August 2012 in a tertiary care Hospital. Eighty Two (82) areas were identified as BMW generation area. As per the norms segregation was done in four different color coded containers. So, total segregation containers will be 82X4=328. Any mix up or wrong segregation will be noted in the register daily by the Infection Control Nurse. A Monthly report based on BMW Register was developed. Results: The index named as Bio-Medical Waste Segregation Deficiency index (BMWSD index). calculated as number of deficiencies found in a area/areas divided by the possible number of deficiencies can occur in that area/areas. Daily data then entered into the Monthly report and monthly BMWSD index was made. Though this is a continuous process, for this study three months data (June, July and August 2012) were taken for analysis. Discussion: In this Cross sectional study, it was found that there was a over all deterioration in segregation of BMW when compare to June, July and August reports. The areas with high BMWSD index or where segregation is poor will be reflected through this monitoring system. Conclusion: This BMWSD index can be used as an indicator of Infection control Practice. This report is to identify the deficiency areas in the entire hospital in BMW segregation, which can be used for analysis and planning for better BMW Management like, training of the staffs of particular units, modification in methods etc.</p> Sachin Suresh Shinde1, Kishore Babu Marivina2, Shalini3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2801 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Open Kinematic Chain Exercises and Closed Kinematic Chain Exercises in Adductor Groin Pain in Recreational Football Players http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2802 <p>Background: Football has been growing considerably for the past decade in India. Many young adults have taken up football as their passion. However, the grounds are underdeveloped with limited number of facilities required for a safe game. Coaching facilities are inadequate and thus fail to provide basic information about the precautions to be taken during play or the necessary steps to be taken post injury. This leads to increased risk of injuries. Groin injuries comprise of 10-18% of all football injuries. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the effects of open and CKC exercises on groin injuries in young adults who play football for recreation. Pain Assessment, Tenderness assessment and MMT were used for assessing the individuals. Method: There were total 40 subjects who were willing participants of this study of which 3 dropped out. This was a study conducted to find the effects of open and CKC exercises on groin injuries in young adults who play football for recreation. Here we evaluated the pain using VAS and tenderness grading. Muscle strength was assessed using MMT. Result: There was a significant effect of open and CKC exercises on groin injuries. There was a reduction of pain; both on activity as well as on resistance(p=0.0065 and 0.0235) respectively. Tenderness was also less (p= 0.0130). Muscle strength did not show any significant change (p= 0.1775) Conclusion: There is a significant effect of OKC and CKC exercises being administered together rather than giving only CKC exercises on reducing pain and reducing the risk of injuries in recreational football players.</p> Raghavendra Sunilkumar Pandey1, Trupti Yadav2, Amrutkuvar Rayjade3, Radhika Chintamani4, Apoorva Kolhatkar5 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2802 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Self Care Practices among Hypertensive Patients with the View to Develop Informational Pamphlet http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2803 <p>Background: Hypertension is condition approximately 25% affecting to adult population worldwide. Hypertension is said to be most common health problem all over the world. Prevalence of hypertension in India was 29.8%. Objective: study investigated the effectiveness of Informational Pamphlet on Self Care Practices among Hypertensive Patients. Method: One group pretest posttest design was used to conduct the study among hypertensive patients totally 60 patients were selected by Purposive sampling technique. Study conducted at Krishna hospital Karad. Data was collected by using structured questionnaire. Pre-test was conducted to assess the existing knowledge of self care practices regarding hypertension. Informational pamphlet was given to the patients then posttest level of knowledge was assessed by using same questionnaire. Results: Results of the present study shows that in the pretest most of the samples were having average knowledge (70%) regarding self care practices regarding hypertension and in postest majority (99.66%) were having good knowledge. The pretets mean was 12.08 and post-test mean was 18.78 and calculated t value was 6.70 found significant at the level of p&lt;0.0001. Conclusion: Study concluded that information pamphlet was found effective to improve the Knowledge regarding self care practices among hypertensive patients.</p> Priyanka Mohan Mali1, Mahesh B. Chendake2, Samir K. Choudhari3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2803 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Determine Tobacco Usage and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents- A Survey http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2804 <p>Aim: To determine tobacco usage and associated factors among adolescents. Material &amp; Method: The present study was conducted on 1350 students age ranged 12- 17 years of age. Parameters such as type of school, type of tobacco use, type of family, grade, father occupation, mother occupation, monthly pocket money, history of parental use of tobacco and type of family was recorded. Results: Age group 12-14 years had 780 and 15-17 years had 570 subjects. Subjects were from private school in 890 and government in 460. Grade was 7th in 110, 8th in 230, 9th in 450and 10th in 560 subjects. Family of subjects was nuclear in 960 and joint in 390. Father occupation was service in 362, farmer in 290, business in 446 and laborer in 252, mother occupation was housewife in 440 and working in 910, parental tobacco usage habit was present in 830 subjects. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Conclusion: Authors found that later age, male gender, nuclear family, monthly income &gt;5000 per month, parental use and private school was predictor and risk factor of tobacco usage among school children.</p> Sangamesh NC1, Vidya KC2, Atul Bhardwaj3, Jagadeesh KN4, Anuj Singh Parihar5 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2804 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Evaluation of MTA and Biodentine as a Restorative Material In Deciduous Teeth http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2805 <p>Introduction: Several medicaments have been used in pulpotomy procedures of primary teeth. The present study was conducted to compare MTA with biodentine as a restorative material in deciduous teeth. Materials &amp; Methods: Specimens were prepared with MTA (group-I) and Biodentine (Group-II) with mold with 10 in each group using stainless steel ring molds. Polyethylene tubes of 1 mm long were filled with MTA and biodentine and placed in flasks containing 10 ml distilled water at 37°C. After 2 h, the flasks were removed from hot air oven, and the water was assessed for pH. Results were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Each group had 20 teeth sample. In group I, MTA was used and in group II, biodentine material was used. The mean solubility value of MTA at 1st day was 1.55, at 4th day was 1.64, at 12thday was 2.15, at 30th day was 2.57 and at 45th day was 2.60. Similarly in group II at 1st day was 1.89, at 4th day was 2.11, at 12thday was 2.80, at 30th day was 3.61 and at 45th day was 5.34. pH at 2 hours was 9.28 in group I and 8.98 in group II, at 12 hours was 9.26 in group I and 9.39 in group II, at 24 hours was 9.20 in group I and 9.64 in group II, at 7 days was 8.76 in group I and 8.27 in group II, at 28 days was 7.62 in group I and 7.78 in group II. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05). Conclusion: Authors found that both materials can be used in deciduous teeth. However, biodentine revealed higher solubility and pH as compared to MTA in deciduous teeth.</p> Sravani Uppala Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2805 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Circuit Training Program on Quality of Life of Children with Hemophilia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2806 <p>Circuit trainingaddresses both the components of exercise i.e. strength and aerobic which can be administered to participants in a playful manner. As the large number of children will have to gather at one place for the intervention, so it will be beneficial for the therapist also to conduct the session by incorporating them into small groups. Very few have shown the effects of circuit training in hemophilia Therefore it becomes necessary to provide an exercise regimen to children which will be interesting to perform in order to improve their general fitness level. Methodology: Forty nine participants were selected and screened and were allocated into 7 groups. The intervention was given for 4 weeks period, once a day for 7min with 50 sec for exercise and 10 sec to move from one station to the next. Pre and Post parameters were assessed forVAS for fatigue and Subjective Exercise Experience Scale. Results: Data was analyzed using Graph-Pad InStat software version-trial version 3.03. The statistical measures utilized were mean, standard deviation and test of significance such as Paired‘t’ test to analyze the data. The results were concluded to be statistically significant with p &lt;0.05 and highly significant with p &lt; 0.01. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the circuit training is effective in hemophilic children as its multipronged approach improves various body systems.</p> Mandar Malawade1 Amrutkuvar Rayjade1, G. Varadharajulu2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2806 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Serum Levels of Salusin ? and Salusin ? in Cardiovascular Disease Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Therapy http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2807 <p>Cardiovascular disease (CVD) covers some disorders, such as the diseases of the cardiac muscles and the vascular system supplying the heart, brain and extra vital organs. CVD morbidity and mortality is mainly due to coronary heart disease and cerebro-vascular diseases. The aims of the present is to measure the levels of Salusin ?, Salusin ?, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, insulin, insulin resistance and HOMA IR in the serums of cardiovascular patients who are subject to catheterization and to compare these levels with the ones of the healthy group and their correlation with Salusins. The results have made use of the appropriate statistical methods. The results of the research have shown that there is a significant increase in the salusin-? in CVD patients compared with that of the healthy group but Salusin ? (p›0.001) witnessed a significantly lower level. The present study has demonstrated that VLDL.C, HDL.C, TG.C and Salusin-? are in a significant correlation with Salusin ?. Also, Age, BMI, HOMA-?, Insulin, HOMA-IR, FBG, CHO and LDL.C have no significant correlation with Salusin ?. The results have shown that BMI and Salusin ? levels are significantly correlated with salusin-?. In addition, Age, HOMA-?, Insulin, HOMA-IR, FBG, CHO, LDL.C, VLDL.C, HDL.C and TG.C have no significant correlation with Salusin-?. BMI and HDL.C have shown a positive correlation with Salusin ?. Moreover, Age, Insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-?, FBG ,CHO, LDL.C, VLDL.C and TG.C have shown a positive correlation with Salusin-?.</p> Ayat Saeed Awad*1, Hanaa Addai Ali2 , Mohauman Mohammad AL-Rufaie 3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2807 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes on the Microhardness of the Tooth Enamel http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2808 <p>Background: The object of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of Multi-Wall Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNTs) in different concentration (0.001g/20ml, 0.005g/20ml , 0.01g/20ml and 0.02g/20ml) in (dimethyl sulphoxide) to tooth enamel. It is intended to evaluate enamel hardness in (Kg .m-2) before and after the addition of (MWCNTs). Materials and Method: Thirty specimens were prepared for this study, to measure the hardness of the enamel. Results: The results enamel hardness after MWCNTs application With DMSO showed a significant increase (P&lt;0.01) between groups of 0.001g/20ml , 0.005 g/20ml , 0.01 g/20ml and , 0.02 g/20ml concentration compared with control group. Where the highest mean value obtained was in 0.02g/20ml concentration which had a mean value of 527.18 ± 2.904 Kg .m-2 , while the lowest mean value was for control group which had a mean value of 334.87± 2.904 Kg .m-2. Polished enamel surface groups showed a significant increase 452.59 ± 1.84 Kg .m-2 (P&lt;0.01) in hardness when compared with unpolished enamel surface groups 430.16 ± 1.84 Kg .m-2 (P&lt;0.01). Conclusion: The highest mean value obtained was in 0.02g/20ml concentration in the hardness suspended in DMSO. The results showed a significant increase in the hardness for polished enamel surface samples compared with unpolished enamel surface samples in DMSO.</p> Mohammed K. Jawad1, Abbas F. Ali2, Ali B. Roomi3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2808 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of CEA,CA19-9, and CA242 Tumor Markers in Patients with Colorectal Cancer by ELISA Technique http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2809 <p>Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the common malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract (GIT). A total of 40 patients with CRC were studied preoperatively and postoperatively while only 20 healthy persons were studied. Their ages ranged between 18-78 years.This study was carried out to investigate the possible association of some risk factors with CRC such as (age, gender, smoking, inflammatory bowel disease, and ulcerative colitis). With application of ELISA technique, Serum levels of CEA, CA 19-9, and CA 242 was measured preoperatively and postoperatively. The results showed an increase in preoperative serum level of CEA in CRC patients when compared to both postoperative and control groups, There was a significant increase in the serum level of CEA (10.73 ± 4.01) comparison with the two other groups (postoperative 3.95 ± 1.55) and control (1.91 ± 0.27) at (P&lt;0.05), but no significant differences between the two groups (postoperative and healthy) which have mean (3.95 ± 1.55 and 1.91 ± 0.27) respectively. Also showed a significant increase in serum level of CA19-9 in patients preoperative (23.28 ± 1.86), who were differed significantly from the mean of serum in patients postoperative (18.63 ± 1.40) and control group (19.11 ± 1.46) at (P&lt;0.05), When compared the serum level of CA242 revealed a significant increase in serum level of patients preoperative (19.58 ± 3.46) as compared to postoperative(8.75 ± 1.77) and control group(9.85 ± 2.22) at (P&lt;0.05).</p> Ahlam Shakir Hammood AL- Rubaiawi1 Mukhtar Khamis Haba1, Laith Raouf Ahmed AL- Hadad2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2809 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge about Emergency Contraception Pills among Primary Health Care Doctors in Baghdad\Al-Karkh Sector http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2810 <p>Background: Unintended pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of problems especially when woman is not in her optimal health for childbearing. The problem of unintended pregnancy and its complication can be reduced by the use of emergency contraception. Objective: To explore the knowledge of health care doctors in Baghdad/Al Karkh, Iraq regarding emergency contraception pills. Participants and Method: A structured questionnaire was distributed to a total of 390 primary health care doctors (obstetrics and gynecology specialists, general practitioners and family physicians). The questionnaire contained two main domains: demographic characteristics and knowledge about EC. Results: The majority of the sample were females 287 (73.6%), and the general practitioner (41.8%), family medicine specialists (34.6%). about one third of them were in age 40–49 years old, 72.1% of the physicians have no training about emergency contraceptive.. Conclusion: A deficit in knowledge shown by health care physicians lead to an insufficient use of emergency contraceptive pills methods.</p> Waleed Arif Tawfeeq1, Amer Abaas2, Zaid Abdulateef Abdulkareem2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2810 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship of Vitamin D with Some Electrolytes in the Serum of People with Rheumatoid Arthritis in the City of Samarra http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2811 <p>The study was conducted on 50 samples of 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The samples were divided into 15 females, 15 males and 20 control group (healthy) without any disease. The sample was divided into 8 females and 12 males. 80 years) and collected samples from Samarra General Hospital and outpatient clinics of the city. The blood was then collected from the healthy and sick people and separated by centrifugation. Biochemical variables were measured (vitamin D, glutathione , Mallon dialdehyde , uric acid). The results of the current study showed a significant decrease in the level of vitamin D in the serum of people with rheumatoid arthritis compared to healthy people, and the results showed a significant decrease in the level of glutathione in the serum of people with rheumatoid arthritis compared to healthy people, with no significant differences in Level of Mallon dialdehyde. We also note a significant increase in the level of uric acid in the serum of people with rheumatoid arthritis compared to healthy people.</p> Adeeb Mahfooth Farag Al-Samaria1, Kader Abdullah Shanak Al-Esawi2, Esraa Ali Abdul Kareem Al-Samaria3, Dhamer Ismael Madab AL-Khazraji4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2811 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Thyroid Hormones for Vitiligo Patients in AL-Anbar Governorate http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2812 <p>Vitiligo is a common acquired depigmentation disorder characterized by the loss of functional skin and mucosal melanocytes the reported incidence is 0.5% to 2% worldwide. Its pathogenesis is mostly consider autoimmune and this pigmentary disorder is strongly associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders. To evaluate the serum thyroid hormone in vitiligo patients of Al-Anbar governorate and to compare the results with other external studies. The study group included 80 patients with vitiligo, and 40 healthy volunteers. Blood thyroid hormone was determined using Monobind kits from reliable USA company. Their ages ranged form 1 to 70 years. Family history of vitiligo was positive in a percentage of (30%) of the patients. The mean levels of serum thyroid hormone (T3, T4) in patients with vitiligo were found to be no significant difference than those of healthy individuals. The TSH level in patient with vitiligo were found to be significantly higher than those of healthy individuals. This study strengthens the relationship between the thyroid hormones intake, formation, and metabolism with the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Therefore it is concluded that vitiligo patients should be evaluated for thyroid hormones.</p> Yasser Q. Hussein1 Wajeeh Y. Mohammed1 Abdulla S. Al-Hasan2, Sabri M. Al-marsomi1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2812 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules and Identification of espB and Crt4 genes among Biofilm Forming of Citrobacter freundii http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2813 <p>150 samples from different clinical sources were collected from October 2018 to March 2019 from three hospitals in Maysan: Al Sadr General Education Hospital, Al Zahrawi Surgical Hospital and Maternity and Child Hospital to demonstrate the spread and distribution of Citrobacter freundii in several hospitals in Maysan. All isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics and biochemical tests. Results were confirmed by Api 20 E and Vitek 2 compact. A total of 14 isolates (9.3%) of 150 were found to be Citrobacter freundii. The isolates were considered as acute diarrhea in children, UTI, burns, wounds and most frequent ear swabs. PCR results showed that the LuxR 428bp genes were present in the Citrobacter freundii bacteria identified by previous diagnostic methods and this confirms the accuracy of the tests and methods used to determine this type.</p> Wathiq Abbas Hatite Al-Daraghi1, Mautham Khazaal Kadhim AL-Behadili1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2813 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of Beta-amino Butyric Acid in Levels of Interleukin4 & Interleukin 10, Complement Proteins C3 & C4 and Immunoglobin IgM in Males Rats Sprague Dawley Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2814 <p>B–amino butyric acid (BABA) non protein amino acid has effect on some immunological parameters of male rats Sprague Dawley species infected with pseudomonas aeruginosa. this study include 25 animal divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each group contain five animals, A, B and C groups injected with three concentration of amino acid solution (25 mg\ml, 50 mg\ml and 75 mg\ml) with dose (0.2 g\ kg, 0.4g\kg and 0.6 g\kg) respectively, intra peritoneal weekly for six weeks, group D (first control group) and E (second control group) injected with normal saline. At the fifth week the four groups A, B, C and D exposed to pseudomonas aeruginosa, while group E did not exposed to infections after the termination of period of treatment, The blood samples were collected to do the immunological tests, the statistical analysis P&lt;0.05 results showed BABA did not enhance sensitivity through measuring interleukin IL4, and significant increase of IL10 and complement protein C4, while BABA didn’t have a negative effect on the complement protein C3 activation and increase the level of immunoglobulin IgM.</p> Zainab Makki Sagheer1 Mohammad Abas Jasim1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2814 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Toxic Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Lung Function and Tissue and the Protective Role of Pomegranate Seed Oil in Female Rabbits http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2815 <p>The experiment was designed to determine the protective role of pomegranate seed oil on lung function and tissue against cadmium chloride toxicity. In this experiment, 20 animals (rabbit females) were used. Lung efficiency was measured by measuring the size of red blood cells and hemoglobin, as well as studying the histological effects of cadmium chloride against lung tissue and the protective role of pomegranate seed oil . The results showed that the treatment of animals with cadmium chloride at a dose of 5 mg / kg bw for 30 days led to a significant increase in packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) compared to control group . The treatment of animals with cadmium chloride has also shown that there is no possibility of distinguishing the alveolar of lung (AV) with the presence of focal infiltration of the inflammatory cells with a marked thickening of the wall of the blood vessel (TW) with blood congestion (CON) Pomegranate seed oil improves most of the negative effects caused by cadmium chloride .</p> Noor Ibrahem Hasan AL-Kraie1, Israa Salman Dalas1; Qasim Azeez Razooqi1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2815 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Biometric Assessment of a Combined Topical Levofloxacin, Retinol, Cloxacillin and Ascorbic acid Against Facial Acne http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2816 <p>Acne vulgaris is a common pilosebaceous lesion affects skin over the face and upper chest. It has about 14 million incidence rate that cost 100$ for each case. In this study, biometric outcomes of the combined retinol, levofloxacin, cloxacillin, ascorbic acid and the hydrocarbon base vehicle on different types of acne lesions in human were investigated. Twenty one person were included in two groups; test (N =10) and control (N = 11) with follow up of objective software based biometric analysis parameters including: keratolysis induction, redness reduction and healing of infected lesion. The test formula revealed a significant keratolysis induction as compared with control. Eight out of 10 individuals with the test formula had keratolysis in comparison with 2 out of 11 had no keratolysis in controlled group, P-Value = 0.005. Similar effects were obtained in redness reduction (redness reduction ratio induced with test formula = 2.5 with confidence interval CI over 0.95) and impetiginization healing at P &lt; 0.05. From the overall results, the combined retinol, levofloxacin, cloxacillin, ascorbic acid and the hydrocarbon base vehicle showed significant improvement in biometric outcomes of facial acne lesions.</p> Naser A Naser1, Hussein Abdulkadhim A2, Sahar A. Alhar3, Karrar K. Alhaidary4, Rana Talib Al-Nafakh4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2816 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment the Efficacy of Arthrocentesis with Corticosteroid and Arthrocentesis with Sodium Hyaluronate in Treatment Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A Comparative Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2817 <p>Background: Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) refer to a group of heterogeneous pain and dysfunction conditions involving the masticatory system, reducing life quality of the sufferers. Aim of study: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of arthrocentesis with corticosteroid (betamethasone) injection and with sodium hyaluronate injection in treatment temporomandibular joint disorders, in conjunction with a stabilizing splint, for improving function and reducing pain, for preventing further deterioration of the TMJ dysfunction, to maintain improvements over time, and compare between them. Patients and methods: Fifty –four patients with TMJ disorders with age limit between 18 and 55 years of age, 9 males and 36 females, were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, in which one group received arthrocentesis with intra-articular corticosteroid (betamethasone) injection (1 ml), and another group received arthrocentesis with intra-articular sodium hyaluronate injection (1 ml) in superior joint space ,in single puncture. Patients were followed at regular interval of 7th day, one month, 3, 6, 9, 12 months (follow up) after last injection. Results: The mean age of patients was 8.873 ± 34.112 years in Group-A treat by betamethasone and10.973± 33.27 years in Group-A treat by sodium hyaluronate (ranged from 18.2 to 55.0 years).</p> Samer Majeed Mohammed1, Muntathar Muhsen Hassan Abusanna2, Zina Ali Daily3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2817 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Aqueous Extract of Date Palm Fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) Protect Liver Against Cyproterone Acetate Toxicity in Male Mice http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2818 <p>The cyprote.rone acetate (CPA) is an antiandrogen drug that is used in the treatment of prostate cancer, which is related to drug-induced liver injury (DILI). The aim of this study the effect of the water extract of one of the local dates on the side effects of using cyproterone acetate on liver tissue in white mice. Forty from albino mice male were divided into 8 equal groups received orally in one ml as follows. Group 1: distilled water passive control, group 2: corn oil positive control, group 3: received with 5 mg/kg body weight CPA , group 4: received, with 20 mg/kg CPA, group 5: received with 5 mg/kg CPA &amp; 60 mg/kg date palm extract, group 6: received, with 5 mg/kg CPA &amp; 120 mg/kg date palm extract, group 7: received , with 20 mg/kg CPA &amp; 60 mg/kg date palm extract, group 8: received with 20 mg/kg CPA &amp; 120 mg/kg date palm extract lasted for 21 days. Showed a histological study of the liver remarkable degeneration of hepatocytes associated with interstitial necrosis and blood vessel congestion. The current study proved that the water extract of dates has a weak effect in the repair of damage in the liver tissue to treatment for the low dose of cyproterone acetate only</p> Nuha Yaarub Al-Harbi1, Eman Fadhel Abbas Awadh1, Wasan Najim Abdul-Sada2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2818 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its Relationship with Multidrug Resistance and Transposons http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2819 <p>P. aeruginosa is currently one of the most frequently nosocomial pathogens and the infections due to this organism are often difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistance. P. aeruginosa is an important pathogen in hospitalized patient’s causative to their morbidity and mortality due to its multiple resistance mechanisms. Therefore, as a therapeutic option becomes restricted, the search for a new agent is a priority. One hundred and fifty samples were collected from different sources, divided into two main groups: clinical (80)samples and (70) hospital environment samples as a Nosocomial, collected all from October to the December of the year 2018. All of these samples were cultured by specific and differential media, Forty (40) isolates of P.aeruginosa bacteria were identified by using microscopic examination, biochemical tests. The identification of 40 isolates of P.aeruginosa bacteria confirmed by VITEK-2 system. A molecular detection the presence of Tnp-R gene in P. aeruginosa bacteria by conventional PCR to detect the Transposons and their relationship with multiple resistance of bacteria.</p> Wathiq Abbas Hatite Al-Daraghi1, Mohammed Sattar Abdulkadim Al-Badrwi1, Haider Rida Jassim1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2819 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antifungal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Penicillium Chrysogenum Extract Against The Formation of Biofilm for Candida Glabrata http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2820 <p>The results showed that 71 isolates of Candida spp were isolated from patients with leukemia both women and men, Isolate 59 from C. glabrata while the number of isolates of C.albicans, C.tropicalis, C.krusei and C.kefyer were 6,3,2,1 respectively. The size of the nanoparticle was measured using AFM, The highest peak was 455 nm due to the presence of surface plasmons and another 243 nm wavelength, SEM showed the presence of particle of different sizes and distributed regularly and small silver nanoparticle. Effect of synergistic silver nanoparticle and antifungal agent (fuconazole) on the biofilm of Candida glabrata, capable of C.gabrata on adhesion of epithelial cells in the absence of silver nanoparticle and fluconazole, no adhesion between epithelial and yeast cells when adding silver nanoparticles, Decrease in surface adhesion between biofilm of the yeast and the epithelial cell when adding fuconazole, When collecting silver nanoparticles with fluconazole and adding it to epithelial cells exposed to C.glabrata, It led to the inability of the yeast to adhere to epithelial cells and then died . All experiments showed the least significant differences at 0.001 level.</p> Nada S. Salah1, Thamer A.A. Muhsen1, Mohssen H. Risan2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2820 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Epidemiological Factors According to the Positive Response of Igg of Patients Infected with Blastocytsis hominis in Diyala province, Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2821 <p>Background: Blastocystis hominis (B.hominis) is the most common intestinal parasite in humans and many other animals. Infections with the organism are spread worldwide and some of them have been asymptomatic, acute symptomatic and chronic. Materials and Method: 100 blood samples were collected from patients with B.hominis which were reviewing to some Hospital and health center in Diyala province during the period from October 2018 to March 2019. To determine the extent of IgG antibody responses in serum patients infected with B.hominis for depending on the chromatic changes resulting from the association of antigens with antibodies. Results: The results of the current study showed the percentage of infection among males was (56.25%) , which is higher than that of females (43.75%), and the age group (3-6) years among males showed the highest rate of infection (33.34%) and the lowest in age groups less from one year and (9-12) years groups at (11.11%). The rate of infection in the age groups(1-3) years and (6-9) years was (22.22%) and in the age group of (1-3) years was the highest incidence among female groups (42.86%), while the age group (3-6) years showed less than that (28.57%) and significant differences at the level of probability less than (0.05). The percentage of B. hominis infection increased among the rural population by (56.5%), male infected, (57.14%) female, while the proportion of males among the urban population was (44.44%) and females reached (42.86%), with a standard deviation of (1.600 ± 0.495) and (1.480 ±0.505) respectively. Conclusions: The presence of immunoglobulin IgG in serum patients has been shown to stimulate the cellular immune response and be indicative of long-term immunity against pathogenic antigens.</p> Muna Hameed Ahmed Alazzawi1, Nabaa Ali Jasim1, Masar H.Ismail3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2821 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Epidemiological and Histopathological Study of Appendicitis in Karbala Province http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2822 <p>The current study included an epidemiological prevalence study of appendicitis in Karbala province, where complete data were collected for the year 2018 from Al Hussein medical Hospital. The results showed that the total number of appendicitis in Karbala province was (636 ) cases , divided in to (299) and (286) for male and female respectively, while the secondary removal cases was (69). The percentage of infection was 47.012%, 42.12% and 10.85% for male , female and secondary removal. The statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences under (P&gt; 0.05) between percentage of infection in male and female (0.01). Also this study included histopathological examination of appendectomy specimen. After surgical removal of appendix, the specimen directly fixed with 10% formalin and then do tissue processing. The microscopic examination showed obstruction of the lumen and infiltration of inflammatory cell within lumina properia, muscularis and adventatia.the mucosal epithelial was destruction with ulceration, also there are extensive lymphoid hyperplasia.</p> Khetam L.Hussain1, Aiyat hazem al-shugary2, Eman Jabbar Rahim3, Amear Ali Aenad4, Sajida Jawad Mahdi5, Abdullah ali Kate6 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2822 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular investigation of virulence factors genes in streptococcus pyogenes by PCR http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2823 <p>This study was designed to detect some genes associated with important virulence factors in streptococcus pyogenes . A total of 200 throat swabs were collected from patients suffering from pharyngitis from both sex and age from (1 - 15) years. carried out from ENT unit in Al-Hilla General Teaching Hospital and Al Noor Hospital during the period from January 2018 to December 2018 , Out of the 200 samples only 177 samples showed positive bacterial culture ,No growth was seen in other 23 samples ,The results indicate that the rate of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from patient with pharyngitis is 30 ( 15%), others bacterial growth 147 ( 73%), and no growth 23 (12%). Molecular detection of virulence factor genes was done like M protein (emm) gene , the result shows that these genes were detected in all isolates bacteria (100%) with molecular length (914 bp) , SpeA gene was carried by using specific primer and it was found that (3.3%) isolates give positive result for this gene with amplicon (576 bp) , SpeB gene the result shows that (100%) isolates contain the gene with molecular length (952 bp) , SpeC gene also study by using specific primer at molecular length (405 bp) and the result s show that (75%) give positive results to this gene , the mac gene in all S.pyogenes isolates the results show that (30%) give positive , results to this gene with molecular length (389 bp) , scpA gene in all isolates the result shows that 17 isolates (56.6%) give positive result to this gene with amplicon size (622 bp)</p> Russell Issam AL-Daher1, Maysa S. AL-Shukri2, Hayam K . AL-Masoodi3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2823 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Iron Deficiency among Patients with Febrile Seizures in Al Ramadi Maternity and Children teaching Hospital, Western Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2824 <p>Background : Febrile seizures are the most predominant neurological disorders in children between 6 months-5 years, at the same time iron deficiency anemia is one of nutritional insult that implicated as risk factor for occurrence of febrile seizures. Objectives: to estimate the role of iron deficiency as a risk factor for febrile seizures in children aged 6 months -5 years, western Iraq. Patients and method:- A case control study has been conducted in AL Ramadi maternity and children teaching hospital during January to October of 2016. All children with history of febrile seizures aged 6 months-5years were involved as cases group, others with febrile illness and no seizures were considered as control group. Data from 58 child of each group were collected. The data include age, sex ,temperature, causes of febrile illness, Hb ,hematocrit and s. ferritin levels. The data were subjected to statistical analysis run under IBM SPSS ver. 23. Results:- Means age ± SD were 27.48±14.83 &amp; 23.24±14.37 months in cases and control groups respectively with no significant difference between them. Most of the children (65.52%) of those with febrile seizures were less than 3 years old. Mean temperature of cases group (38.860 C) was found to be significantly greater than that of the control group (38.520 C) at p-value &lt;0.01. Mean Hb level ,PCV%, s. ferritin level were significantly lower in cases group than in control group. Proportion of iron deficiency anemia was significantly higher in febrile seizure group (65.52%) than in control group (31.03%) at p-value&lt; 0.01. Conclusions: Occurrence of IDA in cases group is found to be more than 2 times of that in the control group. Early detection and proper treatment of IDA can play a prominent role in limitation the prevalence of febrile seizures among children below 5 years.</p> Sahar j. AL- Hiali Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2824 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated From Under Nails http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2825 <p>This study was designed for isolation and diagnosis of bacteria from under long dinger nails of a wide population of student (kindergarten, primary schools, elementary schools and university students) and study the antibiotic sensitivity for isolated bacteria. From 100 sample the bacterial isolate were Staphylococcus sp.(56 isolate), Bacillus sp.(1 isolate), Streptococcus sp. (1 isolate), Escherichia coli (40 isolate), Salmonella (2 isolate), Enterobacter(10 isolate), Klebsiella (10 isolate), Serratia (5 isolate) and Pseudomonad (6 isolate). The most effected antibiotic on all types of bacteria isolated from under the long nail was Gatifloxacin and the lowest effect was Cefazolin antibiotic. The concept of the study was isolating and determining bacteria, found under the long fingernails and studying their antibiotic sensitivity.</p> Zahraa AL-Taee1, Sura Ihsan Abed Jabuk1, Raflaa S.H. Hussian1, Zainab H. Kareem2, Yasir H. AL-Mawlah1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2825 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Removal of Tetracycline from Aqueous Solutions using Pomegranate Peels Residues Accessing to ZRL http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2826 <p>Antibiotics are harmful pharmaceuticals to ecosystems in general and aquatic systems in particular. Therefore, its remediation from water bodies is a topic of great importance for water treatment and purification workers. This research investigates the removal of one of the most famous types of antibiotics, which was tetracycline from simulated synthetic aqueous solutions by adsorption technique using non-toxic, low cost and available agricultural waste which was pomegranate peels. The adsorption experiments were performed in adsorption laboratory unit of batch mode at different operating conditions and laboratory temperature. The operating parameters studied included pH of solution, dose of adsorbent media, treatment time, agitation speed and initial concentration of tetracycline. The results showed the ability of pomegranate peels to extract tetracycline from aqueous solutions with high efficiency of 81.55%. The results also showed that the percentage of antibiotic adsorption from aqueous solutions was inversely correlated with increasing the initial concentration and acidic function of the tetracycline solution while it was directly proportional to the amount of pomegranate peels, agitation speed and treatment time. In this style, one of the most important types of antibiotics that contaminated water was disposed of by a cheap material and using a simple, economical and environmentally friendly method accessing to the principle of zero residue level (ZRL).</p> Rajaa S. Abass1 Suad Turky Ali1, Tamara Sami Naji2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2826 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Complications of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in a Sample of Patients Admitted to Al-Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Anbar-Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2827 <p>Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is currently thought as a surgical procedure that can be done with less risk of complications. However, intraoperative and postoperative complications were existing in 56 (15.01%) patients. Open surgery is the case when laparoscopic cholecystectomy fails to be proceeded with due to many causes such as difficult Calot triangle dissection and empyema of gallbladder. The high occurrence of cholecystitis in the group of patients aged 40-60 (56%) with 151 female and 59 males initiating the floor to many arguments that may help give a good understanding for such a problem. Iatrogenic perforation of gallbladder was the most common cause of intraoperative complications. Wound infection was the most cause of postoperative complications. Difficult Calot triangle dissection was the most common cause to convert to open surgery.</p> Tarek Mahdi Salih Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2827 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Physiological Study Comprising the Sequelae of Magnetic Radiation on Human http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2828 <p>The sequelae of magnetic radiation of the towers of cellular phones were evaluated in this study depending upon a random social volunteer human male samples of ages 25 – 50 years and they were dwelling in houses close to the towers of cellular phones of distances not more than 150 miters far. The samples of these people were labelled as “Subjected”. Seventy five samples of blood were gained on a base of ages as twenty five from ages 25 – 30, twenty five from ages 35 – 40, and twenty five from ages 45 – 50 in addition to seventy five samples of people who did not dwell close to the towers and of the same previous pattern of ages and their samples were labelled as “Non subjected”. The results have demonstrated a significant elevation in transaminases (AST , ALT), blood calcium (Ca++), blood potassium (K+), total serum cholesterol (TSCH), triacylglycerols (TAGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) .</p> Wissam Sajid Hashim1, Azal Hamoody Jumaa2, Noor Thamer Alsaadi 1, Ayad Gaber Arean1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2828 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Transdermal Vasodilatatory Effect of a Combined Panthenol, Amlodipine, Isosorbide Dinitrate and Betahistine HCl on Peripheral Vessels http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2829 <p>Peripheral vascular diseases are group of disorders characterized by stenozing peripheral circulation as a complication of primary disease like diabetes mellitus. Peripheral vascular diseases affect 202 million around the world. Peripheral vascular complications of diabetes mellitus are common which affect 30 million over the world and may give rise to infectious necrotizing sequalae called diabetic foot. In a trial of assessment for transdermally applied vasodilator drugs, 30 individual had participated in a case controlled study. Test group (N =11) and control group (N =19) were assessed for the signs of vasodilatation over the dorsum of the hand and figure blood perfusion detection. There was significant increase in perfusion index (from 7 to 11) induced by the test vasodilator as compared with control (from 7 to 8) P &lt;0.05 and parallel results were obtained in induction of redness (redness ratio of 7 with C.I. over 0.95 and thermal increase in degrees of ( C ) over the dorsum of the hand in comparison with the control group. From the overall results the combined vasodilatatory transdermal formula caused a significant peripheral vasodilatation which could be a candidate therapeutic effect in diabetic foot</p> Hussein Abdulkadhim A1, Naser A Naser2, Fadhaa A. Ghafil3, Rana Talib Al-Nafakh4, Karrar K. Alhaidary4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2829 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Using Titanium Mesh in the Reconstruction of Traumatic Orbital Floor Fracture http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2830 <p>Background: Among the nonresorbable implants, Titanium mesh is the most common graft used for orbital reconstruction. It is continuously improved to achieve accurate restoration of orbital volume. To evaluate the using of Titanium mesh for the reconstruction of traumatic orbital floor fractures. Patients and Methods: A total of (32) patients were enrolled in this study where operated under general anesthesia to repair the orbital floor fractures by using titanium mesh, and they were ( 24 ) males and (8) females. (16) patients had Enophthalmos,( 10) patients had Diplopia,(6) patients had both enophalmos with diplopia; all patients had ecchymosis, Subconjunctival hemorrhage, Parasthesia of infraorbital nerve. Results: The results were well represented as the following: (29)patients(90.62%) had no both diplopia &amp; enophthalmos. Postoperative complication had been found in only( 3) patients (9.3%), Two patients(6.25%) had diplopia, one patient (3.1%) had Enophthalmos. Conclusions: Titanium mesh has a long track record of reconstruction of large orbital floor defects and correction of globe malposition.</p> Mukhalled Salim Alasady1, Ihsan Abdullah Kumail 1, Alyaa Turky Alsultany2, Ali B. Roomi3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2830 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Epstein- Barr Virus (EBV) with the Development of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) in Western Region of Iraq: Unmatched Molecular Case-Control Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2831 <p>Background: Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) is uncommon in Iraq, but its incidence is raising due to increased exposure to diverse risk factors. Many of the NPC-related risk factors are becoming more and more apparent in Iraq. The exactly risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Anbar province, Iraq are not known. Objectives: To determine the association between Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) infections and other risk factors with the development NPC of Iraqi patients. Patients and Method: Sixty-seven paraffin-embedded tissues of NPC cases, 134 normal noncancerous nasopharyngeal biopsy samples, and tonsillectomy specimens from patients with chronic hypertrophic tonsillitis as controls were enrolled in the study that was conducted between 12 January 2012 and 21 January 2019. DNA of EBV was extracted from both controls and neoplastic tissues and analyzed by PCR technique using primers specific to EBV Latent Membrane Protein-1 Oncogene (LAMP-1) for the presence of EBV. A Questioners data form for all patients and controls were filled by the researchers regarding other risk factors of NPC including the patient’s age, sex, residence, radiation exposure, history of chronic rhinitis, family history of NPC, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, herbal medicines, tea consumption, exposure to formaldehyde and exposure to different inhalants. Results: The following risk factors were found to be independently associated with illness: EBV (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 7.852, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.22–27.72), herbal medicine (OR 19.051, CI 7.56– 47.95) and Family history of NPC (OR 63.717, CI 6.67–607.96). Conclusion: Combination of family history of NPC , EBV exposure and herbal medicine was a strong risk factor for NPC.</p> Mothana Ali Khalil1, Arkan Obaid Jasim Al-Essawi2, Mohammed Tafash Dagash3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2831 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Detection of Toxogenic Cyanobacteria Isolated from Tigris River in Baghdad City –Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2832 <p>Algae and their contamination are being increasingly reported worldwide that cause a serious hazard to environmental and human health. Cyanotoxin was the most algal toxin reported to be produce by several orders of cyanobacteria. In 2017 cyanobacteria were isolated from fresh water of Tigris River and identified by light compound microscope as well as conventional PCR. Five isolates of cyanobacteria which successfully amplified a gene fragment from the phycocyanin shared by all cyanobacteria and only four isolates successfully amplified a gene fragment from the myc E belonged to microcystin. Our results concluded that PCR assay can be used for early detection of microcystin producing algae in fresh water that useful to stations responsible for the preparation of drinking water.</p> Zainulabdeen H. A. AL-Khafaji1, Ahmed S.Dwaish2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2832 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry Analysis of Heavy Metals in Some Food Additives Available in Baghdad Markets, Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2833 <p>Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used in this study to determine the concentrations of heavy metals such as Ca, Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn in some food additives of Iraq. The order of metal contents in food additives was found to be Ca ? Mn ? Fe ? Cu ? Zn ? Pb ? Cr ? Ni ? Co ? Cd. The concentration level of each metal was compared with that recommended by food agriculture organisation (FAO) and world health organisation (WHO). Calibration curves were linear for all standard solutions of heavy metals in the range starting from 0.02-0.4 mg/kg for Cd to 11-100 mg/kg for Ca. The correlation coefficients values (R2) of calibrations were investigated and ranged from 0.9971 for Cr to 0.9999 for Ca. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be in highest value for Ca (1.6569 mg/kg and 5.5232 mg/kg), while they were found to be in lowest values for Cd (0.0150 mg/kg and 0.0499 mg/kg).</p> Wasan Abdulwahid Jasim1, Jassim Dawood Salman2, Jasim Mohammed Shamar Jamur3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2833 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection Malta Fever by Interferon-gamma and Steroid Hormone S Level http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2839 <p>Malta fever is one of the most common bacterial zoonosis, its causes abortion of pregnant women. Abortion is the chief obvious manifestation of Brucella infection. Brucella like better cattle placenta as a result of great concentration of erythritol sugar, whereas human placenta there is no erythritol sugar only steroid hormone, for this reason designed the our project . In this study, 100 aborted women were included , where referred to maternity and children hospital of Babylon province \ Iraq. Diagnosis of Brucella infection in these abortions was concentrated on serological and bacteriological technique. Serological studies included the use of RB and ELISA tests. Aggressive differences between RB and ELISA results have been shown. Brucella isolated and identified from aborted placenta and blood samples were 7 (7%) isolates from aborted women. Hormonal assessment by Immunohistochemical technique in Brucella infected women, showed significant decrease in progesterone expression in comparison with that aborted due to other causes, in other hand Brucella infected women showed high expression in estrogen hormones . ELISA technique was the valuable serological test to confirm the diagnosis of brucellosis as compared with RB test.</p> Ali Anok njum1, Layla Saleh Abdul-Hassan2 Ihasan A. Hashem3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2839 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hepatic Toxicity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Psoriasis Taking Methotrexate Therapy http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2842 <p>Background: We had made a study to demonstrate the adverse hepatic effects of MTX in patients taking MTX for treatment of RA and psoriasis taking in consideration the following variables: BMI, gender, cumulative dose, age, weekly dose, duration of treatment, serum level of cholesterol and creatinine. Patient and method: We had a prospective study of 85 patients with RA and 50 patients with psoriasis. All patients were analyzed by history, clinical examination and investigations in the form of liver enzymes, blood sugar, serum cholesterol, serum creatinine, HBS Ag and anti HCV antibody. Persistently elevated level of liver enzymes 2 to 3 times the upper limit of normal on two occasions 3 months apart indicate hepatic toxicity Results: We found that 7 patients with psoriasis and 6 patients with RA have significant elevated liver enzymes which reflect MTX hepatotoxicity Conclusion: Our study show that patients with psoriasis at significantly greater risk of elevated liver enzymes than patient with RA (14% and 7% respectively) were gender, BMI, cumulative dose, weekly dose and serum cholesterol level are risk factors for hepatic toxicity due to MTX therap</p> Haider Hamza Omran1, Basim Mohammed Mothlum1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2842 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Scolicidal Activity of Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles Against Protoscolices of Hydatid Cysts http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2843 <p>Hydatidosis is a sickness that affects human and farm animals. This disease is deemed as a public health problem in different regions of the world until nowadays. Surgical overlaps is the best way to treat the disease, while the risk of surgery lies in the possibility of cyst rupture and leakage of protoscolices and the recurrence of infection again, this prompted researchers to use scolicidal agents before surgery such as ethanol, plant extracts, to reduce parasite spread and recurrence of infection, recently researchers have been using nanoparticles as a scolicidal agent, like gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, selenium nanoparticles, and others. This research aims to evaluate the fatal effect of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles to protoscolices of hydatid cysts. The Protoscolices were collected from sheep livers infected with hydatid cyst disease. The protoscolices were treated with different concentrations (250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 ?g/ ml) of ZrO2 NPs. The viability of protoscolices was determined by using an eosin staining method after 15, 30, and 60 min. The results showed that the concentrations of 1000, 2000, and 4000 µg/ml were significantly effective in the killing of protoscolices after 60 min., where the fatality rate of protoscolices was 49.6%, 52.7%, and 53.1% respectively when compared with the control group 38.5% (p&lt;0.05).</p> Amenah Abdul-Jabbar Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2843 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Study of Fimh Gene in Klebisella Pneumoniae Isolated From Urinary Catheter Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2846 <p>This study aimed to isolate and diagnose K. pneumoniae from clinical specimens of urine from urinary catheterized patients and molecular Detection of FimH fimbrial adhesin in Klebisella pneumonia in Najaf governorate from October 2018 to March 2019, which includes 40 clinical specimens (urine). The diagnosis of K. pneumoniae isolates was based on culture and biochemical characteristics as an initial diagnosis. The final diagnosis by the Vitek-2 compact system is automated besides the use of PCR technique to detect on fimH fimbrial adhesion gene. The biochemical results showed that 40/40 isolates gave positive result of K. pneumoniae.These results were confirmed by Vitek showed that 40/40 were positive for K. pneumoniae isolated and PCR technique by using fimH gene where 14/40 were positive for K. pneumoniae isolated from urine urinary catheterized patients. The study, which was conducted in the diagnosis of bacteria, concluded that the technique of compact Vitek-2 automated. The ability of bacteria to stick to the formation of biofilm was investigated by phenotypic method.</p> Israa Abdul Ameer Al-Kraety1, Zahraa Hameed Oda Alquraishi2, Aqeel A Alsadawi3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2846 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chemerin Level as a Marker in Preeclampsia and its Relation to the Disease Severity and Neonatal Outcome http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2848 <p>Aim of study: To detect serum chemerin level in patient with preeclampsia and evaluate the association between maternal serum chemerin, disease severity and neonatal outcome. Patients and Method: A case control study included 100 pregnant women with singleton pregnancy, gestational age of 20 weeks or more, normal fetal morphology, and absence of concomitant diseases, who were collected from inpatient during delivery was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital during the period from 1st of June 2018 till end of May 2019. They were divided into three groups (control, mild preeclampsia, and severe preeclampsia). Patients with history of chronic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorder, renal impairment, or premature rapture of membrane were excluded from this study. blood sample was taken from all patients and sent for human chemerin assay. After delivery, birthweight of baby, APGAR scores at one and five mints, neonatal intensive care unit and adult intensive care unit admission, and hospitalization time were also noted. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the study groups in age, BMI level, and parity. Chemerin level was significantly elevated in patients with severe preeclampsia (435.06 ng/ml) and mild preeclampsia (227.49 ng/ml) than that in non-preeclamptic patients (202.6 ng/ml). It was negatively correlated with each of gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at one and five minutes. While it was positively correlated with admission’s duration. Serum chemerin &gt; 228.5 ng/ml is predictive for diagnosis of preeclampsia and level &gt; 380.9 ng/ml is indicator for severe preeclampsia. Conclusion: Chemerin may play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia as maternal serum chemerin level was significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia</p> Ali Mohammed Murad, Marwa Jaafar Sadac (M.B.Ch.B)2; Hanan Hazim Mohammed Noori (M.B.Ch.B, C.A.B.O.G, DGO)3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2848 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Production, Analysis and Optimization of Inulin Produced from Pseudomonas fluorescens http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2849 <p>Inulin is a natural polysaccharide produced from organisms and microorganism. Inulin is a type of fructan that ?-amylase cannot digest it and cannot hydrolysis by hydrolytic enzymes. It was used to get non-fat fermented milk and it’s a type of prebiotics that induce growth and activity of probiotics bacteria, thus improving the health. Pseudomonas fluorescens have the capacity to produce inulin when grown in media supplied with sucrose. Twenty-two of bacterial isolates were belong to Pseudomonas fluorescens depending on structural features, microscopic checking, biochemical analysis and flourescent pigments that produced on King B medium. Ten isolates of P. fluorescens had strongly degree of mucous growth on solid production medium, the gummy and mucous manifestation on agar medium containing sucrose were give rise to inulin production. Inulin produced from P. fluorescens was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to detect functional groups which it was (C-O, CH, OH and C=O) and by Thin Layer Chromatography to determine its components of monosaccharide. Inulin distinguished as dark spot on white background and the Rf of it was (0.58). The best product of inulin were in production salt agar medium containing 20% sucrose, pH =7, Temperature =370C without nitrogen sources and the inoculum size 1%, it was (3.2 gm ?100 ml). The effects of bacterial inulin on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by culturing it in medium supplemented with 3% of bacterial inulin at 30°C for 48 hrs. The results showed there was no remarkable effect of inulin on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth in comparison to control.</p> Alyaa Razooqi Hussein1, Alaa Raheem Kadhim2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2849 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and C in Al-Muthanna Province http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2851 <p>This study systematically reviewed and synthesized available records of hepatitis B and C prevalence in Al-Muthanna province through the last five years from early 2014 till the end of 2018 in Women and Children Teaching Hospital at Al-Muthanna province. The study recorded high prevalence of hepatitis virus at this region, most of the patient were females and HCV was the most prevalent between them, the year of 2016 recorded the highest infection rate. Conclusion: High rate of Hepatitis C virus infection among of thalassemia patients</p> Adian Abd Alrazak Dakl1, Wafaa Ayad Alnuaimy1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2851 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Congenital Heart Diseases on Growth Parameters in Children and Their Correlations with Leptin Levels http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2852 <p>Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) prone to stunted growth by different parameters including weight, height and head circumference compared to a control groups, to accomplish such aim (110) children aged ranged (20 days – 13 years with CHD) have enrolled in this study, (83) patients with a cyanotic CHD (75.45%) and (27) cyanotic type (24.54%) were compared with (171) healthy controls of similar age and sex groups. This study was done in Al-Hilla teaching hospital during the period November 1, 2017 to October 11, 2018. The results indicate a significant (2.06) retardation in all parameters in patients with CHD related to control and there is a significant retardation in weight (z = 3.06) in children with cyanotic CHD related to a cyanotic type. Also there is a significant retardation (z = 1.01) in height gain in children with cyanotic related to a cyanotic type and finally there is a significant (z = 2.09) decrease in head circumference in children with cyanotic CHD related to a cyanotic type. Serum leptin levels were also lowered in all patients with CHD. The results concluded that children with (CHD) experience early and continues decrement of all growth parameter during their life.</p> Fouad Shareef1, Amal Salih Mahdi Bayee2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2852 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hormonal and Mineral Imbalance Effect on Bone Resorption in Predialysis Iraqi Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2853 <p>Introduction: Chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorder is a metabolic bone disease present in almost all uremic patients. The aim of this research to indicate the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that affect the bone metabolism that leading to the mineral and hormonal imbalance by studying the relationship among osteocalcin , glomerular filtration rate (GFR), parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood. Method: The study included 52 patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease stage 3-5 and 40 apparently healthy relatives accompanying the patients. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated for each patient. Renal function tests, including serum levels of urea, creatinine, a biochemical marker of bone metabolism: osteocalcin (OSN), calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH), were measured for each participant. Results: Serum urea and creatinine levels were significantly higher in CKD patients Than that of apparently healthy control. There is significantly higher serum parathyroid hormone, serum phosphorus, serum osteocalcin (P&lt;0.01, P&lt;0.01, P&lt;0.01 respectively) in CKD patients than that of the healthy control group. While low serum calcium level in CKD patients as compared to the corresponding group (P&lt;0.01). Conclusion: Hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia in the end stage of predialysis CKD patients lead to increase parathyroid hormone secretion, which causes high bone turnover characterized by significantly high serum osteocalcin in these patients. Parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin were used as a biomarker for the development of bone and mineral disorders in predialysis CKD patients.</p> Inaam Ahmed Ameen1, Sarah Hashim Mhaibes2, Shahad Wisam Ahmed3, Kaled Nather Taha4 And Dhikra Abdul Hameed Dawood5 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2853 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Robust Controller Electromyogram Prosthetic Hand with Artificial Neural Network Control and Position http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2854 <p>In this study, we proposed and designed a new control method for an electromyographically (EMG) controlled prosthetic hand. The objective is to increase the control efficiency of the human–machine interface and afford greater control of the prosthetic hand. The process works as follows: EMG biomedical signals acquired from Myoware sensors positioned on the relevant muscles are sent to the robot that consist of hand, Arduino and MATLAB program, which computes and controls the hand position in free space along with hand grasping operations. The Myoware device acquires muscle signals and sends them to the Arduino. The Arduino analyzes the received signals, based on which it controls the motor movement. In this design, the muscle signals are read and saved in a MATLAB system file. After program processing on the industrial hand which is applied by MATLAB simulation, the corresponding movement is transferred to the hand, enabling movements, such as, hand opening and closing according to the signal stored in the MATLAB system. In this study, hand and fingerprints were designed using a three-dimensional printer by separate recording finger and thumb signals. The muscle signals were then analyzed in order to obtain peak signal points and convert them into data. These results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method and demonstrate the superiority of the method for amputees because of the improved controllability and perceptibility afforded by the design.</p> Saygin Ahmed1, Aydin S. Ahmed2, Bülent Yilmaz3, Nuran Dogru1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2854 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Genotoxicity of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Adhatoda Vasica on the Roots of Allium cepa L. by RAPD-PCR Technique http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2867 <p>The Molecular technique RAPD-PCR used to detect the genotoxicity of different concentrations of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Adhatoda vasica leaves on onion Allium cepa L. roots. Five concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 5%, and 7.5%) and (10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were adopted for alcoholic and aqueous extracts respectively. Ten arbitrary primers used in this study, only eight showed polymorphic bands in the gel and two primers were neglected because they did not show any polymorphic bands for all samples. The aim of this study is to detect the toxic effect of the extracts on the root of onion. The emergence and disappearance of bundles in the genome of onion plant Allium cepa L. Treatment with extracts was studied. The genetic relationship tree was established and the genetic distance calculated based on the results obtained from the gel electrophoresis to clarify the toxic effects of the extracts .The results showed that the concentrations that gave the highest effect and the most toxic for aqueous extract is 40% and for the alcoholic extract is 7.5% which are recommended as effective concentrates if used as a pesticide.</p> Adnan Owayez Jasim1, Mohammed Mahdi Jawad1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2867 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histological Study of the Effect of Isoxicam on Ovary of Albino Mice Mus Musculus http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2868 <p>Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are the most prescription as therapeutic drugs, used to treat of rheumatic diseases, due to analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity. Isoxicam is a member of NSAIDs group use to stop inflammation, pain associated with arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing and spondylitis. The goal of the present study is to revealed the effect of different doses of Isoxicam on ovaries tissue in mice. Twenty four female mice are randomly divided into control (n = 6) and experimental (n=18) groups. The experimental groups are subdivides into three groups . Each administrated by (0.0714, 0.1428, 0.71428)mg/kg/day for twenty days, respectively; however the control group just injected by distill water. In twenty day, mice were killed and ovaries tissue was prepared for light microscopic examination. All the experimental animals were injected by drug revealed a hyperplasia of germinal cells on the surface of ovary, tongue like projection of primordial oocytes extend to the medulla, multiple oocytes with disarrangement of follicles and deficient of follicular fluid associated with disappearance of oocytes, vacuolation in the cortical layer of the ovary, compressed premature follicle, hypercellularity of follicular cells, degeneration of germinal layer of cortex surface and hyperplasia of primordial oocytes, therefore it is recommended that using of this drug have many side adverse on female fertility.</p> Ali Khudheyer Obayes1, Wurood Mohamed Mutar2, Rasha Hamid Ayub3, Sahar Abdullah Mohammed4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2868 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genotyping of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in Inflammatory Bowel Iraqi Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2869 <p>The TNF-a gene considered as strong candidate for immune modulator and pro inflammatory cytokine responsible for genetic susceptibility of chronic disease such as the initiation and development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic polymorphisms of -1031 in TNF-a gene with susceptibility of Iraqi IBD patients Method: The total number of this study 95 blood samples (75 Iraqi IBD patients and 20 from healthy individuals as a control group). The genetic polymorphisms in TNF-a-1031 gene was investigated using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and Sanger sequences techniques. Results: The genotype allele frequency of -1031 polymorphism was significantly higher in CD Iraqi patients (P=0.042 , Chi 4.612. OR= 0.72-1.64) ,C allele may be have protective role , whereas the T allele may increase susceptibility to IBD. In conclusion: The TNF-a -1031 gene polymorphisms in promoter region have an important role in the occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease of Iraqi population especially in CD patients although some results didn’t give us a significant differences.It’s possible that C allele may be have protective role , whereas the T allele may increase susceptibility to IBD</p> Inas Fadhe1, Wafaa Sabri Mahood2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2869 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial activity of Eruca Sativa Seeds Aqueous Extract Against Human Pathogenic Bacteria http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2871 <p>This research was achieved with the aim of detecting the Antibacterial efficacy of the watery extract Eruca of Sativa seeds toward human pathogenic bacteria, four Pathogenic species of bacteria(Enterococcus faecalis, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aerogenoso, and Salmonella typhi) . were isolated from different clinical samples at al. Kademia teaching hospital Laboratory. Results: The results showed The extract inhibits gram positive bacteria and the mean inhibitory zone for strepto coccus faecalis and S. aureus was 10.4 mm and 14.0 mm respectively. Conclusion: The extract had no effect on gram negative bacteria.</p> Madeha H. Hussain4, Aml Hendi Salih1, Rajaa Hendi Salih2, Ali S. Hassoon3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2871 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Possible Role of Toxoplasmosis on Gene Sequence Alteration in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2881 <p>Toxoplasmosis is one of the risky infection my lead to cardiovascular diseases. One hundred therein patients samples were collected with Heart Diseases and there were infected with Toxoplasmosis, in Baghdad educational Hospital from period 1st January 2019 to 1st September 2019. The results show that prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among Hypertensive disease and Myocardiopathy with Heart Diseases. The genotype of MYLK3 exon to Human cardiac gene by gel electrophoresis, Lane M markers correspond to 500 bp ladder lane 2 of gene band with 600bp. Mutation occurrence in exon 8 the gene sequence CCCAGCCGG were change to CCCATCCGG, and in exon 9 the change occurrence in sequence CTCAAGCCGGAG to CTCAAGGTACAA</p> Nazar Sh. Mohammed1, Ammer Abd. Mohammed2, Salwa S. Muhsin1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2881 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Toxoplasma Gondii Infection and Toxoplasmosis in North Africa: A Review http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2883 <p>The present study aimed to investigate Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp, 1883) in the carcasses of dogs and rats in four different localities of Kerbala governorate. during four seasons. The results indicated the appearance of S. nudiseta only in the spring and autumn seasons within the urban and agricultural areas, as well as the appearance of this species on the bodies of dogs only without rats. Taxonomy and morphological futures were described. S. nudiseta is belonging to the family Muscidae (Order: Diptera) is described as a first time recorded in Iraqi entomofuna. The specimens wear collected from carcasses of dogs and rats at agriculture and urban regions of Kerbala city. The diagnostic characters and mean morphological features were photoed.</p> Esraa Salman Jasim1, Noor F. K. Al-Khawaja2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2883 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression Changes in Iraqi Patients with Chronic Liver Disease http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2902 <p>The cytochrome P450 is a chemical group of heme-containing proteins speaks to one of the biggest and most practically various superfamilies’ found in nature. Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a the process of the liver that involves a process of progressive destruction and regeneration of the liver parenchyma leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. The aim of this study to assessment the cytochrome P450 gene expression changes of three variants, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP2E1 in Iraqi patients with chronic liver disease(hepatitis+ alcoholism and hepatitis+ non-alcoholism).CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP2E1 mRNA gene expression were assessed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) in 50 cases with CLD and 50 subjects as control. Primers for genes of interest, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP2E1mRNA and housekeeping gene (GAPDH) were designed by using NCBI tools. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) was estimated by ELISA technique. The results showing statically significant differences in FAS levels (ng/ml) between study groups, HC, HNC, and control (p-value&lt; 0.05). GEF in CYP1A2 gene showing no change between HC and control but there were statistical variations in GEF in HNC and both HC or control. GEF in CYP2B6 and CYP2E1 genes showing highly significant differences between control and both HNC and HC. In conclusion, CYP2B6 and CYP2E1 gene expression were risk factor for progression HC but not HNC through stimulation of increasing levels of FAS.</p> Areej GH Al-Charak1, Hamza H Kzar2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2902 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Reliability of Orthodontic Treatment, According to the Needs of Patients Using the Dental Aesthetic Index http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2904 <p>Objectives: Malocclusion was and remains one of the most common problems which affects the psyche and social status of the individual, so the estimation of the malocclusion severity and needs a percentage of orthodontic treatment of Iraqi patients is the aim of this study. Method: A randomly selected 150 pairs of study models (48 male and 102 female) were involved in this study for patients attending an orthodontic clinic at College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad seeking for treatment. The DAI scores were collected according to WHO guidelines directly from the study model with a digital caliper, score was calculated using the regression equation of 10 occlusal traits. The dental casts were classified into four groups to determine the treatment needs. SPSS software version 25 was used to analyze the results. Results: 8.7% of orthodontic treated patients were with normal or mild malocclusion (DAI?25) and did not need treatment, while 56% of them were handicapped and needed mandatory treatment. In between them, patients with definite and severe malocclusion were 18.7% and 16.6% respectively. Molar deviation (72.6%) represents a high prevalence rate among occlusal traits, while negative overjet (7.3%) is the least one. Conclusions: Not all patients who are treated in an orthodontic clinic are really in need, and it must be the implementation of treatment need index to determine the treatment priority for patients.</p> Esraa Salman Jasim1, Noor F. K. Al-Khawaja2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2904 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Protective Role of Arabic Gum Extract on Some Physiological and Histological Criteria for Liver of Male Rabbit Treated with Atrazine http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2906 <p>The study involved fifteen health adult male rabbit white (Lepus arcticus), weight ranged (1480-1550) kg. and age between 6 to 8 month, divided to three groups the first group treated 10 ml of atrazine orally for five rabbits daily for two weeks and second group is treated with aqueous extract of Arabic gum (AG) (Acacia Senegal )30% and atrazine 10 ml between one day and another for two weeks and third group was the control group given 10 a normal saline. In the search the levels of hepatic enzyme were presented (AST) Aspartate transaminase, (ALT) Alanine transaminase and (ALP) Alkaline phosphate, also the rate of diameters of liver sinuses, the diameters of central veins and hepatocellular diameter, and found through this study: ? The presence of a significant increase (P?0.05) in the levels of hepatic enzyme (AST), (ALT) and (ALP) and rate of diameters each of liver sinuses, central veins, and hepatic cells in atrazine group compared with the control group. ? The presence of significant decrease (P?0.05) in levels of hepatic enzyme (AST) and (ALT) in the group treated with aqueous extract of AG in 30% concentration and 10 ml of atrazine compared with control group, and did not occur significant differences (P?0.05) in the level of (ALP) and in rate of diameters each of liver sinuses ,central veins , and hepatic cells in aqueous extract of Acacia Senegal and atrazine group compared with the control group</p> Noor Rahi AL-Shimmari1, Rasha Abdulameer Jawad1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2906 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relation between Working in Petrol Station and Blood Hemoglobin Levels for the Filling Workers in Al-Najaf City/ Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2908 <p>Petrol station workers were exposed to several pollutants like air pollutants by inhalation, or skin contact with petroleum derivatives like benzene, and another port of entry. This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to find a relationship between working in petrol stations and hemoglobin blood levels of the workers in Al- Najaf-city. The exposed worker’s group was (50 male) of petrol station workers aged 20-50 years, the years of working was (1 ?15 years) of ( ?7 h/day) that included in this study, the comparison group was 50 healthy male service and office workers aged (20-50 years) matching with the study group from alKufa Technical Institute, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University. Blood samples were tested at the field by using a digitized portable device (hemochromax plus) which gave the blood hemoglobin concentrations at mg/dl of the petrol stations worker. The results of blood hemoglobin were compared between both groups. There was a highly statistically significant difference (HS) between Gas station workers and Control group at the P-value of (0.001) of Hb blood concentration levels and the mean of gas station worker and control group were (11.57 and 15.58 mg/dl) respectively. there was a highly statistically significant difference (HS) between not anemic and anemic workers at the P- value ( 0.000), and there were 47 workers (94%) out of all 50 workers had anemia after the field test. There was a statistically significant difference (HS) between Hb levels of Gas station workers and Standard Normal Hb Level at the P-value = 0.007. There were a moderate inverse negative correlated between the time of exposure in the year and blood hemoglobin levels in mg/dl at the (r = - 0.57), which mean there were decreases of blood hemoglobin levels of the worker when increases of the duration of service employment. The study concluded from all results that were finding that decreased blood hemoglobin concentration than the normal value of the petrol stations workers for all stations, which might be due to the adverse effect of the workplace pollutant on bone marrow. Attention should be given by a periodical medical assessment of all workers in the petrol stations, and Obligate the petrol stations managers for supplies all personal protective equipment for all workers.</p> Fulath Abdul-Redah Muhsin Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2908 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Preoperative Breathing Exercise on Postoperative Patients’ Lung Functions http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2910 <p>Pulmonary complications after surgery are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and therefore are a source area of concern in both developed and developing countries. Presently, surgical patients didn’t acquire education about deep breathing activities that were adequate and many of them only received some education post operation. Aim of the study: To investigate the Effect of Preoperative Breathing Exercise on Postoperative patients’ Lung Functions. A quantitative quasi-Experimental, Pre-Test and Post-Test design. A non-probability (purposive sample) of (60) patients divided into two equal groups distributed as the case and control groups (30) patients for the case group are exposed to the breathing exercise program, Pursed-lip method, and (30) patients without exposed to the breathing exercise program categories as control group. the study have been carried out in Al-Diwaniyah teaching hospital, This study conducted from 22nd of October 2018 to 25th of June 2019. There were statistically significant difference between case and control groups, patients in the case group had improvement in all parameters of lung functions than control group ( P &lt; .05) in the two periods of measurement post-operatively. The program show obvious difference between the lung function for both study and control groups during the post-test.</p> Dhiaa A. Al-Reda1, Rajha A. H.1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2910 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Glomerular Diseases: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is Most Common Finding: A Cross-Sectional Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2913 <p>The objective of this study was to assess the connection amongst’s immunological and histopathological findings of renal biopsy acquired from patients with glomerular diseases. This cross sectional study was done in Al-Kafil private hospital and included 110 patients who were diagnosed by nephrologist as having glomerulonephritis as per clinical introduction, physical examination and laboratory findings of biopsy. The age scope of patients enlisted in the present investigation was between 2.8 to 72 years. The study included 67 male patients (60.9%) and 43 female patients (39.1%). The examination began at January 2016 and reached out through January 2017. At the point when clinical introduction and the entire workup of examination were at long last joined, with exceptional accentuation on histopathology and immunofluorescent tiny examination, the accompanying classification was gotten. Cases with glomerular association optional to foundational lupus erythematosis represented 27 out of 110 (24.5%). Consequently lupus nephritis is the most incessant reason for glomerulonephritis obsereved in the present examination. As indicated by the International Society of Nephrology (ISN)/Renal Pathology Society (RPS) grouping of lupus nephritis, the most incessant compose was ISN/RPS class IV (A/C) represented 14 case (12.7%), trailed by ISN/RPS class III ( A/C) (8 case, 7.3%)</p> Fadhil Handhal Khleif1, Haider Jebur Kehiosh2, Salman Azeez Aljubori3, Sabah Nemah Alfatlawi4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2913 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis of Diimidazole Has Pyrazole, Isoxazole and Pyrimidine Derivatives and Evaluation as Antibacterial http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2914 <p>New diimidazole contains pyrazole , isoxazole and thiopyrimidine were synthesized by using simple methods . All compounds were synthesized by using hippuric acid (1) as stating material which was obtained from benzoyl and glycine with. pyrazole derivatives (6a – b ) was obtained from reaction (5a – b) with hydrazine hydrate while reaction of (5a – b )with hydroxyl amine isoxazole derivatives (7a – b) were obtained ,finally reaction of thiourea was reacted with 5a – b thiopyrimidine derivatives were get (8a –b ) . FTIR and 1HNMR spectra were used to characterized derivatives several bacterial species like Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumanii were used to tested antibacterial activity</p> Sahar Abdullah Kadham.1, Abdul Jabar Kh. Atia2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2914 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Novel approach and Cloud Point Extraction Method for Determination of Acetazolamide Drug http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2915 <p>Acetazolamide was hydrolyzed to primary aromatic amine by using (0.4) M NaOH under reflux. The product was evaluated by two a ways. The first way, Diazotization coupling reaction (approach) as simple, sensitive, rapid and selective Spectrophotometric method, using 8-hydroxyquinoline as Chromogenic reagent to give Azo dye (red) in basic medium. The second way involves applying Cloud point extraction, using Triton-x114 as surfactant. The Azo dye was diagnosed by FT-IR, 1HNMR and UV-Visible technique. The analytical data for Approach and Cloud point extraction method, involve concentration rang (5-150), (0.5-6) µg.mL-1, molar absorptivity (2.3×103), (1.3×104) L.mol-1.cm-1, Sandall’s sensitivity (0.096) µg.cm-2 (0.017) µg.cm-2 and detection limits (0.952) µg.mL-1 and (0.043) µg.mL-1 respectively. In addition the measurement enrichment factor (100) and preconcentration factor (6.30), The proposed methods don’t affect by the existence of excipients so the methods were applied successfully in determining Acetazolamide in pharmaceutical preparations</p> Muna Iskandar Mahdi 1, Kassim Hassan Kadhim1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2915 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Particles and Chitosan by Sol–Gel Method (in Vitro Study) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2940 <p>Successful osseointegration of dental implants depends on many factors, including implant stability, bone quality, implant surface condition, and implant materials. Implant surface is coated using different techniques to enhance osseointegration. Sol–gel technique is one of the modern and easy techniques in the production of more bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA). In this study, nano-HA and chitosan were used to coat titanium disc via the sol–gel technique. Materials and Method: The nano-HA/chitosan composite was prepared using calcium nitride and phosphorus pentoxide solutions. The solutions were drop wisely mixed on a magnetic stirrer. Then, 3 mg of chitosan was added to the mixture, and the mixture was stirred for 15 h. Titanium samples were dip coated in the mixture of chitosan/HA on the stirrer at slow speed for 90 min to precipitate the coating layer. Afterward, the samples were removed and dried in a hot air oven. They were sintered at 400 °C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD), light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), FTIR analysis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the surface and thickness. The results of XRD test showed that HA particles had sharp diffraction peaks, indicating high crystallinity of the structure due to the sol–gel preparation. Results of optical light microscopy showed that the coated layer was fairly distributed on titanium samples. SEM results of the coated samples showed different surface features, which present a roughness with the appearance of a crystal pool with irregular accumulation of small, spherical-like granules. EDX analysis showed the presence of ions that comprised HA. AFM analysis of the coated sample indicated peaks and projections with average surface nano-roughness (10.1 nm) and grain size (2022–2057 nm). FTIR analysis showed the presence of a band associated with HA particles and amide groups associated with chitosan. The average of thickness readings was 60 ?m.</p> Saja Kareem Esmael1 , Raghdaa Kareem Jassim2, Rasha Mahdi3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2940 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Inactivation of Enterococcus Faecalis in Drinking Water using Silver Nanoparticles Embedded Paper http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2941 <p>In this paper, a cellulose paper was impregnated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for the purpose of removing Enterococcus faecalis from drinking water. AgNPs papers were prepared by chemical reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) with various concentrations (0.005 M, 0.01 M, 0.015 M, and 0.025 M) using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as a reducing agent. Two ratios of NaBH4/AgNO3 of 2:1and 10:1 were used to show the effect of reduction on the formation and removal efficiencies of AgNPs. AgNPs papers were characterized using SEM and TEM. TEM images showed that the silver nanoparticles size in the papers varies from 1.3 to 75 nm.</p> Alaa H Al-Fatlawi1, Shahad A. Raheem2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2941 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the Correlation between the Salivary Flow Rate and Dental Caries Experience among Children with ?-Thalassemia Major http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2918 <p>Thalassemia constitutes a group of congenital blood disorders which characterized by a defect in synthesis of one or more globin chains of human hemoglobin molecule and the resultant microcytosis and hypochromia of the RBCs. It is of two main divisions, ?- and ?-thalassemia and several other subdivisions. The study group composed of 40 patient years previously diagnosed with ?-thalassemia major attending the thalassemia center in Thi-Qar province/Iraq. The control group, matching the age and sex of the study group, and consisted from 40 child selected from a number of primary schools. Unstimulated salivary samples was taken from each subjects under standardized conditions. The mean value of flow rate of saliva was lower among ?-thalassemias (0.466±0.024) than for controls (0.829±0.048). The (mean±SE) for the primary teeth (dmfs) in ?-thalassemias (1.450±0.324) was higher than that for controls (1.250±0.808), this difference was not significant (P&gt; 0.05). The (mean±SE) of the caries experience (DMFs) in ?-thalassemias (6.850±0.782) was higher than for the control group (3.600±0.489).</p> Mudhafar Fadhil Jaddoa1, Alhan Ahmed Qasim2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2918 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determine Effect of Carbothera Therapy on Foot and Leg Ulceration for Diabetic Patients in Endocrine and Diabetic Center at Al-Nasiriya City http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2919 <p>Background: Diabetic foot is a serious complication of diabetes that aggravates the patient’s condition whilst also having significant socioeconomic impact. Increasing physicians ‘awareness and hence their ability to identify the «foot at risk,» along with proper foot care, may prevent diabetic foot ulceration and thus reduce the risk of amputation. Objectives: 1.Determine the socio demographic data on diabetic foot and leg ulceration 2.Determine the relationship of socio demographic data on diabetic foot and leg ulceration 3.Determine the Effeteness of Carbothera therapy upon diabetic foot and leg ulceration improvement Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted on a sample consisting of (50) patients is having diabetic foot and leg ulceration who were selected randomly from Endocrine and Diabetic Center in Nasiriya City. Diabetic patient who have diabetic foot and leg ulceration, carried out in Nasiriya city / endocrine and diabetic Center starting from January/ 2019 to July /2019 Results: 40% the age between 60-69 years ,males was 68%, the patients residing in the city (urban) by 66%,78% of them consider that their monthly income is not enough, infected with diabetes For diabetes for a period of 10 years and more is 76%, the average age of patients was 59 years, patients discovered diabetes disease was 66% , improvement in their health through the carbothera therapy 66% indicated a positive effect on the patients, a significant mean relationship at level of 8% between the urban and rural environment variable with improved carbothera therapy indicates that therapy is more effective when the patient has a more urban than rural. In addition, a very weak and statistically insignificant relationship between the patients is other demographic data and the improvement of carbothera therapy</p> Sameer Razak Oleiwi1, Oday Faris Washeel2, Hassan Al-Yassin3, Adel Gassab Mohammed4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2919 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Outcome of Endoscopic Endonasal Repair of CSF Rhinorhea Using Fascia Lata Graft http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2920 <p>Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea occur when there is communication between skull base and the nasal cavity. Nowadays endoscopic endonasal repair of CSF rhinorrhea become the preferred surgical intervention. Setting: ENT department at Ghazi AL Hariri Hospital for specialised surgeries, Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of fascia lata as sealing graft in the endoscopic endonasal repair of CSF rhinorrhea. Patients and Method: Fifteen patients present to our department with possible clinical diagnosis of CSF rhinorrhea. The patients submitted to full history, examination including nasal endoscopy, radiological investigation (CT and MRI) of the nose and paranasal sinuses and skull base and CSF analysis. Operative technique was endoscopic endonasal repair using fascia lata graft .With monthly follow-up. Results: Successful rate noted in 93% of the patients .No recurrence of meningitis attacks among those who reported meningitis on their presenting illness. Conclusion: Endoscopic endonasal repair of CSF rhinorrhea has less operative and postoperative complication. Fascia lata graft offers a good choice for the repair.</p> Hani Musa Al-Akbi1, Ahmed Adhab Mayan2, Ammar Jabbar Najm Alkelabi3, Laith Ali Mahmood4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2920 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genotype and Haplotype of HLA- Class II in Type I and Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Iraqi Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2921 <p>Background: Diabetes is one of the common complicated disease associated with multiple influenced factors, immunological serological and molecular factors play a great role in susceptibility and diagnosis of this disease. HLA genotyping were reported to have an influencing in both types of diabetes. Aim: The current study was conducted to investigate the association of human leukocytes genotypes in Diabetes patients. Method: Case-control study enrolled 225 blood samples collected from patient attended to the Marjan Teaching Hospital- Hilla and 25 apparently healthy from October 2018 to May 2019. Class II HLA genotyping was performing for 60 patients with diabetes mellitus and 25 healthy unrelated controls by means of the PCR-SSP method. The diagnosis of T1D and T1ID was set up according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Results: both types of diabetes were significantly associated with HLA-DR3. Associations were also observed with HLA –DQA105:01, the appearance of these two alleles differs in both TID and TIID . Conclusion. Certain HLA class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes have related to diabetes mellitus so it can be dependent as a genetic marker for susceptibility of this disease in Iraq.</p> Abeer Mazin1, Abdalnabi J Abid2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2921 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cloud Point Extraction, Preconcentration and Spectrophotometric Determination of Co (II) and Cu (II) using 15-Crown-5 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2938 <p>In the current study, a cloud point extraction (CPE) with UV-vis spectrometry for detection of Cu (II) and Co (II) ions with 15-crown-5 as a chelating agent was developed to be more selective and sensitive. The CPE method is improving the analytical signal and permits the preconcentration of metals ions. After phase separation induced by change temperature to become higher more than the temperature of the cloud, the point is performed with centrifugation. The Co (II) and Cu (II) ions are determined in the enriched phase by UV-vis spectrometry. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized, e.x. pH, the concentration of the chelating agent, non-ionic surfactant concentrations, and cloud point temperature. Under optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.5-5 ?g mL-1 of Co (II) in the initial solution with r2 = 0.9994 (n=8) and 0.2–7?g of Cu (II) in the initial solution (mL-1) with r2 = 0.9991 (n=8) were obtained. Detection limits of 0.4and 0.1?g are for Co(II) and Cu(II) along with preconcentration factors (66 and 50) for these ions, respectively. The method was used for detection of Co(II) and Cu(II) in some food samples.</p> Yussra O.Mussa1, Azhar A. Ghali2, Ashwaq S.Hussei1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2938 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hormonal and Immunological Study in Serum of Pregnant albino rats Treated with Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2923 <p>The present study was aimed to elucidate the effect of Nickel oxide nanoparticle (100mg /kg b.wt) on some parameters in pregnant Albino rats which including serum reproductive hormonal level, Leutinlizing Hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating Hormone ( FSH) and Testosterone (Test), and some Immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgG, IgM) for different period of pregnancy ( 12 and 14 days ). The hormonal results showed significant (P?0.05) increased of treatment groups as compared with control groups. Immunological results showed significant decreases in treated groups as compared with control groups, It could be concluded that increasing concentrations of NIO- NPs and durations of exposure leads to negative effects on the pregnant albino rat.</p> Haneen M.Alsoltane1, Amel A.Altaee1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2923 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Mental Health of Healthcare Professionals Working in the Infectious Diseases Units: Comparative Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2942 <p>Background: Health care professionals working in infectious diseases units or hospitals are at higher risk for being affected by certain contagious pathogens than other professional groups through direct contact, equipment, and contaminated supplies; therefore, they are working under ongoing stress that negatively impacting their psychological well-being. Aims: This study aims to assess the mental well-being of healthcare professionals working in infectious diseases units and compare these results to the score of other healthcare professionals working in other units. Methodology: A comparative study design using a convenience sample of (N=300) healthcare professionals (150 working in the infectious diseases units and 150 working in different units). The General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to assess the mental health of study subjects. Results: Recent findings indicate a statistically difference between study group and comparative group (p= &lt;0.05), which means that healthcare providers working in the infectious disease units are at higher risk for psychological disturbance than the comparative group. Moreover, other work factors are found to have significant relationship with professionals’ mental health, such as infection prevention trainings, years of experience in infectious diseases units, availability of personal protection equipment and hand hygiene, and number of patients in the unit. Conclusion: Working in high risk work environment increases the concern about personal safety and impose ongoing stress, which negatively influence professional’s mental well-being. More training about infection prevention and provide personal protection materials help reducing the risk of disease transmission among patients and to health care providers.</p> Maysaa Niama Aboalshon1 , Hayder H. AL-Hadrawi2 , Ammar Abbas Shalan2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2942 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Emotional Intelligence and Work-related Stress among Nurses Working in Psychiatric Hospitals http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2943 <p>Background: Emotional Intelligence is a broad concept that connecting various personality and cognitive traits of human beings. The concept of emotional intelligence is described as the individual’s capability of recognizing their own emotions and the emotions of others, and practice this understanding to navigate important interactions successfully. Aims: The purpose of this study is to assess emotional intelligence among nurses working in psychiatric hospitals, as well as the relationship between emotional intelligence and workplace stress. Methodology: A descriptive correlational study design using a convenience sample of (N=109) nurses working in two main psychiatric hospitals. Two separated scales (The Emotional Intelligence Scale-34 items and The Work-related Stress scale-24 items) was used to meet the study objectives. Results: The study findings indicate that emotional intelligence levels were ranged between moderate to high among study participants. However, the majority had moderate work-related stress about (61%). Nurses’ work stress was found to have significant relationship with their emotional intelligent level. Conclusion and Recommendations: Despite the positive levels of emotional intelligence nurse have, working in psychiatric hospitals is still cause of stress for nurses. The statistical relationship found in this study highlights the importance of enhancing emotional intelligence among nurses working in psychiatric hospitals settings by engaging them in effective training programs to maximize their abilities of adjustment and reduce their levels of work-stress.</p> Zaman Ahmed Hrefish1, Hayder H. AL-Hadrawi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2943 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The relationship between smoking and Urokinase gene 3’-UTR T/C expression on occurrence of bladder cancer http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2926 <p>Bladder cancer (CA Bladder) is the malignancy that affects the lining of the bladder (which is the most common types of urinary epithelial cancers that associated with the most invasive types of cancers and has the highest incidence of recurrence and infections). This study was designed to investigate the role of cigarette smoking on expression of urokinase gene that has a prominent role in the incidence of CA bladder. The samples were collected from 90 patients after being clinically diagnosed by the specialist surgeon of Imam Hussein Center for Cancer Diseases, Holy Kerbala, Iraq who were heavily smokers (more than one pocket/day). These patients were compared to 90 non-smoker patients with CA bladder and 90 persons who apparently healthy individuals as a control groups, DNA was extracted from all blood samples. The level of gene expression was correlated with cycle threshold value calculated by using real time PCR. The results showed significant association between smoking and occurrence of CA bladder (by increased expression of urokinase 3’-UTR T/C gene) in comparison to both control and non-smoker patients groups</p> Zainab Nizar Jawad 1, Kamal Abdul Rasool 1, Weaam Awad 2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2926 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Carcinogenic Substance (7,12 Dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA)) on Tissue, Hematology Character and Enzyme Activity in Rat http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2927 <p>This study aimed to investigate the effects of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) on some blood parameters and hepatic histopathology in rats and antioxidant enzyme. twenty female Wistar albino rats, weighing 180–200 g, were randomly divided into two group. DMBA group (positive group) who received 20 mg DMBA/kg body weight/ (single Douse). Control group (negative group) don’t received any thing. The animals in the groups were sacrificed at the end of the 90 days: The histological structure of the liver tissues in the control group was normal. the liver exhibited hydropic degeneration and coagulation necrosis in hepatocytes, severe dilation in the sinusoids, congestion in the central and portal regions , DMBA groups, was degenerative and necrotic changes were detected. MDA levels increased in the DMBA group , compared to the control group, Antioxidant activity CAT, SOD and GPX, the results showed increased enzyme activity in positive control compared with negative groups , ,the hematological parameter was increase in WBC, PLT, GRA, and LYM and decrease in RBC value .Keywords: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA); Blood parameters; Antioxidant enzyme ; MDA ; Rat</p> Abdulridha Mohammed Al-Asady1, Ntisar Kadhum Ghaleb2, Abeer Muhammedali Jasim Alnasrawi3, Thoalffakar A. ALhamed4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2927 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological Factors Affecting on Developing Reading Skills and Evaluation of Reading Strategy Knowledge http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2928 <p>The questions are one of the most common and used methods in the educational process and in schools all over the world and are the most important educational strategies. Because questions are a great place in teaching, which is the mainstay of the dialogue method and is like the driving force in the lesson. The educators say (If you want to become a highly competent educator, it is important that you begin to apply and develop educational questions). These questions also occupy great importance in the educational process after which the standard means of knowing the readiness of the students and the level of information they received, in a good question, we achieve the desired goal and achieve a desirable educational product. Besides , the exams are a means to help educators to make different educational decisions, so that , there have been wide concerns calling for the reform of the test questions and the evidence of that conferences that discussed this problem, studies and research aimed at diagnosing them in order to address, improve and develop their defects to achieve best results in education.</p> Wathiq Al – Husseini 1, Asst. Prof. Dr. Diaa Oued Al Arnousi 1, Qassim Raheem1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2928 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison between Photoselective Vaporization of Prostate by Diode Laser and Monopolar Transurethral Resection of Prostate in Single Center Experience http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2929 <p>Background: Transurethral resection of prostate has been regarded as the gold standard surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).With the evolution of new technologies, laser prostatectomy emerged as an alternative. Aim of the study: To compare the rate of outcome of diode laser vaporization of prostate and Transurethral Resection of Prostate in Al Diwaniya governorate. Patients and methods: From October 2017 to October 2018, forty patients with surgical indications of prostatectomy were enrolled in this study. Their ages ranged from 60-75 years with a mean age 68.6 years and prostate size ranged from 40-80 ml with a mean size 62.175 ml. Twenty patients underwent diode laser vaporization of prostate and another 20 patients underwent Transurethral Resection of Prostate. The choice based on surgeon preference and patient ability. Preoperative evaluation was done for all patients by history, physical examination and investigations. International Prostate Symptoms Score, maximum flow rate, digital rectal examination, prostate specific antigen, abdominal ultrasound, urinalysis, blood urea, s.creatinine, complete blood count were all done preoperatively. One pint of compatible fresh blood prepared. Results: The rate of significant bleeding and transfusion in diode PVP and TURP was (zero vs. 35% respectively) , in PVP and TURP the mean irrigation amount perioperatively was (10.10 vs. 33.15 pints respectively) , mean operative time was (70.80 vs. 50.00 min respectively) ,mean hospital stay was (16.03 vs. 30.09 hours respectively), mean time to urethral catheter removal was (24 vs. 81.71 hours respectively), postoperative complication rate (mainly dysuria) was (75% vs. 65% respectively), mean postoperative IPSS was (14.40 vs. 14.20 respectively) , mean postoperative Qmax was (15.45 vs. 16.30 ml/sec respectively). There was no statistical difference between both groups in regard to lowering IPSS or increment in Qmax. The mean cost was (1500 vs. 500.42 dollars) in diode PVP and TURP respectively. Conclusion: Diode laser vaporization of prostate is a good alternative to TURP with comparable results in treatment of BPH especially in patients taking anticoagulant drugs who cannot stop their medication. However, the high cost of this procedure and dysuria as a complication may prevent the common use of this technique.</p> 1Zaid Ali Abdul Hussein, Ali Hamdan Fahad2, Falah Mahdi Al Khafaji3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2929 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Tympanometric Findings among Adults with Chronic Nasal Obstruction Due to Sinonasal Pathology http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2930 <p>Background: The nasal obstruction is one of the causes that affect the middle ear function, but the physiological mechanism of this effect is not well understood. This study aims at 1st; evaluation of the middle ear function among adults with chronic nasal obstruction due to sinonasal pathology using tympanometry, and 2nd, at comparison between the anatomical and mucosal inflammatory causes of nasal obstruction and its impact on the middle ear function. Patients and Method: A prospective case study of (310) adult patients with chronic nasal obstruction were subjected to tympanometry for study of middle ear pressure in the private ENT clinic for a period of two years in the Salah Al-Deen governorate. Results: this study found that (13%) of adults with chronic nasal obstruction had abnormal tympanogram (type B or C), (17.2%) was due to mucosal inflammation and (7%) due to anatomical and structural cause. Commonly one ear affected (unilateral) was (67.5%). Myringotomy and aspiration of middle ear found that (64%) had OME and VT was inserted. Conclusion: The study statistically proved that adults with chronic nasal obstruction due to mucosal inflammation differs from others due to anatomical and structural causes in the followings; 1.The incidence of abnormal tympanogram (type B and C) is more. 2.The type B (OME) was more than type C (Eustachian tube dysfunction). 3.In the treatment ,it was found that the need to VT insertion was more.</p> Salim Hussain Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2930 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Mindfulness Education on Elementary School Students http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2931 <p>The current research aims at evaluating the reading for the fourth grade of primary school in the light of the habits of mind and followed the researcher descriptive approach to suitability the current research procedures to achieve the research objective, the researcher prepared a list that included the criteria of habits of mind based on this researcher prepared a questionnaire (6) standards and (141) paragraphs after verifying the authenticity of the tool from its presentation to a group of arbitrators the stability of the analysis using Holistic equation (0.83) The tool consists of (128) paragraphs distributed in six areas The researcher has developed three alternatives (valid), (invalid), (need to be modified), and the researcher used the appropriate statistical means for their research. The data obtained from the analysis process are: Holistic equation, centimeter weight, square cay, and weighted mean.</p> Rawaa Saadoun Al-Abedi1, Ibtisam Al-Zaywaini1, Rassem Ahmed Al-Jerayi1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2931 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Bronchiolitis among Hospitalized Children less than Two Years in Babylon Province http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2932 <p>Background: Bronchiolitis is one of viral lower respiratory tract infections that constitute a heavy burden to public health in the Pediatric population worldwide, which occurs most frequently before age 2 years in the winter and early spring months and most frequently induced by a viral infection (respiratory syncytial virus). Settings and Design: A survey descriptive study conducted in Babylon Province through-out the period of “1st January 2019 to 30 March 2019” (three) special hospitals of pediatrics. Method and Materials: Non-probability “purposive” sample consists of 3374 subjects, which collected through a review of patient records for (2016, 2017, 2018) in the statistical units in Babylon hospitals. The information of data was collected retrospectively through-out the special questionnaire obtained from the patient’s sheets in the statistical unit. Statistical analysis used: The data are coded and tested by the application (SPSS) through the descriptive and inferential analysis. Results: The analysis of the study indicated that the majority of the children (62.7%) were aged (1- 6) months old who lived in rural areas, the male percentage was higher than the female. In addition, the study indicated that the prevalence of bronchiolitis progressed during the last three years. Conclusions: The study concludes that the higher morbidity of bronchiolitis was in 2018, most of them admitted to the hospital in January months. Also, the duration of hospital stay was &gt; 4 days</p> Maha. A. Kadim1, Nuhad M. AL-Doori2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2932 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nanotechnology Issues Included in the Subjects of the Department of Biology in the Colleges of Education http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2933 <p>This research aimed to: Recognize how much including in content of subjects in the Department of Biology College of Education in accordance with the Nanotechnology Issues. To achieve this aim, the researchers built a standard for the Nanotechnology Issues, were verified validity by presentation to a group of arbitrators specialists in the methods of teaching the Biology , and that standard is finalized be from (8) Nanotechnology Issues and emerged of them (90) sub- Issues, then the researchers analyzed the content of subjects of the Department of Biology in Colleges of Education for the academic year (2018-2019) in the light of this criterion as the number of analyst was (12201) page, and it adopted the explicit idea and implicit idea as units for registration and repetition unit of the census, The results were : weakness of subjects in the Department of Biology in Colleges of Education to contain Nanotechnology Issues compared with the ratio based on the opinions of experts (20%), (16) only of 90 terms were achieved , that was equal of (17.77%)</p> Mazin Thamer Shanef 1, Mustafa Abdel Amir Raheem Al-Zamili1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2933 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Resin Composite Materials: A Digital Image Analysis http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2934 <p>This study aimed to evaluate and compare the color stability of three commercially available resins composites after exposure to different staining solutions using digital image analysis.A total of ninetydisc shape specimens of a microhybrid composite (Amelogen plus), ultrafine hybrid composite (Essentia), and nanohybrid composite (Beautifil II) were produced in Teflon mould (n=30/ resin composite type). Specimens of each resin composite were then divided into 5 subgroups (n=6/subgroup) and immersed in 200 ml of Pepsi, orange juice, tea, coffee and artificial saliva (control group), respectively. Digital images of the specimens were taken before (baseline) and after 28 days immersion against a black and white background. Adobe Photoshop CS6, Ver.13.0.1 graphic program (AdobeSystems Inc., San Jose, CA, USA) was used to analyze the digital images and calculate the change in color (?E). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA and Tukey Posthoc test at a significance level of p&lt;0.05. This study concluded that all resin composites exhibited color changes after immersion in all staining solutions. However, Amelogene Plus showed better resistance to staining compared to Beautifil II and Essentia.</p> Shatha Abdul-Kareem1, Ahmed G. Al-Maroof 1, Noor H. Fadhil2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2934 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bergamot Essential Oil Effect against Candida Albicans Activity on Heat Cure Acrylic Denture Base http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2935 <p>The aim of the current study is to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of several different percentages of Bergamot Essential Oil (BEO) incorporated into heat cure PMMA denture base material against Candida albicans. Materials and Method: Eighty samples were divided into eight groups including six various percentages of BEO (2%,3%, 4% ,5%, 6% and 7% by volume) and 0% BEO as a control group, in addition to 1.4% by weight of nystatin which represent the positive control group. All these additives were incorporated into heat cure PMMA denture material. After 48h incubation in distilled water, all samples were assessed by Candida albicans colonies viable count test. Results: For Candida albicans activity test; the experimental groups (2%,3%, 4%, 5%, 6% and 7% of BEO) showed highly significant decrease in the mean values of the viable count of Candida albicans when compared to the control group (0% BEO) (p&lt;0.01). In contrast, a non-significant difference among experimental groups and 1.4% nystatin group. Conclusion: Bergamot essential oil was successfully incorporated into heat cure PMMA denture base material and could act as potential antifungal agent with a drug delivery system against Candida albicans. It seemed that adding of 5% and 6% BEO was the most beneficial effects against the growth of fungi.</p> Zinah Salah Mawlood1, Ghassan Abdul-Hamid Naji2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2935 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Activity and Characterization of Some Oxazole, Thiazol and Quinoline http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2944 <p>New Heterocyclic compounds derivatives comprising 1,3-oxazole, chalcone ,thiazole, pyrimidine, quinolone moieties are reported. New derivatives of Quinazolin-4 (3H)-one ring comprising Schiff’s bases,(1,3,4Thiadiazole),(1,3,4-Oxadiazole) and (1,2,4-Triazole), Thiaurease moieties are reported. Compounds (1), (2) and (5) were synthesized by reaction of benzoyl chloride with urea , thiourea and anthranilic acid respectively , then compounds (1)and (2) were converted into(3a-c) and (4a-c) derivatives. While compound (5) reaction with urea to convert to compound (6) which was converted to (7a-c) . chalcone derivatives (9a,b ) were readily obtained by reaction of compound (8) with different aldehydes, Compounds (9a , b) were converted into (10a,b) and (11a,b) The structure of these compounds has been established on the basis of their spectral data FTIR and 1HNMR. These compounds were tested for invitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Sepidermidis, S.aureusand Klebseillastandard methods. These synthesized compounds have been shown moderate to good antibacterial activity.</p> Amjad Gali. Eliwi1, Safaa. Abdul-Hameed. Dadoosh1, Zainab Z. Mohammed Ali1, Abdul Jabar Kalaf Atia1, Iman Rajab Mohammed1, Zaman Ahmed. Hussein1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2944 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Factors related to Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2945 <p>Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a phenomenon of unknown cause among infants between 1 month and 1 year of age”. Methodology: descriptive design conducted through September 2018 to the end of March 2019, mothers attended health centers in Al- Hilla City,who consists of (120 meters). Data were collected through using SIDS_QA-508 after doing some adjustment on the questionnaire, The questions that used in collecting data were checked out for any mistake or error and scrutinized, Data of the 120 participant’s were entered and analyzedby means of the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) .The results indicated that the children age (65.0%) was less one year aged, (41.7%) mother’s educational attainment with primary school. (94.2%) with pre- term pregnancy, (74.2%) were married, (77.5%) from the population present their satisfaction concerning monthly income and (55.0%) had health problems through their pregnancy. Most mothershave low knowledge regarding abrupt baby death, which correlated for mother’s age, sources of knowledge as weak correlation. Recommendations: Hospital staff should instruct parents who, in turn, must emphasize to secondary caregivers that the baby must always be placed to sleep on the back and never on the tummy, since prone sleep increases the risk of SIDS.</p> Hussein Jassim Mohammed1, Musadaq Abdulkadhim Dohan2, Nuhad Mohammed Kassim3, Mohamed Igrish 5, R.N Kadhim Hussein Jassim6 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2945 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Design and Implementing System to Study Environmental Noise Pollution Using Microcontroller http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2946 <p>This paper proposed a system and presents it’s result obtained in a study on environmental noise pollution in the city of Baghdad, Iraq. The sensing system is built on Atmega128 and CC2420 platform. We designed and implemented a sensor function for wireless sensor network application using special network named (WSN) for measuring environmental acoustic noise. Based on the readings obtained became clear that 90 % out of the locations during the peak time have equivalent sound level over 75 dBA, and 60 % out of the total number of locations measured display during the normal time equivalent sound level over 75 dBA.</p> Ahmed Yousif Falih1, Ali Talib Qasim2, Basma Jumaa Saleh3, Walaa Sami Tahlok4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2946 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nurses Staff Knowledge Regarding Standard Hand Hygiene Precautions in Rania City/Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2947 <p>Objectives: -To assess nurses staff level of knowledge regarding standard hand hygiene precaution, and to find out the association between their level of knowledge and some of socio-demographic characteristics such as (gender, and level of education). Method: Quantitative design, a descriptive study was carried out at Rania City. To achieve the objectives of the present study, non-probability purposive sample was used. The study sample was (66) nurses who were providing nursing services at two hospitals (Rania teaching hospital and Rania maternity and pediatric hospital). 10 of samples were excluded for a pilot study. A questionnaire was constructed by the researcher for the purpose of the study technique and it was used as a tool for data collection. The data were collected through using an interview technique (face to face) approach.. Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive statistical analysis, such as: (frequency, percentage, mean of scores), and inferential statistical analysis (Pearson’s chi-square and correlation coefficient), by using the statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) version (20). Results: The study indicated that the most of samples aged between 32-36 years old and represents 28.6% of the study samples. In addition, the highest percentages of the nursing staffs were female 73%. Concerning of the educational level, more than half of nurses graduated from the medical institute 66 %. And the largest study sample have 6-10 years of experiences 28.5%The findings of the study reveal that the nurses have a good level of knowledge about hand hygiene (HH) and appropriate time to do HH. The majority of the stay sample routinely used HH and they disinfectant their hands either by washing hands with water and soap or use alcohol-based jell for, while some of the nurses don’t wash their hands either because they are busy, they forget to do it or even the products are not available or not easy to reach. The study also approves that there was a statistically no significant association between the knowledge of nurses and gender and years of experiences.</p> Blend B. Ameen Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2947 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Factors Increasing Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Under The Age of 40 Years Attending Al-Diwanyia Teaching Hospital http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2948 <p>The present case control study of Iraqi people living in Aldiwanyia city to identify the attributable risk factors that leads to type 2 diabetes in younger age groups and the correlation of the most prevalence risk for developing diabetes. The study was designed to be a case control study includes 315 individuals, 150 is the number of controls, and the rest of the participants are patients that have been diagnosed by diabetes mellitus type 2 before or at age of 40 years .All these participants attended outpatient clinics at Al- Aldiwanyia teaching hospital in Al-Dewaniyah province/ Iraq. The beginning of data collection was dated on the January 2019 and ended on June 2019. Mean age of patients with diabetes mellitus was significantly higher than that of control subjects There was highly significant difference in the frequency distribution according to marital status, occupation, residency, level of education,economic status in patients and controls groups .It appears that the rate of overweight and obesity is comparable in patient and control group.</p> Hassan Raji Jallab1, Zahraa Abdul Ameer Kadhim1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2948 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Psychosocial Consequences of Children with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency in Baghdad http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2949 <p>Study aim: to evaluate psychosocial problems of children with growth hormone deficiency. Methodology: A cross sectional study, of (80) children from both gender, (4 – 15) years diagnosed with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency, attending endocrine clinics in Baghdad city. Consent form taken from children and their guardians to participate in the study. Pediatric Psychosocial Symptoms Inventory (mood, behavioural, somatic, learning, and personality problems) was used to evaluate children psychosocial consequences. SPSS programme version 23 used for data analyses. Result: children with growth hormone deficiency experience moderate psychosocial problems, especially personality and behavioural problems. Recommendation: The researchers recommended details psychological assessment for children with growth hormone deficiency during their routine physical examination and provide suitable psychological support for them and their parent.</p> Adraa H. Shawq1 , Zaid W. Ajil1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2949 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viruses in ? – thalassemias major patient in AD-Diwanya privince ,iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2950 <p>Background: transmition of infectious agent is still the most common cause of death and disability related to blood transfusion. Objective: to estimate the prevalence of HBV and HCV in beta thalassemic major patients in Ad-Diwayah governorate. Method: The current study is a retrospective cross sectional study involving sample of 80 thalassemic major patients who regularly visit thalassemia center in Ad-diwuryah for treatment, data that required in the study had been collected from patients, their guardians and from the records. Results: The prevalence rate of HBV was 2.5% (l male and 1 Female ) which was significantly associated with family history of hepatitis ; while the prevalence rate of HCV was 3.8% (1male and 2 female) which was significantly associated with age and family history of hepatitis</p> Hassan Raji Jallab1, Zahraa Muayad Eesa1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2950 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Deposition of TaN Film on Commercial Pure Titanium Disk by Modified Reactive Plasma Sputtering Technique http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2951 <p>Background: The new trend of implants is to find materials which accelerate bone formation at bone implant interface and improve Osseo integration to provide immediate or early loading after placement and eliminate waiting period which is uncomfortable and disturbs patients. Titanium as an implant material still need some improvement of surface properties physically and chemically. Tantalum which is gaining more attention as a new metallic biomaterial. Coating layer over implant is an important way for improvement of surface properties of titanium. Plasma used for surface modification, has several advantages such as changing surface topography, increasing surface roughness and in increasing the wettability of the surface. Aim of study: To evaluate the effect of TaN coating by modified plasma sputtering technique of commercially pure titanium disk on wettability, surface roughness, surface chemical composition in comparison to noncoated surface. Materials and methods: Two groups were tested in this study which include non -coated commercial pure titanium disks and coated commercial pure titanium with TaN. Modified reactive plasma sputtering apparatus was used to coat CpTi with TaN at 4, 6 &amp;8, h. Surface characterization by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS), contact angle measurement, were carried out for coated and uncoated disks. Results: The result of coating specimen with TaN at times (4,6&amp;8) h showed that 8 h coating time was the best time. And this was according to the results of X-ray diffraction analysis which show a new peak formation of Ta N coated CpTi disk which was not present in non- coated CpTi disk. The results of wettability test for CpTi disk coated with TaN disk was more than wettability of non- coated CpTi disk. Surface Roughness was more and better distributed in CpTi coated with TaN disk than non- coated one which appear clearly in electron microscope.</p> Hassan Jawad Farhan1, Raghdaa Kareem Jassim2 , L.thair3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2951 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Carcinogenic Substance (7, 12 Dimethylbenz [a] Anthracene (DMBA) on Tissue, Hematology Character and Enzyme Activity in Rat http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2952 <p>This study designed to investigate the effects of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA)on some blood parameters and hepatic histopathology in rats and antioxidant enzyme. twenty female Wistar albino rats, weighing 180–200 g, were randomly divided into two group 1- DMBA group (positive group) who received 20 mg DMBA/kg body weight/ (single Douse) 2-Control group (negative group) doesn’t receive any item. The animals in these groups were sacrificed at the end of the 90 days:The histological structure of the liver tissues in the control group was normal. the liver exhibited hydropic degeneration and coagulation necrosis in hepatocytes, severe dilation in the sinusoids, congestion in the central and portal regions , DMBA groups, was degenerative and necrotic changes were detected.MDA levels increased in the DMBAgroup , compared to the control group, Antioxidant activity CAT, SOD and GPX, the results showed increased enzyme activity in positive control compared with negative groups , ,the hematological parameter was increase in WBC, PLT, GRA, and LYM and decrease in RBC value .</p> Abdulridha Mohammed Al-Asady1, Intisar Kadhum Ghaleb2, Abeer Muhammed ali Jasim Alnasrawi 3, Thoalffakar A. ALhamed 4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2952 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immunohistochemical Expression of CD68, P53 and Bcl2 in Thyroid Tumors http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2953 <p>Background/aim: The aim of this study was to determine the expression of CD68, P53 and Bcl2 in thyroid tumors and correlation between them. Materials and Method: The expression of CD68, P53 and Bcl2 was examined by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from patients with benign and malignant tumors between 2010 and 2015.Thirty three malignant thyroid tumors of variable subtypes and 10 benign tumors. The extents of staining and intensity were scored semi quantitatively. Results: CD68 have shown strong positive score expression in (28.9%) in PTC while score was found in (18.5%). The higher percentage of strong weak positive score expression of P53 was in PTC (6.1%) Followed by (3.03%) strong score in FTC, (3.03%) moderate score in benign and (3.03%) in MTC. The expression of Bcl2 was higher in benign tumors (20%) than in malignant tumors were PTC (9.1%) followed by FTC (3.03%), the strong positive expression seen in MTC (9.1).</p> Samar Abdul Raheem AL-Gharrrawi 1, Ali Hussein Mohammed Ali Alkhafaji 2, Rana Zuhair Naji 3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2953 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Lung Cancer in Non Smoker Patients Attending Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2954 <p>Background: Smoking is a well known risk factor that is implicated in a number of human malignant disorders. Aim of the study: To study the prevalence of lung cancer in a sample of Iraqi non smoker patients and the main risk factor implicated in such malignant tumor. Patients and Method: In this hospital based study, in order to explore the prevalence rate of bronchogenic carcinoma in non smoker patients ,it retrospectively collected data about those patients for the last four years, starting from January 2016 through June 2019. These information were retrieved from patients records that are already present in oncology and respiratory units in Al-Diwaniyah teaching hospital, Al-Diwaniyah province, Mid-Euphrates region of Iraq. The following variables were included in the questionnaire form: Age, gender, occupation, education level, residency, socioeconomic status, marital status history of smoking, history of second hand smoking, number of household smokers, type of smoking, history of alcoholism, history of chronic illness, the main presenting clinical features and clinical features of carcinoma and finding in examination as well as those obtained from investigations. Results: In the current study, the prevalence rate of all cases of lung cancer during the period of study was 61 out of 403 (15.1 %). the rate of lung cancer in none smokers, in the current study, was 39.3 %. Old age individuals were the main age group affected and there was female predilection. there was also no significant difference in the distribution of patients and control subjects according to residency, occupation, level of education marital status and socioeconomic status (P &gt; 0.05). In the current study, the prevalence rate of passive smoking in patients was significantly higher than that in control subjects, 70.8 % versus 40 %. Moreover, the number of household smokers was significantly higher inpatients group than in control group. Conclusion: Lung cancer in non smokers appears to be significantly correlated with passive smoking in addition to increase incidence in old age and women</p> Hassan Raji Jallab1 , Thimar Malik Khudhair2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2954 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Aging Influence Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress through Check Some Proinflammatory Cytokines Levels and Oxidant Status in Older Adults: an Observational Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2956 <p>The experiment design is that of a cohort study within the setting of a medium private laboratory with participants being common people (healthy individuals of 20–99 years=108; mean age 55 years and 71.3% man) were classified into six age groups. Oxygen saturation (SpO2), pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (CSBP) and diastolic blood pressure were assessed. Blood sera (once) was obtained for proinflammatory cytokines levels (including c-reactive protein (CRP), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), apolipoprotein E (apoE), interleukin 6 (IL-6), 8-hydroxy-2’–deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)) and oxidant status (including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) analysis. The mean calculated of the whole participants were equal for proinflammatory cytokines levels: CRP 3.24 mg/dL, IGF-1 54.03 ng/mL, apoE 488.29 mg/mL, IL-6 65.464 pg/mL, 8-OHdG 1.34 ng/mL and TNF-? 105.63 pg/mL; and oxidant statue: MDA 0.59 ng/mL, SOD 3.48 U/mL and T-AOC 1.21 mmol/L, receptively. Our findings highlighted that survey of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress through check some proinflammatory cytokines levels and oxidant status of aging in older adults can be applied to build a global frailty index as a tool to quantify aging in preclinical experiments.</p> Kaniaw R. Khafar1, Esmail S. Kakey2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2956 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Robust Bayesian Estimators For Survival Function Under Prior Data Conflict With Practical Application in the Health Side http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2958 <p>The analysis of survival functions is concerned with knowing how long humans will survive, This means studying and analyzing the time from the beginning of the disease to the end point of death. For example, the survival function of patients with heart attacks was studied and analyzed at Al Manathira General Hospital. The Weibull distribution was used to match the real data. The scale parameter &amp; survival function have been estimated for Weibull distribution with have two parameters, this distribution was used in two cases, prior data unconflict &amp; prior data conflict. A regular Bayes method &amp; robust Bayes were used for estimation. We used inverse gamma distribution as a prior where it is a conjugate prior for Weibull distribution. Two simulation experiments have been used; the first experiment used was prior data unconflict where the regular Bayes method is the best for estimating the scale &amp; survival function by using the integrated mean square error (IMSE) as a criterion for comparing. The second experiment is in the case of prior data conflict. The results showed that the robust Bayes method is the best for estimation of the scale parameter &amp; survival function by using (IMSE).</p> Entsar Arebe Al.Doori1, Ahmed Sadoun Mannaa1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2958 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phenotypic detection of AmpC ?-lactamase in Pseudomonas aerogenosa isolated from Burns and Wounds in Al-Rumetha Hospitals http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2960 <p>Ampicillin hydrolyzing class C ?-lactamase (AmpC) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recognized to be a serious opportunistic infection and due to the wide ability to create ?-lactamases made this bacteria resistance to many antibiotics.The results of the current study showed that 36(27.7%) isolates of P. aeruginosa from 130 isolates examined for cefoxitin susceptibility by disk diffusion method. Out of thirty six P. aeruginosa isolates , 29(80.6%) were cefoxitin resistant . The modified three dimension test and AmpC disck test were used confirm the production AmpC ?- lactamase in all cefoxitin resistant isolates , only 23(79.3%) isolates were phenotypically confirmed to produce AmpC beta-lactamase. The result of this study showed that 12/36 ( 33.3%) isolates were positive with blaAmpC gene by conventional PCR technique</p> Abeer Mohammed Ali Al-garawyi Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2960 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment Knowledge of Thalassemia Care Giver in Kirkuk City http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2963 <p>Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder, which is described by diminished synthesis or lack of globin,this synthetic defect leads to the formation of fragile abnormal red blood cells (RBC), which can be easily hemolyzed, leading to chronic anemia Quantitative design descriptive study was used to assess Knowledge Thalassemia Care givers in Kirkuk City. A non–probability / Convenience sampling technique was applied in the present study, (30) Thalassemia Care givers were participate in the study sample (Azadi Teaching Hospital) in Kirkuk City. A questionnaire was designed and constructed by researchers to measure the variables underlying the present study. Data were obtained directly by the researchers through interview technique. Content validity of the instrument was determined through the of panels which involve (5) experts to investigate the clarity. The findings in general indicated that Majority of the sample In general has good Knowledge about Thalassemia it was recorded (74,8%) were answered “I Know.</p> Idrees Hasan Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2963 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation the Effect of Nano Yttrium Oxide Addition on the Mechanical Properties of Room Temperature-Vulcanized Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomers http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2966 <p>Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanopowder inclusion on the mechanical properties, including tear strength, tensile strength, elongation percentage, hardness, and surface roughness, of room temperature-vulcanized maxillofacial silicone elastomers. Materials and Method: Y2O3 nanoparticles (30–45 nm) were added to VST50F platinum silicone elastomers in two weight percentages (1 and 1.5 wt%) as tested by the pilot study that showed superior results. A total of 120 specimens were qualified and divided into the control group and experimental groups (1 and 1.5 wt% Y2O3). Each group was subdivided into four identical subgroups in accordance with intentionally performed tests (tear strength, tensile strength and elongation percentage, shore A hardness, and surface roughness). For each subgroup, 10 specimens were used for each test. Data were statistically analyzed with significance level considered at p &lt; 0.05. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were also conducted. Results and Discussion: SEM showed that NPs were distributed well within the silicon matrix. FTIR spectra proved no chemical reaction occurred between the Y2O3 NPs and VST50F silicone. Tear strength and hardness values significantly increased in the experimental groups compared with the control group. Tensile strength and surface roughness values increased non significantly. Elongation percentage values decreased non significantly. Conclusion: Incorporating Y2O3 NPs into VST50F maxillofacial silicone improved the tear strength with slight increase in tensile strength. Hardness and surface roughness increased but within accepted clinical levels. Elongation percentage slightly decreased.</p> Yasir N. Al-Mohammad Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2966 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immunohistochemical Correlates of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma in Iraq Patient http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2968 <p>We aimed to investigate the Detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)mutations in lung adenocarcinoma by Immunohistochemical and correlation with Clinicopathological features. We used Fifty tissue blocks embedded in paraffin wax were obtained from 50 patient (16 female and 34males) suffering from lung adenocarcacinoma, while controls were 30 samples from healthy, Histopathological examination Study by (H and E stain)and detection of Mutation in EGFR(exon19) by RFLP-PCR, detection of protein expression EGFR by immunohistochemical method Our results have, confirmed the mean age of patients group was 51.84 +/-15.70 years and the median was 54, performed study the non correlation between stage of disease and age of patients. site of tumor was right sided of lung tumor, accounting for 58 % .Distribution of patients according to grade of tumor was, The results of this study showed non-significant correlation between age and grade, results of this study showed significant difference in EGFR Positive between patients and control healthy in Imunohistochemical, had found as not significant with age ,gender, sit of tumor, grade, stage, in Immunohistochemical method of EGFR Expression. while Gene EGFR deletion of exon 19were analyzed using mutant-enriched polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was not detected in all patients and control</p> Sabreen Saleem AbdAlkreem Alsaqi1, Merza Hamza Homady Almurshidi1, Rand Muhammed Abdul-Hussein Al-Husseini1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2968 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Depression in Relation to Serum Ferritin a Cross-sectional Study at Najaf Governorate http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2970 <p>depression is a common psychiatric disorder that leads to disability and increases morbidity and mortality, and iron deficiency is a common nutritional disorder in general population that lead to change in brain function and affecting the quality of life. Methodology; a cross-sectional study that was conducted at Iraq Al-Najaf governorate, patient with depression was (51), and control group was (95), both were assessed by Beck depressive inventory Arabic version for the scoring of depressive symptoms, for both group serum ferritin was evaluated from fasting blood sample. Result; The age of participants (mean=36.25 years), the male was (55) while the female (91), of them (88) were married, there is significant differences between groups in age group (36-45) years and female gender while not to another variable. serum ferritin was significantly deferent with P-value (0.001). Conclusion; there is a strong relationship between the level of serum ferritin and depression with inverse correlation.</p> Ashwan Abdulzahra Hashim Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2970 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histological Evaluation the effectiveness of Aloe Vera oral gel Application on Gingiva Subjected to Dental Light –emitting Diodes http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2972 <p>Background: Aloe Vera (AV) is a medical plant used in dentistry with multiple uses proved as antiseptic, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory and very good in building the immune system with a natural compound that has no side effect, for that reason we use it as protective layer from the heat that generated from LED light cure during the filling or cementation procedure or others. Materials and method: Thirty-five male New Zealand rabbits of weight 1.5 –2kg were used in this study; they were divided into three groups. First group (5 rabbits) the gingiva of upper incisors is not exposed to dental LED light cure (control group), Second group (15 rabbits) which the cervical gingiva of upper incisors which is separated from light source by double transparent celluloid strips, cervical gingiva is exposed to LED curing light 6 seconds three times with 20 seconds interval. Third group (15 rabbits) same as 2nd group but gingiva covered by Aloe Vera oral gel. Animals’ scarifications were done at (0 day) immediately after exposure to curing light ,3 days,7 days healing intervals. Routine processing and sectioning technique was performed for histological evaluation. Results: Histological findings indicated variation in epithelial thickness, irregularity in basal cells layer and number of blood vessels of 2nd &amp; 3rd experimental groups from 1st control group. The highest mean values of all measured Histomorphometrical parameters were observed in 2nd group 3 days after dental LED light cure exposure. Conclusion: Aloe Vera oral gel may be used on gingiva as a protective layer to decrease side effects of LED light cure on gingiva.</p> Noor Abdulkareem Razouki1, Rawaa Abdul-Jabbar Mahmood1 , Hadeel Ali Mahdi 2, Mustafa Gheni Taher3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2972 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Concordance Study between Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay and Conventional Culture-based Methods for Detection of Fusobacterium necrophorum http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2975 <p>Foot rot duo to Fusobacterium necrophorum is an important clinical economic disease in ovine, in order to inform identification and antibiotics selection, Conventional culture-based method and Polymerase chain reaction assays had been proposed to provide a good inter-rater reliability between these techniques, this study was aimed to differentiate the accuracy of conventional culture-based method and PCR technique for identification of Fusobacterium necrophorum in an ovine foot rot. Method: The current study was conducted on three farms of Kerbala governorate (AL-husseinyia, Al-Hurr and Ain Al-tmor cities) during the period from October 2017 to April 2018, pathological swab samples of the interdigital region of affected (n= 40) sheep and (n=40) goat were enrolled in this study, after the collection of swabs, the samples were divided into two partitions, each swab of the first partition was immediately collected into lighten tube containing 5 mL of thioglycollate broth enriched with 0.5% ground sheep and was transmitted to the laboratory for conventional culture-based method and the another partition of swabs was sealed with other cooled tubes containing 5 mL of thioglycollate broth enriched with 0.5% ground sheep for the laboratory of molecular investigations. Results: Fusobacterium necrophorum was identified in the pathological samples by the two following depended assays: and (46) swabs were positive by conventional culture-based method and (44) swabs were positive with PCR assay, Cohen’s kappa coefficient revealed P value for conventional culture-based methods vs. PCR assay of 0.056 and the current study was demonstrated a highly identification rates of Fusobacterium necrophorum in conventional culture-based methods rather than PCR assay. Conclusions: Current study documented conventional culture-based method and PCR assays were facilitate the identification of Fusobacterium necrophorum in case of presumed ovine foot rot, it also concluded that molecular assays should be depended in confirmatory detection of F. necrophorum in affected animals.</p> Muhammed Asaad Saleh 1, Haider Ali Muhammed2 and Adil Ateyah Alnasrawi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2975 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Do Attendances to the Medico-legal Directorate in Baghdad Referred as Alive Police Cases Have HIV Infection? http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2978 <p>Background: This is the first study in Iraq that was carried on alive police cases referred to be examined in the medico-legal directorate (M.L.D.) of Baghdad such as victims of violence and sexual assaults for HIV infection. Reaching subgroups of population that have risky behavior for HIV infection is difficult for the time being in our community due to reasons related to culture, religion &amp;security state Objectives: To find the prevalence of HIV infection among the attendance to the M.L.D. of Baghdad referred to as alive police cases. Method: This study had involved (76) cases (45) were males and (31) females among various alive police cases that referred to M.L.D. of Baghdad during the period from 1\1\2011 till 31\10\2011. A written agreement had been taken from all involved individuals. Blood samples were taken, centrifuged, deeply freezed, and tested in specialized HIV laboratory using ELYZA technique EIA Test Kit Laboratories Tes Forsight Acon USA lot; 1105010. Results: All of the (76) tested samples were negative for HIV infection. Conclusion: The results of this study supported the general impression that Iraq considered as a low prevalence country to HIV infection, even in high risk groups.</p> Nabeel Ghazi Hashim Al-Khateeb1, Wisam Shakir Salman2, Munjid Rezali3 , Muthana A.Jaber Abdullah4, Aysar Sakin Abdulfattah5, Khalid Majeed Lafta6, Khalid Majeed Lafta, Ban Sabeeh Alwan7 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2978 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Copper and Lead in Samples of Fungicides and Insecticides in Diyala Governorate http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2980 <p>This investigation included the estimation of heavy metals (copper, Cu and lead, Pb) in four types of pesticides that were been selected randomly from commercial markets in the Governorate of Diyala. Two types of insecticides (Lambada Cyhalothrin 5% EC and Zoro Super) and two types of fungicides (Folicur and Goldtanol 50% SL) were tested. The results showed that the highest concentration of lead was found in the insecticide Lambada Cyhalothrin 5% EC (5.621 Mg. l?¹), while the lowest value was recorded in the fungicide Folicur (0.147 Mg. l?¹). The highest concentration recorded for copper was found in the fungicide Goldtanol 50% SL (28.323 Mg. l?¹) whereas a much lower value was found in the pesticide Lambada Cyhalothrin 5% EC (5.995 Mg. l?¹). When a search of pesticides banned in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) was performed it was found that the insecticide Lambada Cyhalothrin 5% EC is among the banned pesticides.</p> Zeina Gany Fadeel1, Suaad k.Abd-Alwahab1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2980 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Study and Evaluation of Iraqi Fennel Seed Oil as Antibacterial of Urinary Tract Infection http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2982 <p>Objective : This study were designed by investigation of active compounds of the fennel seeds in Iraqi plant and determined the terpenes compounds by gas chromatography analysis and finally shown the biological activity of the volatile oil of fennel seeds upon different pathogenic bacteria which isolated from patients suffered from urinary tract infection . Methods: in this study we used different methods and different solvent for extract the active compounds such as clavenger for volatile oil , decoction and Soxhlet for main other active compounds . Results : The results of this study had shown that bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Streptococcus spp and Salmonella spp. were more resistant to The volatile oil of fennel seed than bacteria such as., Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli . five compounds were identified from the n-hexane extract of volatile oil of fennel seeds .Anethole was in maximum content (43.13 %) in retention time 13.762, followed by Estragole (40.84 %) in retention time 12.062 , , 1,6, octadien-3-ol ,3,7-dimethyl (3.71%) in retention time 9.937 , l-fenchone compounds (3.49%) in retention time 9.645 and the minimum one is d-limonene (1.28%) in retention time 8.435 .</p> Baydaa H. Abdullah1, Ibrahim S. Abbas, Thamer Mouhi Jasiem2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2982 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection Antimicrobial Suscep Tibility ?atterns of Bacterial Species Isolated from Burns and Wounds Infections in Basrah Hospitals http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2985 <p>Burn and wound infe?tion is ?ne of the m?st frequent s?ri?us sicknesses c?used by pathogen, chiefly b? b?th gr?m p?sitive ?nd gr?m neg?tive b?cteri?.This study was carried out to identify 25 bacteria isolated from burns and wounds surgical belong to the species : (Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus lentus ,Staphylococcus intermedius,Staphylococcus lugdunensis,Pseudomonas aeruginosa ,Pseudomonas oryzihabitans,Pantoea spp., E.coli ,Rhizobium radiobacter,Ochrobactrum anthropic,Burkholdria cepacia,Sphingomonas pauci- mobilis,Klebsiella pneumoniae,Aeromonas sobria.. Staphylococcus 9(36%) was the most dominant organism,followed by Pseudomonas 6(24%).Antibacterial activity of some antibiotics was investigated against bacterial isolates . the data demonstrate the most commoly isolated from burns and wounds surgical were Staphylococcus followed by Pseudomonas .All b?ct?rial is?l?tes revealed high r?sist?nce t? antibiotics were us?d, Whereas Staphylococcus aureus revealed resistance for three antibiotic: Amikacin ,Nitazo- xanide,Neomycin . Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed resistance for four antibiotic: Neomycin,Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, Cepha- lothin ,Cefotaxime. Pantoea spp revealed resistance for five antibiotic: Neomycin,Trimethoprime,Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, Cephalothin ,Cefotaxime . E.coli revealed resistance for four antibiotic: Neomycin ,Trimethoprime,Amikacin,Cephalothin.</p> Gh?s?on Al-K?n?any Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2985 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation Protective Role of Salvia officinalis Silver Nanoparticles Against Toxic Effect of Bisphenol a in Female Rats http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2986 <p>Bisphenol A ( BPA ) is chemical compound found in the environment and used in the manufacturing of plastic , which known as deleterious part of different body parts . Salvia officinalis ( SO ) which is perennial round shrub in the family of Labiatae /Lamiaceae. It’s has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects . The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective role of SO as nanoparticles against harmful effect of BPA in female rats . Eighteen adult female rats were used and divided equally and randomly into three groups as following : first group received DMSO orally and served as control group while second and third groups were gavaged either with BPA alone or in combination with SOSNP respectively , all the treatments extend 30 days . The result revealed harm effect of BPA by significantly increase the level of estrogen , AST, ALT , ALP , urea and creatinine with significantly reduction in the FSH and LH . SOSNPs show ameliorative effect on all above parameters .</p> Hussein Abdulmaged Raheem1, Rana Fadhil Mousa2, Ayyed Hameed Hassan2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2986 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the Needs among Families of Martyrs of Terror Victims in Al Furat Al awsat Governorates / Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2987 <p>Background: Terrorism is a global phenomenon that does not concern religion without religion, sex without sex, land without land or color without color. Who ever monitors the current world situation finds terrorism in various countries of the world and in many. Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive design study was carried out among families of martyrs of terror victims the period from 31th July 2018 to 29th July 2019. The sample of the study was non-probability " convenient sample " (n=550) of Families Martyrs of Terror Victims in Al Furat Al awsat Governorates. Data are collected Through the use of the questionnaire instrument. Data were analyzed through the application of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Results: The results of the present study show that the the highest percentage of families refers that they resident in city center (25.6%). most of these families expressed an accepted level of such needs (62.6%) and (27.6%) of them expressed an insufficient level of administrative needs. Conclusion: the study concludes that the Most of martyrs’ families expressed moderate level of psychological needs. The majority of these families expressed a lack of support for their social needs.Most of these families have poor monthly income which in turn increase their financial needs. Conclusions: the Most of martyrs’ families expressed moderate level of psychological needs. The majority of these families expressed a lack of support for their social needs.Most of these families have poor monthly income which in turn increase their financial needs. A small proportion rated the healthcare services they receive as sufficient.Most of these families rated the legal and administrative services as acceptable.Most of these families rated the overall services as insufficient.</p> Dalal Z. H.1, Hussein J.M2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2987 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Psychological, Mental and Physical Effects of Defamation Crimes and Their Severity on the Health of the Iraqi Individual http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2988 <p>One of the most serious diseases that affect human health, psychological, mental and physical life is the defamation crimes in the society that have a relationship that affects the individual and directly affects the emotions and feelings and the human mind and kill him and affect human behavior in general. The individual by the press and its impact turns to God acting unconsciously and concentrate in attaining the behavior that he did without realizing the magnitude of the damage caused. Goals of search: Psychological, mental, health and physical effects and their severity on human health. Diseases that are dangerous to human mental, physical and mental health in Iraqi society. Prohibitions of publishing defamation crimes in the press that are related to human mental, mental and physical health in Iraqi law. The research community of (100) The sample was adopted at the University of Baghdad (College of Information) as a model has been the research sample (100) of the total research community. The social survey, interview, questionnaire and statistical methods were used.</p> Ammar Saleem Abid Hamza1, Noori Saadoon Abdulla2, Thaaer Ahmed Hassoon3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2988 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 New Diaz Coupling Reaction, Cloud Point Extraction Spectrophotometric Determination of Sulphadimidine Soudium in Pure form and Pharmacetical Preparation with Salicylic Acid as the Coupling Reaction http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2989 <p>In this research we study two simple methods, rapid of use spectrophotometric determination of sulphadimadine sodium (SDMS). The fi rst method based on diazotization of drug by sodium nitrite at 5Cº followed by coupling with Salicylic Acid in basic medium to form yellow color. The product was measured at 453 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of (1-16) ?g?ml-1 . Sandell’s sensitivity was 0.07575 ?g?cm-1, the detection limit was 0.3992 ?g?ml-1, and the limit of Quantitation was 1.07879?g?ml-1. The second method was used cloud point extraction (CPE) with used Triton X-114 as surfactant. Beer’s law obeyed in the range of concentration was (1-12) ?g?ml-1. Sandell’s sensitivity was 0.04 ?g?cm-1, the detection limit was 0.0259 ?g?ml-1, and the limit of quantitation was 0.029563 ?g?ml-1. All variables were study including of the reagent concentration, reaction time. The composition of product (1:1). The methods were effectively useful to the determination of SDMS in pharmaceutical dose form, and the attained results were in good agreement with the offi cial and other methods in literature .No interference was observed from the commonly encountered additives and recipients.</p> Esraa Amer Kadhim 1, Saadiyah A. Dhahir2, Muna S. Sando2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2989 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Relationship of Refereeing Performance of the Leading Personality and Thyroxin Hormone Level for Football Referees (First Division) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2990 <p>Refereeing has an important part in the dictionary of football game, developing the referees’ abilities and prepare them in a suitable way with the development of the nature of competition between the teams in order to enhance their abilities to make the right decisions that achieve the justice. Thus, the referee and player are the same, both of them needs to the correct preparation in physical, dynamic, knowledge and mental aspects as well as other important personal characteristics such as: leading ability, self-confidence, emotional balance… etc., undoubtedly, refereeing has an essential role in developing football, so when the referees’ level increase that leads to increasing the level of competition. The value of the present research lies in identifying the relationship between refereeing performance, the leading personality and thyroxin hormone level for football referees (First Division), which may be contribute in the performance of referees in a stadium so through these things, referee’s level can be predicted as it achieves high results in these variables. The researchers used the descriptive method of correlation and predictive relationships because of its appropriate to the problem of referees (first division), for the academic year 2018, their number is (15) referees.</p> Ali Mahdi Hassan1, Ali Hussein Ali2, Hayder Naji Habash Alshawi3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2990 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Topical Simvastatin Therapy on Patients with Psoriasis http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2998 <p>Objective: Study the effect of simvastatin ointment on tissue expression of inflammatory mediators associated with pathogenesis of Psoriasis such as TNF-?, , IL-6 and ICAM-1. Background: Psoriasis is a common and complex inflammatory disease, which was described as the chronic systemic T-cell-mediated inflammatory condition characterized by the skin and joint manifestation. The patients with psoriasis are usually presented with a white-silvery scaly lesion covering various parts of the body. In psoriatic lesions, epidermal Keratinocytes produce a variety of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-?, IL-6, ICAM-1 will stimulate the abnormal proliferation which will cause the psoriasis characteristics to appear. Simvastatin is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that acts by competitive, reversible inhibition of the HMG-CoA, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. Materials and Method: The study has been carried out on 44 patients suffering from mild to moderate chronic plaque psoriasis; patients with plaque psoriasis will be randomly divided into two groups, the first group was the Placebo group (n 22) whose patients have directed to have placebo plus topical steroid (Dermosalic ointment) ® ( Betamethasone dipropionate 0.5 mg /g and salicylic acid 30 mg /g) two times for a period of 8 weeks. The second group was the Simvastatin group (n-22) whose patients have been directed to have Simvastatin ointment 5% two times per day in addition to (Dermosalic ointment)® ( Betamethasone dipropionate 0.5 mg /g and salicylic acid 30 mg /g) for a period of 8 weeks. Before and after the eight weeks; The skin biopsy samples have been taken from patients in the two groups at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment used to measure concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6, and ICAM-1. Conclusion: The present study indicated the fact that Simvastatin ointment plus topical steroid improvement of psoriasis by reduce concentration of inflammatory mediators.</p> Sundus Hakim Abd1, Sarmad Nory AL-Dujialy2, Haider A. AL-Sabak3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/2998 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Multiplex PCR for detection of the predominant diarrheacausing protozoa (Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Cryptosporidium parvum) in fecal samples of cattle from Babylon Province, Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3000 <p>The work, here, was focused on the detection of the predominant diarrhea-causing protozoa (Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Cryptosporidium parvum) in fecal samples of cattle from Babylon province, Iraq. Fifty fecal samples from 50 cattle were collected and processed using a specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) technique that employed the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSrRNA) gene as a molecular target. Using specific primers for each protozoan, the results showed positive identification of the E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and C. parvum in 38 (76%), 22 (44%), and 12 (24%), respectively, of the fecal samples. The data from the current investigation identify the presence of the E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and C. parvum in the fecal samples collected from cattle located in Babylon province, Iraq.</p> Nawras Abdul Bari Madlol 1, Qassim Jawad Ameer 2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3000 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Breast Cancer Patients and Some Variables in Babylon Province http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3001 <p>This study included 100 women with breast cancer in Babylon province for six months at Morjan Teaching Hospital in the Department of Oncology The study showed that the most age group with breast cancer in the age group of 40 to 49 years, where they accounted for 25% of the proportions of patients It was also found in the study that the most affected women lived in the center of the city (Urban Area), where they accounted for 60% of the total patient, Most of them were housewives (not working outside the home), with 77%,And 79% of them were first infected with the disease, And 45% of them had a malignant type of tumor</p> Zainab Kareem Al-Kazazz 1, Zainab Naser Nabat1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3001 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge about Obstetric Warning Signs during Pregnancy among Mothers Attending the Primary Health Care Centers in Hilla City http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3002 <p>Pregnancy is the most attractive stage in a woman’s life. Signs of risk of pregnancy include bleeding, fluid leakage from the vagina, unusual abdominal pain, cramping, pelvic pressure, headaches or blurred vision, marked swelling in the hands and face, burning urination, foul odors, chills or fever, reduced fetal movements and others with all those the mother need to knowledgeable. A descriptive (cross-sectional) design study was conducted in Al.Hilla city from the period1st September/2018-13thJuly/2019, to assess the knowledge toward the obstetric warning signs during pregnancy and to find out the relationship between the knowledge of the study sample and their demographic characteristics with obstetrical history). The sample of the study was non- probability (convenient sample)consist of(250)pregnant women. Data was collected through the use of interview technique, each participant needs(25-30)minutes to complete the form. The questionnaire was validated through a committee of(19)experts. A pilot study was conducted to determine the reliability of the instrument. The data were analyzed using statistical and descriptive data analysis methods carried out by(SPSSversion20). The results of the present study shows that the overall knowledge assessment of the pregnant women were good responses regarding warning signs during pregnancy.</p> Zainab Ali Hussein Al-Ali1, Salma Kadhum2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3002 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 EEG Changes in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3003 <p>Background: Traditional multichannel EEG is an integral part of the evaluation of neonates diagnosed with neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). HIE is well-defined as the clinical appearance of reduced neonatal brain function after asphyxia due to perinatal and/or an antenatal adverse incident. It is prevalence ranging from 1 to 8 per 1000 worldwide. Objectives: To evaluate EEG changes in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Method: A cross sectional study conducted from Aug. 2018 till June 2019. The patient included ,term neonate with gestational age from (37 to 42 weeks) admitted in Neonatal Care Unit(NCU) in Babylon teaching hospital for maternity and children , with diagnosis of hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy(HIE ) . with total number of 47 were enrolled in the study. Full assessment, including: clinical assessment (history and full examination) and electrophysiological (EEG) were done to all Patients. First EEG was done at age ranged from (2 to 7 days) while second EEG was done at age ranged from (21 to 28 days). Result: In this study, first EEG showed that 8 (17.02%) normal EEG and 39 (82.9%) abnormal EEG results, while second EEG was shown that 15 (31.9%) normal EEG, 17 patients get improvement and 7 get worse. This study was shown that, there are a strong significant statistical deference between the EEG background activity in the first week and developmental mile stone, stage of HIE, neurological examination, age of patients and seizure with p value less than 0.05. Conclusion: EEG of neonates with HIE provides early prognostic and objective information.</p> Rand Jassim Mohammed Alwatefi1, Farah Nabil Abbas2, Adnan Handhil Aljothery3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3003 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge Attitudes and Barriers of Undergraduate Medical Students towards Research in University of Babylon http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3004 <p>Students who did not participate in this activity during their training that might negatively affect their understanding of the importance of research in their future careers. Objective of the study: To evaluate the attitude and knowledge and barriers of a sample of Iraqi medical undergraduate students. Methodology: Across sectional study was done using a self-administered pretested questionnaire to measure the knowledge, barriers and attitudes of students toward research. Results: Two hundred eight medical students were studied in the University of Babylon. The female to male ratio was 2:1. Regarding barriers , the study revealed that( 55.3% )of the students had efficient internet. This study explained that the skill of English language writing is very low. Only one-fourth of the students were exposed to the encouragement to participate in academic research and 8.7% of the students mentioned that there was available chance for them to conduct research. Only 15.8% agreed that they can access scientific journals through university library while 3.4% of study group knew that there are government financial support toward research, 68.2% of the students said that there are no enough training in research. Regarding the attitude 73.3% of the participants had positive attitudes. The high majority of the students (85%) believed that research is highly important for their medical practice.</p> Nadia H. Sahib1, Hasan Alwan Baiee2, Hadi Mohammad Ali Al mosawi2, Zaid Amjed Al-husseini3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3004 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Some Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Children with Thalassemia in City of Karbala http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3007 <p>This research including the study of some hematological and biochemical changes in children suffering thalassemia in the province of Karbala. To achieve this aim 50 samples was arranged in two groups first group include 40 patient with thalassemia male and female attending Imam Hussein medical city and second group include 10 healthy children as control. The results appear decrease in concentration of packed cell volume (PCV), Red Blood cell count and Hb. Also the results appear decrease in biochemical parameters represented by (GOT) and (GPT). While there is increase in WBC count in patients as compared with control. The result also shown that thalassemia mostly occurs in male than in female.</p> Wafaa S.H. AL–Nasrawi 1, Taghreed A. Najm2 , Alyaa A. Kadhum3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3007 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study in Psychological Burning among Football Referees And Football Referees of First Class Halls in Southern Zone in Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3009 <p>The research aimed to know about differences in the phenomenon of psychological burning among football referees and football referees of first class halls in southern zone. The researchers assumed that there are differences with moral guidance in the phenomenon of psychological burning among football referees and football referees of first class halls in southern zone. The researchers had mentioned to the theoretical studies that contained of multiple researches related to the topic of the research. The researchers used the describing method by principle of comparative studies due to is suitable for the problem of the research, The research sample was contained from (28) referees divided onto (14) football referees and (14) referees of first class halls after implementing measure of psychological burning on a sample of research the researchers did to find differences between the two groups by using the law of ( T ) for the independent samples , After that theses results has been previewed and analysis and discussed so the researchers reached to conclusions the most important of the is that there are no any moral differences between the groups of football referees and football referees of first class halls in southern zone.</p> Ahmed Sa’ad Abdul Razak 1 , Ali Hussein Ali 1, Anmar Atshan Khargan2 , Asmaa Sattar Khudhair2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3009 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Drug Addiction and the Most Important Diseases that affect Human Mental, Mental and Physical Health in Iraqi Society http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3010 <p>First: Problem and Importance of search The effects of psychological, health, mental and physical are serious diseases that affect the individual drug user was not the drug of this age has been known by man since ancient times and fought ancient societies medically, culturally, socially and religiously Human life from the deterioration of his health and his illnesses complex mental health, mental and physical Second: Goals of search Drug addiction and the most important diseases that affect human mental, mental and physical health in Iraqi society. Third: Society and sample of search The study sample was selected on two middle schools in Al-Hilla city (Imam Ali School for Boys and Bint Al-Huda School for Girls). 100) Researched and used the method of social survey method intentional sample and questionnaire, interview, observation, participation and statistical methods and hypotheses and the most important treatments for addicts are psychological, health, mental, physical and social treatment.</p> Ammar Saleem Abid Hamza1, Fatima Abid Ali2, Thaaer Ahmed Hassoon3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3010 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Human biotoxic, Human Reproduction Effects and Biomarkers to Assess the Health of the Ecosystem by Estimate the Ratios of Heavy Elements http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3012 <p>This study was conducted to investigate the concentration of some heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) in some types of frozen and canned fish in Diwaniyah. Five types of fish were widely available (Stromateus Sp., Parastromateus niger, Labeo rohita , Sardina pilchardus ). And the number of replicates of one species, where the number of fish during the study period 20 fish. The results obtained showed a difference in results and the concentrations of the heavy elements above were measured by ppm (0,231-13,18 / 0.012-0,915 / 0.028-0,0234 / 0,400-2,161 / 0.021-0,141) for Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb respectively. The above results showed the increase in concentrations of heavy metals compared to previous studies, as well as their comparison with global and local determinants of these elements. The concentrations of heavy elements in the tissues of the muscles and muscles of theStromateus Sp fish (0.30, 0.89, 0.89, 0.89, -0.59 / ND / 0.100) for CR, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb respectively. But in gils and frozen erythematic muscles were (0.2 / 0.473 - 0.019 / 0.043 - 0.053 / 0.115 - 1.589 / 0.929 - ND / 0.100) for Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb respectively.</p> Haider Mashkoor Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3012 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histological Study of the Adrenal Gland of the Adult Female Rabbit (Orycotolagus Cuniculus) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3013 <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the female rabbit adrenal gland by light microscopic observations. For this purpose, ten adrenals were collected from five adult female rabbits. The tissues were processed for light microscopy. The weight of rabbit gave mean values of 2.04k g and the mean values of long axis of left adrenal gland 15.46mm and the diameter of right gave mean values 11.30mm. The adrenal glands sit at the top of the kidneys,one on each side of the body, and have an inner core (known as the medulla) surrounded by an outer shell (known as the cortex). The adrenal cortex consists of three anatomic zones: the outer zona glomerulosa,; the intermediate zona fasciculata, which secretes cortisol; and the inner zona reticularis. The adrenal medulla, lying in the center of the adrenal gland, is functionally related to the sympathetic nervous system and secretes the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in response to stress.</p> Faiza Jabar Joda1, Ahmed obaid Hossain2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3013 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Physical Exercises According to Deny Foot to Improve Some Skillful and Muscular Abilities among Fencing Young Players http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3015 <p>The research problem is about the lack of previous studies concerning with deny foot for feet through using the modern technological devices that record and save the quantities of the feet strength, by using Bluetooth. The researchers noted weakness in some muscle abilities, and reduce the level of physical performance for fencing players. This study aims at preparing exercises according to Deny Foot, which was put in the feet of the players, in order to improve some skillful and muscular abilities among fencing young players as well as to recognize the effect of these exercises on improving some skillful and muscular abilities among fencing young players. The researchers used the experimental method with the experimental design of two research groups (Equivalence), first experimental group and second experimental group. The research community of fencing competition has identified by choosing (10) players of Al-Jaish Sports Club for young people under the age of 17-18 years. The special exercises were applied for eight weeks and by three exercises units per week, the researchers used the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The most important conclusions which the researchers reached that physical exercise have positively influenced on the development of some muscular abilities and skills for young fencing players. The researchers recommend the importance of investing modern devices and players in scientific colleges or specialized institutes and use them to provide a clear vision and information about the place and timelines.</p> Muna Ihsan Muhammad Baqr1, Ali Naeem Ajeel2, Anmar Atshan Khargan3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3015 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Primary School Teachers' Knowledge Towards Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Pupils In Mosul City http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3016 <p>Background: Teachers’ knowledge towards childhood mental health disorders at schools located in regions which were exposed to armed conflict, traumatic events and wars should be given the highest priority, not only for pupils’ mental health, but also as an important perspective for education. Therefore, teachers' knowledge must be adequately assessed about common childhood mental health disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objectives: The study aimed to assess teachers' knowledge towards post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among pupils at primary schools in Mosul city. Materials and Method: A descriptive study was conducted for the period from 1st December 2018 to 30th May 2019. The study included (520) primary schools inside Mosul which is the second largest city in Iraq. A probability sampling (simple random technique) was used, the sample consisted of (60) teachers who were teaching in primary schools inside Mosul city. Data were collected through the utilization of constructed questionnaire after validity and reliability of it were estimated. Reliability of the questionnaire was estimated through a pilot study and the validity was determined through(15) experts related to the field of study. All data were collected by means of interview technique. Data were analyzed through use of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis procedures using SPSS Version-23. Results: The findings of current study indicates that the level of teachers’ knowledge towards post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was low. Conclusion: The study concludes that there is a considerable lack in teachers' knowledge in regard to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).</p> Nawaf Mohammed Dhahir1*, and Saja Hashem Mohammed2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3016 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Predictors of Bone Mass Density in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3018 <p>Background and Aim: The low bone mass as presented as osteopenia and osteoporosis represent example of the morbidities that occur in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Predictors of bone mass density include osteopenia and osteoporosis. There is little data from Iraq on the relation between COPD and low bone mass. This study aimed to assess predictors of bone mass density in COPD patients attending Merjan Medical City. Patients and Methods: The study was performed on patients with COPD patients seen at the Merjan Medical City in the period between January 2018 and June 2019. The study included taking history with physical examination in addition to the needed investigation which included spirometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan, osteopenia was defined if the T score was -&lt;1 to &lt;-2.5 and osteoporosis of &lt;-2.5 as according to the WHO guidelines. Results: The study involved 122 patients with COPD, average age was 61.52±10.01, males were 107 (88.52%) and females were 15 (11.48%), 22 patients (18.03%) had normal bone mass while the remaining 100 (81.97%) had with low bone mass, 64 (52.46%) were osteoporotic and 36 patients (29.51%) had osteopenia. There was also significant relation between T score and FEV1, (P value= 0.000), significant relation between T score and smoking (P value 0.000), in addition there was significant relation between pack year and severity of airways obstruction as assessed by pulmonary function test (P value 0.000). Conclusions: Our study shows that patients with low bone mass that presented as osteopenia and osteoporosis form high percentage in patients with COPD and greatly related to disease severity and amount of smoking.</p> Ahmed Hussein Jasim1, Amjed H. Abbas2, Mohanned Mahmood Abbas3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3018 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Quality Assessment of Commercial Fruit Juices and Health Hazards in Slemani City- Kurdistan Region/ Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3020 <p>Fruit juices are especially valued in the human diet as these contain micronutrients, fiber, potassium, vitamin C, which work as antioxidants within the body as well as bio-functional components. The goal of this study is to determine the levels of Iron Fe, Zinc Zn, Magnesium Mg, Sodium Na, Potassium K, Calcium Ca and heavy metal manganese Mn, mercury Hg, Lead Pb as fruit juice consumed largely and will be in raise daily. Sixty-nine samples of different fruit juice were bought from retail markets in Sulaimani city, were analyzed using wet methods. The results obtained showed the ranges of the metals detected in all the of fruit juice were; Iron Fe (0-2), Zinc Zn (0 ), Manganese Mn (0), magnesium Mg (0-0.6), Sodium Na (0-22.9), Potassium K (0-19.2), Calcium Ca (0-29) and heavy metal mercury Hg (0-0.25), Lead Pb (0-4) mg/L. The mean value of Iron Fe, Magnesium Mg, Sodium Na, Potassium K, Calcium Ca and heavy metal mercury Hg, Lead Pb 0.421 , 0.16 , 4.188 , 3.348 , 7.362 ,0.029 , 0.578mg/L) respectively, Zinc and Manganese were not detected in any samples,some of the samples have nutrient value for sodium, potassium and calcium.</p> Kawa Khwarahm Hamafarj 1, Kadamkheer Tawfiq Aziz 2, Attallah Omar Qasem3, Halgord Ali M. Farag4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3020 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Questionnaire-Based Survey Assessment of Iraqi Dentists Using Repair Versus Replacement of Defective Composite Restoration http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3022 <p>Tooth restoration one of the most common procedures in dental practice. The replacement of the entire restoration leads to loss of tooth structure and increase risk of pulp injury; replacement is also time consuming and costly. According to the minimally invasive approach when minimal defects, repair is the better choice than the total replacement of the restoration. This study aims to evaluate repair rating versus replacement treatment procedure for defective composite fillings among Iraqi dentists. Material and methodology: A questionnaire survey were designed and distributed to 184 post-graduate dentists in Iraq. The inquiry pertained general information; including their clinical experience in years, their preference in terms of direct composite restoration, repair or replacement of old restorations, whether they taught the indications for repair, and the selection type of composite for repair. Result of 200 questioner’s disrepute, 184 questionnaires were completed and collected. The data revealed that the respondents with 1-5, 6-15 and16-25 years of experience were 62 (33.7%), 75 (40.8%), and 47(25.5%) of total respondents, respectively. The total 174 dentists (94.6%) prefer using tooth-colored restorations and 10 (5.4%) dislike this approach. Result clearly indicate that most of the dentists choose replacement for any fractured or discolored restorations. The data showed that 59.2% of dentist are not familiar with repair, and 40.8% dentists are familiar. The result revealed that 82.1% the dentists were not trained on repair during their undergraduate study. Generally, they had no ideal standard to replace or repair depending on their clinical experience. Therefore, clear criteria and guidelines for replacing and repairing should be developed and followed in post-graduate courses.</p> Huda M. Al-Badri1, Zainab Mahmood Mansi1, Raghad A. Alhashimi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3022 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the Level of Spiritualty among the Patients with Major Depressive Disorder in Sulaimani City http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3024 <p>Background: Major depressive disorder has been associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Many researchers have been sought complex association between depressions with spirituality. The levels of severity of such factor can play role in the causes, recovery and predictor of depression. Objectives: The main objective of this study is to assess the levels of spirituality. Method: A quantitative descriptive design, conducted at psychiatric clinic in Ali Kamal medical consultation center in Sulaimani City. A non-probability, convenient sampling was recruited of 150 patients with major depressive disorder attending the psychiatric clinic. The data were collected from December, 21st, 2017 to April 1st, 2018 by the researcher of current study through the utilization of structured Face-to-Face interview guided by the questionnaire. Result: The result shows that the patients with major depressive disorder experience high spirituality value. Conclusions: The study conclude that high spirituality value on its own the strongest significant factor may represents emotional source and possibly used to handle or cope with depressed mood by the patients.</p> Taha Ahmad Faraj*1, Professor Dr. Salwa Shakir Muhsin 2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3024 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Diagnosis of Some Dermatophytes Using Nitrogen Base Tracking Technique (Scquence) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3025 <p>A total of, 162 Samples of those infects with dermatophytes at lmam Hussein Teaching Hospital in Nasiryah city for the purpose of diagnosing some samples in a sequential manner , The samples included skin skimmers, nail clippers, hair pieces, Isolation and diagnosis of samples was carried out by conventional methods and then confirmed the diagnosis in a way that follows the nitrogen bases, where 10 samples were diagnosed and recorded in the gene bank , Trichophyton was the more frequent , than Epidermophyton ,A number of Candidia yeasts were also diagnosed in the traditional methods of appearance , It was a ratio of T. rubrum (28%) than T. interdigitale (24%), than T. mentagrophytes (21%), and also E. floccosum in the rate of (25%) , There are also ratios for the emergence of types of yeasts as a proportion C. albicans (32%) , Than C. parapsilosis (25%) , Than C. kruzi (22%) , and also C. dubllirensis in the rate of (19%) , Thes samples were collected from different ages and from both sexes .</p> Saba kadhim Naser1, Meethaq Staar Abood2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3025 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nursing Student’s Satisfaction of Nursing Program in the Euphrates http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3026 <p>“In higher education, student satisfaction has been viewed as an indicator of program success, and students with higher satisfaction levels progress well in their intellectual and social development”the nursing student satisfaction has not been sufficiently studiedin the world. Identifying which factorsaffect student satisfaction and expectations is valuable to educators seeking to improve the quality of program outcomes. Cross-sectional survey study of senior nursing students in a BSN program was conducted during Oct 2016- April 2017.at colleges of middle Euphrates, Iraq. (200) senior nursing students in a BSN program from (4) colleges enrolled in the study selected randomly from the last stage of nursing colleges in middle Euphrates. Instruments were developed and used in order to collect data through self-administration of a questionnaire regarding the study, which analyzed by using SPSS, version 23.0. Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations) were used for demographic questions and for each of the subscales organized by setting. The study results showed highly scaled issue from the participants regarding nursing program satisfaction. college’s recourses had the corner stone of applying nursing education program for nursing students, just (2) items had the high mean of scale (3.06 and 3.22). Thestudy found that all domains were enhancing studentsatisfaction with their nursing education program.</p> Dr. Hussein Jassim Mohammed1, R.N Kadhim Hussein Jassim2, Salah Saeed3, Mohammed Abass4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3026 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship Between Nasal Septum Deviation angle and it is Effect on Maxillary Sinus Volume in Sulaimani Population http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3027 <p>Aim of this study: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between nasal septal deviation and the volume of Maxillary sinus in adult population. To analyze the effect of nasal septal deviation on the volume of maxillary sinus. Maxillary sinuses are two spaces, which are filled with air, located in the maxillary bone and can be in various sizes and shapes. Their walls are thin. The apex of the sinuses can extend into the zygomatic process and can occupy the zygomatic bone. We could not demonstrate a statistically significant difference between Groups I–III and Groups II–III, and Group I–II in contra lateral deviation the maxillary sinus volume as the difference were found to be non-significant statistically (p = 0.965 and p = 0.985, and p=0.994respectively). the mean of (contra lateral side)’s MSV equals to (19.8350) and standard deviation equals to (6.98693) and also the mean of (lateral side)’s MSV equals to (19.5698) and standard deviation equals to (7.69666). Thus, the mean of (contra lateral) for MSV is greater than the mean of (lateral) for MSV. It means that (deviated side) were lower MSV than (contra lateral side) for MSV.</p> Lamia alnaqib1, Nasir abdul alla2, Shara Mustafa haji karem3, Salah Qadir Mahmood4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3027 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of the vaginal microflora in Pregnant and nonpregnant women using culture-independent method http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3036 <p>Background: Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)is a disorder characterized by alterations of the vaginal flora with acquisition of diverse communities of anaerobic and facultative bacteria and depletion of the usually dominant lactobacilli. Objective: To conduct and characterize the main bacterial players in BV affected pregnant and non- pregnant women. Method: The BV work included collecting vaginal swabs from 158 women (18-45) years old.The samples were subjected in a laboratory to Amsel’s clinical criteria (ACC) and Nugent score system (NSS). The clinical diagnosis of BV was comprehensive when at least three ACCs were present out of a total four criteria (pH of vaginal secretions(Vss),Vaginal discharge ,Clue cells and Wiff (sniff) test). Results: The findings of the ACC and NSS revealed BV in 32 pregnant women(Pw) and 55 non pregnant women(Npw). In details, the ACC identified 39 (15 Pw and 24 Npw) positive samples. On the other hand, NSS unveiled that 48 (17 Pw and 31 Npw)with Vss were positive to BV. The bacterial isolates were distributed over the age categories (18-47 years old) of the Pw and Npw, in all age categories, (18-23, 24-29, 30-35, 36-41, and 42-47) year old, respectively. Conclusion:The presented work, here, provides beneficial data obtained by using feasible techniques with high degrees of reliability to overcome setbacks generated from the use of cultivation techniques.</p> Adnan H. Aubaid1 , Samira R. Gahadeer2 , Noor M. Jabar2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3036 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of mec A ,van A and van B genes of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients in Al Muthanna Province Hospitals http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3037 <p>Background: Infections triggered by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and onset Resistance to significant anxiety in healthcare environments worldwide from vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA).. Aim:To discover Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methacillin and vancomycin by detecting (Mec A ,Van A and Van B) genes by PCR technique. Methods: A total of 250 samples from patients with different clinical cases whom admitted to Hospitals in Al Muthanna province during a period from January 2019 to July 2019. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and identified by using cultural and biochemical testes.The extracted DNA of isolates were amplified by PCR to detect (mecA, vanA, and vanB) genes. Results: The results showed that 72/ 250 of Staphylococcus aureus isolates contained mecA gene, indicating that all isolates are Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), only five isolates contained van A gene and only nine isolates contained van B gene. Conclusion: Appropriate monitoring and control measures appear to be crucial to avoid the development and transmission of MRSA and VRSA strains in our nation.</p> Adnan H.Aubaid 1, Ziadoon H. Mahdi 2, Tabarek S. Abd-Alraoof 2, Noor M.Jabbar 2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3037 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Client’s Attitude Regarding Antibiotics Misuse in Primary Health Care Centers http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3038 <p>Antibiotics are powerful drugs that fight some infections and can save lives when used properly. It either stops the bacteria from multiplying or destroying them. Objectives: The study aims to: 1. Evaluate the client’s position regarding the abuse of antibiotics in primary health care centers. 2. Identification of relationships of abuse of antibiotics and social demographics (age, sex, place of residence, level of education, economic status, profession, marital status). Methods: A descriptive study (quantitative design) was carried out using a cross-sectional design to study the assessment of the client’s position on the misuse of antibiotics in primary health care centers in Diwaniya from July 2018 to July 2019 .A sample of 450 female clients and 221 women in primary health care centers in Diwaniyah (Al Jazira Health Center, Al Talea Health Center, Al Taqia Health Center, New Health Center, Al Furat Health Center) The questionnaire was created through a comprehensive review of available literature and related studies. Results: The results of the study show that the clients do not agree with the negative attitude regarding the misuse of antibiotics. Therefore, the study reveals a relationship between the social demographic and the second part. The result shows that there is a very large relationship between all elements of the second part with age, Educational level, economic status, occupation, social status. While there is little correlation with gender and place of residence</p> Alia’a Neamah Abo Alshon1, Naji Yaser Almiahi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3038 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hemostasis in sickle cell disease http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3039 <p>Sickle cell disease results in a significant morbidity and mortality related to intra-vascular thrombosis. This study is an attempt to improve our understanding the role of hypercoagulability in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease. A case group of 20 asymptomatic sickle cell adult patients in a steady-state were compared with a control group of 20 normal adult people , both groups aged (18-50) year and from both sex, to evaluate the process of hemostasis. An investigation has been done for both groups including estimation of hemoglobin, platelets count, bleeding time and clotting time. There is a highly significant increase in the number of platelets with (P&lt;0.01) together with a highly significant decrease in bleeding time with (P&lt;0.01) for a case group in comparison with a control group. There is no significant difference of clotting time between both groups. That may suggest that the platelets aggregation formation activity is significantly increase in patients with sickle cell disease in a steady-state.</p> Nawal Khalil Ibrahim1, Awatif Radhi 2, Nehaya Mnahi Al-Aubody3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3039 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Primary Schools Teachers’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Communicable Diseases Prevention and Control at Primary Schools http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3040 <p>Background: Communicable diseases are illnesses that transmitted from a person, animal, or inanimate source to another person either directly or indirectly. Illnesses caused by communicable diseases are common among school students because of overcrowding. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitudes of primary school teachers toward communicable diseases prevention and control and to find out the relationship between the primary school teachers’ knowledge and attitudes with their personal and socio-demographic characteristics. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study design using a simple random sample of (N=400) teachers working in primary schools through the period from October 2018 to June 2019. A questionnaire was created for this purpose. Its composed of (4) parts. The overall items included in the questionnaire are (55) items. A pilot study conducted to determine the reliability of the questionnaire, while the validity is obtained by distribution of the questionnaire through a panel of (15) experts. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version (25) used for the analysis of the data. Appropriate statistical tests were used accordingly. Statistical analysis used: The data are coded and tested by the application (SPSS) through the descriptive and inferential analysis. Results: The study findings indicate that most of teachers (65.8%) had good knowledge toward communicable diseases prevention and control, also the highest percentage of teachers had agreed attitudes toward communicable diseases. Conclusions and recommendations: All teachers working with children may be at risk for getting communicable diseases, especially those with less years of experiences. Therefore, it is necessary to increase their awareness toward communicable diseases prevention and control through collaboration with ministry of health and environment and through education programs about communicable diseases and ways of prevention.</p> Mohammed Abbas Hussein1, Muna Abdul Wahab Khalil2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3040 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Developing the Rear Circular Motion According To Auxiliary Device In The Ground Gymnastics http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3041 <p>Tests are among the priorities of science that reach us to scientific facts, including the processes of manufacturing devices and tools that are of great importance in the learning process, and in the sport of gymnastics, which has a particular character of the age group associated with the element of fear and anxiety as well as through the difficulty of the skills to be learned. Tools are among the most important factors that contribute to the speed of mastering learning skill while raising the side of anxiety and fear. The researcher has reached through the conclusions that the designed device is important in the development of the skill to be learned</p> Wahab Abdul Wahhab Abdul Wahid1, Imad Kadem Yasser2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3041 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Different Cement Space on the Fracture Strength of Two Different Types Zirconium CAD/CAM Crowns http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3042 <p>Objectives: Evaluate and compare the effect of three different cement space (50um, 70um and 90um) on the fracture strength of (vita zirconia crowns and Ips e-max Zir/cad zirconia crowns). Materials and Methods: An ideal prepared plastic dentoform model of a left maxillary first molar with deep chamfer finish line design was used as a pattern for fabrication master metal die. The model was scanned and the master metal die was milled by CAD/CAM system. Sixty crowns made from two different types of zirconium were fabricated on a metal die and were divided into two major groups (A and B)( 30 crowns for each group) according to the two different types of zirconium being used: Group A: fabricated with vita zirconium crowns ; Group B: fabricated with IPS e-maxZir/CAD crowns. Each group further subdivided into three subgroups (10 crowns constructed with 50 um cement space crowns ) , ( 10 crowns constructed with 70 um cement space crowns ) and (10 crowns constructed with 90um cement space crowns). Results: The results of this study presented that the highest mean value of fracture strength is recorded via Group A1 (3.767± 0.242), followed by GroupA2 (3.266 ± 0.116), Group A3 (2.883 ± 0.085), Group B1 (2.505± 0.155), Group B2 (2 ± 0.141) and Group B3(1.508 ± 0.151) respectively. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and HSD testes which revealed highly significant differences (p&lt;0.01) among groups . independent sample t-test result revealed a statistically highly significant difference between subgroups. Conclusion: Vita zirconium crowns is more resistance to fracture than IPS e-max Zir/CAD. (50um cement space) have higher fracture strength than the others.</p> Dalia Abdalreda Sadiq1, Lateef Essa Alwan2 , Abdul Kareem J. Al-Azzawi3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3042 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Compliance of Hypertensive Patients with Medications at Marjan Teaching Hospital in Babylon Governorate http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3043 <p>Hypertension is a significant problem around the world. As indicated by World Health Organization. Objectives: The aims of this study was to assess the compliance of hypertensive adults with their treatment, and to assess their socio-demographic characteristics in relation to compliance. Methodology: The study was conducted at the medical outpatients’ clinic in a period from 1st November 2018 to 10th march 2019 Marjan Teaching Hospital. Collecting data from simple random sampling total of (50) hypertensive patients who are using antihypertensive treatment and attending the medical outpatients’ clinic at Marjan Teaching Hospital in Babylon Governorate. Results: The majority of the study participants were female who accounted for (64%) of the total participants while male constituted (36%). Most of the study participants (42%) were between ages 60 years old more. Most of the respondents (63%) were diagnosed more than five years ago. (44%) of the sample have poor level of compliance with medications, and (50%) had poor control of blood pressure. Conclusions: There is very low rate of medication compliance, and BP control with strong association between them, that reinforce the relation between them.</p> Nibras.H. Abdel-Hussein1, Gossoon J. Elywy2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3043 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immunization Status of Children Under 6 Years Old in Holly Karbala Governorate http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3044 <p>A cross-sectional study was carried out among 110 mothers of children to assess the immunization status of the children, they selected by using non probability sampling (convenience sampling). According to study findings, most of children were males (25.7%) and (95.5%) of them from urban resident and most of children have a good immunization status. The study concluded that performance of Iraqi national immunization program is effective Keywords: Immunization Status, Children Under 6 Years Old.</p> Muhsan Sahib Salih Almusawi Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3044 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Spectrophotometric Determination of Isopropamide Iodide based on Ion-pair Complex Formation with Thymol Blue http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3045 <p>A simple, accurate, affordable, and rapid spectrophotometric approach has been established for the quantification of the medicinal compound of Isopropamide iodide (ISO) in pharmaceutical preparations. An ion-pair complex which absorbs at 404nm has formed the reaction of the drug and the coloring reagent of Thymol blue (TB) at an acidic medium of pH=4. The calibration curve showed excellent linearity over a quantification range of (1-40 ?g/ml) with an excellent coefficient of correlation (= 0.9993). The examined limit of detection (LOD) was (0.3 ?g/ml) for repeatability of (n= 3). The approach witness no interference of the commonly used excipients in such pharmaceutical formulation that contains Isopropamide iodide. Validation of the method was accomplished by calculating the relative standard deviation (RSD %) and found to be in the range of (1.1938-0.5954). While recovery percentage for (n=3) was (97.4 – 101.4%). The analytical parameters of the method were optimized and were efficaciously applied to the Isopropamide iodide determination in pure form and in the mixture of a tablet form. The approach can be functional for determining other active pharmaceuticals.</p> Wasan Ajam Hannoun1, Khalid Waleed S. Al-Janabi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3045 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Sulfonylureas Treatment on Apoptosis, Total Superoxide Dismutase activity and Some Biochemical Parameters in Type 2 Diabetic Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3046 <p>The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the the influence of anti-diabetic drugs (sulfonylureas) in type two diabetic patients and the risk of developing diabetes complications related to kidney disease (Diabetic Nephropathy ) compared to healthy subjects by measuring influence of some apoptosis factors ( serum Tumor necrosis factor soluble Receptor-1(TNF-R1) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2)) concentrations , Serum Small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad1 ) as anew marker of diabetic nephropathy (DN) ,Superoxide dismutase concentration (SOD) ,Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) , Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ,insulin concentration , insulin resistance (IR) ,urea and creatinine .A samples of convenience composed of 17 type 2 diabetic patients with sulfonylureas monotherapy and 17 normal subjects above the age of 40 years were recruited . Age ,duration of disease and body mass index (BMI) was created. The mean levels of Smad1 and TRAIL- R2 in diabetics with sulfonylureas treatment , they were significantly higher compared to control subjects, while the means of SOD have low level in diabetic subjects , and the mean levels of TNF-R1 and IR were non-significant in diabetic with Sulfonylureas treatment compared to control subjects.</p> Noor Khalid Zaidan1 , Perry H. Saifullah2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3046 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An analytical Study of the Maximum Force Variable on the walkway of the (100, 1500 and 5000 m Sprinters For Applicants) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3047 <p>The Motion analysis is used to solve problems which related to the learning and training.in addition, It diagnoses movements, compares their parts, times and strengths, and compares between good and bad movement, as well as It helps to develop the movement and its performance. There are few studies in of motion analytical for study, The researcher design this study in a scientific procedure by using the scanner device (Gait Analysis) of the German company (Zebris)to read the data in a standardized manner during the test, the researcher selected the sample of the Iraqi champions in the competition of (100 m and 1500 m and 5000 m )Two for each contest in a deliberate way. for the heroes of Iraq and the number of them six, two for each contest. for the Time period from 11/9/2018 to 1/12/1018, in the laboratory of physical mechanics in the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences / University of Kufa. The search variable was chosen maximum force because it has a large role in the movement and transfer of athletic during the race, Concluded researcher to The maximum amount of force distributed on the footprint (front, center and heel) and according to the requirements of the race, and The higher the speed and force.</p> Assist. Prof. Dr. Haider Fayyadh Alamiri Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3047 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An optimized Retina Recognition Technique Based on PSO Inspired Algorithm http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3048 <p>Retina Recognition techniques capture and analyze the vascular patterns on the thin nerve on the backs of an eyeball which process light getting in the pupil. Retinal patterns are extremely distinguishing traits; it cannot be gotten or stolen since there are no two persons have similar patterns of retinal, as well as the features extracted from the retinal image are the most stable and reliable than other biometric features. Therefore, the retina is selected as a robust source in the proposed recognition techniques. In this paper, an optimized technique of retina recognition based on an inspired algorithm is proposed for the authentication purpose in which particle swarm optimization (PSO) inspired algorithm is utilized for extracting features from retinal images. The obtained results from this work declared that the PSO provides an optimized performance with 100% accuracy and 3.5 seconds time-consuming</p> Suhad Fakhri Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3048 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of TNF alpha and IL-6 in Inflammatory Process after Tooth Extract in Children Under 12 Years http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3049 <p>A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kirkuk city from of November 2018 to March 2019. The number of children after tooth extraction under study were 55 children ages were between 5-12 years old. These patients admitted to private clinics of dentists. The control group who were matched to the children with tooth extraction studied, included 35 healthy children. Three ml of blood was collected by vein puncture using Vacutainer tubes from each patient enrolled in this study for determination the level of IL-6 and TNF-? by using ELISA technique. The study showed that the highest mean level of TNF-? was found in children after tooth extraction comparing with healthy control group( 36.8±13.4 v.s. 13.5 ±2.9 pg/ml) (P: ?0.05). The highest mean level of IL-6 was found in children after tooth extraction comparing with control (88.1±15.7 v.s. 21.7±7.13 pg/ml) (P: ?0.05). The study showed that the highest mean level of TNF-? was found in children after tooth extraction in the first week of after tooth extraction (33.2±9.1 pg/ml) and the level was still decreased to be the lowest level after one month tooth extraction of children (20.18±2.9 pg/ml), the result was significant (P: ?0.05). The study showed that the highest mean level of IL-6 was found in children in the first week of after tooth extraction (92.1±15.8 pg/ml) and the level was still decreased to be the lowest level was after one month of tooth extraction (67.9±9.81 pg/ml), the result was significant (P: ?0.05).</p> Saad Mohammed Sulaiman1, Ahmad Orkhan Hasan1, Noora Abdulrazzaq Naji1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3049 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Psychoeducational Program on Eating Disorder Behaviors and Severity Level of Depression: A Quazi Experimental Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3050 <p>Background: Major depressive disorder is one of the public health problems with prevalence among worldwide. Major Depression (MD) is the most prevalent comorbid mood disorder in eating disorder (ED) patients, and the severity of depressive symptomatology seems to be related to the ED. Most international clinical practice guidelines recommend psycho-educational intervention as first step in the treatment protocol. This study aimed to find out the effect of the psycho-educational program as the treatment of choice for depression patient with eating disorder. Methods: A quantitative quasi experimental study with pre-post intervention design used to evaluate the effectiveness of psychoeducation program. A non-probability, purposive sample size of (50) patients with major depressive disorder were recruited to the study from January 10th 2018 till October 1st 2019. Beck depression inventory (BDI) was used for measuring the severity of depression, and Garner eating disorder inventory (G-EDI) was other measure used to assess eating behavior problems. Data of the present study was analyzed through using application of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version. Results: The study indicated a significant difference in Beck depression score in intervention and control group after intervention (P&lt; 0.001). It shows that the mean ranks of the difference (gain in scores) of the experimental group was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher than the mean ranks of the difference of the control group for all the parameters of eating disorders. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the 6-sessions psycho-education program has great impact on the severity of depression and all component of eating disorder in patient diagnosed with depression in associated with eating disorder</p> Shwan Asaad Qadir1, Salwa Shakir Muhsin2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3050 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of High Trace Element Levels in Serum of Women Undergoing Intra-cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) on Implantation Rate http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3051 <p>Objectives: To assess the effects of trace element concentrations in serum on implantation rate in women undergoing ICSI. Study design: Across-sectional study was conducted between March 2018 to April 2019 in Kamal ALSamarai Hospital, center of fertility and IVF. One hundred and seventeen women underwent ICSI using GnRH-antagonist protocol were recruited. Concentration E2, P4 and two trace elements (Cu, Zn, and Cu/ Zn) were measured in serum specimen. Women’s were evaluated in two groups; the study group consisted of patients with successful implantation (n = 21) and women in the second group (n=96) experienced implantation failure. Results: No significant differences were observed in age or BMI between the groups. Serum copper levels were significantly higher differences (P=0.001) in group of failure (198 ± 107?g/dL) than in group of successful implantation (133 ± 46?g/dL), zinc concentrations in group of successful and failure out of the maximum of normal range (137 ± 40?g/dL versus 135 ± 34?g/ dL respectively) but statistically significant differences were did not observed (P?0.05). When we calculated the copper/zinc ratio (Cu/Zn), it was significantly higher differences (P=0.001) in group of failure (1.59 ± 1) than in group of successful (1.03 ± 0.4). In conclusion, we observed that high serum copper concentrations and (high Cu/Zn ratio) are a risk factor for implantation failure.</p> Lana Nazar Abdul-Razzaq 1, Khalid Mahdi Salih 2, Bushra Jawad Al-Musawi3. Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3051 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Copper Nanopartical and Magnetized Salty Water in Chlorophylls and Carotenoids content of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L .) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3052 <p>The results of study showed that Cu nanoparticale at concentration of 5 M caused decreasing in chl.a content of tomato leaves significantly and the treatment of river water with Cu nanopartical at 5 M caused the highest value of chl.a (0.494 mg/g) , Cu nanoparticles of all it concentration caused decreasing in chl.b content of tomato leaves significantly comparing with control also with treatment of magnetic distilled water at 2000 Gauss, the concentrations of almost treatments increased the content of chl.b significantly comparing with control ,the treatment of drainage water(7 mmohs/cm) with magnetic water of 2000 Gauss caused the highest value of chl.b ( 0.695 mg/g). Cu nanoparticale at concentration of 0.5 M with magnetized distilled water caused decreasing in carotenoids of tomato leaves significantly, drainage water (7 mmohs/cm) with Cu nanoparticle at (0.5 and 9 M) caused decreasing in carotenoid comparing with control. The highest value of Cu nanopartical (9M) with drainage water ( 7 mmohs/cm) caused enhancement in carotenoid content (0.157 mg/g) comparing with control and treatment of drainage water at 7 mmohs/cm alone. Cu nanoparticale at concentration of 5 M caused decreasing of total chlorophyll content of tomato leaves significantly .</p> Noora I. H. Al-Shemmary1, Basheer A. H. Al-Alwani2. , Rihab E. Kadhim2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3052 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of an Educational Program on Physically- Disabled Fighters’ Quality of Life at Rehabilitation Military Center in Al-Basra City http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3053 <p>Objective(s): The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the education program on physicallydisabled fighters’ quality of life, to determine the effectiveness of the education program on physically- disabled fighters’ health status. Methods: A quasi-experimental, one group test retest design, is carried out in order to achieve the objectives of the study by using the evaluation approach and the implementation of the education program at the Rehabilitation Military Center in Al-Basra City from of January 7th, 2019 to October 31st 2019. Non Probability “purposive” sample of (27) physically disabled fighters’ is selected selected for the present study The sample is assigned according to the following criteria: a. Physically disabled who has not participated in any health educational program related quality of life. b. Physically disabled fighters are selected as having disability ratio from 60 to 80 percent. Test-retest reliability and content validity “panel of (18) experts” of the questionnaire are determined through pilot study. Data are collected through the application of the education program, the use of the questionnaire and the structured interview as means of data collection. Data were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistical data analysis approach of frequency, percentage, mean, mean of scores, total of scores, range and standard deviation and inferential statistical data analysis approach T-test, multiple linear regressions, person correlation coefficient, Chi-Square test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The results of the study depict that the evaluation of physically-disabled fighters’ health status and quality of life is moderate due to the effect of physical disability; the physically disabled fighters’ quality of life domains have been improved due to the effect of the education program; the physically disabled fighters’ health status have been improved due to the effect of the education program; physically disabled fighters’ quality of life is significantly different relative to their age, residency, marital status, level of education, and chronic illness, and a non-significant difference relative to their type of injury and socioeconomic is determined. Conclusion: The study concluded that the health education Program has produced an effect on the physically-disabled fighters’ health status in the study group post its implementation. So, the study has confirmed that the program is an effective mean for the physically-disabled fighters’ health status in the Rehabilitation Military Center; the Health Education Program has produced an effect on the physicallydisabled fighters’ quality of life in the study group post its implementation. Further, the study has confirmed that the program is an effective mean for the enhancement of the physically-disabled fighters’ quality of life in the Rehabilitation Military Center.</p> Mukdad Ali Hamead1, Hala Saadi Abdul Wahid2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3053 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Iraqi Taraxcum Officinale L http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3054 <p>Objective: The objective of this research is to identify the microscopic Characteristics in plant extraction by detecting effective component and examine of antibacterial vitality. Procedure: Taraxacum officinale leaf was gathering of Baghdad city . After the prepare the leaf and the preparation and scrub and then dried we extracted by the SOXHLET device where we use 90% ethanol. This pharmacological study includes microscopy and a chemical screening using reagent .Through the diffusion method an antibacterial evaluation of the leaf extract was detected. in this treatise was used diverse bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiela pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli , Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus spp.. Outcomes: An outcome indicates the presence in the top and down surface of the leaf type of stomata is the stomatal actinocytic while non-glandular trichome is found only above the top surface of the leaf. As the outcome of microscopic screening of the forms of fiber that the indicators for the top area of the leaf was 18%, while the down region was 31% for the leaf. The Initial outcome of chemical plant screening for plant leaf was revealed existence at Tannins, Saponins,Terpenoids and Alkaloids component .The outcome of effectiveness against bacteria in the search was offered showed diverse activity against all bacterial species within search.</p> Hayder Yousif Falih1, Suhad Y. Abed2, Saba adnan Abbas3, Thamer Mouhi Jasiem4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3054 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Different Resin Luting Materials on the Marginal Fit of Lithium Disilicate CAD/CAM Crowns (A Comparative Study) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3055 <p>Aim of the study: To recognize the effect of using different resin luting materials on the vertical marginal discrepancy of Lithium Disilicate CAD/CAM crowns. Material and method: A total of 36 intact maxillary first premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose were disinfected in a solution of 1% Thymol for 1 day which utilized to receive a ceramic crown after tooth preperation. Digital impression was made with Omnicam Scanner (Dentsply Sirona) using Cerec Premium Software. Lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns made via In-Lab MC XL milling device (Dentsply Sirona) and cemented with different resin luting materials. The marginal discrepancy was measured at three locations on each tooth surface, with optical microscope at 200x magnifications before and after cementation. Statistical analysis was performed with one way ANOVA test to know statistical significance and Turkey’s test (HSD) to compare the mean marginal increase among the three groups (P=0.05). Statistical analysis: The least amount of marginal increase after cementation was with Gaenial universal flo (flowable composite); with a mean marginal increase of 38.53 ±0.63 mm. Choice2 cement (resin cement) increased the margins by mean 40.55 ±0.95 mm. The highest marginal increase was detected in the Ceramx one sphere TEC (preheated composite) resin group (87.82±1.26 mm). Conclusion: Cementation of CAD/CAM crowns with preheated composite resin (Ceramx sphere TEC one) cause a marginal increase surpassed the clinically acceptable range of marginal discrepancy.</p> Manar M.Alajrash1, Mohammed Kassim2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3055 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Centaureabruguierana (Asteraceae) from Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3056 <p>The methanol and aqueous extracts of Centaureabruguierana. (Asteraceae) from Iraq were tested for their biological activity against two Gram positive , stwo Gram negative bacteria and four fungal species by using agar well diffusion method . The crude methanol extract (100mg/ml) and its dilutions and the crude aqueous extract( 100mg/ml) showed biological activity against all bacteria and fungi studied. Compared with the aqueous extracts , methanol extracts, particularly the crude one, were more bioactive against bacteria and fungi studied . Among the studied microbes, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureusand Microsporumcanis were the most sensitive species to C.bruguierana extracts tested. Methanol extract at all concentrations and aqueous extract at high concentrations showed close or more antibacterial activity( except in case of P.auruginosa) than that of the bacterial control ( tetracycline) . The crude methanol extract was more bioactive against all fungi studied than the fungal control ( nystatin ).This is the first report on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of C. bruguierana extracts from Iraq and its bordering countries.</p> Shaima H. A. ALAbbasi1, Talib O.H. Al-Khesraji2, Sirwan H.Salih3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3056 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Colorimetric Determination of Uric Acid in Live samples http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3057 <p>A simple, sensitive and precise colorimetric method for uric acid determination was described. The method based on the complexion reaction between uric acid, potassium ferricyanide, and ferric chloride in hydrochloric acid medium to form blue colored charge transfer complex measured at maximum wavelength 752 nm. The optimum conditions obtained were volume 0.3 ml for hydrochloric acid, 1.25 ml for both potassium ferricyanide and ferric chloride solutions, 60?C and 8 minutes as maximum temperature and time of reaction, the order of mixing additives was uric acid, ferric chloride, potassium ferricyanide, and hydrochloric acid. The highly accurate and precise results obtained with RSD%, Recovery%, Ere%, and D.L were (0.755 to 4.376), (99.676 to 97.831), (-0.033 to -2.169), and 0.1569 µg mL-1 respectively, the calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range of (2.0-200µg ml-1), the . molar absorptivity (5937.473L mol-1 cm-1) The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of uric acid in serum and urine samples for twenty persons.</p> Abbas Shebeeb Hasan Al-kadumi1, Jwan O. Abdulsattar2, Khitam J. Nabhan3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3057 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Control of Risk in the Process Loading / Unloading In. Pelindo Iii Surabaya http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3058 <p>PT. Pelindo III Surabaya is a company engaged in service providers. One of them is loading/unloading services. The results of preliminary observations made at PT. Pelindo III Surabaya shows that container loading/unloading workers do not follow standard operating procedures in the workplace such as not using safety helmets, safety vest, and safety shoes. Neat and dirty workplace conditions can increase potential hazards such as falls and tripping material and damage to the goods. This can threaten the safety and disturb the health of workers loading/unloading containers at PT. Pelindo III Surabaya. This study aims to analyze the risk assessment on loading/unloading work at PT. Pelindo III Surabaya. This research is an observational study with design crossectional. The study population was the workers in the loading/unloading section at PT. PELINDO III Surabaya as many as 20 people. Data that has been obtained from observations and interviews are processed and analyzed descriptively, namely by describing in real terms the object of research and the conditions at the research site. The results of the study show the process of loading/loading PT. PELINDO III Surabaya has 5 types of hazard risks in high-risk categories, 12 types of hazard risk, medium risk categories and 3 types of hazards in low-risk categories. The company is expected to provide and require workers to use body harnesses as additional PPE for workers who are above the container during the process cargo during.</p> Achmat Kuncoro1, Endang Dwiyanti1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3058 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Investigation into the Effect of Multimedia Training on the Knowledge and Self-Efficacy of Children with Asthma http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3059 <p>Introduction: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among children is a global health issue and its rising trend has caused concern about the health system. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of multimedia education on the knowledge and self-efficacy of children with asthma in Bushehr. Method: semi-experimental study. The research community included all children under the age of 12 years with asthma. The samples were selected by available method of 50 people and then divided into two experimental and control groups by simple random method. The data collection tools included questionnaires of demographic data, knowledge and self-efficacy in children with asthma. Validity and reliability of the instruments were measured and then multimedia training was run for the experimental group. Data analysis was performed by SPSS 18 and Mann–Whitney U test. Findings: the mean scores of knowledge and self-efficacy of the research samples in the experimental group increased after multimedia training, so there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p &lt;0.001). Conclusion: Education of children with asthma through multimedia has led to increasing knowledge and self-efficacy. Therefore, considering the effectiveness of multimedia education in children training with asthma, it is recommended that this educational method are used for other chronic childhood diseases.</p> Ahmadreza Zarei1, Afshin Ostovar2, Fatemeh Alhani3, Faezeh Jahanpour4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3059 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Safe Level of Benzene Concentration in Mechanics Workshop “X” Tembalang Semarang http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3060 <p>Vehicles are used in community in a large number and being repaired in motorbike repair shops. The repaired motorbike at the workshop has the potential to provide benzene exposure to the mechanic, so the mechanic was also at risk of experiencing health problems due to benzene exposure. This study aimed to determine the safe concentration of benzene in Workshop X Tembalang, Semarang. This study was a descriptive research. The population in this study were mechanics at Locations 1 and 2, totally 18 people. The results of this study were quantitatively analyzed to determine the safe concentration of benzene for workers obtained from the benzene concentrations in the workplace, worker height, worker weight, rats weight, worker respiration rate, length of work, worker body surface area, mice body surface area, highest dose of toxin without effect on experimental animals (NOAEL), Km factor in animals (Animal Km), Km factors in workers (Human Km), and safe limit dose for workers (RfC). The measurement of benzene concentration at Location 1 was 0.28 ppm and Location 2 was 0.19 ppm, which means that the benzene concentration was still below the Threshold Value according to Minister of Manpower Regulation Number 13 in 2011 amounting to 0.5 ppm. This research showed that the safe limit value was 0.023 ppm. Based on the minimum risk level, the concentration of benzene everyday that can cause acute effects was 0.009 ppm and that can cause chronic effects was 0.003 ppm. These standards indicate that the concentration of benzene in the workshop has the potential to have a negative impact on the health of workers. Recommendations to workshop owners and mechanics are to periodically monitor benzene levels in the air, use personal protective equipment by all mechanics and if needed the workshop owner can conduct a health check-up for all mechanics.</p> Aisy Rahmania1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3060 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Andrographolide and its Attributes Against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3061 <p>Breast Cancer is associated with high incidents and mortality rates and considered to be the second most frequent type of cancer among women worldwide. One of its invasive modalities is the Triple-Negative subtype. Lacking the expression of ER/PR and HER2 contributes to its severity. Current treatment strategies for TNBC diagnosed patients are believed to be hazardous and do not improve the disease-free survival (DFS) neither the overall survival (OS). Thus, scientist and researchers are seeking alternative remedies that have little or no consequences on the patients. Andrographis paniculate with its remarkable active constituent Andrographolide are attracting the world’s attention due to its pharmacological activities against metabolic maladies especially hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes as well as its attribute as an anti-cancer compound. Here, we review the effect of Andrographolide on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.</p> Alhakam A. Aljarrah1, Norliza Nik2, Siti Norasikin M Nafi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3061 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cortisol And Psychological Factors in Etiology of Lichen Planus http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3062 <p>Background and Objectives: Lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa and skin, whose exact pathogenic mechanisms have not been understood. Cortisol, has been used as an indicator in various psychological evaluation studies. Salivary cortisol measurement is an indicator of free cortisol in human serum and provides noninvasive and easy technique. Aims, evaluation of cortisol levels and psycho-immunity profile in lichen planus patients was done. Using case-control method. Materials and Method: 145 participants were admitted which had been done at dermatological outpatient clinic at Al-Yarmook Teaching Hospital. 32 patients were clinically proven cases of LP, 113 subjects along with age and sex-matched healthy controls. DASS Score questionnaire was administered to evaluate the psychiatric status (depression, anxiety and stress), Saliva samples were collected, and analyzed for cortisol level by using ELISA in study group and 46 of control group. The serum test were examined in 32 for each group using enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay technique for cortisol. Results: The mean serum and Salivary cortisol level of the LP group showed a very highly significant difference (p=0.001) from the controls in multivariate statistic. The mean of DASS scores and the depression derangement specifically showed a very highly significant difference (p=0.001) from the controls. The stress and anxiety derangement showed high difference but it failed to reach to significant difference from the controls. There is an important association between serum and salivary cortisol concentration. Conclusion: the cortisol and psychiatric factors play a vital role in the pathogenesis of LP and saliva cortisol could be a possible indicator instead of serum cortisol</p> Alhakam Ibrahim1, Hajer Ibrahem 1, Shakir J. Al-Saedy2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3062 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Purification of L-Glutaminase from Bacillus sp. B12 and study its properties http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3063 <p>L-glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyse the conversion L-glutamine to glutamic acid and ammonia. The important application of the L-glutaminase is a chemotherapy agent. In this study a novel strain, Bacillus B12. that isolated from Diyala soil was explored for production of extracellular L-glutaminase. The enzyme has been purified 23.9-fold from cell-free extract with 45.4 recovery ( specific activity 76.6 U/mg protein). Enzyme has molecular weight of 199 kDa, and pH 8 and stable in pH range 6-9.5. Temperature optimum is 40 ?C and completely stable between 25-45 ?C. The kinetics studies revealed that the km and Vmax of purified L-glutaminase were estimated in 0.4mmol/L and 0.133mmol/min, respectively. The result showed that, the enzyme was active when incubated with 10 mM of Mn2+, Mg2+,Ca+2 and Na+. Whereas, K +, Co2+, and Ni2+ show no effect. However, Hg2+, Cu2+,Fe2+ and Zn2+ decreased L-glutaminase activity . The 10mM of DEAE, PMSF, and sodium azide did not show a clear effect against the enzyme activity. Higher decrease in enzyme activity was observed by using Cysteine and 2-Mercaptoethanol ( 30 and 25%, respectively).</p> Alyaa Abdelhameed1, Rana Alqaysi1, Hiba Ali Hilal2 , and Nada Alharbi 3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3063 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of immunohistochemical Expression of monoclonal VE1 antibody in detecting the BRAF gene mutation in patients with colorectal carcinoma. http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3064 <p>Purposes of study : to evaluate clinical parameters and histopathological features of Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and its association with BRAF mutation as immunohistochemical markers in Babylon province. Methods: This research is prospective study. The total patients are 42 Manual IHC staining procedure were done. Staining intensity were scored as: 0 ( negative ), 1 (weak diffuse staining in comparing to background staining ), 2 (moderate diffuse staining), and 3 (strong diffuse staining) . IHC scoring was regarding as positive when there was diffuse, homogenous and more than 80% of cytoplasmic staining area of cancer cells. Negative cases when there were absent staining or nuclear staining or weak isolated staining cells. Score 0 and 1 were consider negative and score 2 and 3 were positive. Results: Positive IHC staining of BRAF mutation was presenting more in older age group (65 ±15.23years) , male gender (60%) and left sided colon (60%) but there were insignificant association of these above parameters. Grade 2 and grade 3 of CRC was the highest frequency of positive BRAF cases (40%). Positive IHC staining for BRAF mutation expression is more frequency in T3, N1-2, and M0 stage, and stage III that shows 60%, 80%, 100%, 80% respectively. There were no significant association between BRAF IHC with TMN staging and grading systems. Conclusion: the current study found to be predominant in older age ( &gt; 65 years old) , high grade (G2-3) and high stage (III). Parameters of high grade &amp; stage associated with poor prognosis &amp; high mortality outcome. BRAF gene IHC expression could be consider an independent bad prognostic factor for patients with CRC .</p> Ammar Eesa Mahdi 1 , Hadeel A. Karbel2 , Sura Salman Ejam 3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3064 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation the Effects of Zingiber officinale L. as a feed Additive on Growth and Some Serum Biochemical Profiles of Cyprinus carpio L http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3065 <p>The research was performed to examine the efficacy of Zingiber officinale L. as feed additives on growth performance and biochemical parameters in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. Used (80) fish and divided into 4 groups 10 fish per aquaria, two replicates were maintained for each treatment. Ginger powder mixed directly with basal diet of fish. It was incorporated in the four diets treatments. The control group diet had no ginger additive (C), while the three supplemented diets contained ginger at 1% (T1), 1.5 (T2) and 2 % (T3). After 35 days’ growth was calculated as weight gain, daily weight gain, relative growth ratio, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency percent and protein efficiency ratio with evaluate total proteins, albumin, globulin, cholesterol and triglycerides. The results of present study were weight gain of T2 and T3 groups showed significant difference comparison with the C. Daily weight gain showed significant difference between C, T2 and T3. Relative growth rate there were no significant difference between C and T1 but there was significant difference between T2 and T3. Feed conversion ratio showed no significant difference between control group and T1. Feed efficiency ratio there were no significant difference between T1, T2 and C. Protein efficiency ratio results showed that decrease in T3 and T2 compared to the C. The results of total protein, albumin, and triglycerides did not show any significant difference between treatments compared with the C. Globulin showed increase in T3 compare to C. While the cholesterol showed significant difference in T3 compare with C, T1 and T2. The results of present study propose that ginger feed additives at the concentration 2% for 35 days can be improvement growth and some serum biochemical parameters.</p> Eqbal Salman Najem1 Sabah Mahmood Hamad Al-Shammari 2 Ali M. Kane3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3065 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Infestation Study of Oestrus ovis L. 1761 in Sheep of Al-Amara Region, Maysan Province, South of Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3066 <p>362 heads of sheep obtained (in multiple visits) from the central slaughterhouse and the sheep abattoir at Al-Amara region (Maysan, South of Iraq) between November 2016 and March 2017 were examined for the detection of Oestrus ovis larvae for the first time in this region. Sheep heads were examined by dissecting them longitudinally, the sheep were of local breed. Of the 362 heads, 296 (81.8%) were infested with O. ovis larvae. O. ovis larvae were observed recorded in both sexes and all age groups in different temperature ranges (low, medium and high) during the research period. A total of 985 larvae were collected. The overall infestation intensity (IN) was 5.443% L/H with a range of 2-8 larvae per infested head of sheep (L/Hs). The infestation of larval in the infested sheep was 54.14% in low- temperature weather, while 100% in relatively high- temperature weather. March showed the highest infection intensity, while January showed the lowest infection intensity. The novelty of the current study is to conduct the research in an area that totally different from what has been studied before in Iraq in regards to the geographical location and the climate conditions.</p> Hussain A. Mhouse Alsaady1, Aswan Al-Abboodi2, Ayat Awdaa3, Mohammed Rshak3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3066 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development and Preparation of ciprofloxacin Drug Derivatives for Treatment of Microbial Contamination in Hospitals and Environment http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3067 <p>This practical studying involved preparation and development of new medical derivatives of ciprofloxacin drug via series of chemical reactions to preparation new derivatives to resist types of bacteria in hospitals and environment.Various chemical routes have been used to prepare ciprofloxacin derivatives ,then all these derivatives reconnoitered with many spectral chemical techniques for instance (FT.IR ,H.NMR ,C.NMR )– spectrophotometric ,then studying of their effects on bacterial pollution.</p> Aseel Mahmood Jawad1, Nagham Mahmood Aljamali2, Saher Mahmood Jwad3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3067 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Surgical Outcomes between Patients Treated with The Harmonic Scalpel and Ligasure Device During Total/ Near Total Open Thyroidectomy http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3068 <p>Over the last few years many surgeons have begun to utilize the LigaSure device or Harmonic scalpel to perform thyroid surgery. Several papers have demonstrated the benefits of these devices over traditional hand-tying techniques. The purpose of this study was to examine our institution’s experience with the LigaSure device and Harmonic scalpel during thyroid surgery and to compare mean operative times and complications associated with each device.The aim of the study was to compare surgical time,postoperative complications and other parameters between ligasure device and harmonic scalpel in the open thyroidectomy procedure. We choose to examine our institution’s experience with the LigaSure and Harmonic scalpel during total/near total thyroidectomy</p> Aseel Mahmood Jawad Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3068 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Safe Concentration of Benzene Exposure Based on Safe Human Dose of Workers in The Paint Manufacturing Industry Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3069 <p>Background: Manufacture of paints using benzene in large quantities in the products they produce. Workers in the paint industry may face an increased risk of high health complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of safe concentration of benzene for workers in the Paint Manufacturing Industry in Sidoarjo East Java, Indonesia. Methods: This research was conducted using a cross sectional method. The sample in this study were 24 respondents. The variables that became the data of this study included benzene concentration (C) time of daily exposure (tE), frequency of annual exposure (fE), duration of exposure (Dt), height (cm), weight (kg), age, respiration rate (BR), body surface area, weight of white rat, body surface of white rat, highest dose of toxin without effect on experimental animals (NOAEL), Km factor in animal (Animal Km), Km factor on workers (Human Km), safe limits for toxin doses for workers (SHD), and benzene concentrations in safe air for workers (C is safe). Data analysis in this study was carried out by using quantitative data analysis manually to determine the safe concentration of benzene for workers in the Paint Manufacturing Industry in Sidoarjo East Java, Indonesia. Results: Based on the results of measurements carried out, the concentration of benzene in the work environment of the Sidoarjo Paint Industry in the mixing solvent section is 2 ppm and in the packing section is 0.4 ppm, the safe concentration is 0.028 ppm. Conclusion: The recommended safe concentration of benzene exposure is 0.028 ppm. The safe concentration value exceeds the set value of 0.009 ppm daily for acute effects and 0.003 ppm daily for chronic effects, so control measures are needed to protect against the adverse effects of benzene on the health of workers. Control recommendations are to provide a good exhaust ventilation system at the paint manufacturing.</p> Ayu Prima Kartika1, Vivi Budiarti1, Achmat Kuncoro1, Charles Kimura1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3069 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of the Health Costs of Effective Detoxification Based on Effective Doses of Benzene Exposure To workers in oil and gas mining companies, Central Java, Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3070 <p>Benzene is a natural component of crude oil and gasoline. Benzene occurs naturally in crude oil at levels of up to 4 g / l and benzene has been classified as a group carcinogen. This research was conducted in oil and gas mining companies, West Java, Indonesia. This research was conducted using a cross sectional method. The sample in this study were 30 respondents. The variables that became the data of this study included benzene concentration (C) daily exposure time (tE), frequency of annual exposure (fE), duration of exposure (Dt), height, weight, age, respiration rate (BR), and urine of workers. The results showed an average measurement of benzene concentration in oil and gas mining companies, West Java, Indonesia on the KPC portion of 0.1 ppm and in the laboratory section at 0.2 ppm, which means it is still below the Threshold Value (NAB) which is equal to 0.5 ppm5. Obtained the highest effective dose to be consumed by respondents in the KPC unit for beef liver is 6x10-4 kg at a cost of IDR 33,31046813, chicken 3x10-4 kg at a cost of IDR 13,1251,9985, and avocado is 4x10-6 kg at a cost of IDR 0,16206628 , while the highest effective dose to be consumed by respondents in the laboratory unit for beef liver is 1x10-2 kg at a cost of IDR 12,14687477, chicken 6x10-4 kg at a cost of IDR 22,14504841, and avocado is 6x10-6 kg at a cost of IDR 0, 27344083. Control recommendations are to adopt a lifestyle that can minimize exposure to poisons and improve detoxification pathways.</p> Ayu Prima Kartika1, Vivi Budiarti1, Achmat Kuncoro1, Charles Kimura1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3070 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship of Hot Work Climate with Employee Blood Pressure in Binat Installation, Dr. Sardjito http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3071 <p>Blood pressure in each individual varies, and depends on age and daily activities such as when blood pressure activity will rise and when the remaining blood pressure will drop. Laundry installations are workplaces where there is a physical hazard in the work process in the form of a hot working climate. In a hot working climate, the body regulates its temperature by accelerating the evaporation of sweat by widening (vasodilation) of blood vessels which results in increased blood circulation and increased capillaries accompanied by physiological responses, such as increased pulse and blood pressure. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the work of heat and blood pressure of workers in the Laundry Installation of RSUP Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta. This study uses quantitative research design using a cross sectional approach. The population in this study were Laundry Installation workers with a sample of 35 respondents taken with total sampling. Data analysis using Chi-Square. The results showed that there was a relationship between the hot work climate and workers’ blood pressure (p = 0.03) and there was a relationship between the hot working climate and diastolic blood pressure of workers in the Laundry in RSUP Installation. Sardjito Yogyakarta (p = 0.01).</p> Charles Kimura1,Ledita Sartika Goddess2, Zikri Fathur Rahman1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3071 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Worker’s Level of Knowledge on Handling Chemicals in Oil and Gas Industry Laboratory of Pt “X” Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3072 <p>The oil and gas industry is one of a large-scale industry, which is when carrying out the production process, they contain several hazard posed that can threaten labor, assets, and other people in industrial environment such as chemical hazards. The chemical groups have special characteristics in disturbing and threatening labor. Knowledge is one of the important factors in preventing work accidents and work-related diseases due to chemicals. This study is a descriptive study, and the data was collected by observational. The object of research in this study is knowledge of workers on handling chemicals. The sample is a total population of 28 workers. The results of the research obtained were that most workers already had adequate knowledge regarding handling chemicals in the laboratory. The highest concentration of chemicals in the laboratory is Benzene (19.1 ppm), Toluene (30.56 ppm) and Xylene (20.48 ppm). The conclusion of this study is that knowledge is a very important domain for the formation of a person’s behavior. In this case, it is related to the handling of chemicals found in the laboratory. If the level of knowledge of the workers is high, the handling of chemicals in the workplace can be carried out maximally, so that workplace accidents can be prevented and the safety of workers can be maintained.</p> Dani Nasirul Haqi1, Putri Ayuni Alayyannur1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3072 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Climate Relationship Work with Fatigue Employees Working in Laundry Plant Dr. Sardjito http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3073 <p>Laundry Installation is one of 29 installations in Hospital Dr. Sardjito. Laundry instalation has 35 employees who have worked with exposure to high temperatures up to 35?C. The hot working climate be the cause of fatigue on employees. The purpose of this study was to Determine the relationship between the work climate in employees with work fatigue Hospital Dr. Laundry Installation Sardjito Yogyakata. The study design used is cross sectional. The population in this study as many as 35 people. The sampling technique used is total sampling the entire population of employees that numbered 35 people. The results of the study with the statistical tests Man Whitney p value 0.022 Obtained value &lt;0.05 the which means that Ho refused so that there is work climate relationship with work fatigue of employees working in the department of Dr. Laundry Installation Sardjito. The advice given to the installation related to that with the addition of Appropriate ventilation in the standard installation space doing laundry and job rotation system working parts so that employees do not feel monotonous with the work performed.</p> Dyah Ayu Kusuman Ningrum1, Anggita Kurniawati2, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3073 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Noise Exposure and Physical Workload on Systolic Blood Pressure of Ceramic Industry Workers http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3074 <p>Noise is a major problem in modern industrial activities. The use of machines in industry and inseparable design of work between humans and machines makes workers exposed to noise as one of the physical hazards in the work environment. Noise can cause physiological reactions such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure disorders. However, systolic blood pressure response is more sensitive to changes. The systolic pressure after loading is normally up (20 mmHg), the rest is considered abnormal and is considered one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure is a multifactorial health indicator. In addition to noise, blood pressure is also influenced by the physical workload that workers receive as one of the factors of workload. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of noise and physical workload to an increase in systolic blood pressure. This is a cross sectional design and observational analytical study with statistical tests using spearman. Respondents were determined through simple random sampling technique that results in a sample of 36 ceramics industry workers in the production line section. The results showed the value of the noise relationship (r = 0.581) towards the increase in systolic blood pressure. Physical workload showed a relationship value of (r = 0.666) towards the increase in systolic blood pressure. The direction of the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable is positive, which means that the higher the noise level and physical workload, the higher the risk of abnormal systolic blood pressure.</p> Erike Anisa Nurshafa1, Noeroel Widajati1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3074 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Oxidant / Antioxidant Levels in Sheep with Hydatite Cyst in Liver http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3075 <p>The larval form of Echinococcus granulosus, hydatid cyst is an important parasitic zoonosis commonly seen in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of oxidative stress on the pathogenesis of cystic echinococcosis with antioxidant / oxidant status in sheep sera. The material of the study was composed of sheep infected with hydatid cyst and healthy cut in slaughterhouse in Van province. The general health status of the sheep before slaughtering was checked by physical examination and blood samples were taken. After slaughtering, cyst hydatid examination was performed in different organs of the animals. The control group consisted of 25 sheep study cases with positive (fertil cyst) and 15 sheep without any pathological lesion on organ examinations and healthy on physical examination. Blood samples taken from animals infected with healthy and hydatid cysts were transported to the laboratory under appropriate conditions and centrifuged. Total antioxidant / oxidant status, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured by using commercial kits. Compared with cystic echinococcosis group and healthy group, the importance was calculated on the TAS, PON1 activities (P &lt;0.01), TOS, ARES activities differences (P &lt;0.001), It decreases. This may cause tissue necrosis and increased inflammation . Decrease in antioxidant reserves; excessive free radical formation in the ewes with cystic echinococcosis causes deterioration of the normal histological structure of the organ in the cyst.</p> Evan Abdul Kareem Mahmood1, Mert Handan2, Mert Nihat2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3075 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life Among Patients Management Program of Chronic Diseases Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3076 <p>Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has significant adverse effects on health-related quality of life. PROLANIS program is a system of governance of health services and health education for social health insurance participants who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus to achieve the optimal quality of life independently. This research aims to measure quality of life in T2DM patient. The research was an analytical non-experimental study according to the patient’s perspective using prospective data collection techniques. The subjects are PROLANIS patient T2DM who comply inclusion and exclusion criteria.The data were collected by using the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) Indonesian questionnaire. Data analysis using EQ-5D preference weight for each health state using Indonesian EQ-5D-5L Value Set. Furthermore, the percentage of the patients’ problems, EQ-5D index (utility) and EQ-5D VAS were calculated. A total of 220 patients were included. Seventy-two different EQ-5D index values were described by the patients. Obtained 37 subjects (16.82%) had no problems. The EQ-5D index value highest is 1,000 (n = 32, 14,54%) and EQ-5D index value lowest is -0,384 (n = 1, 0,45%). EQ-5D index value has an average is 0.57 (SD 0,32) and EQ VAS value has an average is 72.19 (SD 14.73). This study also confirmed that T2DM remains a critical predictor of health outcomes among patients. Results from this study could be constructive in clinical practice, particularly in the early treatment of T2DM patients where improving HRQoL is still possible.</p> Fajriansyah1,2, Iskandarsyah A3, IM Puspitasari1,4, Keri Lestari1,4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3076 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Health Costs for Detoxification Benzene Exposure Workers in the Mining Oil and Gas Pt. A Balikpapan http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3077 <p>Benzene (C6H6) is a liquid aromatic hydrocarbon volatile, colorless, flammable. Benzene is a carcinogen nature makes very harmful for health. The purpose of this study was to calculate and determine the cost of detoxification due to exposure to benzene in the Mining and Oil and gas workers Earth PT. A Balikpapan. Based on the consumption of foods rich in enzyme CYP2E1, Sulfation, and Glutathione. The variable in this study is the intake of the effective dose required by each individual to calculate the weight, length of employment (years), worked on average each day (hour), and the working time in a week (days) of the respondents, as well as the measurement of the concentration benzene. The highest food costs to be paid by the respondent for liver detoxification use is 883,872.51 IDR, using egg 3,513.18 £, and use avocado Rp3,475.01 S. Every individual has a number of different costs. It’s dependent on the characteristics of workers, the concentration of benzene in the work environment, and the intake of benzene by workers.</p> Farhana Syahrotun NS1, Suherdin1, Tedi Levinrarian1, Bella Oktavia1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3077 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Levels of Interleukin-10 in Iraqi Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia after Chemotherapy http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3078 <p>Background:- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is a group of heterogeneous lymphoid disturbance that results from a monoclonal proliferation and expansion of immature T or B lymphocyte ancestor in the blood, bone marrow, and other organs, Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by type 2 helper cells (Th2), as well as macrophages and monocytes and neoplastic B lymphocytes and normal. Aim of this Study: - The aim of this study is to estimate the level of IL-10, and its role as an indication of response to chemotherapy treatment. Experimental part:- A probable group study carry on out at Unit of Oncology / Child Center Teaching Hospital / AL-Iskan / Baghdad city during the period from October 2017 to June 2018. 25 patients with newly diagnosis of ALL. IL-10 levels were measured utilize serological methods included the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after chemotherapy treatment. Result:- This study was carried out on (25) children patients (11 male, and 13 female) newly diagnosed with ALL. The age rang (1.2 years – 12 years), the mean of age was (5.3±3.3 years). A significant decrease in total serum protein and interlukine-10 was observed after chemotherapy (p&lt;0.001, 0.001 respectively), and significant increase in GOT, GPT was observed after chemotherapy (P=0.012, 1.001 respectively). Conclusion: - The results of our study offering the promising clinical utility of IL-10 as markers of response to chemotherapy.</p> Fatima Mallalah Mohammed1, Morooj Ali Fahd2, Nabaa Ali Jassim2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3078 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Standing Work Position and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) Complaints on Rack Frame Bending Section Workers in Informal Industry of Rack Making in Surabaya, Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3080 <p>This research was conducted to analyze the correlation between standing work position and complaints of musculoskeletal disorders on rack frame bending workers in the informal industry of rack making in Surabaya, Indonesia. When doing rack bending, standing work position was affected by work position. The jobs forced workers to work with non-ergonomic standing work position. This caused workers to experience complaints on the skeletal system (MSDs) faster. This research was an observational research with cross sectional design. The sample used a total population of 5 workers. Data obtained by interview, measurement of height and weight and observation of work position. The data analysis method used was descriptive statistics. It was known that due to non-ergonomic standing work position, 40% of rack frame bending workers had a moderate and high MSDs risk category while 20% of other workers were in the low category. In addition, it was known that 40% of workers had low and moderate MSDs complaints category and 20% of other workers had high MSDs complaints category. Based on the results, the standing work position on the rack frame bending workers had a strong and positive correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.655. In addition to the work position, there was a strong correlation between age, working period, and BMI with MSDs complaints of rack frame bending workers. It was recommended that the employer adjust the frame size on each bending machine and provide seat for workers to rest.</p> Genduk Lintang Rusmawarda1, Endang Dwiyanti2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3080 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Quality of Nursing Documentation in Surgical Wards ?at Baghdad Teaching Hospitals http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3081 <p>Background: Nursing documentation has been one of the most important functions of nurses. Objectives: To evaluate quality of nursing documents for nursing care at surgical ward and to find out the relationship between demographic characteristic with nursing documents. Methodology: A descriptive design study was conducted in the period of 1st January 2017 to 15th August 2017. Utilizing a stratified random sampling method (60) nurses working in surgical ward at Baghdad teaching hospitals. Results: The majority of the study participants were female who accounted for (58.3%) of the total participants while male constituted (41.7%) making a female male ratio of 1.5:1. Most of the study participants (46.7%) were between ages 18 and 27 years old. (71.7) of the nurses were married and the remainder was single. (45%) of the participants had instituite graduate. Majority of them (31.7%) were employee (1-5) years in surgical wards, and finally most of nurses (66.7%) have training session in the nursing documentation. Conclusions: The study showed that nurses have poor nursing documentation in surgical ward and there is no significant association between the nursing documentation with some demographic characters of selected nurses but significant association between the nursing documentation with training course.</p> Haider M. Majeed1, Tahseen R. Mohammed 2, Raja I. Abid3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3081 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Empowerment Program on Participation of Mothers with Premature Infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Sayyed Shirazi Hospital in Gorgan, in 2018 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3082 <p>Introduction &amp; Aim: The birth of a premature infant who needs to be admitted to neonatal intensive care unit from birth impedes early communication and participation of mother in her infant’s care. The best way to prevent infant’s harm in hospital is to participate in the care of infant. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of empowerment program on the participation of mothers with premature infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of Sayyed Shirazi hospital in Gorgan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial in 2018, which was conduct on a sample of mothers with premature infant who had randomly been divided into two intervention and control groups. The data collection tools were the Parents’ Participation Inventory designed by Melnick in 1994. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics (tables, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, paired t-test and covariance) using SPSS-16 software. Results: There was no significant difference in the level of mothers’ participation in the care of their infants between the two groups before the intervention (p = 0.45). But after the empowerment training program, the results showed that mothers’ participation in the intervention group (19.10 ± 3.09) was higher than the control group (16.8 ± 2.01), (p = 0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that implementation of empowerment training program increases mothers’ participation in the care of their premature infants. Early intervention and the use of written information along with the booklet will increase the mothers’ participation in the care of their infant.</p> Hanieh Sajadi1, Golbahar Akhoundzadeh2, Hamid Hojjati3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3082 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In Vitro Technique for Heavy Metal, Cobalt Tolerance in Aloe Vera Callus http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3083 <p>In vitro tissue culture application in plant biotechnology is an efficient plant propagation tool in arising plants resistant to diverse a biotic stresses such as drought and salinity. In this investigation, the aim on the in vitro breeding process applied for plants resistant to heavy metal (HM) stress. The experiment included the following two sequent stages: (i) callus cells initiation, some of which are soma clonal variation with new characteristics, (ii) susceptibility of the callus to HMs as selective factor during multiplication to select variants with enhanced HM-resistance. Aloe callus was grown on media complemented with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l cobalt (Co) plus the control treatment. Cobalt accumulation level, mineral status, and callus growth were examined. Results indicate that the increase of Co concentration in medium had influenced callus growth giving the best growth 737 and 56.6 mg for fresh and dry weight respectively at 0.5 mg/l Co concentration, and that growth decreased with increase of Co concentration in medium. With concern to mineral status, cobalt had increased dramatically in callus cells with the increase of Co concentration treatment reaching 108.63ppm at 2.0 mg/l Cobalt, Fe ion concentration reached its highest level 1712.0ppm at 2.0mg/l Cobalt, Mn ions give the highest accumulation level 126.07 ppm at 1.0 mg/l cobalt. While potassium (K)and magnesium (Mg) decreased with increase of cobalt in callus medium recording their highest accumulation level 22244.0 and 492.47 respectively at plant control treatment. Na ions reached its highest level of accumulation 104.3 ppm at 0.5 mg/l cobalt concentration and decreased with the increase of cobalt concentration in the medium.</p> Hashim K. Mohammed Al-Obaidi1, Sundus Hameed Ahmed1, Liqaa Jameel Ibraheem1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3083 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Analysis of H2S Gas Exposure at Benowo Landfill Surabaya http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3084 <p>Air pollution can be caused by the number of dangerous gases that arise due to the process of accumulating decaying waste which has acute and chronic effects for people who are exposed. Judging from the data collection method, this study is observational. The study design used in this study was a cross-sectional study design. Risk agent toxicity is expressed in reference doses. For non-carcinogenic inhalation exposures expressed by the Reference Concentration (RfC). Based on primary data derived from the results of measurements of ambient air quality at the loading terminal IIB TPA Garbage Surabaya, the results showed that H2S gas levels of 0.04 where the levels are still below the ambient air quality standards based on East Java Governor Regulation No. 10 of 2009 concerning Quality Standards Air Ambient. From the calculation above, the researcher took the safe value by choosing the cancer risk safe value from the calculation data most likely to be applied by scavengers in the TPA Sampoerna Benowo Surabaya, namely C safe at 3 mg / m3, safe for 3 hours/day and safe for 2 years. Preventive efforts that can be carried out are by controlling the source such as not doing landfill with the open dumping method using the sanitary system. Routinely monitor and control emissions, so that the air quality around the waste picker environment is maintained. Reducing the number of exposures by using personal protective equipment (PPE) in the form of respirators (masks). Perform administrative control by reducing the time and frequency of exposure to H2S dangerous gases. It is better for the Surabaya government and PT X to socialize the hazards and impacts of H2S exposure to workers.</p> Herman Bagus Dwicahyo1, Lilis Sulistyorini2, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3084 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Age, Time off and Pesticides Exposure on Haemoglobin Levels on Vegetable Farmers in Landasan Ulin Utara Subdistrict Banjarbaru City http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3085 <p>Several estimates can occur in the status of blood haemoglobin levels, which can be rated lower or higher than average values. Some previous studies revealed several factors that can affect a person’s Hb levels, such as age and level of exposure. Data from the Banjarbaru City Health Office states that 2017 found farmers in Banjarbaru added to anaemia by 25% for the average age of 47 to 67 years. Meanwhile, the average cholinesterase level was 8.36 U / L. In the data it was also found that polycythemia was 13.33% with an average of 48 to 75 years, whereas the average cholinesterase level was 9.33 U / L. This study aim to analyze age, time off and pesticide exposure to hemoglobin levels in vegetable farmers in the Landasan Ulin Utara Sub-District, Banjarbaru City. This type of research is observational analytic with cross-sectional study design. The population in this study were vegetable farmers who used pesticides in the area of Landasan Ulin Utara Sub-District with a sample of 51 people. Based on the results of research related to age and exposure to pesticides or the levels of Acetyl Cholinesterase (AchE) to Hb levels of vegetable farmers in the Landasan Ulin Utara Sub-District, Banjarbaru City. Cholinesterase levels are the most dominant factor.</p> Herry Cahyadi1, Achmad Rofi’i2, Eko Suhartono3, Husaini 4, Meitria Syahadatina Noor5 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3085 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Salmonellosis on Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Alkaline Phosphatase and Lactic Dehydrogenase http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3086 <p>The study was carried out during a period of March 2018-July 2019 for the detection of Salmonellosis in 106 suspected patients with age group range from 17 - 69 years, who attended to Baghdad teaching hospitals, that had been examined and defined as suspected cases by specialized physician with the recording of clinical manifestation .The diagnosis done by immunochromatography method, a blood sample was taken from each patients as well as other 30 healthy control matching in age and gender. The study included measurement of the level of antineutrophil antibodies, activity of Alkaline phosphatase , and Lactic acid dehydrogenase in sera of patients and healthy control. The result indicated that anti –salmonella IgM positive in 54 cases, anti- salmonella IgG positive in 40 cases and 12 positive cases with both IgM and IgG. The Level of c-ANCA and p-ANCA, Alkaline phosphatase and Lactic acid dehydrogenase increased significantly, with no statistical difference between the gender of patients sera in comparison with healthy control.</p> Khalil Ismail A. Mohamed1, Saad Hasan Mohammed Ali1, Wifaq M. Ali Al-Wattar1, Suha A. Al-Fukhar1 and Jinan M. Mousa1, Basim.M.Ibrahim2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3086 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Preparation and Characterization of Some Complexes with New (Azo-Schiff base) Ligand and Study of Complex as Anticancer http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3087 <p>Anew series of transition metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Au(III) and Pt(II) have been preparation and characterization using anew azo-Schiff base ligand derived from schiff base (N1Z,N2Z)-N1,N2-bis(4-amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-ylidene)benzene-1,2-diamine with 5-methyl-imidazole.The structures of the new ligand azo-schiff base and their transition metal complexes are characterized using several techniques,including analysis(C.H.N),molar conductance,magnetic measurements, electronic spectral,IR spectral studies,13CNMR,1HNMR and mass spectra The data show that these complexes have composition of[MLCl2] where M=Co(II),Ni(II), Cu(II),Zn(II),Cd(II) and Hg(II),[ML] Cl3 where M=Au(III) and[ML]Cl2 ,where M=Pt(II).The electronic spectral, and magnetic susceptibility data of the complexes suggest octahedral geometry of all complexes,except the Au(III) and Pt(II) complex suggest a square planar geometry.The IR results demonstrate that the co-ordination sites are the azomethine nitrogen and azo nitrogen atoms of the ligand.The ligand behaves natural tetra dentate manner.The biological screening effect of the Pt(II) complex are tested against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7and normal cells( cell line WRL68).The results show the highest inhibitory effect for complex.</p> Layla Ali Mohammed1 , Muna Abass Hadi1 , Noor Alhuda Basim2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3087 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Omega-3 Fatty Acids can Significantly Increase the Height of Children Under Five with Stunting http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3088 <p>Children with stunting are a global public health problem that has implications for impaired physical growth, which has an impact on increasing morbidity and mortality. This study aims to study the role of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on anthropometric measures of toddlers with stunting, especially height. This type of research was an experimental randomized clinical trial design, in the form of pre-post test control group design. Subjects who participated in this study were toddlers aged 12-36 months, consisting of 12 children as a control group who received placebo, and 12 children as a treatment group who received omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for 2 months. The parameters observed was height. The collected data were analyzed using t-test. The results of the study showed that there was a difference in changes in the subject’s height in the treatment group compared to the control group (p-value = 0.009294). It was further concluded that supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in children under five with stunting could significantly increase height.</p> Lewi Jutomo1, Bambang Wirjatmadi2, Rudi Irawan3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3088 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relations Exposure to Dust Inhalation Against Impaired Lung Function in Worker Unloading at the Port of Manado, North Sulawesi http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3090 <p>Upper respiratory tract infection has been one of the top ten illness the last three years. In 2014 (28,579 cases), in 2015 (39,110 cases) and in August 2016 (27,068 cases). In the community health service of the Manado Port area, the upper respiratory tract infection is on the top list. The problem of loading and unloading is the problem of loading and unloading. The problem is loading and unloading. workers in Manado Port. The problem of loading and unloading workers in Manado Port. The research was observational with analytical approach and cross sectional design, with 60 samples of respondents. It consists of 9 variables and data was collected by interview, observation and measurement. (P = 0.195; PR = 0.648 (95% CI = 0.533 - 0.789). Smoking habit (p = 0.786; PR = 0.788 (95% CI = 0.361 - 1,719) Working period (p = 0,143; PR = 1,959 (95% CI = 0,896 - 4,283). Working duration (p = 0,838; PR = 0,831 (95% CI = 0,390 - 1,771) With potential variables. Affecting lung function impairment of loading and unloading workers is use of mask (p = 0.195) and period of work (p = 0.143). There is no significant correlation between use of mask, smoking habit, period of work, working duration, inhaled dust exposure and lung function disorder.</p> Lili Sutanti1, Zikri Fathur Rahman1, Nur lailatul Masruroh2, Abdul Rohim Tualeka3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3090 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Urinary Tumor Markers for Detection and Surveillance in Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3091 <p>Objectives: Cystoscopy still remains the gold standard for diagnosis and follow-up monitoring of bladder cancer (BC). Unfortunately, it is an invasive, and the urine cytology is a highly specific, sensitivity for detection of low grade tumors is only 4% to 31%. The advent of noninvasive urine-based markers as well as other novel modalities has yielded improved diagnostic accuracy. Material and method: Pubmed/Medline search was conducted to identify original articles, review articles, and editorials regarding urine-based biomarkers for screening, early detection, and surveillance of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Results: urinary marker shave shown higher sensitivity compared with cytology, and most markers suffer from lower specificity than cytology. In this review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge on commercially available and promising investigational Urinary tumor markers for detection and surveillance in Non-Muscle Invasive BC. Conclusions: biomarkers into clinical decision making will be of value for BC detection and screening in the future.</p> Mohamed Jamal Saadh1, Abeer Mohammad Kharshid1, Hala Mousa Sbaih1, Khalil Altaif1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3091 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between QT Interval Dispersion and Degree of Coronary Artery Disease http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3092 <p>Background: It has been shown that QT dispersion (QTD) increases during episodes. Currentstudyhas been done in order to determine QTD in patients with stable angina, assess myocardial ischemia and infarction. Aims of Study: This study aiming to determine the relationship between severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and degree of QTD. Patients and Method: A 214 patients (177 men and 37 women) underwent diagnostic coronary angiography because of suspected CAD. Standard resting 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded within 24hrs before coronary angiography. QT intervals were measured manually by ruler method and QTD were gauged as (QT maximum – QT minimum). A 184 patients had CAD and control group (30 persons) had a normal coronary angiogram Interestingly, QTD has increased significantly as there was sever increment of CAD. QTD was in 1 vessel disease, 2 vessel disease, in 3 vessel disease, and in left main stem disease. Left ventricular dysfunction has raised QTD significantly in patients with 1,2 vessels, as well as left main stem disease. QTD clearly elevated as Gensini score increased. Involvement of proximal left anterior descending artery did not increase QTD significantly in patients with CAD. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that severity of CAD, left ventricular dysfunction and previous myocardial infarction were independently associated with increased QTD. QTD increased significantly in patients with stable angina compared to the controls.Severity increase of CAD resulted in significant increase in QTD, and presence of LV dysfunction has caused further increase.</p> Mohammed Almyahi1, Tahseen A., Alkinani2, KadhumMajdi3, Falah Shaheed Azzawi 4, Ahmed Basheer5 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3092 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Measurement of Interleukin 17a and Transforming Growth Factor-?1 and Its Relation to Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3093 <p>The study was done in January – may 2018, For measuring interleukin concentration 17-A and transforming growth factor-?1 in the serum of syst.emic lu.pus erythrmatosus (SLE) female patients(52 female) compared to the control group (36 healthy female). An E?zyme- Link ed Immun?s orbent Assay (ELISA) was used to diagnose both IL-17A and TGF ?1 in SLE patients and control. In case of IL-17A High significant in.crease (P &lt; 0.0001) in SLE patients (38.54 pg / mL) compare d with he althy co.ntrol (20.24 pg / mL) was observed, while in patients with SLE, the transforming growth factor-? was (70.90 pg / mL) compared to healthy control (116.66 pg / mL) (P &lt; 0.0001). To all SLE patients and control, The laboratory features include full blood count ,ery.throcyte sedimentation rate ESR, ,an.d immunological tests like C3,C4,ANA and anti ds-DNA were done. ESR , WBC , ANA and Urea were significantly higher in SLE patient than con trol group (p.value 0.0001, 0.0001, 0.024, 0.0001 respectively) whereas Hemoglobin were significantly lower in SLE Patient than control group (p.value 0.0001) .C3&amp;C4 were lower in SLE patients but with no significance value.</p> Mohammed.T. Alaanzy1, Jinan .MJ.Alsaffar2, Ahmed AbdulBari3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3093 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Device-associated Infections (DAIs) in ICU: Using new CDC/ NHSN definitions http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3095 <p>Surveillance of device-associated infections (DAIs) in intensive-care units (ICUs) is essential for a suitable healthcare strategy-planning. This study was conducted to determine the DAIs rate, microbial epidemiology, and antimicrobial resistance pattern (AMR) in ICU. Three major DAIs, ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) were assessed prospectively during 6 months (2018 March 21 to September 22) in an 18-bed ICU of a tertiary teaching hospital in Tehran according to new CDC/NHSN definitions for surveillance of DAIs. The incidence of VAP, CAUTI, and CLABSI were 38.2, 8.9, and 13.5 per 1000 device-days respectively. The most organisms were Acinetobacter baumannii (34.9%), Klebsiella pneumonia (19%), E.coli (10.7%), Candida (10.7%), Enterococcus Spp. (8.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.7%), and Staphylococcus aureus (2.9%). Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing was 47.4%. Acinetobacter resistance to Ampicillin-sulbactam and carbapenems was 80.6% and more than 90% respectively. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 66.6% and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) was 88.9%. This study showed high incidence of DAIs and resistant organisms in the ICU. Preventive measures are essential to decrease the rates.</p> Mostafa Mohammadi1, Arash Seifi2, Maryam Mokhtaryan3, Azam Ghahan4, Sara Ghaderkhani3, Esmaeil Mohammadnejad5, Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh6 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3095 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 NOAEL Benzene in White Mice as the Basis for Determining the Safe Limit of Benzene Concentration in the Pulogadung Shoe Industry Home in Jakarta http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3096 <p>The shoe industry in its operational activities is very dependent on the quality of the material, one of which is glue containing benzene, the industrial workers have a risk of exposure to benzene. The purpose of this study was to determine the safe concentration of benzene in the leather shoe industry in the small industrial village of Pulogadung, Jakarta. This research is descriptive research. The population in this study were shoe workers who worked on the installation of solee 1 and solee 2, which amounted to 16 people. The results of the study were quantitatively analyzed to determine the safe concentration of benzene for workers obtained from data on benzene concentrations in the workplace, worker height, worker weight, rats’ weight, worker respiration rate, length of work, worker body surface area, surface area mice body, highest dose of toxin without effect on experimental animals (NOAEL), Km factor in animals (Animal Km), factor Km in workers (Human Km), and safe limit for toxin dose for workers (RfC). The measurement results of the concentration of benzene in the sole 1 section were 0.19 ppm and in the sole 2 part was 0.06 ppm, which means that the concentration of benzene is still below the Threshold Value according to Minister of Manpower Regulation Number 13 of 2011 at 0.5 ppm. Based on the calculations that have been done, the safe limit value is 0.021 ppm. Based on the minimum risk level (MRL), the concentration of benzene every day that can cause acute effects is 0.009 ppm and that can cause chronic effects is 0.003 ppm. From these standards, it can be seen that the concentration of benzene in the leather shoe industry has the potential to have an impact on the health of workers. Control measures are needed to see potential health problems that workers can experience because of the benzene. Recommendations to the leather shoe industry are to periodically monitor benzene levels in the air, conduct health checks on workers, and use personal protective equipment on workers such as masks to reduce levels of inhaled benzene into workers’ bodies</p> Muh. Arfandi Setiawan1, Herman Bagus1, Aisy Rahmania1, Cut Suci1, Carmelita Agustin1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3096 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Relationship between Heat Stress and Dehydration in the Continous Casting Machine Section of Pt X http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3098 <p>One of the hazards in the CCM (Continuous Casting Machine) section of PT X is the heat stress. The heat stress is predominantly caused by hot metal liquids processed before being compacted into billets. Heat Stress causes workers sweating a lot and leads to dehydration. The purpose of this study is to find the correlation between heat stress and dehydration in CCM (Continuous Casting Machine) section of PT X. It is an observational study and a cross sectional study due to time examined. The tools to measure heat stress is Heat Stress Apparatus Quest Temp 36 and measurement of work dehydration is by observing the color of the respondent’s urine compared to the urine color table. This study has a sample of 30 workers exposed to the hot work climate in CCM (Continuous Casting Machine) section of PT X. The data analysis techniques used are univariate and bivariate analysis techniques. The results show that the highest working climate in the place is 42.3 oC and of the 30 respondents studied, there are 28 respondents who are dehydrated, ranging from mild to severe. By using the chi-square test statistical calculations to see the correlation, p is 0.045 where p &lt;?, means there is correlation between the work climate and work dehydration. Suggestions that can be given to companies to overcome heat stress problems are by adding fan blowers in the workplace and providing electrolyte salts added to the workers’ drinks.</p> Muhammad Cahya Nur Siddiq1, Mulyono1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3098 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of CHOP Chemotherapy Implementation Towards Reduced Global Longitudinal Strain in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3100 <p>Background: Doxorubicin in CHOP regimen is still the golden standard of first-line chemotherapy in patients with NHL (Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma); however, it has enormous cardiotoxicity side-effects. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of CHOP chemotherapy implementation towards the GLS reduction in cumulative dosage of doxorubicin ? 100 mg/m. Method: This study was pre experimental analysis with modified cohort. The subjects were observed for 1 month, since the first chemotherapy until 1 week after the second chemotherapy. The echocardiogram procedure with ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain was conducted twice which was before the first chemotherapy and 1 week after the second chemotherapy. Results: The implementation of CHOP therapy with the cumulative dosage of ?100 mg/m2 has resulted in reduced GLS from 19.62% to -18.03%. The reduction of GLS&gt;10% was 40% while the LVEF has not been obtained any reduction &gt; 10%. The case of subclinical left ventricular dysfunctions was attained 16%. Conclusion: The implementation of CHOP chemotherapy with the dosage of ?100mg/m2 has been proved to cause reduced GLS and subclinical left ventricular dysfunctions.</p> Muhammad Perdana Airlanga1, Rochmad Romdoni1, Ami Asharianti2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3100 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Metronidazole on Clopidogrel Bisulphate Efficacy in Male Albino Rats http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3101 <p>The data about this combination effect on platelet function and hematological parameters are sparse, but there is only mention in many medical science websites such as Medscape, there are possible interaction between it, in which metronidazole cause inhibition to cytochrome CYP3A4 which responsible on clopidogrel metabolism, this may put the patients that on clopidogrel bisulphate therapy at risk of clot formation and may be progress, this may occur because clopidogrel is at inactive form and need to activation by cytochrome mention above, so this study was performed in order to achieve the following aims: studying the efficacy of clopidogrel bisulphate on coagulation process by measuring bleeding time when giving clopidogrel alone and in combination with metronidazole and studying the possible effect of two drug alone and in combination on hematological parameters in male albino rats</p> Saddam Jumaa Nasser1, Muhammed M. Al-Ani2, Mohammad Sinjar Farhan3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3101 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Slow Back Stroke Massage, Cold-compress and Warm-compress to the Level of Prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) in Primary Dysmenorrhea http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3102 <p>The cause of primary dysmenorrhea is excessive release of the hormone prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF2?). The aim of this study was to assess the influence of SBBM, cold-compresses and warm-compresses toward the level of PGF2? in primary dysmenorrhea, using Post Test Only with Control Group Design and PretestPostest Control Group Design. The subjects were 76 female-student, selected by purposive sampling. NRS used to measure the pain level and ELISA used to measure PGF2? levels. The data were analyzed by using Paired Sample T-Test, One-Way Anova and Kruskal-Wallis test. SSBM, cold-compresses and warmcompresses are effective to decreasing of pain level and PGF2? levels in primary dysmenorrhoea.</p> Mukhoirotin1, Kurniawati1, Diah Ayu Fatmawati1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3102 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Enhanced the Antibacterial and Mechanical properties of UHMWPE by Addition Sort Fibers of Polyacrylonitraile PAN, Graphene Nanoplate (GNP) and Hydroxyapatite (HAp) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3103 <p>The UHMWPE is a gold material in total joint replacement due to excellent properties but with the time was degradation therefor, In present study it was reinforced with 5% short fibers of polyacrylonitriale (PAN) and different weight fraction (0.3, 0.8 and 1.3)% of graphene nanoplate (GNP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) to increase the mechanical properties (flexural strength, flexural modulus, compression strength and hardness) due to good bonding between fibers and nanoparticles (GNP, HAp) with polymer which improved the loud transfer from matrix to reinforcement phases, and also attributed to good mechanical properties of reinforcement fillers. Moreover, these fillers maintained the antibacterial properties to avoid infection which can happened per implantation of knee joint replacement.</p> Najim A. Saad1, Massar Najim Obaid1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3103 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Relationship of Age, Working Periode, and Work Attitude with Complaints of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on Workers in the Sumenep Batik Industry Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3104 <p>Making batik pattern is a job involving hand pinning the canting spout (a small metal cup with a wooden handle) and bending. Unnatural working position for a long time can cause a variety of health problems to workers, one of which is the hands. This can cause Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) which is closely related to repeated and excessive use of hands. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of age, working periode and work attitude with complaints of carpal tunnel syndrome on workers in the Sumenep Batik Industry. This study is an analytical research using observational methods and through a cross sectional approach. The population in the study were all worker in batik who worked using canting. The sample was 32 workers out of 47 workers in the population. Data was collected using interview, questionnaires, panel tests, and work attitude measurements using the RULA observation sheet. The results showed that 68.8% of respondents experienced complaints of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. The majority of CTS complaints were from respondents aged 36-45 years, working for more than 10 years, and having high risk work attitude. The conclusion is that there is a relationship between age, working period and work attitude with CTS complaints. Industrial owners are expected to prepare the same number of melted-wax pan and the workers, so that the workers will have more ergonomic work attitudes. Workers are suggested to take short breaks, do CTS exercises, to immediately visit to the nearest health center if they experience CTS complaints</p> Nanik Khomairoh1, Noeroel Widajati2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3104 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analysis Study of Different Positions by Hands and Feet on Functional Mobility Assessed by Five Times Sit to Stand Test on Post-Stroke Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3105 <p>Background: Five times sit to stand test (FTSTS) has been recognized for its validity and reliability in assessing muscle strength of the lower extremities functionally, evaluating functional mobility, balance and risk of falling in post-stroke individuals. However, there is no standard protocol for FTSTS implementation. Objectives: To analyze the differences in functional mobility assessed with FTSTS results in various poststroke post-stroke hand posture and posture changes. Method: There were 11 patients ischemic stroke patients enrolled in the study. The age ranked from 4060 years old. This study used an observational and cross-sectional study. The characteristic and FTSTS data was recorded in the Five times sit to stand test form that designed for this study. The data will then be analyzed using paired t-test in groups with SSPS 16.0 program. Results: The paired t-test results show that there are significant differences between the FTSTS results in both hand positions, either on the spontaneous feet position or asymmetric feet position (p = 0.038 and 0.020). There are no significant differences in FTSTS results with changes in spontaneous or asymmetric feet position (p = 0.779 and 0.278). Conclusion: The augmented hand position gives the best result to shift the center of the body mass on the post-stroke patient with post-hand changes. Then, there was no difference in functional mobility assessed by FTSTS in feet position changes of the post-stroke patient.</p> Nini Natalia Li1, Bayu Santoso2, R. A. Meisy Andriana3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3105 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Fatigue and Musculoskeletal Complaints on Pedicab drivers in the Pedicab Association Solo Balapan Station http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3106 <p>Musculoskeletal complaints can occur when muscles or skeletons receive a load or work is done repeatedly and the work is done for a long time. Pedaling a pedicab every day for a long time can cause fatigue. The fatigue felt by the pedicab drivers will have an impact on the pain in the muscles both in the legs, back, hands, shoulders, and neck. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the level of work fatigue and musculoskeletal complaints on pedicab drivers in the pedicab association Solo Balapan Station. This type of research is quantitative research. The research method used observational research. The study design was cross-sectional. The population in this study were 35 pedicab drivers, a sample of 33 people. Instrument research uses a questionnaire. Data analysis used the test Fisher exact. The results showed that there was a relationship between the level of work fatigue and musculoskeletal complaints (p=0.001). There is no relationship between age of workers and musculoskeletal complaints (p=1). There is no relationship between work periods drivers and musculoskeletal complaints (p=1). There is no relationship between the length of work/day with musculoskeletal complaints (p=0.273). There is no relationship between the average distance traveled with musculoskeletal complaints (p = 0.273)</p> Novvini Miriam Suaebo1, Kinanti Anggraini Dewi2, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3106 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Selective Membrane Electrode for Iodide Ion based on New Ionophore and its Application to Pharmaceutical Samples http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3107 <p>Background and Objectives: On the basis of newly synthesized i.e. imidazolidine-2tion (IMT), highly selective poly vinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrode was utilized as a carrier for iodide selective electrode via the incorporation of membrane ingredients within the graphite electrode surface. Method: The impact of different factors consisting of the pH, membrane arrangement and likely intervening anions were examined on the electrode’s response characteristics. The created sensor displayed Nernstian responses to iodide across a concentration of 1× 10-6 to 0.1 M with slopes of 57.8± 0.7 mV per iodide concentration decade and 7 × 10-7M detection limit, across a pH range of 3.0-10.5. Results: The sensor response time was 6 seconds and may be used for a minimum of 2 months with no significant divergence at potential responses. Conclusion: The electrode was implemented with success to determine iodide within synthetic pharmaceutical samples as well as using as an indicator electrode for precipitation titration.</p> Omid Hossieni1, Sayed Aboalfazl Maashi2, Narges Chamkouri1* Zolfaghar Sabati2, Pardis Nourbakhsh2, Mohammad Sajedinejad2, Avishan Gholamiyan1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3107 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Rituximab in the Treatment of Refractory Myasthenia Gravis : Studying the Outcomes using MMT Score and Need for Plasmapheresis in Baghdad Teaching Hospital http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3108 <p>Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an uncommon autoimmune disease that is caused by acetylcholine receptor antibodies (AChRA) at the neuromuscular junction. Its pathogenesis involves complement fixing antibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors, muscle-specific tyrosine kinase or low density lipoprotein receptor–related protein. Method: A descriptive case series study investigating rituximab in refractory MG was conducted in Baghdad teaching hospital .Patients who were included in the study had received a regimen of rituximab that was deemed appropriate by their treating physician. Results: A total of 24 patients with mean disease duration of 6.3 years ±3.6 standard deviation were included in this study. The results showed that the average age of patients was 33.3 ,years ±10.1 SD and 62.5% was females. All twenty four patients showed an obvious improvement in clinical status after finishing the follow-up period. The results demonstrated from all patients that enrolled in our study, only one patient that who was on 14 sessions of plasmapheresis was in need for plasmapheresis after induction of rituximab and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: There were a great clinical improvement as shown with MMT score in addition to discontinuation of plasma exchange treatments fallowing treatment with rituximab.</p> Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3108 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge toward Nursing Intervention for Eye Trauma at Baghdad Teaching Hospitals http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3109 <p>Abstract: Nurses in emergency care for eye trauma usually concentrate on life threatening issues which are emergency in most situations that lead to little concern of the less emergency issues like eye problems even it is serious problem. Objectives: Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge toward Nursing Intervention for Eye Trauma and to find out a relationship between nurses knowledge with some variables such as (educational level, year of experience in hospital, training course).Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted in the period of December 10th 2017 up to the end of 5th May 2018. The sample consisted of (100) nurses who were systematically selected one by one. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results: The majority of the study were female who accounted for (59%) of the total participants while male constituted (41%). Most of the study participants (32%) were ages over 41 years old. (43%) of the nurses were Nursing high school graduate. Seventy eight percent of the nurses were married and fourth eight percent were barely sufficient. Majority (83%) of nurses had training course. Conclusions: Findings of study demonstrate that, nurses have good knowledge about eyes Trauma.</p> Ahmed F. Hassan1, Tahseen R. Mohamed2, Aqeel H. Jassim2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3109 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anti malignant (HepG2, MOLT-3) Activity of One, Two, Three- Triazoles New Prepared Bearing Hetero Compounds in Baghdad http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3110 <p>In the current work, chemistry a group of related chemicals that are similar in structure or properties of new heterocyclic compounds were prepared from paraP.nitrobenzoic, acid. This work includes four parts: the first part Preparation of 5-(4-nitro phenyl)-1,33,4-thiaadiazol-2-amine by the reaction of p.pnitrobenzoic acid with thioseemicarbazide,the second part prepared 2-chloro-N-(5-(4-Nnitrophenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol2-yl) Aacetamide by reaction Chloroacetyl chloride with compound and part three contain reaction compound(2) with urea/thiourea to get compounds cyclization by using urea (thiourea) finally step reaction these compounds with different aldehydes and ketones in glacial acetic acid (6-10) , as shown in Scheme 1 The aim of present work is synthesis new derivatives of 1,2,3-Triazole having heterocyclic compounds on ring from the reaction of azine with a different reagent to give (1,2,3- Triazole) rings.The1,2,3-Triaazoles It has been derivatives A long time ago and has been Scout mainly for their potenitial in anti-tTumor chemotherapy the prepared of 11,2,3-Triazole financial products have good AAnti malignant (HepG2, MOLT-3) Activity. Many groupss have ccarried out focused research in this particularr</p> Ahmed Sa’adi Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3110 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Forensic Human and Non-human Blood Discrimination using Mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3111 <p>Background: The blood samples of spots typing regards most important step in forensic analysis. Determining the blood affiliation as human on non-human is not enough as a forensic tool leading to the truth . The mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene are suitable for taxonomy and species identification, especially for the discrimination of even closely related species. The current study aimed to showed the validity of designed 12S rRNA species specific primer pairs for human and nonhuman animal blood typing as a forensic tool. Methodology: Seventy two blood samples were collected from Homo sapiens, Ovis aries, Capra hircus and Bos taurus (18 blood samples from each). Five milliliter were withdrawn and placed in EDTAtube and stored in refrigerator for further processing. Four sets of species specific primer pairs targeting mitochondrial 12S rRNA were designed and checked. PCR and sequencing were performed and sequences were analyzed and register in GenBank. Results: the results revealed that, the amplicon of 12S rRNA gene of Homo sapiens were 800bp, Ovis aries were 560bp, Capra hircus were 460bp, and Bos taurus were 600bp The first confirmatory test for validity and specificity of designed primer pairs is no amplification for intraspecies primer pairs (i.e. using homo12S rRNA primer pairs to amplify Ovis aries, Capra hircus, and Bos taurus 12S rRNA will not give product and vice versa). The second confirmatory test is the results of sequencing. The identity percentage and alignment of sequences results of amplified 12S rRNA gene of homo sapiens, Ovis aries, Capra hircus and Bos taurus revealed that, the similarity percentage ranged from 98.03% to 100%.Conclusion: The current study conclude that, validity and accuracy of designed 12S rRNA species specific primer pairs for human and nonhuman animal blood typing as a forensic tool and there is no intraspecies cross amplification.</p> Ameer K. Idan1, Hussein O.M. Al-Dahmoshi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3111 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antifungal Activity of Crude and Phenolic Extract to Rice Crusts and Chemical Pesticide (Blitinute) in Inhibition of Fungi Isolate from Rice Seeds http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3112 <p>Objective: The major goal regarding the presented study is to evaluate the impact of the Rice extract from Rice Crusts and chemical pesticide (Blitinute) on the growth of pathogenic fungi. Method: Rice seed samples were collected directly from farmers field for isolating significant pathogenic fungi related to the seeds. Anti-fungal activity assay of the crude, Phenolic extract and chemical pesticide were determined by agar plating-method against some pathogenic fungi. Result: obtained results showed the effect concentration of rice seed extract on growth of fungi especially phenolic extract had wide spectrum antifungal activity than crude extract. when the use of chemical pesticide (Blitinute) at a concentration of 0.3% with reaching rate of inhibition to 100% to Fusarium graminerum , Penicillium viridicatum, while (88.8) the same concentration for the Aspergillus fumigates. In another than the use Integrations between two extract and chemical pesticide (Blitinute) to high effect against test fungi than one extract and chemical pesticide. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the presence of three pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus , Fusarium graminerium, Penicillium viridicatum) related to the rice grains have been controlled at various concentrations of two extract (crude &amp; phenolic) and chemical pesticide totally inhibited radial growth regarding all test fungi .</p> Angham Najah Al-khafaji1 Athraa Harjan Muhsin2, Mays Talip Abdallah3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3112 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Farnesoid X Receptor as a Novel Nuclear Receptor Sensing for Gallstone Diseases http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3113 <p>Objective:-The bile acid-make active nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) acting an significant part in lipid then glucose metabolism, besides furthermore, it controls numerous lipid carriers complicated in stone disposition. We observed whether a useful single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in FXR (82 G&gt;T) predisposed the gallstone development. Material and Method:- The polymorphism were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction monitored by PCR amplicons were commercially sequenced from both (forward and reverse) termini according to education manuals of the sequencing company (Macrogen Inc. Geumchen, Seoul, South Korea)., in two group match by age?20 : patient with gallstone (n=140) and stone-free control (n=140). Result :- For Sequencing of the 195 bp region within the NRIH4 (FXR) gene Within this locus, twenty samples were included in the present study that had shown to amplify the NR1H4 (or FXR) genetic sequences in the chromosome number 12. The latter gene is responsible for encoding on nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 4 (NR1H4). The alignment results of the 195 bp samples revealed the presence of one SNP occurred in this position in sample no. 10 within the analyzed twenty samples in comparison with the referring reference DNA sequences The sequencing chromatogram of the observed substitution SNP, as well as its detailed annotations, were documented, and the chromatogram details of the observed SNP were shown according to their positions in the PCR amplicon, in which samples no. 10-20 had shown this (T82G )variation. Conclusion:- the education presented that the variation allele of the communal FXR 82G&gt;T polymorphism was significantly associated with stone formation in Iraq patients. The association is possibly concluded the effect of the FXR 82G &gt;T polymorphism on the expression of the efflux carriers for lipid trails in hepatic.</p> Antesar Rheem Obead1, Maha Fahdil Mohammed2, Mohend AL. Shalah3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3113 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparision between Nonvisualized Finding of 3D-Tof Mrv Cerebral and Cerebral Angiography Result http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3114 <p>Background: Magnetic Resonance Venography (MRV) is a non-invasive method that evaluates the venous system without exposure to the radiation in the procedure compared to cerebral angiography and CT Venography. Nowadays, the use of MRV cerebral started to increase even though there are still many nonvisualized (not visualized vein image) on MRV led to divergent interpretations or noncompliance to the findings of cerebral angiography, which is the gold standard to evaluate venous system. There has been few research comparing MRV findings with cerebral angiography so far. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the findings of non-visualized on MRV compare to cerebral angiography as the gold standard in helping the interpretation of examinations to avoid misdiagnosis. Methods: Observational retrospective analytic study was used in this study that conducted at Husada Utama Surabaya Hospital from October 2013 to February 2014. 39 out of 49 patients selected as samples for fulfilling the inclusion criteria. The observation on the results of MRV and cerebral angiography procedures performed by two specialists of radiology, then the data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Based on the findings of abnormalities location from 39 samples, we found 35.45% abnormalities in the transverse sinus, 32.91% in the sigmoid sinus, 27.84% in the jugular vein, 2.53% in the straight sinus, and 1.27% in the superior sagittal sinus.The results of comparison between MRV test and cerebral angiography showed compliance at 21% hypoplasia with 88.9% of thrombus. MRV test results with the cause of hypoplasia have100% sensitivity, 67.4% specificity, and 70% accuracy.Meanwhile, we found that 41% sensitivity, 82% specificity, and 50% accuracy because of thrombus. Conclusion: There was significant compliance between 3D-TOF MRV cerebral findings along with cerebral angiography, especially at thrombus.</p> Arif Shidiq1, Anggraini Dwi Sensusiati1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3114 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the Effect of Short-Term Educational Program on Readiness of Patient’s Candidate for Endoscopy http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3115 <p>Background: Gastrointestinal endoscopy is one of the main diagnostic tools for gastrointestinal examination. In this study, we measured the effect pre- procedure education on the readiness of patients for the endoscopy. Method: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 70 patients aged 35-60 years who were candidates for endoscopy from SEP 2018 to MAY 2019. Data were collected by a valid and reliable, 22 items’ questionnaire that developed by the researcher. Data were analyzed by SPSS, version 16. Results: mean score of readiness for endoscopy in the intervention group 105.8 (5.3) was significantly higher than control group 62.6 (7.8), (p&lt;0.001). Also, the level of readiness of the intervention group was 11.4% good and 88.6% very good. The level of readiness of the control group was 91.4% moderate and 8.6% good. Conclusions: Considering the effect of pre- procedure education on the readiness of patients for the endoscopy, it can be inferred that providing educational programs before endoscopy can be helpful.</p> Arsalan Rostami1, Ali Khorshidi2, Ghobad Abangah3, Mosayeb Mozafari4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3115 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In silico Analysis of “Interferon Beta 1” In some Selected Animal Species http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3128 <p>Type I interferons (IFNs), are considered as a main host immune system cytokines effector against infectious virus. In addition to ?i?nnat?eim?munerecep?torbac?teriallig?ands and/or bact?erial infections. Furthermore, th?e development o?f kinds I?F?Ns are a?ls?o triggered, suggesting a wider physiological function f?or those cy?tok?inesi?nhom?eostaisi and h?ostprote?ctionth?an initially expected. Results: To recognize both structural divergence and sequence various bioinformatics methods were used. Initial sequence analysis of IFNß1 showed that they shared with human over 70% similarity and some identity like Rhesus monkey, pig , domestic cat ,for dog. With few exceptions, sequences showed a high degree of sequence preservation. The physicochemical analysis indicated a large developmental difference between humans and others and an estimate of 39% to 42% of hydrophobic residues. Four human mammals house mouse pig Norway rat have various Pfam types. The secondary structure of IFNß1 composed of ran?domco?il, Exv?tendedstr?anda?ndAl?phahe?lix. Conclusions: Depending o?nth?eres?ults collected, which maybe assumed th?at in these mammalian species IFNß1 has the same counterpart, highly retained and functional similarities.</p> Ashraf Fadhil Jomah1, Sepideh Parvizpour2, Jafar Razmara3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3128 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Rapid Qualitative Test for Drunkenness Detection and the Presence of Alcohol in Beverages http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3129 <p>In many situations like car accidents, troubles and crime scenes we need to know if someone is drunk. This research includes rapid test to detect the alcohol drinking for those that not exhibit any signs of drunk like ataxia and vomiting, and to detect the beverage containing alcohols. The study included 30 volunteers of alcoholics and five types of beverages (Whisky, vodka, beer, wine and barbican). The sampling includes random quantity of sputum and 2 ml of blood from the volunteers. The sputum and beverages are examined by qualitative method depending on the change of dichromate solution color which is saturated and dried up on a filter paper piece in polyethylene container ready for use. If the color changes from yellow to blue-green this means that the sample contains alcohol and the result is positive, and if the color of dichromate dose not changed the result is negative and the sample dose not contains alcohol. The blood samples were examined by the measuring of GGT enzyme to confirm alcohol drinking. All of the sputum samples showed positive results by changing the color of dichromate. All of the beverages except barbican showed positive results this means that these beverages contain alcohol while barbican not. The values of GGT for volunteers were higher than the normal values which confirm the test of sputum.</p> Ausama Abbas Faisal1, Maher Ahmed Abed2, Khalid Jamal Abdulwahab3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3129 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nurses’ Knowledge Regarding Prevention of Surgical Site Infections at Baghdad Cardiac Centers and Hospitals http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3130 <p>Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs), are defined as infections that occur within 30 days of the operation, Nosocomial infection, also called hospital acquired infection occur in patient who are admitted in Hospital for a long or short period of time which leading to cause of morbidity and death, therefore, we decided to establish the extent of knowledge of Surgical site infections Prevention among nurses at Baghdad Cardiac Centers and Hospitals. Objectives: the study aimed to assess the nurse’s knowledge regarding prevention of surgical site infections and to find out the relationship between Nurses’ Knowledge and some of demographic data (age, gender, level of education, years of experiences, and training session). Methods: Across- sectional study was conducted in the period of December 16th, 2018 up to the end of 18th June, 2019. A purposive sample consisted of (50) nurses were selected out of two cardiac centers and one cardiac hospital in Baghdad city. The data collected was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 the study instrument consist of two major sections were constructed it is based on the review of literatures. First one is concerned with demographic data for sample, and the second section is knowledge, The extent of knowledge concerning SSI was determined using multiple-choice questionnaires covering the nurse’s knowledge, Question tools is composed of (23) items, reliability and validity of the questionnaire was determined through the analysis of pilot study. Data were collected through the use of self-report method, which analyzed through two statistical approaches. They are descriptive statistical analysis (frequencies, percentage) and inferential statistical analysis (Chi-Square). Results: the findings of study reveals the study sample reveals that most of the sample (78%) were in age group (25-35) years and most them (52%) were female, the majority of the sample (68%) were married and most of them (42%) were nursing college graduate, the high percent (90%) of them having participation in training session, the majority of their nursing experience in general were (42%) from (1-5) years and most of them (66%) have experience in cardiac care unit from (1-5) years. Conclusions: most of the study sample has moderate knowledge regarding prevention of surgical site infection in Baghdad cardiac centers and hospitals. Recommendation: on the basis of the results of the study the researcher recommends that further research needed with large sample, to find out more result relationships and in different area. And special training programs should be designed and constructed for nurses in these areas to increase their skills.</p> Bassima A. Naji Msc1, Aqeel H. jasim2, Ayad M. Moussa3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3130 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Docking, Pharmacokinetics, and Toxicity Prediction of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) on IKK Receptor in Photoaging Prevention http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3131 <p>Photoaging is skin aging, caused by chronic exposure of ultraviolet radiation. Photoaging decreases patients’ quality of life because the skin was the outer organ seen by others. Ultraviolet radiation causes oxidative stress, that activated inhibitory kappa B kinase (IKK), increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and degradation of collagen. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was the main green tea polyphenol and the main source of biologic activity of green tea. This study was an in silico study, aimed to obtain the effectiveness of EGCG component through molecular docking on IKK receptor (PDB ID: 5EBZ). The bioinformatics tools based on reverse docking used in this study, were Protein Data Bank, ChemDraw, Chem3D, and Molegro Virtual Docker software. Docking and binding site analysis showed, that EGCG was able to interact with IKK receptor. Rerank score of interaction between EGCG and IKK receptor was higher than that of arbutin and 5TL_701[A]. It showed that EGCG has higher potential in photoaging prevention than arbutin, as one of the agents in photoaging prevention. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity (ADMET) prediction in this in silico study were conducted using pkCSM On Line tool. The pkCSM results showed EGCG was predicted having good pharmacokinetics profile without toxicity effect.</p> Damayanti1,2, Cita Rosita Sigit Prsakoeswa2, Djoko Agus Purwanto3, Anang Endaryanto4, Siswandono3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3131 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between High Serum Uric Acid Levels with Occurrence of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3132 <p>Background: Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy is a chronic microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) leads to increased risk of foot ulceration and morbidity.The increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels have been linked to macro vascular disease in T2DM. We found that the correlation between SUA levels and diabetic peripheral neuropathy has not been investigated. Objective: To determine the correlation between high serum uric acid levels and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Method: The case-control design was used in this study and the sampling was done consecutively by following the inclusion and the exclusion criteria. The diabetic peripheral neuropathy was evaluated using EMNG and the serum were taken for uric acid levels examination. Chi square test was used for data analysis. Results: Thirty subjects were enrolled and divided into an experimental group of 15 subjects and a control group of 15 subjects as well. We found that the diabetic peripheral neuropathy did not show a significant correlation with high serum uric acid levels, p=0,136 and OR 3,143 (CI 95% 0,681-14,503). Conclusion: High serum uric acid levels did not have correlation with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.</p> Mudjiani Basuki1, Muhammad Hamdan1, Fidiana1, Fadil1, Deasy Putri Sukarno1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3132 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nephrotoxicity Effects of Post-Cisplatin Paclitaxel Chemotherapy in Severe Head and Neck Tumor http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3133 <p>Background: Cisplatin-paclitaxel is a combination of chemotherapy drugs used in the treatment of head and neck malignancy. The main side effect of cisplatin is nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity manifests in decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine serum, and decreased magnesium and potassium serum. Objective: this study aimed to determine the nephrotoxicity effects of post cisplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy in patients with malignant head and neck tumors. Method: Patients with malignant head and neck tumor who received cisplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy were taken consecutively and examined their GFR, BUN, creatinine, magnesium and potassium pre- and post-chemotherapy. The data were statistically analyzed whether nephrotoxicity happened post cisplatinpaclitaxel chemotherapy. Result: Thirty five samples consisted of 24 men and 11 women. The diagnose were 25 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (71.42%), 3 of each sinonasal carcinoma and laryngeal carcinoma (8.57%), and 1 of each tongue carcinoma, parotid carcinoma, tonsillar carcinoma and MAE carcinoma (2.86%). The average of prechemotherapy GFR was 94.43±17.44 ml/min, average of post-chemotherapy GFR was 68.17±17.96. Mostly found decreased mild kidney function in 24 (68.57%) post chemotherapy patients. Conclusion: There was a nephrotoxicity effects after cisplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy treatment in patients with head and neck malignant tumors treated</p> Des Dwiputra Effendy1, Soeprijadi1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3133 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of CD4 and Distal Sensory Polyneuropathy in HivAids Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3134 <p>Infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has developed into one of the most important health problems in the world. Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common complication of peripheral neuropathy in HIV-AIDS. Risk factors associated with DSP are elderly, stage of HIV disease, (cluster differential-4) CD4 count, and high plasma viral load in plasma. To analyze the relationship between CD4 and distal sensory polyneuropathy in HIV-AIDS patients. Subjects of the study examined the degree of severity of distal sensory polyneuropathy by examination of the Surface Nerve Surgical Nerve Speed, then divided into case group and control group. After that, the subjects performed a CD4 count examination. Data analysis using chi-square test. Most body mass index (BMI) subjects did not experience malnutrition by 35% of case group and 35% control group (p = 1.000). Most subjects aged ?40 years were 37.5% of case group and 25% control group (p = 0.102). Analysis of CD4 relation with Speed of Nerve Surgical Nerve Survival was obtained p = 0.038. There was a significant relationship between CD4 and Distal Sensory Polyneuropathy in HIV-AIDS patients. While age and malnutrition were not found a significant relationship with distal sensory polyneuropathy.</p> Desti Ariani Kistanti1, Paulus Sugianto1, Erwin Astha Triyono2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3134 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Legal Efforts on Forensic Examination of the Death of Polling Station Working Committees (KPPS) Members http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3135 <p>Indonesia has held its general election on April 17th, 2019. During the 2019 general election, there were 11.239 members of polling station KPPS members passing out and 527 people passing away. Due to this circumstance, forensic examination is required to examine the reason behind the cases of the dead and the sick members. Therefore, this present article analyzes two issues: 1) how legal effort is conducted regarding health services provided for polling station KPPSmembers; and 2) what action the government do to take the responsibility on the death of the members. This research is categorized as legal research that employs four approaches. The first approach is statuary approach by using ordinatie sth No. 350 of 1957 Visum Et Repertum, preamble of 1945 State Constitution of Republic Indonesia article 179 of Criminal Code, Law of Health No. 36 of 2009 and Election Law No. 7 of 2017. The second one is case approach. The next is conceptual approach for both death and ill health cases. The last one is using comparative approach. The result showed that the members of polling station committee died due to some illness suffered by the members such as cardiovascular, heart attack, stroke, or even all of them. However, for members who do not suffer from hereditary disease, the cause the death is due to the heavy workload they had that surpasses 20 until 22 hours a day. Besides, lack of sleep is also considered contribute to the members’ death and sickness.</p> Dewi Iriani1, Abdul Kadir1, Agus I Supriyanto1, Ahmad Arifin1, Made Wira Suhendra1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3135 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Burden of Toxoplasma Gondii In Spontaneous Miscarriage and its Association with Rhoptry Protein 5 Gene and Toxoplasma gondii specific primers GRA 6 Gene Expression in Iraq Women http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3136 <p>Background: One of the major infectious micro-organism that is associated with spontaneous abortion is toxoplasmosis. Under diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and lack of understanding the exact mechanism and pathogenesis of spontaneous abortion associating toxoplasmosis are in our opinion the main problem facing clinicians who are concerned with categorization and management of spontaneous abortion in our pregnant ladies. Aim of the current study: to diagnose placental tissues parasitic infections using sophisticated nested PCR method in addition to evaluating gene expression of two pathogenetically Toxoplasma genes, namely ROP-5 and GRA-6, as a step toward estimating the exact prevalence of Toxoplasma associated spontaneous abortion in Iraqi community Patients and methods: The case control study was based on the inclusion of 101 women with spontaneous abortion and 20 pregnant ladies who succeeded to get pregnant serving as control group. The placental tissues were obtained from the pool of women visiting Al-Kut maternity teaching hospital for purpose of delivery or because of abortion. Those tissues were then processed in central laboratory using conventional PCR technique searching for evidence of toxoplasma gondii DNA. Obtained tissues were also subjected to real time PCR for detection of Rhoptry protein 5 gene expression and Toxoplasma gondii specific primers GRA 6. The lab work was done according to instruction of providing company. Results: Positive results were limited to women with spontaneous abortion, that is, none of control women had PCR evidence of Toxoplasma DNA in their placental tissues, 72 (71.3 %) versus 0 (0.0 %); the difference was highly significant (P &lt; 0.001). An estimation of the risk of abortion accompanying toxoplasmosis has been carried out in terms of approximate Odds ratio and the results has been strikingly high (100.8). Both Rhoptry protein 5 and Toxoplasma gondii specific primers GRA 6 gene expressions have been significantly correlated to serum IgG and IgM positive tests in a negative way. Conclusion: PCR carried out on placental tissue is significantly higher sensitive in detecting toxoplasma gondii than serology and Both Rhoptry protein 5 and Toxoplasma gondii specific primers GRA 6 gene expressions play significant role in spontaneous abortion.</p> Dhamyaa Kareem Kadhim1, Abdulsada Abdulabbas Rahi1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3136 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Changes of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Immunoglobulin G (igG) in Respiratory Excercise http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3137 <p>Background: Skeletal muscle contraction in exercise will synthesize and release Interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the systemic circulation. IL-6 is a pleiotropic, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine. IL-6 in exercise can modulate the immune response and metabolism in the liver, adipose tissue, Hypothalamushypophyse-adrenal (HPA). Objectives: To analyze and prove changes in levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) in respiratory art sports of a exercise club. Methods: Thirty-four members of the breathing arts sport who met the inclusion criteria, male sex, adult age (?21 years), willing to participate were enrolled in this study. Examination of IL-6 and igG levels were performed by using Elisa method. The kit for IL-6 used Human IL-6 Immunoassay and IgG level used Total Human IgG Assay Results: The t-test results obtained p = 0.027 (p &lt;0.05), there was a change between IL-6 pre-test and IL-6 post-test of breathing exercise for three weeks. The t-test results obtained p = 0.000 (p &lt;0.05) there was a change between IgG level of pre-test and IgG post-test of breathing arts sports treatment, this change increased significantly. Conclusion: There was a change in levels of IL-6 and IgG in the breathing excercise.</p> Didik Agus Santoso1, FM. judajana1, Elyana Asnar2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3137 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association between Stretching Exercise with Virtual Reality Game and Over Head Pulley of Frozen Shoulder Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3138 <p>Background and Objective: Frozen Shoulder (FS) or adhesive capsulitis is the most common musculoskeletal condition that causes pain and extensive restriction of joint motion. Virtual Reality (VR) provides a new option that is expected to help the rehabilitation program. The objective of the study was to compare the effect of stretching exercises with virtual reality games (VRG) and Over Head Pulley (OHP) through shoulder joint motion range (JMR) improvement and functional ability of FS. Method: This research was conducted on July to September 2012, in Medical Rehabilitation Outpatient Unit of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya. The samples were frozen shoulder patients. These inclusion criteria were new or old unilateral FS patients, the limitations of shoulder JMR both passive and active, with a minimum limit of 30 ° compared to normal shoulder JMR at least 2 shoulder movements, flexion and abduction between 6 weeks to 6 months, aged 35-65 years. Result: The One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test on the age range obained no significant differences (p = 0.418), the chi-square test on the sexes showed no significant differences (p = 1,000). The median of pleasure after treatment with the Mann-Whitney Test showed a non-significant difference (p = 0.317). Conclusion: Stretching exercises compared with VGR exercises in FS patients provided the same benefits of stretching with the OHP on improvement.</p> Donny Gunawan1, Reni Hendrarati Kusharyaningsih1, Noor Idha Handajani1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3138 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, C-Reactive Protein, Blood Deposition Rate, ?-Hcg Expression and Tumor Volume to Lung Metastasis Risk in Osteosarcoma Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3139 <p>Osteosarcoma is the most common type of sarcoma that found in bone. The survival rate in osteosarcoma patients was less than 20.00% at the end of 1980 but is currently increasing to over 70.00% for nonmetastatic patients. The objective to analyze the correlation between Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Blood Deposition Rate (LED) , hCG expression and tumor volume with pulmonary metastases in osteosarcoma patients. The subjects were osteosarcoma patients that the data taken from January 2015 to December 2016. The subjects will be clinical, radiological (plain, CT scan thorax, MRI) examinations, serum marker tests consisting of ALP, LDH, CRP and LED and histopathologic staining IHC ?-hCG. The study design was cross-sectional, while the statistical analysis used was normality test, Spearman correlation, chi-square test and logistic regression. The results majority of subjects were male (52.00%) and aged 11-20 years (85.00%). The tumor volume (p = 0.07), LDH levels (p = 0.07), and ALP levels (p = 0.016) were statistically significant for pulmonary metastases with moderate correlation (r = 0.587; 0.587; 0.53). The tumor volume was the most sensitive biomarker to diagnose lung metastasis in osteosarcoma patients (p = 0.171). Conclusion among other protein biomarkers, tumor volume was most sensitive in diagnosing pulmonary metastases. The volume of the tumor will increase the risk of pulmonary metastases in osteosarcoma patients.</p> Achmad Fachrizal1, Dwikora Novembri Utomo1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3139 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Amniotic Membrane-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on TNF-? Expression and Inflammatory Cells Infiltration during Vesicovaginal Fistule Repair Healing Process http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3140 <p>Background: Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) causes high morbidity in women, affecting both physical and psychological condition. Until now, surgery is the mainstay treatment for this condition. However, prolonged exposure during inflammatory phase after surgery is still a problem in the healing process. TNF-? as potent pro-inflammatory cytokine plays an important role by attracting inflammatory cells to wound tissue. Amniotic membrane is the source for mesenchymal stem cells that had anti-inflammatory and imunomodulatory effect. This study aims to evaluate the effect of Amniotic Membrane-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AMMSC) on TNF-? expression and inflammatory cell infiltration during VVF repair healing process in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit model. Method: This study was an experimental study with randomized posttest only control group design. Twentyseven NZW rabbit as VVF model was used in this study, randomly divided into 3 different treatment groups after underwent surgical treatment (no treatment &lt;C group&gt;, treated with freeze-dried amniotic membrane &lt;T1 group&gt;, and treated with freeze-dried amniotic membrane that seeded with AMMSC &lt;T2 group&gt;). Evaluation was done 7 days after treatment. TNF-? expression was evaluated semiquantitatively using modified Remmele-Stegner scale. Inflammatory cell infiltration was evaluated using modified Klopfleisch method. Results: Mean TNF-? expression between C, T1, and T2 group were significantly different (8.5 ± 1.6; 7.1 ± 1.2; 1.6 ± 1.2 respectively, p &lt; 0.001). Median inflammatory cell infiltration between C, T1, and T2 group were significantly different (3.0; 2.0; 1.0 respectively, p &lt; 0.001). Conclusion: AMMSC significantly reduced TNF-? expression and inflammatory cells infiltration during VVF repair healing process.</p> Eighty Mardiyan Kurniawati1, Agung Nur Rachman W1, Budi Santoso1, Harry Parathon1, Widjiati2, Fedik A. Rantam2, Tri Hastomo1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3140 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 suPAR is a Bad Omen for Chronic Kidney Disease Progression http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3141 <p>The rationale for considering serum soluble- urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (s-uPAR) concentration as a potential biomarker for incipient CKD was primarily based on reports that increased levels of this receptor will serve as a circulating permeability variable that may be impaired at the start of FSGS and DN, a crucial explanation for CKD. So in early stages(1-3) of CKD, suPAR was evaluated. The aims of present paper are to investigate whether patients with CKD have distinct circulating suPAR, that could lead to a potential development of noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers of the disease. And finally using healthy subjects as a control group to determine specificity and sensitivity . 135 subjects were incorporated in this study, 30 were healthy control, with mean age 48.7±9.7years, and they were 14 males and 16 females. 105CKD patient , with mean age 50.1±10.0years, they were 54 males and 51 females. Blood samples were collected. Serum after centrifugation was isolated for estimation of suPAR by Enzyme linked immune sorbent assay , creatinine, and urea by enzymatic method . Early morning urine sample was collected to be used for determination albumin creatinine ratio in patient . suPAR level was higher in CKD patients than in healthy control, 6.179±2.221 versus 2.303±0.475, respectively; the difference was highly significant (P &lt; 0.001) .To study the potential role of suPAR in diagnosis of patients with CKD, ROC showed that the cutoff value of suPAR was &gt; 3.5 ng / ml fold shift with sensitivity and specificity; the AUC was 0.826 (95 % confidence interval: 0.690-0.920) and therefore 82.6 % precision and significance level of (P &lt; 0.001). In conclusion, The suPAR is significantly more effective and also more comprehensive to CKD clinical assessment and can be supported with creatinine blood analysis.</p> Ekhlas Abdallah Hassan1, Fayhaa M. Khaleel2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3141 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Interventions on Women Under Intimate Partner Violence: An Integrative Review http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3142 <p>The present study is aimed to determine the interventions on women under intimate partner violence. This integrative review was performed by searching in international (Web of science, PubMed, Scopus Science direct, and EMBASE) and national (SID and magiran) databases were searched from inception to December 31, 2018. The keywords used included “interventions” OR “IPV” OR “intimate partner violence”. The search of studies, data extraction and screening conducted by two researcher. Of 2782 studies 30 studies included in final stage. These studies were mainly investigated the effect of the intervention type on domestic violence against women. Of these, 17 studies focused on victims of domestic violence, of which 7 focused on supporting and empowering victims of violence, and 7 were interventional studies, and the remaining 3 studies were online and computer-based interventions. Another category of interventions focused on training and empowerment of health professionals and providers (7 studies), and two studies focused on both groups of DV victims and care providers. In addition to the DV victims and care providers, 4 studies included community factors in interventions. It also seems that carrying out comprehensive and adequate interventions on women under domestic violence is needed</p> Elaheh Asadi-Bidmeshki1, Jamileh Mohtashami2, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh2, Meimanat Hosseini3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3142 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effectiveness Comparison of Valproic Acid 500 mg and Amitriptyline 15 mg in Reducing the Frequency of Headache Attack in Patients with Tension-Type Headache http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3143 <p>Background: Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common headache. Continuous analgesic use can develop into headache caused by drug abuse (medication overused headache); thus, the preventive therapy is necessary. Amitriptyline and valproic acid are drugs reported to reduce the frequency of headache in TTH patients. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of valproic acid 500 mg and amitriptyline 15 mg in reducing the frequency of headache attack in patients with tension-type headache. Methods: The study applied a Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial involving 50 TTH patients. The subjects were divided into two groups: amitriptyline 15 mg and valproate acid 500 mg. The period of drug administration was 6 weeks. The variables that were compared were the decreasing frequency of headache and the intensity of the pain. Results: There was no significant difference in the decrease of headache frequency (p = 0.730) and pain intensity (p = 0.430) between the amitriptyline group and valproate acid group. However, each drug effectively decreased the frequency of headache and pain intensity in TTH patients (p = 0.000). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the effectiveness of valproic acid 500 mg and amitriptyline 15 mg in reducing the frequency of headache in patients with TTH.</p> Elsa Susanti1, Isti Suharjanti1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3143 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Decrease of Epstein-Barr Virus Anti Early Antigen Imunoglobulin a Levels and Primary Tumor Size in PostCisplatin-Paclitaxel Chemotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3144 <p>Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) chronic infection is a common head and neck malignancy in South China and Indonesia. Although radiation and chemotheraphy is the main theraphy, it requires repeated and invasive biopsy for pathological evaluation. Therefore, a marker is required for screening including the level of anti early antigen imunoglobin a serology level. Method: Pre-pots test, longitudinal cohort design. The PTV of 18 samples were examined using CT scan, while their serum EBV anti EA IgA level were examined using pre and post three series-cisplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy ELISA. Results: Although there was no significant changes in the level of anti EA IgA, however we found a decrease in the mean of pre-chemotherapy anti EA IgA level from 136.49 U/ml to 124.61 U/ml. There was significant changes in the VTP in pre and post-chemotherapy (p&lt;0.05). The mean of VTP in pre-chemotherapy was 66.26 cm3 (SD-38.61 cm3), while in post-chemotherapy was 31.64 cm3 (SD-27.5 cm3). The delta mean of changes in anti EA IgA level was 11.8 U/ml and in VTP was 34.62 cm3. No correlation was found between the changes of anti EA IgA and the changes of VTP in post-chemotheraphy (p&gt;0.05). However, decreases were found in the level of EBV EA IgA and PTV in pre and post NPC patients. Conclusion: There were decreases of serum EBV EA IgA level and PTV in pre and post-chemotherapy NPC patients.</p> Elvi Syahrina Fiorisa1, Achmad Chusnu Rhomdhoni1, Budi Sutikno1, Anggraini Dwi Sensusiati1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3144 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels with Functional Mobility Abilitiy in Post Thrombotic Infarction Stroke Patient http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3145 <p>Background: Stroke patients often experience functional ambulation difficulties and lack ability to walk independently due to the reduction cardiorespiratory fitness so that an understanding of the relationship between fitness levels cardiorespiratory with functional mobility ability is needed, especially for thrombotic infarction stroke patients.. Objectives: This study aims to assess the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness levels with functional mobility ability in the first three months after thrombotic infarction stroke. Method: Subjects are 38 post trombotic infarction stroke. Functional mobility is measured by the Timed Up and Go test. Subjects were asked to stand up from a chair whose seat is ± 46cm and the height of its back is 65cm, walk as far as 3 m, turn 1800, walk back and sit back. Data were analyzed and performed statistical test using SPSS 17. Results: The study showed the average TUG test was 15.56-7.79 seconds with the longest travel time was 37.38 seconds and the fastest travel time was 8.16 seconds. The average of VO2max was 10.62 ± 2.31mL / kg / min, with the lowest VO2max yield of 5.78mL / kg / min and the highest was 14.54mL / kg / minute. The TUG test had a negative correlation with VO2max the 6 minute walk test result. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness level and functional mobility abilities in post thrombotic infarction stroke patient</p> Eny Susilowati1, Reni Hendrarati Kusharyaningsih2, Dewi Poerwandari2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3145 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Early Detection in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus at Indonesia Primary Health Care http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3146 <p>Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is diabetes that is first diagnosed during pregnancy. Uncontrolled GDM or late found can increase mortality for both mother and baby. Not only bad medical conditions, but also it can decline the community productivity, affect socio-economic and increasing financial health. Early detection of GDM is crucial to be implemented by providers, especially in the primary health care. Objective: to determine the framework of early detection in gestational diabetes mellitus at primary health care Methods: The method used is a literature review, which was published in 2008-2018. The literature were collected using some keywords such as “detection”, “gestational diabetes mellitus”, and “primary health care” using PubMed and another electronic journal website. Furthermore, the findings were filtered based on our inclusion criteria and analyzed qualitatively. Results: Early detection of GDM in primary health care with risk factor assessment (age of pregnant women ? 35 years, some of bad history namely GDM in previous pregnancies, anti-diabetic drug use, diabetes mellitus in the family, congenital of infants, IUFD, preeclampsia, macrosomia, blood pressure examination, calculation of body mass index and random blood sugar examination). Furthermore, early detection of GDM is carried out by examining blood glucose accompanied by the provision of appropriate glucose solution interventions (OGCT and OGTT). Conclusion: primary health care can take more action in early detection of GDM through quality antenatal care, which can be done by applying the framework of early detection in gestational diabetes mellitus.</p> Erni Rosita Dewi1, Budi Prasetyo2, Muhammad Ardian Cahya Laksana2, Hermanto Tri Joewono2, Ivon Diah Wittiartika1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3146 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Observation of Oral Contrast Media Filling Into Lumen Appendix http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3147 <p>Background: CT scan has become the imaging modality of choice in diagnosing appendicitis in unusual cases, replacing appendicogram with very little reliability. However, there is still an appendicogram demand in particular hospital in Indonesia. Objectives: This study aimed to obtain information on lumen appendix filling pattern with multi slice Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scan using oral contrast media in patients without clinical appendicitis. Thus, it is able to provide additional information in the appendicogram interpretation. Method: This study was descriptive observational to 30 subjects selected by consecutive from April to June 2012. Subjects who underwent an abdominal MSCT scan using oral contrast media were analyzed descriptively by sex, age and lumen appendix filling pattern. Results: 30% of patients were men and women by 70%. The most common age group is 51-60 years (50%). Appendix of non-filling of 56.6%, partial filling of 43.3%, and no full filling appendix was obtained. Conclusion: Appendix filling as an indicator of the presence of appendicitis was not reliable in an abdominal MSCT scan using oral water soluble contrast, thus it needs to be considered when interpreting the appendicogram results</p> Faradilla litiloly1, Hartono Yudi Sarastika1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3147 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Biological Efficiency of an Isolated Terpenic Compound from the Ether Petroleum Extract and the Trace Elements of the PlantTribulusterrestris http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3148 <p>Many different compounds with a spread of biological properties and chemical structures are known from genus Tribulusterrestris together with steroid and terpinoid. In gift study we tend to indicate the preliminary phytochemical analysis for rock oil ether extract and isolated compound. The results unconcealed that there was no alkaloids, supermolecule , glycosides, saponins and tannic acid inpetroleum ether however contain ,steroid and terpinoid. The isolated compound contained solely terpinoid compound. attention procedure was last this compounds. the FTIR qualitative analysis knowledge of isolated compound showed discovered absorptions signal . ultraviolet illumination spectrum showed most absorption at 220 nm due to???*transition that is taken into account as characteristic feature of the unsaturated covalent bond. The concentration of the weather analyzed during this study decrease within the order Fe&gt;Ca&gt;Cu&gt;Zn&gt;Cr. important totally different among microorganism toward T. terrestris oil with p&lt;0.05 and LSD 15.4 ,highest MIC by E.coli about 50 mm in 100% concentration of T. terrestrisoil compared with control.</p> Fatima S.Sabah Eman A.Mukhaifi Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3148 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Medico-legal Significance of Diatoms Detection in Different Organs of Drowning Victims http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3149 <p>Background: Drowning is a main universal community health problem &amp; In Medico- Legal Aspect the autopsy diagnosis of drowning presents one of the major problems especially when there is delay in recovering the victim from water.This study concentrates on the significance of diatoms detection in different organs to reach more accurate diagnosis of drowning. Objective: To determine the diagnostic features of drowning depending on detection of diatoms in deep tissues of drowning victims. Methods: This study was performed at Medico-legal Directorate (M.L.D.) in Baghdad for (12) months within the period from 1/1/2018- 31/12/2018. Full proper autopsy including external and internal examination of the body for all cases was performed, after obtaining complete medico-legal history, in addition to diatoms detection in different organs of drowning victims to determine the cause of the death as due to drowning. Results: The study included (60) cases, (52) male and (8 ) female with their ages ranged between ( 15-44 years old) for male , while ages ranged between (1-44 years old) for females . Drowning was the cause of death in all cases. Among the most important results of this study is the presence of diatoms in the different organs of the drowning cases. The diatoms were found in the lung in all drowning cases (100%), and found in other organs in a percentage that increased with the duration of immersion. Conclusion: Drowning is the 10th cause of violent deaths in Baghdad. And important point in the diagnosis of drowning by detection of diatoms in different organs of drowning cases and pennate diatoms was common type in Iraqi waters and also study showed Aulacasiera granulata sp. common in Iraq</p> Haidar N. Hussein1, Nabeel G. Hashim2, Niran M. Ahmed3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3149 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Pain Management at Baghdad Teaching Hospitals http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3150 <p>Poorly managed or unmanaged pain is a problem that affects individuals, entire healthcare systems and societies throughout the world . Objectives: To assess nurses’ knowledge and attitudes about patient’s pain management and to find out the relationship between knowledge , attitudes and their demographical characteristic. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional design study was carried out among 100 nurses working in male and female surgical wards, ICU, surgical ward, emergency and operating theatre of four teaching hospitals, Baghdad city. Census method was used to select the participants, in which all the nurses working in the selected wards who agreed to participate in the study were selected. Data was collected by distributing structured self-administered questionnaire which was a modified form of a standard tool, that is, Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitude Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP) developed by Ferrel and McCaffery. Results: The majority of the study were male who accounted for (63%) of the total participants while female constituted (37%). Most of participants (49%) were ages between (18 – 27) years old, a high percentage of them were have institute graduate (40%), (50%) of the nurses were single and the remainder was married. Majority of them (37%) were employee (1-5) years in employment in nursing. Majority of them (45%) were employee (1-5) years in intensive care unit, and finally majority of nurses (77%) have training session about patient’s pain management. Conclusions: This study indicated that nurses’ have poor knowledge about pain management, as well as study indicated overall nurses’ have positive attitudes toward pain management.</p> Haider M. Majeed1, Ahmed F.Hassan1, Raja I. Abid2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3150 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Empowerment Program on Participation of Mothers with Premature Infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3151 <p>Introduction: The birth of a premature infant who needs to be admitted to neonatal intensive care unit from birth impedes early communication and participation of mother in her infant’s care. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of empowerment program on the participation of mothers with premature infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial in 2018, which was conduct on a sample of mothers with premature infant who had randomly been divided into two intervention and control groups. The data collection tools were the Parents’ Participation Inventory designed by Melnick in 1994. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics (tables, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics using SPSS-16 software. Results: There was no significant difference in the level of mothers’ participation in the care of their infants between the two groups before the intervention (p = 0.45). But after the empowerment training program, the results showed that mothers’ participation in the intervention group (19.10 ± 3.09) was higher than the control group (16.8 ± 2.01), (p = 0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that implementation of empowerment training program increases mothers’ participation in the care of their premature infants. Early intervention and the use of written information along with the booklet will increase the mothers’ participation in the care of their infant.</p> Hania Sajadi1, Golbahar Akhundzadeh2, Hamid Hojjati3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3151 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Profile and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Value with Brain Tumor’s Histopathology http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3152 <p>Background: Accuracy of preoperative brain tumor’s histopathologic differentiation is very important to determine preoperative staging, intraoperative management and postoperative therapy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is an advanced technique developed as an important method for brain tumor assessment. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate correlation between diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) profile and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with brain tumor’s histopathology. Methods: This study examined 86 subjects with brain tumors using magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology examination at Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital and evaluated DWI profile and ADC maps. The spherical ROI on ADC maps was placed on the solid part of the tumor to measure ADC value. Spearman’s correlation test was conducted to determine correlation between DWI profile and ADC values with histopathological grading and types of brain tumor. Results: There was a significant correlation between DWI profile and ADC values (p = 0.000), as well as DWI and ADC values with histopathological grading and types of brain tumor (p = 0.000). There was an inverse corelation between ADC value and histopathological grading. The higher the ADC value, the lower the brain tumor grade, while lower ADC value resulted in high tumor grade. The average ADC value of grade-1 meningiomas was 1.061±0.257 x 10-3 mm2/sec, pilocytic astrocytoma was 1.301±0.107 x 10-3 mm2/ sec, glioblastoma multiforme was 0.831±0.080 x 10-3 mm2/sec, and medulloblastomas was 0.600±0.078 x 10-3 mm2/sec. Conclusion: Evaluation on DWI profile and ADC value could provide additional information on conventional magnetic resonance imaging examination to determine histopathological grading and types of both intra and extra-axial brain tumors.</p> Hartati Rusmi Tri Wilujeng1, Anggraini Dwi Sensusiati2, M. Yamin Sunaryo Suwandi3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3152 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene-dependent Blood typing as a Forensic Tool http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3153 <p>Background: Mitochondrial DNA is an important tool for human identification and is used to differentiate between human and animal blood at the crime scene, because in extreme conditions nuclear DNA is severely destroyed while Mitochondrial DNA contains multiple copies (200-2000) in per cell as well as resists harsh and more stable conditions. Methodology: Seventy-two blood samples were collected from human (Homo sapiens), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus) and cow (Bos taurus) (Eighteen blood samples for each). All blood samples were withdrawn by technician and 5ml were aspirated using aseptic technique and transferred to EDTA-Na2 tube and mixed well and stored in refrigerator. The collection takes 2 weeks (15th May 2019 to 30th May 2019). All samples were collected from Al-Diwanyia city. Results: The results of PCR reveal that, the primer pairs were specific and non-specific products not appear for all samples. The amplification of Homo sapiens mitochondrial DNA with primer pairs of other (Ovis aries, Capra hircus and Bos taurus) and amplification of each with primers pair of another genus gave negative results and this a primary evidence for primer pairs specificity. The amplicon of 16S rRNA gene of Homo sapiens were 1200bp ,Ovis aries were 1060bp ,Capra hircus were 820bp , and Bos taurus were 1300bp. The sequencing revealed that no crossreactivity of designed primer pairs and the PCR assay based on the designed primer pairs will be simple, fast, sensitive, specific, and cost-effective. Conclusion: Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the designed species specific primer pairs and applicability of the designed primer pairs in forensics to investigate blood sports or evidence belonging for human, sheep, goat and cow.</p> Hayder J.H. Al-Nayili1, Hussein O.M. Al-Dahmoshi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3153 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Curcumin Improves the Regulation of Ovarian Folliculogenesis in Culture Media with Peritoneal Fluid from Infertile Women with Endometriosis http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3154 <p>Background : Peritoneal fluid (PF) from infertile women with endometriosis contains a variety of inflammatory mediators that may interfere with folliculogenesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of curcumin on the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis by evaluating Growth Differentiation Factor (GDF)-9, Kit Ligand (KitL) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)? expressions in bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COC)s cultured with PF from infertile women with endometriosis. Method: COCs were aspirated from antral follicles of bovine ovaries. PF was collected from infertile women with endometriosis undergoing laparoscopy for infertility evaluation. Curcumin, a strong antiinflammatory turmeric, was added in Tissue Culture Media (TCM)199 and PF from infertile women with endometriosis for culture media. Bovine COCs were cultured into 3 groups of media: 1) TCM199, 2) TCM199+PF from infertile women with endometriosis, and 3) TCM199+PF from infertile women with endometriosis+curcumin. GDF-9, KitL and TNF? expressions were examined using immunohistochemistry technique. Results: GDF-9 expression of bovine COCs cultured in PF from infertile women with endometriosis with curcumin addition (2.67±0.98) was found to increase compared to those cultured without curcumin (0.50±0.67) but reduced compared to the control. This result was similar to KitL expression of bovine COCs cultured with curcumin (2.67±1.23), in which it increased compared to those without curcumin (0.33±0.49) (p&lt;0.05). A significant difference in TNF? expression was noted between groups with or without curcumin (p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: In the culture of PF from infertile women with endometriosis, curcumin addition may improve the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis through the decrease of inflammation factor.</p> Hendy Hendarto1, M Yohannes Ardianta Widyanugraha1, Widjiati2, Soehartono Darmosoekarto1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3154 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Fugl-Meyer Assesment Score with Barthel Index and Functional Independence Measure in Patients with Stroke http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3155 <p>Background: The prevention of stroke morbidities that is oriented to the approach of functional performance improve is expected improve the productivity of post-stroke patients. One of the tools to measure the physical performance is Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scale, while the recommended tests to measure interpedency level are Barthel Index (BI) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Method: This study was conducted on 20 outpatient stroke patients in Medical Rehabilitation Installation of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia. FMA, BI and FIM examination were performed in all subjects. Results: The authors obtained the correlation coefficient value with r=0.816 and therefore a high positive correlation was found between the total score of FMA and BI, while the correlation coefficient value between the total score of FMA and FIM showed r of 0.728. Thus, the author concluded that there was a positive correlation between the total score of FMA and FIM. The sub-domains FMA-UE, FMA-LE and FMA Balance were highly correlated with BI and FIM. This implied that physical performance measured using FMA could describe the interdependency level of stroke patients in doing ADL. Conclusion: Physical performance (based on Fugl-Meyer Assessment) was positively correlated with the interdependency level of BI and FIM of inpatient stroke patients in Medical Rehabilitation Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya.</p> Husnul Mubarak1, Noor Idha1, Bayu Santoso1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3155 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Priority Elements of Vigilance in the Use of Pesticides based on Difficulty and Usefulness (A Supporting Study for Law and Policy in Health) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3156 <p>The use of pesticides is still a problem for public health, therefore we need a regulation by the authorities, which can lead to the behavior of using pesticides correctly. This is part of the area of law and health policy. Pesticide poisoning can cause breathing difficulties, headaches, neurological or psychological effects, and skin irritation and mucous membranes. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of some elements of vigilance in the use of chemical pesticides for farmers. The variables studied were difficulty and usefulness with eight elements, namely the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), pesticide storage, pesticide use procedures, use of pesticide doses, duration and frequency of pesticide spraying, maintaining equipment cleanliness, pesticide spraying according to wind direction and time of pesticide spraying. The sample size of this study was 100 respondents from the community who knew about the use of pesticides throughout Indonesia. The research instrument used was a Google form questionnaire sent to respondents via Whatsapp social media. The data that has been collected is analyzed descriptively to get an idea of which elements are the priorities for improvement. Referring data analysis result, the elements with high difficulty and usefulness together were use of pesticide doses and procedures for using pesticides. Thus, the two elements selected as priority elements will be fixed first. It is suggested that the pesticide control policy makers can develop regulations by prioritizing the two main elements, without ignoring the other six elements. In addition, it is also recommended that other control efforts be made that can be recommended to related parties in the area of law and health policy, related to the prevention of health problems caused by the use of pesticides.</p> Ilyas Ibrahim1, I Ketut Sudiana2, H J Mukono3, Suhartono4, Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho5 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3156 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Association Between Myoglobin, Troponin I, Hfabp and Nt-Probnp Levels with Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3157 <p>Introduction: Myocardial infarction is one of the five major manifestations of coronary heart disease. Myoglobin heart markers, Isoenzyme Creatine Kinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) or Troponin T (cTnT), Heart type fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) and NT-proBNPare currently used in assisting the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The study aimed to analyze the association of cardiac marker examination results of myoglobin, cTnI, HFABP and NT-proBNP with AMIoccurrence on examination I and examination II. Method: This study enrolled33 patients in Installation of Emergency Carewith suspected acute coronary syndrome, from March to August 2013. Serum samples were taken including cTnT, myoglobin, cTnI, HFABP and NT-proBNP. Then, it was further analyzed. Results: There was an association between myoglobin, cTnI, HFABP, and NT-proBNP with AMI events. Myoglobin and HFABP wereearly markers for the diagnosis of AMI, the mean levels of both markers was higher at the first examination (&lt;1 hour admitted patients) when compared with 6 hours later after being tested. Essentially, the diagnostic value of both did not differ, only HFABP was more specific than myoglobin. Troponin I showed to be the best choice in the diagnosis of AMI because of the high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: An association between myoglobin, cTnI, HFABP, and NT-proBNP with AMI events was found. Myoglobin, cTnI, HFABP can be used in diagnosing AMI patients, whereas NT-proBNP is not recommended for the diagnosis of AMI due to its low specificity.</p> Ime Fransiska Adidharma1, Jusak Nugraha1, Muhammad Aminuddin1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3157 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Some Inflammatory Cytokines and Glycated Hemoglobin in Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Nephropathy http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3158 <p>Background: Chronic hyperglycemia causes diabetic nephropathy(DN), which is a typical microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pathogenesis of DN is not fully understanding. The inflammation may possess a significant role in the progression of DN in diabetic patients. Method: The study accomplished at teaching laboratories of medical city, Baghdad, Iraq.It was included 50uncontrolled diabetic type 2 patients with nephropathy, age range (40 –78) years and 42 controlled diabetics type 2 without nephropathy, age range (35 – 52) years as a control group.The participants divided in to two groups according to HbA1c measurement which is described as follows: &lt; 7.5% of HbA1c describes controlled diabetes, and &gt; 9% of HbA1c describes uncontrolled diabetes. The calculation of the Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was used to determine the renal function for each participant. A venous blood sample was obtained to estimate HbA1c,fasting serum glucose (FSG), urea, creatinine, interleukin6(IL-6),interleukin-1 beta( IL-1?)and tumor necrosis factor – alpha(TNF- ?. ). Results : Significantly higher serum urea and creatinine levels in uncontrolled diabetic patients with nephropathy than controlled diabetic without nephropathy. The mean of HbA1c of DN group was higher as compare to diabetic control (DC) group, Results of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? exhibits a significant raised level for diabetics with nephropathy, (p&lt; 0.05) for IL-1?, (p&lt; 0.05) for IL-6 and (p&lt; 0.01) for TNF-? . Conclusion :Raised serum levels of TNF- ?, IL-1?and IL-6 in uncontrolled diabetic patients with nephropathy concurrently with raising the average HbA1c in them indicate that the inflammation may have a role in the advancement of DN in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control.</p> Inaam Ahmed Ameen1, EmanSaadi Saleh1, Sarah Hashim Mhaibes1, KaledNather Taha2, Dhikra Abdul Hameed Dawood2, Hawaa Salman Kamil2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3158 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, April-June 2020, Vol. 14, No. 2 1633 The Impact of High Cortisol Level in Increasing Incidence of Infection Cases among Acute Stroke Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3159 <p>Background: Infection in the stroke was a treatment major problem, because it determines the prognosis. In the acute phase of stroke, high level cortisol may lead to a decreased immune system and patients tend to be more susceptible to infection. The correlation of serum cortisol level among acute stroke patients with incidence of infection was not fully investigated. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between initial serum cortisol levels and the incidence of infection in acute stroke patients. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 32 of acute stroke patients who admitted in RSUD Dr. Soetomo Surabaya during the period December 2015 to February 2016. Total of 2 cc to the venous blood within 48 hours in onset of stroke being examined of serum cortisol. During the 7 days of hospitalization, the patient was observed for signs of infection, both clinically and the investigation in accordance with the operational definition. Results: In the infected group there were 8 people (50%) with high cortisol levels (p = 0.015; RR 15,000; 95% IK 1.583-143,171); 6 people were (50%) using urine catheter (p = 0.049; RR 6,667; 95% IK 1.067-30.085); And 6 people were (54.5%) using NGT (p = 0,035; RR 7,200; 95% IK 1.311 - 39,557). In multivariate analysis obtained that Odds Ratio (OR) 15,468 based on high cortisol and OR 7,469 based on NGT usage. Conclusion: High cortisol levels and the use of NGT had the effect on the incidence of infection in acute stroke</p> Indah Ari Handaayani1, Joseph Eko Wahono Rahardjo1, Muhammad Hamdan1, Paulus Sugianto1, Achmad Firdaus Sani1, Mohammad Saiful Ardhi1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3159 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Time Recommendation and Alternative Parameters for Severe Maxillofacial Trauma Reconstruction http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3160 <p>Background: Severe maxillofacial trauma often associated with other injuries, therefore the delay of reconstruction often occur until the patients are stable. Early reconstruction results a better facial function and appearances. Aim: The aim of this study to give the recommendation and alternative parameters for severe maxillofacial trauma reconstruction. Methods: The method of this study is adult patients with bimaxillary and bilateral maxillofacial trauma were eligible for this study, while pregnant women were excluded. Nine patients with maxillofacial trauma were involved in this study and we measured 15 facial anthropometric and 41 lateral cephalometricon 7, 14, 21 days compared to 3 months post-reconstruction. Results: The result of this study showed reconstruction can be planned 14 days after trauma for lower jaw fracture and 21 days after bimaxillary fracture. Lateral cephalometry was a reliable method to measure facial edema following surgery which combined facial anthropometry with lateral cephalometry using parameters that are not affected by edema. This can be applied as an additional guiding tool in surgical planning for maxillofacial trauma patients especially those with bimaxillary and bilateral fractures. Conclusion: Combination of anthropometric and cephalometric parameters which are not affected by edema can be applied as an additional guiding tool in surgical planning for maxillofacial trauma patients.</p> Indri Lakhsmi Putri1, Magda Rosalina Hutagalung1, Ida Bagus Narmada2, David Sontani Perdanakusuma1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3160 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Geogebra Learning Media Based on Statistical Reasoning on Statistics Materials of Junior High School Students and its Influence for the Inteligent of Student http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3161 <p>This research aimed to develop geogebra learning media based on statistical reasoning. For the purpose of this research and development, ADDIE model by Dick &amp; Carry was used. This research and development produced geogebra learning media based on statistical reasoning for junior high school students. Class environment that applies technology based on statistical reasoning is another variable besides genetic which is adaptive. The integration of new technologies for education is no longer an alternative; it has become an obligation and even guidance to develop these knowledge-sided. Through geogebra, students are directed to build their knowledge not just to memorize rules. The class that applies technology based on this statistical reasoning will develop students’ intelligence</p> Intan Sari Rufiana1, Cholis Sa’dijah2, Subanji3, Hery Susanto4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3161 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Association between Blood Glucose Control Measured with Serum Hna1c Level with Peroneal Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Polyneuropathy http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3162 <p>Background and Objective. The poor control of blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor from various complications of diabetes mellitus, such as polyneuropathy. One of the nerves that are often affected in the case of diabetic neuropathy is the peroneal nerve. This study aimed to determine the association between blood glucose level control measured with serum hemoglobin A1c (HBA1c) levels with peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with polyneuropathy. Methods. The study was conducted on diabetic neuropathy patients who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria in neurology unit and diabetes unit Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya on a consecutive basis from February to July 2013. The serum HbA1c level and nerve conduction velocity in peroneal motor nerve were examined; then, the results were grouped into two groups which were serum HbA1c &lt;7% and ?7% and NCV in normal and low peroneal motor nerve Results. There were 26 subjects, consisting of 6 subjects with serum HbA1c &lt;7% and 20 subjects with serum HbA1c ? 7%. There was an association between blood glucose level control measured by serum HbA1c levels and NCV in peroneal motor nerve with statistical significance of p = 0.0018 (Odd ratio 15; 95% IK 1.397 - 161.045). Conclusion. There was an association between blood glucose level control measured by serum HbA1c levels with NCV in peroneal motor nerve in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with polyneuropathy</p> Muhammad Hamdan1, Raini Wisnujono1 , Mudjiani Basuki1, Fidiana, Fadil1, Intan Sudarmadi1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3162 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Decrease of Sensorineural Hearing Frequency and Cochlear Hair Cell Function in Malignant Head and Neck Tumor Post Cisplatin Chemotherapy Series II http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3164 <p>Background: Malignancy in head and neck is mostly squamous cell carcinoma which are relatively radiosensitive. Giving chemotherapy combination of cisplatin-5 fluorouracil most frequently used in Lotus inpatients unit of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya. Purpose : This study aimed to prove the decrease of sensorineural hearing frequency and cochlear hair cells function in malignant head and neck tumors patients post- cisplatin chemotherapy series II. Method: The samples were malignant head and neck tumor patients that would receive cisplatin chemotherapy. The inclusion criteria wereaged 18 to 65 years, malignant head and neck tumors planning to get cisplatin chemotherapy, intact tympanic membrane, ANM checks within normal limits. Tympanogram type A, DPOAE examination with pass results. Results: Pre-and post-cisplatinchemotherapy series I did not obtain any changes, those were pass on all frequencies. Mc Neymar test on DPOAE post-cisplatin chemotherapy I obtained p = 0.250 in 6 kHz frequency (p&gt;0.05). DPOAE post-cisplatin II in 6 kHz frequency showed no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) Conclusion: There was no decrease of outer cochlear hair cells function in malignant head and neck tumors patients who received cisplatin chemotherapy series II.</p> Irawati1. Bakti Surarso1.Haris M. Ekorini1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3164 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Thiophene-Cyclic and Sulfazane Derivatives (Preparation, Spectral Analysis, the Behavior in Organic Solvents, Microbial Testing) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3166 <p>The thiophene core is the most broadly applied constructing blocks to the production of many biomolecules ,pharmaceutical drugs ,vitamins ,also in industrial compounds, in dyes compounds because of its high stability in environment. Thiophene derivatives were synthesized in present study from chalcone compound as a starting material from aldol reaction in first step, followed by cyclization reactions by using various conditions, and this paper involved new reaction for diazonium salts to producing (Sulfide- azo) compounds in same bond for the first time that we termed (Sulfazane) as a first and Novel preparation to this new type of compounds.,the synthesized derivatives were confirmed through numerous spectral techniques (FT.IR ,H.NMR ,C.NMR), other physic-chemical data for synthesized thiophene derivatives ,besides to studying of behavior of compounds in organic solvents and screening tests for efficiency of thiophene derivatives against microbes</p> Jalal Hasan Mohammed1, Alaa Jawad Kadhim2, Nagham Mahmood Aljamali3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3166 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnostic test of Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen as Distal Sensory Polyneuropathy-HIV Diagnostic Tool http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3169 <p>Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated peripheral neuropathy with a prevalence of 30-67%. Brief peripheral neuropathy screen (BPNS) examination is a non-invasive, fast, cheap, easy-to-do diagnostic method, and one of the clinical tools that can be used to diagnose HIV-DSP. This study to assess the BPNS diagnostic test as a DSP diagnostic tool in HIV patients. The cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV patients that allegedly having DSP. All subjects were examined by BPNS and nerve conduction study (NCS), then the results were analyzed by chi-square test of a 2x2 Table. There were 42 subjects enrolled in this study. The mean patients were 38.88±8.62 years and most of the male patients were 24 subjects (57.14%). Most of the patients had high school education by 20 (47.61%) subjects and did not take anti-retroviral (ARV) by 18 (42.85%) subjects. Most of the research subjects conducted BPNS disturbed examination by 27 (64.28%) subjects and examination of NCS obtained positive DSP by 30 (71.4%) subjects. The obtained sensitivity of 83% BPNS, 83% specificity, 93% positive predictive value, the negative predictive value of 67%, a positive likelihood ratio of 5.00, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.20. BPNS examination with 83% sensitivity and 83% specificity can be used as a DSP diagnostic tool in HIV patients.</p> Joko Rudyono1, Mudjiani Basuki1, Erwin Astha Triyono2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3169 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relation of Homocysteine With Malondialdehyde and Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3173 <p>Diabetes mellitus(DM) is one of the most common chronic disorder widely prevalent throughout the world. DM is characterized by elevation of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). Hyperglycemia, with time, led to several serious macro and mircovascular complications. The purpose of study was to investigate the relation of Homocysteine(Hcy) with oxidative stress (malondialdehyde”MDA”) and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery diseases in comparison to patients of coronary artery diseases(CAD) without DM. Methods: The present study included 60 patients of coronary artery disease. Patients divided into two groups: group1 = 30 coronary artery disease patients without diabetic and group2 = 30 coronary artery disease patients with type2 diabetes. Homocysteine was estimated by competitive ELISA test using commercially available kit. MDA was estimated by colorimetric method. Lipid profiles were determined by using commercial available kits. Results: Plasma levels of Hcy and MDA in group1 and group2 were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) than controls. In group1 Hcy shows significant (P&lt;0.05) positive correlation with MDA and Total Cholesterol (TC). Hcy shows no significant (p&gt;0.05) positive correlation with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL),and Triglyceride(TG). Hcy shows negative significant (p&lt;0.05)correlation with high density lipoprotein( HDL). While in group2 Hcy shows significant (P&lt;0.05) positive correlation with MDA, TC, VLDL, LDL and TG. Hcy shows negative significant (p&lt;0.05)correlation with HDL. Hcy, MDA, TC, TG, LDL and VLDL were higher without significant in CAD diabetic patients than non-diabetic CAD patients. HDL was lower in diabetic coronary artery disease patients than non-diabetic coronary artery disease patients but without significant importance. Conclusion: In this study Hcy and MDA levels obtained were found to be positively correlated with dyslipidemia in patients in both groups. Hcy may be one of the cause for development and progress of macro- and microvascular disease. Hcy, MDA and dyslipidemia were higher in CAD with DM than CAD without DM this shows that hyperglycemia may be is another factor to increase atherosclerotic process.</p> Khalid Shaalan Sahab1, Ali S. Mahmoud Al-Saadi1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3173 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Some Biomarkers that affect in Behaviors of Autism Spectrum Disorder Individuals in Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3175 <p>Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication by restricted and repetitive behavior.The parents usually notice signs in the first two or three years of their child’s life. These signs often develop gradually. Blood samples were taken for 60 people with autism and 30 healthy people as a control group. Both groups ranged age from 3 to 8 years . After completion of number, required tests were carried out on samples. The tests were three biochemical markers. The first is neurotransmitters (?ABA), the other enzymes of happiness (Serotonin &amp; Melatonin), all this biochemical markers were measured by elisa technique, the results were a decrease in level of ?ABA for ASD as compare with control group, A significant increases in serotonin in ASD. relative to control group, and no change in level of Melatonin in both ASD and healthy group these results consistent with many research and another research inconsistent with these results have shown the reasons that led to differences in results</p> L. Basim M. Ali1, Iqbal Jasim Badr Alasadi1, Sameerah Ahmed Zearah1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3175 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of VT1 and VT2 genes in Escherichia coli isolated from Diarrhea Patients in AL-Anbar, Iraq using PCR Sequencing http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3177 <p>Enteric-borne diarrheal illnesses are significant causes of human morbidity and mortality. Over 2 million diarrhea-related fatalities happen annually, especially among kids under the age of five. During the period extended from February 2019 to June 2019, A total of 196 stool locally specimens from diarrheal patients samples were collected from AL-Anbar city of AL-Ramadi hospital and AL-Fallujah hospital out of 196 samples diagnosis by biochemical test , morphology and selective chromogenic medium, found 80 samples of E. coli . The aim of the study detection of VT1 and VT2 genes in Escherichia coli isolated from Diarrhea patients by using PCR Sequencing. The result showed when diagnosis by PCR for Sanger Sequencing technique for VT1 and VT2 genes E. coli O157:H7,and E. coli O25b:H4 were positive for VT1gene ,and Escherichia coli O25b:H4 ,and Escherichia coli O18:H1 positive for VT2gene.</p> Laheeb Rajab Hamad1, Muthanna Hamid Hassan2, Abdalwahab Bdewi Hussain3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3177 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between the Duration of Ethambutol Therapy and the Toxic Optic Neuropathy Occurene in Patients with Multidrug-Ressistance Tuberculosis http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3179 <p>Background: Tuberculosis affects one-third of the world’s population. Increasing number of tuberculosis cases also leads to the increase of anti-tuberculosis drugs use, such as ethambutol. Ethambutol is one of the most effective and rarely resistant tuberculosis drugs. Objective: To determine the relationship between duration of ethambutol therapy with toxic optic neuropathy in tuberculosis patients Method: This study enrolled MDR-TB patients who visited MDR-TB Unit of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital from July 2014 until the sufficient amount of sample was achieved. The patients enrolled are those who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria consisted of MDR TB patients treated with ethambutol therapy, aged of 20-69 years old, and whose VEP examination results showed extension of P100 latency. Results: The mean of &lt;6 month duration was 3.24±1.348, while for the ?6 months was 11.71±5.764. This difference was statistically significant with p = 0.043. Conclusion: There is a correlation between duration of ethambutol therapy with toxic optic neuropathy in patients with MDR-TB.</p> Muhammad Hamdan1, Eko Wahono R.1, Kurnia Kusumastuti1, Laily Irfana1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3179 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Macrophage Activity and Histopathological Differences of Lung Tissue on Sequential Co-infections of Heligmosomoides Polygyrus Nematode on Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3181 <p>Background: Tuberculosis is a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a facultative intracellular parasite, that can be eliminated by cellular immunity played by macrophages. It has become a debate whether the co-infection of nematodes will affect the immune response of macrophages towards mycobacterium infection. Objective: To reveal macrophage activity and histopathological difference of lung tissue in sequential coinfection of Heligmosomoides Polygyrus towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Method: This study used 49 mice divided into 7 treatment groups with Mycobacterium tuberculose infection by inhalation and Heligmosomoides polygyrus orally within 8 and 16 weeks, and observed by immunohistochemical staining. Result: Infection for 8 weeks showed polarization of macrophages towards M1 macrophage, whereas in 16 weeks, the macrophage polarization more towards M2 macrophages, supported by histopathological changes of lung tissue: peribronchiolitis, perivaskulitis, alveolitis, and granuloma formation with counts of acid-resistant germs +3. There was a difference of expression of arginase1 to each group (p &lt;0.001) and there was a difference of T CD4+ Th1 lymphocyte (p &lt;0.001). Conclusion: There is a difference in macrophage activity in lung tissue; however, it does not cause different levels of histopathological changes in lung tissue and does not affect the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.</p> Laksmi Wulandari1.2, Muhammad Amin1, Soedarto3, Gatot Soegiarto2.4, Kenji Ishiwata5 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3181 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nurses’ Knowledge Regarding Pneumonia in Children Under Five Years of Age at Pediatric Wards in Kirkuk Teaching Hospitals http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3182 <p>The Objective: to identify the nurses’ knowledge regarding pneumonia in children under five years of age at pediatric wards in Kirkuk teaching hospitals. The Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out at pediatric ward of Teaching Hospitals in Kirkuk City to Assessment of Nurses’ knowledge regarding pneumonia in children under five years of age at pediatric wards from 20 of February till 3ed of June 2019. A non- probability (purposive) sample was chosen for the current study. The sample consisted of (40) nurses working in the pediatric medical ward of selected hospital. The Result: The socio-demographic characteristic of the study presents that 62.5% of them females, 60.0 % at age (20 – 25) years old, 40.0 % graduated from college of nursing (Bachelor of Nursing) , 80.0% of them have (1-5) years of general experience. The results of the study sample presents (50.0 %) the majority of the nurses have poor knowledge in total knowledge score of pneumonia in Children under age five years. Also the mean of total knowledge score nurses in concern to protein energy malnutrition was (1.55) with standard deviation (0.714) . Shows that there were significant differences between the age and the service in the field of nursing with nurse’s knowledge but there were no significant differences between other parts of socio- demographic characteristics with nurse’s knowledge about pneumonia in children under age five years at p?0.05 value. The Recommendations: A continuous extensive special programs, training course and workshops regarding pneumonia in children under age five years should be design and implement in hospital’s departments to enhance the nurse’s knowledge in regard to this major issue.</p> Luay Amjed Mahmood Al-Waly1, Mohammed Ahmed Sultan Al-Wily1, Radhwan Hussein Ibrahim2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3182 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effectiveness Comparison of Desloratadine and Loratadine in Reducing Total Nasal Symptom Score and the Level of Interleukin 4 in the Nasal Secretions of Allergic Rhinitis Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3183 <p>Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common atopic disease; however, the available therapy has limitation in the usage and its success rate. Desloratadine has a role as an alternative allergic rhinitis therapy to eliminate the overall symptoms of AR and reduce IL-4 level in nasal secretions. Method: This study was double-blind randomised clinical trial with pre-post test design. The data was analyzed by using independent sample t-test. There were 24 AR patients divided into 2 therapy groups which were study group (desloratadine) and control group (loratadine). The evaluation based on SGHT and IL-4 in nasal secretions was conducted pre and post 15 days of therapy. Results: The present study that was conducted on July-October 2016 showed significant difference in the average percentage of reduced TNSS in desloratadine group compared to loratadine group (p=0.000). The comparison of reduced level of IL-4 in nasal secretions between desloratadine and loratadine group was indicated insignificantly different. Conclusion: Reduced TNSS in desloratadine group was higher than in loratadine group. Also, there was no difference in decreased level of IL-4 in nasal secretions.</p> Luh Putu Dhena Purwaningsih1, Dwi Reno Pawarti1, Bakti Surarso1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3183 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Dermatophytes Fungal Infection among Different Gender http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3184 <p>The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the patients that were living in different circumstances in Diyala region, Iraq. From July 2018 to February 2019. There were (218) patients with ages (2-78) years were surveyed for dermatophyte fungal infections by history and clinical examination. The results revealed that ( 71.2%) of the patients were infected with skin lesions followed by scalp lesions (16.5%) and nail lesions (14.6%). The prevalence rates of dermatophyte fungal infections were linked to the types of tinea infections, including tinea corporis (17.4%), tinea pedis (13.7%), tinea capitis (16.5%), tinea ungium (14.6%), tinea cruris (17.4%), tinea faciale (3.6%). The proportion of fungal infection in rural area(63.6%) was more preponderant in comparison to urban areas (39.8%). Furthermore, the rate of percent infection by tinea capitis (66.6%), tinea corporis (60.5%), tinea cruris (57.8%), were higher in male whereas the percentage of tinea ungium (87.5%) and tinea faciale (62.5%) infections were highest in female. In addition, study demonstrated that indices of tinea infection has been significantly associated with age. This study suggested there has been an exigent need to ameliorate the edification of hygiene values of peoples in addition to increment the economic condition of the society</p> Luma T. Ahmed1, Zahraa A. Darweesh1, Wathiq M. Hussain2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3184 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Factors of the Elderly Falling in Public Hospitals: A Systematic Review Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3185 <p>Background: Falls are the most common and problematic issue of old age. There is the possibility of falls among the elderly in the hospitals. The present study was conducted to determine the risk factors for falls in the elderly in hospitals through systematic review. Method: This is a systematic review based on the PRISMA protocol. The IranMedex, SID, Magiran, IranDoc, Medlib, Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Medline and Google Scholar databases were searched for keywords in the time frame of 1994-2017. Results: The mean age was 64-81 years old and the number of elderly people varied from 88 to 28524 people. Of these studies, six studies were performed in the acute care unit, three studies in the elderly care unit, three studies in the surgical and clinical department, one study in the rehabilitation department, one study in the psychiatric department and other studies were performed in several parts of the hospital. The results of this study referred to individual and external factors as risk factors for the falls in the elderly in the hospital. The use of medications, physical problems, and psychological problems were the most common risk factors for falls in the elderly. Conclusion: In acute care, chronic care, psychiatric care, and elderly care units, there are many risk factors for the falls in the elderly due to their physical and mental status. Identifying and resolving these risk factors may provide safety for the elderly.</p> Masoumeh Otaghi1, Zahra Mohammad-Niakan2, Sanaz Aazami1, Ali Khorshidi3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3185 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Web-Based Early Diagnosis of Dental and Oral Diseases with Validity Level of Dentist Final Diagnosis in Public Health Center, Makassar, Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3186 <p>Background. One of the organs of the body that is lacking attention is the teeth and mouth, whereas maintaining healthy teeth and mouth is very important, because the nerves of the teeth are related and directly affect the nerves of other organs. The development of information technology that is so advanced has entered the world of health, namely to detect early dental and oral diseases by using an expert system. Making an expert system is not to replace the expert itself but can be used as a very experienced assistant. There is a need to solve this problem so that people can know how to deal with diseases related to teeth and mouth. The various information supporting factors in this study by building an expert system with three methods are Certainty Factor (CF), Dempster Shafer (DS) and Bayes Theorem to diagnosis early dental and oral disease events and determine the effect of expert systems in increasing the validity level of dentist diagnosis. Material and Method The type of research used was an observational method in a cross-sectional study design. The sampling method uses total sampling. The study was conducted in September-January 2020. The number of sampling was 200 people. This research consists of three stages are the making of an application system, application testing, and the final stage is a statistical test. The data analysis technique used in this study is Chi-square and validity test. Results. The results of the analysis of the relationship between the value of accuracy with the validity of the doctor’s diagnosis found variable diagnosis doctor have p value (0.013), DS value, CF and Bayes Value are the same p (0,000) &lt;p (0.05). Conclusion. Applications built using the CF, DS and Bayes Theorem methods can be used by users to detect dental disease early before making further examinations to a specialist. The test results given by the system are the same as the results given by experts (dentists). The system of early diagnosis of dental and oral diseases has a very significant effect on the level of validity of the dentist final diagnosis.&nbsp;</p> Masriadi1, Dolly Indra2, Harlinda2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3186 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association between Intelligence Level and Handicap Degree in Epilepsy Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3187 <p>Background:. Epilepsy correlates with high limitation value, disability and function loss which can give negative impact to patient’s quality of life. This negative impact correlates with either epilectic seizures (motoric, sensory and behavior) or effects of anti-epileptic drugs that can cause cognitive impairment, which in this case is intelligence aspect with handicap in epilepsy patients. We determined correlation between intelligence level and handicap degree in epilepsy patients. Methods: The research was conducted in patients of Neurological Department of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, who met inclusion and exclusion criteria, consecutively from July 2013-December 2013. Intelligence test was conducted using Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) test, while test on handicap degree was conducted using Subjective Handicap Epilepsy (SHE) test. Results: There were 40 research subjects (19 females and 21 males) with average age of 30.9±9.6. The average score of SHE was 70.08±16/69, while the average score of SPM was 88.53±10.34. There was a weak positive correlation and statistically significant correlation between SPM and SHE scores (r = 0.345 and p = 0.029). Conclusion: There was a correlation between intelligence level and handicap degree in epilepsy patients.</p> Meity Meiliyanny Beslar1, J. Eko Wahono1, Isti Suharjanti1, Paulus Sugianto1, Riani Wisnujono1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3187 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Glutamine Before Gets Cisplatin on Aif and Bcl-2 in the Evidence of Apoptosis Cell Tubulus Proximal in Rats Kidney of Rattus Norvegicus Strain Wistar http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3188 <p>Background: Increased incidence of cancer in the world also increases the use of chemotherapy agents. Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapy agents, often used for the treatment of various solid tumors. The therapeutic effect of cisplatin significantly increased with increasing dosage. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the role of glutamine in the prevention of apoptosis in proximal renal tubular epithelial cells administered by cisplatin chemotherapy, via an intrinsic caspase-independent apoptotic (AIF). Methods: The study was enrolled thirty male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into three groups of treatments, group A (negative control), group B has given intraperitoneal cisplatin dose of 20 mg/KgBB, group C administered the intravenous injection of glutamine 100 mg/KgBB for 7 days. Results: Analyzed ANOVA, mean expression of BCL-2 group B = 56.80 ± 4.39 than group A (control) = 63.7 ± 5.53 decreased not significant (p = 0.06), and mean expression of BCL-2 group C = 113.30 ± 8.92 increase significant compared to group A = 63.7 ± 5.53 (p = 0.000001) and group B = 56.80 ± 4.39 (p = 0.000001). The average AIF expression group C = 236.20 ± 17.58 decreased significantly compared to group B = 309.50 ± 8.08 (p = 0.000001). The average number of group apoptosis C = 151.80 ± 21.87 decreased significantly compared to group B = 255.20 ± 27.82 (p = 0.000001). Conclusion: Glutamine can inhibit the expression of AIF, increase BCL-2 expression, and decrease apoptosis of epithelial cells of the renal proximal tubules given cisplatin.</p> Michael Lumintang1, Endang Joewarini1, Sunarni Zakaria2, Gunawan Widodo3, Imam Susilo4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3188 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association between Soluble Contents CD40 Ligand (sCD40L) and Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3189 <p>Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a manifestation of coronary heart disease (CHD), which the leading cause of death in Indonesia. CD40 ligand (CD40L) stored in alpha platelet granules will be rapidly transferred to the surface when the platelets are activated and subsequently released from the surface as a soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L). Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) acts as a bridge between the inflammatory process, atherosclerosis, and thrombosis. This study aims to study the relationship between sCD40L levels and the incidence of ACS in patients with chest pain in Dr.Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya. Method: Research subjects were 40 patients with chest pain who came to Emergency Room at Dr.Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya. The patients were grouped based on the diagnosis of ACS and non-ACS with the electrocardiogram and troponin T. Serum levels of patients that examined by sCD40L with enaminelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method from Quantikine®. Results: Twenty-six (65%) were diagnosed with ACS and 14 (35%) were non ACS. The diagnosis of ACS includes ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and unstable angina (UA), with the highest proportion being STEMI at 15 (57%). Spearman correlation test of sCD40L level with ACS incidence got correlation coefficient rho (?) = 0.52 (p = 0.001). Conclusion: There was a moderate positive correlation between sCD40L levels and ACS incidence in patients with chest pain.</p> Mirza Elita1, Muhammad Aminuddin1, Jusak Nugraha1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3189 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Potential Role of Radiology in Diagnosis of Traumatic Versus Non-Traumatic Cerebral Hemorrhages for Medicolegal Application http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3190 <p>Background: Radiography is traditionally used as a complement tool for forensic examination. CT applications became widely used. Traumatic cerebral hemorrhage occurs in up to 15% of patients following head injury and non-traumatic cerebral hemorrhage accounts for up to 44% of all strokes. These two disorders are therefore very common. So there is a need for accurate diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage form medicolegal aspect. This study aims to differentiate between traumatic and non-traumatic cerebral hemorrhage by using CT. Methods: This prospective study, was conducted on 100 patients with intracranial hemorrhage and divided in two equal groups (traumatic and non-traumatic cerebral hemorrhage) both groups were examined by CT head and the results were analyzed. Results: There was statistically significant difference between traumatic and non-traumatic cerebral hemorrhage groups in CT finding as regard type of hemorrhage with epidural, subarachnoid and intraventricular with P value (0.001, 0.005 and 0.001) respectively. Also according to site of hemorrhage in frontal lobe and subcortical with P value (0.001) equally. Conclusion: we conclude that equation Function (f) = - 0.976 (constant) + 2.873(Epidural) + 2.017 (Subarachnoid) - 0.416 (Intraventricular) + 0.984 (Frontal) -3.047 (Subcortical) If the function (f) = + values, it will be traumatic hemorrhage and if the function (f) = - values it will be pathological hemorrhage</p> Mohamed Khairy1, Dina A. Shokry2, Ehab Abdelhaleem3, Reham Nafad Elbendary2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3190 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Saffron versus Fluoxetine in Treatment of Women with Premenstrual Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3191 <p>Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a set of physical and psychological symptoms such as mood disability, breast tenderness, food craving, fatigue, and depression. Fluoxetine and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) usually are being administered for these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of saffron plant in terms of its anti-inflammatory and anti-depressant effects compared to fluoxetine. Materials and Method: This study was a three-blind clinical trial that was carried out on working women and their relatives. Firstly, 164 patients with the premenstrual syndrome were selected, and they were randomly divided into two 82-person groups, including those who received fluoxetine and those who received saffron. Next, both groups were treated for two months. The data were collected in two stages through a self-designed questionnaire (on day 5 of menstrual cycle) and validated questionnaires of PRISM and Beck at the end of the period. Results: It was indicated that similar to fluoxetine, the use of saffron in PMS reduced the symptoms such as abdominal bloating, depression, and mood swing, but the latter could better relieve the breast and abdominal pain than fluoxetine. Conclusion: It was concluded that the use of medicinal herbs such as saffron could be effective in reducing the symptoms and they might cause fewer side effects than chemical drugs.</p> Mohammad Nemat-Shahi1, Atefeh Asadi2, Mahbobeh Nemat-Shahi3, Davood Soroosh4, Shakiba Mozari5, Hamidreza Bahrami-Taghanaki 6, Mahsa Mehrpour7 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3191 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the Effects of Passiflora Incarnata and Piroxicam in opioids withdrawal-Induced Myalgia and Anxiety: A randomized Clinical Trial http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3192 <p>Background: Non-steroidal analgesics are the most commonly used analgesics for pain relief in opioids induced withdrawal. One of the herbal remedies that reduce muscle pain, anxiety, and fatigue is Passiflora Incarnata (P.incarnata). In this study, we compared Piroxicam and P. incarnata in withdrawal-induced myalgia and anxiety. Materials and Method: This was a clinical trial carried out on 43 candidate patients for maintenance treatment with methadone. The individuals were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was prescribed piroxicam capsule (10 mg every 12 hours), while the intervention group received drops of P. incarnata (10-15 drops three times a day), until symptoms of withdrawal were resolved (7 to 10 days). In the first, 3rd, sixth, and ninth days of treatment, the patient’s vital signs, myalgia (visual acuity), and anxiety (Beck test) were recorded and analyzed. Results: The results of this study revealed that the flower drops resulted in a reduction in myalgia (mean score of 5.4± 0.79 on the first day decreased to 1. 3 ±0.5 on the ninth day), but there was no significant difference in comparison with Piroxicam (p=0.705). Further, P. incarnata significantly reduced the anxiety caused by withdrawal (p =0.001). Conclusion: P. incarnata drop can be used to reduce the pain and anxiety caused by the drug’s withdrawal.</p> Mohammad Nemat-Shahi 1, Seyyed Mehdi Mir Mohammadi 2, Davood Soroosh3, Atefeh Asadi 4, Samaneh Nakhaee5, Mahsa Mehrpour6 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3192 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hematological Changes in Blood of Smokers of Cigarettes and Nargyle http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3193 <p>The current study aimed at determining the effect of smoking cigarette and Narghile at some of bloody variables and Vitamin D in a sample of young smokers aged 20-35 in Ramadi.The study included complete blood count (C.B.C) tests including:Total White Blood Cell and Red Blood Cell Count, determination of the concentration of total hemoglobin and calculation of Platelet Count.Calculation of RBC Indicators: “mean corpuscular hemoglobin” (MCH), “Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration” (“MCHC”) and Mean red blood Cell Volume (MCV). The study also evaluated the concentration of vitamin D. Results showed that: A rise in the number of white blood cells and red blood cells, as well as a high concentration of hemoglobin and platelet count in smokers.An increase in the volume of red blood cells, mean hemoglobin concentration, and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration in smokers’ blood. Decreased concentration of vitamin D .</p> Mohammed S. Hussain1, Nuhad Mohammed Hamid2, Mohammed Qais Al-Ani1, Belal K. Muden1, Mustafa J. Hamad-Allah1, Omer H. Sweed1 , Suror S. Sabbar1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3193 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between Hyperglycemia Stress and Short-Term Memory Function in Thrombotic Stroke Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3194 <p>Background: Hyperglycemic stress is associated with a disorder of the entire cognitive domain in the early phase of stroke, which is memory impairment. Acute changes in blood glucose are known to affect the cerebral blood flow. Objectives: To determine the relationship between stress hyperglycemia with short-term memory function in thrombotic stroke patients. Method: An observational analytic research with the case-control with a patient’s of 72-hour onset thrombotic stroke that went to the Emergency Unit and was admitted to the Neurology Department of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital from January to December 2014. 42 subjects were enrolled (21 subjects in the case group and 21 subjects in the control group). The sampling of the study was conducted according to the cases that came in succession until the achievement of the subject was determined. Results: After bivariate and multivariate analysis, hyperglycemic stress had no significant correlation to memory function (p = 0.525) and OR 0.667 (CI95% = 0.190-2.334). There was a significant correlation between educational level and cognitive function (p = 0.003) also between hypertension and cognitive function (p = 0.019). Conclusion: Stress Hyperglycaemia has no significant relationship with memory function. Education levels and hypertension have a significant correlation with memory function.</p> Muhammad Hamdan1, Riani Wisnujono1, Yudha Haryono1, Abdulloh Machin1, Dian Puspitarini1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3194 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Difference between hs-CRP and Serum IL-6 Levels in Patients with Glaucoma and Non Glaucoma http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3195 <p>Background: Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that have the characteristic of optic nerve damage with a specific pattern and field loss of view with or without increased intraocular pressure (IOP). The objective of the study was to analyze the association between glaucoma incidence with hs-CRP and IL-6 levels. Method: This study used patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were in the form of patients with a primary closed-angle diagnosis, willing to participate in the research. The study was conducted in the period from March to August 2013. The research procedure included patient examination, hsCRP and IL-6 level examination. Results: Mann-Whitney test result showed difference of hs-CRP with p value of 0.755 and difference of IL-6 level with p = 0.95. Thus, there was no significant difference in the levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 in patients with glaucoma and non-glaucoma. Conclusion: Hs-CRP and serum IL-6 levels in the glaucoma group did not differ from the non-glaucoma group.</p> Muhammad Riduan1, Endang Retnowati Kusumowidagdo1, Nurwasis1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3195 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Risk Factors Effect of Knee Osteoarthritis Towards Postural Lateral Sway http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3196 <p>Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the main cause of impairment and disability in elderly. Patient with OA experience progressive functional impairment shown in increasing dependence on walking, using stairs and etc. Patients with OA experience increased static postural sway in the lateral and anteroposterior due to several factors. Objective: This study aims to analize the risk factors of knee osteoarthritis on postural lateral sway. Method: This research is a cross sectional study. The severity of the respondents’ knee OA, unilateral/ bilateral, dominant side, knee joint alignment, body mass index (BMI), and postural lateral sway were measured with Gait Analyzer Peak Motus 2000, and their quadriceps muscle activity was assessed with Myomed. Respondents involved in this study were 38 elderly with unilateral or bilateral knee OA stage 1 until 3 based on the criteria of Kellgren &amp; Lawrence. The data were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Results: The results showed that postural lateral sway was 2.23+0.59 cm. BMI, dominant side, OA types, OA severity, Quadriceps angle, and tibio-fibular angle (TFA) were found with the p value = 0.421, 0.599, 0.780, 0.913, 0.596, and 0.984 respectively. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) variable was R Square = 0.291, p = 0.001, Y = 0.3096 and X = 0.9393. Conclusion: Pain is the strongest predictor factor of postural lateral sway disturbances in patients with knee OA.</p> Muhammad Siddik1, Ratna Darjanti Haryadi1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3196 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Microbial Risk Assessment (MRA) As a Method of Assessment for Drinking Water Refll in Pattinggaloang District of Makassar City http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3197 <p>Refill drinking water is one of the answers to meeting the needs of Indonesian drinking water that is cheap and practical. This is the reason why people choose AMIU to be consumed. The purpose of this study is to determine the risk of microbial drinking water in the community consumed in the working area of Pattingaloang Public Health Center in Makassar in 2019 This type of research is descriptive with Microbial Risk Assessment (MRA) assessment on refill drinking water. The sampling technique was done by a total of 6 depot drinking water refill sampling. Data processing is done by the SPPS method, the data presentation is carried out using tables accompanied by narration. Laboratory results carried out on 6 samples of refill drinking water obtained were as many as 6 samples which were stated to be Positive (+) containing bacteria. Coli Based on a Quantitative Risk Assessment, it was concluded that from 6 DAMIU samples had a high risk concentration, for the estimated number of bacteriaE. Coli in Refill Drinking Water in the surrounding area of the Pattingaloang Health Center in Makassar City. It is recommended for consumers to refill drinking water in cooking first, because pollution / contamination can occur starting from the process of taking raw water, processing and packaging / filling in gallons.</p> Alfina Baharuddin1, Muhammad Ichsan2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3197 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Early Nutritional Status with the Clinical Severity in Patients with Acute Stroke http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3198 <p>Background: Prevalence of malnutrition in stroke patients in Indonesia is not known for certain because the assessment of nutritional status has not been conducted optimally in all stroke patient5s due to the existing limitations. Early nutritional status assessment is helpful in planning the provision of nutrition for acute stroke patients. Commonly used nutritional status assessment methods are anthropometry (LOLA and TST) and biochemistry (serum albumin levels). Objective: To analyze the association of early nutritional status with clinical severity in acute stroke patients. Methods: The study design was a prospective cohort with consecutive sampling according to inclusion and exclusion criteria of 102 subjects. Initial nutritional status was measured in Upper Arm Circumference (LOLA), Triceps Skinfold Thickness (TST), and serum albumin level. The clinical severity was measured by calculating the NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) at admission to hospital and the 7th day of stroke. Data was analyzed using chi square (p &lt;0.05). Results: Most subjects were males (52.00%) with mean age of clinical severity was 54.48 ± 9.634 years old. There was no significant association between initial nutritional status (p = 0.227) and serum albumin level (0.552) with clinical severity. The measurements of LOLA (p = 0.049) and TST (p = 0.481) were statistically significant (p = 0.049) but not clinically. Conclusion: There was no association between early nutritional status that was measured with LOLA, TST and serum albumin levels with clinical severity measured with NIHSS scale in acute stroke patients</p> Myrna Ika Purnama1, M. Hasan Machfoed1 , J. Eko Wahono R1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3198 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Legal Protection of Well-Known Service Trademark (The Case of Inter-Continental Vs The Intercontinental) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3199 <p>The competition in the field of international services has increased the potential for copyright infringement of well-known service marks. Accordingly, it is necessary to examine the criteria for well-known service marks and legal protection to protect the trademarks’ copyright. This paper analyzes the criteria for well-known service marks according to the instruments of international law and national law. Besides, this study aims to investigate the forms of well-known service mark violations and the efforts to recover the trademarks. The method employed in this study was normative legal research. That method was used since this thesis examined the norms in the laws and regulations as well as the judgments relating to the trademarks to find the law against the issue addressed by utilizing statute approach and conceptual approach. In the case of INTER-CONTINENTAL v. the intercontinental, the trademark violation occurred was brand dilution. The parties in the INTER-CONTINENTAL v. Intercontinental case could resolve their dispute through alternative dispute resolution in the form of mediation, conciliation, or arbitration. In addition, the act of trademarks counterfeiting and piracy may be subjected to criminal sanctions according to the provisions of the applicable Trademark Law. The infringement of trademark copyrights is a detrimental act for the trademark’s legal owner. The settlement of trademark infringement can be conducted through criminal channels and alternative dispute resolution by mediation, conciliation, or arbitration</p> Nanda Riwanto1, Agung Sujatmiko1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3199 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determining the Quality of Services Provided in Delivery Room at Ayatollah Kashani Hospital (Jiroft, Iran) from the Perspective of Clients Using Service Quality Model (SQM) During Spring 2019 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3200 <p>Background and Objective: Topnotch services provided through preserving high quality is a prerequisite to the success of service organizations including maternity hospitals. Since maternity hospitals play an important role in providing services and promoting women’s health and that of the entire society, this study attempted to assess the quality of services provided in the maternity ward of Ayatollah Kashani Hospital in Jiroft (Iran). Method: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted on 234 women who went through vaginal delivery in Ayatollah Kashani Hospital. After 2 hours of delivery, convenience sampling was carried on the subjects in 2019. Data were collected through SERVQUAL standard questionnaire (1988), the validity and reliability of which were confirmed. Data were analyzed by SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The results indicated that there is a negative gap in all dimensions of service quality. The largest gap was observed in assurance (-5.69) while the lowest gap was in the physical dimension (-3.2). There was a significant difference between women’s expectations and perceptions across all five SERVQUAL dimensions (P&lt;0.001). Conclusions: From the women’s perspective, the quality of services was not satisfactory and the significant difference between expected and received services indicates that managers should pay more attention to quality improvement programs in maternity hospitals so that increasing the quality of services will promote women’s health and eventually that of the entire society.</p> Narges Mahyapour Lori1, Hourie Taheri Sarvetomin1, Mahdiyeh Ahmadi2, Sareh Mehni3, Neda Dastyar3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3200 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between Serum & Urinary Placental Protein (Pp13) in Pre-eclamptic Women at their Third Trimester http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3201 <p>Background: Preeclampsia (PE) consider as one of the most One of the most serious complications of pregnancy, and the chief reasons of Objectives: Study the correlation between serum &amp;urinary placental protein (pp13) in pre-eclamptic women at their third trimester Materials and Method: Case control study was achieved from August 2018 to January 2019. A total of 100 women involved in this research, 50preeclampsia pregnant women and 50 apparently normal pregnant women as control, for all the subjects in the research serum and urine sample were collected for placental protein 13(pp13) estimation by using ELISA technique. Results: Results indicated that a highly significant decreased in serum and urine pp13 in preeclamptic women compared to healthy women pregnant Conclusion: Maternal serum PP13 at their 3rd. Trimester has evidences to be a credible biomarker for preeclampsia risk evaluation: the specificity and sensitivity of pp13 provided the highest diagnostic for preeclampsia</p> Nesreen Ahmed Nasser1, Rayah Sulaiman Baban1, May Fadhil Al- Habib2, Risala A. Ali Jameel3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3201 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Acetaminophen Plus Amitriptyline Compared to Acetaminophen to Reduce Pain Intensity in Nonspecific Chronic Lower Back Pain http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3202 <p>Background: There was 90% of Lower back pain (LBP) are non-specific. Acetaminophen is the first an analgesic in the treatment of LBP, but some cases of chronic LBP need additional antidepressant drugs. Amitriptyline is an antidepressant drug often used in cases of pain, but the evidence research in the case of non-specific chronic LBP is still a contradiction. Method: The study was a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial using consecutive sampling admissions. The subjects were divided into 2 groups; acetaminophen plus amitriptyline group and acetaminophen plus placebo group. Results: There was no significant difference in pain intensity of acetaminophen plus amitriptyline and acetaminophen plus placebo groups either statistically or clinically (p = 0.498; OR = 0.667; CI 95% 0.20-2.16; ARR = -0.07 or -7%). The significant improvement of pain intensity in the treatment group Acetaminophen plus Amitriptyline was 24 (72.7%), while in the control group Acetaminophen plus Placebo was 24 (80.0%). In the treatment group was 9 (27.3%) who did not experience a significant improvement in pain intensity, and in the control group was 6 (20.0%). Conclusion: There was no difference in efficacy between acetaminophen plus amitriptyline with acetaminophen plus placebo to reduce pain intensity in non-specific chronic LBP</p> Nita Kurniawati1, Isti Suharjanti2, Muhammad Hamdan2, Joseph Ekowahono Rahardjo2, Djohan Ardiansyah2, Hanik Badriyah Hidayati2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3202 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Society Perception of Pasung Behavior in People with Mental Disorders http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3204 <p>Introduction: Pasung intervention of people with mental disorder still happened in the society. “Pasung Free Program” which has already designed in Indonesia since 2014 did not effective to wipe out Pasung behavior. There are still many people who are abused by Pasung behavior in Kulon Progo, Java Island, Indonesia with the various perception of society. The aims of this study examined the public perception of Pasung behavior in people with mental disorders. Method: This study used quantitative method by using symbolism interaction approach. There were 9 people who experienced pasung in their surroundings that became samples. Data was collected by using in-depth interviewing and socio-demographic questionnaire. Method that was used to analyze was analysis method such as 6 stages of Creswell analysis that was suitable with the used method. Result: The result of this study could become a theme. There were 8 themes came from two different perceptions. Perception of society resulted two themes namely 1) opinion about pasung behavior and 2) conclusion about pasung. External perception resulted six themes namely 1) the reason why pasung is allowed, 2) the reason why pasung is not acceptable, 3) pemasungan idea, 4) pemasungan method, 5) the society’s hope about people with mental disorder, and 6) the obstacle of health service. Conclusion: Society perception about mental disorder still not acceptable. Pasung program planning should be in line with free people with mental disorders program. The appearance of pasung behavior related to the increase of people with mental disorders.</p> Nur Khriesna Habita1, Ahmad.Yusuf2, Rr Dian Tristiana2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3204 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of the Use Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis on Proprioception Function Change in Healthy Adult Male http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3205 <p>Background: Proprioception includes joint position and motion. Sensory information, central processes, and neuromuscular control are important in improving joint stability. The effective use of knee joint orthosis on knee joint performance, balance and coordination is still highly controversial and has slight information on the effect of the orthotic use on proprioceptive function. Objective: To analyze the effect of knee orthosis on proprioception function in adult male health’s subjects. Method: This study used an experimental research with pre-post study design. The sample of this study was the male patient of Physical and Rehabilitation treatment that met inclusion criteria. The data was taken by consecutive sampling in February 2017. The subjects were 11 healthy male adults who aged of 21-40 years old that meeting the inclusion criteria. All the subjects were measured proprioception function before and at 30 minutes using knee orthosis. Joint position sense (JPS) and time to detect passive movement (TTDPM), were measured by the cybex isokinetic dynamometer tool to measure the function of proprioception. Result: All the mean values of JPS before and at 30 minutes by using orthosis on both sides did not statistically show a significant difference (p &gt;0.05), except at the corner of the JPS 60° on the right-sided knee (p &lt;0.05). It meant TTDPM before and during 30 minutes using orthosis on both sides of the knee also did not show a significant difference (p &gt;0.05). Conclusion: The use of ambulatory knee-ankle-foot orthosis caused the change in proprioception (JPS) at the right side 60o knee angle on the subject before and at 30 minutes using knee orthosis.</p> Nuralam Sam1, Andriati1, Noor Idha Handajani1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3205 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The effectiveness of Aqueous Extract of Grape Seeds Vitis vinifera as an antibiotic for some microorganisms and its Protective Role Histology for Liver, Kidney in Mice http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3206 <p>1- Among the common disease treatments and long-term use of plant extract in the treatment of bacterial infections, This research used black grape seed extract to observe its effect on some Gram negative and positive bacteria like Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabillis obtained from patients with urinary tract infection Using four specific extract concentrations (100 mm / L, 75 mm / L, 50 mm / L, 25 mm / L) to test the effect of black grape plant extract. The results showed that E. coli was the most resistant bacterial species to plant extract and so on with other gram negative bacterial species. In the minimum inhibition concentration test for the plant extract, showed that the highest concentration 100 mm / L had the good inhibitory activity for Staph. aureus and less than other strains specially for Kleb. pneumoniae and Pro. mirabillis while the 25mm / L concentration had the lowest acitivity against all. 2- This study used 10-day oral methionine and 30-day grape extract treatment for 16 white mice to study the histopathological effects in the liver, kidney and heart tissues, And the results showed a very good organ tissue improvement for all treated groups compared to the control group.</p> Osama Nadhom Nijris1, Zinah Ibrahim Khaleel1, Swiss Yonis Hamady1, Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3206 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Stability And Sternum Healing Rate in Clinical and Ultrasonography (USG) between Stainless Steel Wire and Polydioxanone Yarn in Children Heart Surgery Operation http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3207 <p>Background: The closing of the sternum bone is often used today by using stainless steel wire material and Polydioxanone yarn continuous suture. To objectives to be achieved for sternal healing after heart surgery without complications resulting from the failure of sternal healing. The bone healing process itself is influenced by mechanical stress and movement. Objectives: To compare the effects of sternum closure techniques on surgical patients The heart of the child uses Polydioxanone and Stainless Steel Wire threads against clinical stability and rate of healing which are evaluated clinically and Ultrasonography. Methods: Performed sternal closure of pediatric patients after cardiac surgery with sternal wire (n = 8) and PDS (n = 8). Performed sternal pain and stability evaluation with the physical examination. Further sternum ultrasonographyund was performed to assess displacement, gap and callus picture. Evaluations were performed at weeks 6, 9 and 12 postoperatively. Results: Week 6 and 9 degrees of pain were higher in sternal wire compared with polydioxanone (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01). The 12th week of sternal wire and polydioxanone did not find any difference in pain (p = 1,000). Week 6, 9 and 12 there was no clinical stability difference between wire and PDS (p = 0.143, p = 0.264, p = 0.063). 9th, 9th and 12th Sternum ultrasonography of examination appears to be displacement in polydioxanone (p = 0.025, p = 0.009, p = 0.009). The gap increased significantly from 6th to 9th weeks in the polydioxanone group, while the addition at week 9 to 12 was statistically insignificant but it appears that polydioxanone had a wider gap addition range than the sternal wire. Week 9 and 12 callus were seen more often in sternal wire patients but not significant (P = 0.602, p = 0.333) Conclusion: Clinically, sternal steal wire stability is proportional to polydioxanone. Radiologically, the stability of sternal wire is better than polydioxanone. The rate of sternal cure in polydioxanone is proportional to the sternal wire.</p> Prima Kharisma Hayuningrat1, Heroe Soebroto1, Paulus Rahardjo2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3207 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Discrimination the Gender in the Criminal Evidence at Crime Scene http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3208 <p>Background: An ideal method for gender identification would be accurate, simple, and cheap,enabling its use in most laboratories. In addition, it should also be able as much as possible to be used for all animals as well as tissues and/or cells. For chromosomal analysis, we need viable cells that are able to divide, and if this is not possible, these methods cannot be used. On the other hand, genetic methods are reliable and do not need living cells, and it is easy to obtain DNA for these studies even in very ancient and nonviable tissues. These methods are therefore the most accepted ones The current study aimed to Determine the gender of a given DNA samples by designed vaulable specific-PCR tool. Methodology: Thirty eight ( ninteen from each male and female) human blood samples were collected using EDTA-Na2 tubes for direct DNA extraction after taken the agreement of the volunteers to give the blood sample . via expert .The blood sample mixed well by rotation of EDTA tube. two sets of species specific primer pairs targeting Homo sapiens (AMLE X and AMLE Y) genes. were designed and checked. PCR and sequencing were performed and sequences were analyzed and register in GenBank. Results: the results revealed that, the amplicon of AMLE X gene of Homo sapiens were 1164bp and AMLE Y were 744bp Conclusion: The current study conclude that, validity and accuracy of designed 12S rRNA species specific primer pairs for human and nonhuman animal blood typing as a forensic tool and there is no intraspecies cross amplification.</p> Qutaiba S. H. AL-Ameedy1, Noor Salman Kadhim Al-Khafaji2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3208 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Workload and Breastfeeding Motivation of Working Mothers http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3209 <p>Background : The practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia still falls short of expectations due to working mothers’ struggle with managing both working outside and household chores. This workload results in mothers experiencing physical and emotional exhaustion and impacts on their motivation to practice exclusive breastfeeding, hence exclusive breastfeeding failure. Objective: To shed light on the relationship between workload and exclusive breastfeeding motivation of working mothers in the working area of the Public Health Center of Bergas District, Semarang Regency. Method: This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of working mothers in the working area of the Public Health Center of Bergas District, Semarang Regency, with babies aged 0–6 months. The sample of 32 respondents was recruited by purposive sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed by Spearman’s rho analysis. The instruments employed in this research were the modified versions of questionnaires from existing literature. Results : The workload of nearly all of the sample (31 respondents, 96.8%) was categorized into Level 2. Besides, the vast majority of the breastfeeding, working mothers in Bergas District (30 people, 93.7%) had strong exclusive breastfeeding motivation. Last but hardly the least, a ?-value of 0.801 (&gt; 0.05) was obtained, suggesting no relationship between workload and exclusive breastfeeding motivation. Conclusion : Workload bore no association with the exclusive breastfeeding motivation of working mothers. Despite the high workload, if the reinforcement system was high, individual motivation would generally remain high.</p> Rachma Anisa Ulya1, Retnayu Pradanie1, Aria Aulia Nastiti1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3209 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of an Educational Program on Nurses- midwives’ Practices about Pain Management during Labor in Baghdad Maternity Hospitals http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3210 <p>Objectives: To assess nurses-midwives’ practices about pain management during labor before and after implementation of educational program. Methodology: A quasi-experimental design has been conducted during the period of (27th February 2019 through 2nd June 2019) on non-probability sample (purposive) consists of (44 Nurses/midwives’) who are work in delivery room, the sample was exposed to pretest, educational program, posttest. The study was conducted in the Baghdad Maternity Hospitals. Questionnaire has been used as a tool of data collection. Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis approach through the use of (SSPS) version 22.0 and Excel system. Results: All observations (three observations) in posttest period in the items (changing position, deep breathing, and religious and spiritual idea) appear high and moderate mean scores and relative sufficiency in the three observations after the implementation of education program for nurses- midwives’ regarding to the management taken by the midwife to reducing labor pain of pregnant women in delivery room. While other management not implemented by the nurses- midwives’ due to the lack in the resources or supplementation in delivery rooms, or due to the routine of the hospitals. Conclusions: The study concluded that the educational program can be considered as an effective mean for improvement of the nurses-midwives’ practices about the importance pain management. Recommendations: The study recommended to training primary health care nurses in improved pain management is important part of multi-faced approach towards improving and helping women’s to reduce pain during labor.</p> Rajaa Tareq Hasan1, Rabea Mohsen Ali2, Ekhlas A. Hussein3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3210 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 3D CBCT Analysis of Odontometric Variables for Gender Dimorphism in Saudi Arabian Subpopulation http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3211 <p>Background: For assessing the sex of unidentified or skeletonized individuals, the tooth crown diameters are a good and reliable source amongst the other clinical markers. Aim and Objectives: To check the accuracy and reliability of Mandibular Canine Index (MCI) in sex determination among Saudi subpopulation using 3D Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) images. An additional objective is to establish the norm of Standard MCI. Methodology: A total of 400 CBCT images were studied for the measurements of mesio-distal width (MDW) and inter-canine distance (ICD) of mandibular canines. Then, the observed and Standard MCI were calculated that was statistically determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Left canine showed greater sexual dimorphism. The Standard MCI was calculated as 0.239 (right mandibular canine) and 0.241 (left mandibular canine). The ability to determine gender correctly using Standard MCI (right mandibular canine) method was estimated to be 49% among males and 46.5% among females. The accuracy of the method, when applied to the combined data, was 47.8%. Conclusion: MCI and the variables that allow MCI quantification were shown to distinguish the groups, in terms of average, suggesting the possibility that canine-related measurements may be used for sex discrimination.</p> Rakhi Issrani1, Azhar Iqbal2 , Mohammad Khursheed Alam3, Namdeo Prabhu4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3211 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Violation of Dapek Salah Customary Law in Bengkulu: Forensic Psychological Analysis Toward The Criminal Behavior of Indigenous http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3212 <p>Introduction: Every law is a system which means law bases on the unity of the mind. Customary law is understood as a law that lives in a “living law” society, legal values and a sense of justice that lives in society. All takes place after the values lived by the society under the filter of legal ideals and moral ideals prevailing in the society concerned. Without the law as an effective social control, humans potentially can lead to behavior that can bring destruction to humans. In Bengkulu, the law that lives in the community is known as the law of adat dapek salah. Violation of the law can be acts of a person or group of people who disturb the balance in the indigenous peoples. The violation of the law is an act of deviant behavior that is negative in which each culprit will be charged with various kinds of traditional sanctions. The research of forensic psychology analysis is needed to see the behavior of customary criminal crime in violation of customary law. The assessment is carried out to provide an overview of the mental state of the offender. This is in line with forensic psychology as the study of subjects in terms of cognitive, effective and behavior in relation to the legal process. Material and Method: This research is a qualitative research which produces descriptive data in the form of written or oral words from people and observed behavior. Qualitative research is also called naturalistic research. This study departs from naturalistic inquiry whose findings are not found from statistical calculations. Findings: Customary law of Dapek Salah in Bengkulu as a social model directs to accommodate the entire social system which includes the function of norm system. The function of norm system is to correct behavior that deviates from the relevant rules (violations). These rules are the framework of human behavior orientation (members of the social system). Norms are also often referred to as rules of conduct and blueprints for behavior in a society. This can also lead to anti-social behavior or asocial behavior which could be a factor causing criminal behavior. Criminal behavior toward the Dapek Salah law is an act that causes adverse reactions and corrections and the balance of the community. In the study of forensic psychology analysis, criminal behavior on the law depends on the perception of the respective actors. Aspects of perception consist of cognitive aspects (thoughts), affective aspects (feelings), and aspects of conation (behavior). Individual perceptions can influence and motivate subsequent behavior, if the object of perception is judged unpleasant then the behavior is negative. Conclusion: Violation of the Dapek Salah is a phenomenon, a person or group of people who violate customary law (criminal behavior) so as disturbing the balance in indigenous peoples’ value. In the forensic psychological analysis, criminal behavior of the law depends on the perception of the respective actors. Aspects of perception consist of cognitive aspects (thoughts), affective aspects (feelings), and aspects of conation (behavior). Individual perceptions can influence and motivate subsequent behavior, if the object of perception is judged unpleasant then the behavior is negative. In the basic concept of psychology, there is something wrong with the minds of the perpetrators so that they are involved in criminal behavior. Imbalance relationship between Id, Ego and Superego makes humans weak and consequently more likely to commit deviant behavior or criminal behavior.</p> Rangga Jayanuarto1 , Khudzaifah Dimyati2, Absori Absori2, Natangsa Surbakti2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3212 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Marmet Technique on Mother’s Satisfaction in Breastfeeding http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3213 <p>Background: The Marmet technique is a safe way to stimulate the breast to produce more milk. The administration of Marmet techniques to mothers who produced little to no amount of breast milk showed good results. Palms and fingers are recommended for breast milk milking due to them being practical, effective and efficient. Purpose: To determine the effect of Marmet technique on maternal satisfaction in breastfeeding. Method: This research applied quasi experiment design. There were 40 respondents, each consisting of a treatment group and a control group that met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected using questionnaires and observation sheet. The data were then analyzed using Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon’s Test (? &lt;0.05). Results: Statistical test results ofWilcoxon Signed Rank Test in the treatment group with the value of sig (2-tailed) obtained p = 0.000 in which p &lt;0.05 indicates that there is a significant effect of Marmet technique on maternal satisfaction in breastfeeding. However, the control group obtained p = 0.083 in which p&gt; ?&gt;0.05, meaning that there is no significant effect of Marmet technique on maternal satisfaction in breastfeeding. Conclusion: The satisfaction of the mother in breastfeeding has increased after being intervened with Marmet technique.</p> Rani Dwi Sulistiawati1, Tiyas Kusumaningrum1, Retnayu Pradanie1, Ni Ketut Alit Armini1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3213 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Increase Level of Muscle Adductor in Idiopathic Vocal Cord Adductor Paralysis Post Biofeedback Vocal Therapy http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3214 <p>Background: The Idiopathic Vocal Cord Adductor Paralysis (KAKVI) is the inability of muscle that moves the vocalist notochord to medial in phonation time with the idiopathic. This condition might has impact to the emerge of hoarse voice and other lamentations which are related to the voice production. The conventional voice therapy still show the number of the recovery of low dysphonia. Method: The diagnosis of KAKVI is based on the anamnesis, physical check up, thorax photograph and laryngoscopy fiberoptic and is conducted the measurement of vocalist cord adductor muscular construction strength before the BF voice therapy with equipments. Then, the BF voice therapy is conducted twice a week for four weeks. The voice exercise is continued in home once a day by patients themselves. The measurement of the strength of vocalist cord adductor muscle contraction is conducted after the BF voice therapy. Results: The result of the study revealed that there were KAKVI. The result of adductor muscular contraction strength with statistic examination in a short test is p = 0,044. . The result of statistic examination of long a is p=0,000. . The result of statistic test of count test is p=0,000. Therefore, the change of adductor muscular contraction strength on KAKVI after the BF voice therapy is found a significant increase (p &lt; 0,05). Conclusion: This study revealed that there are an increase of adductor muscular contraction strength in KAKVI after the BF voice therapy.</p> Rani Maharyati1, Irwan Kristyono1, Muhtarum Yusuf1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3214 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Periodontal Evaluation of One-Piece and Two-Piece Single Implant Loaded in Esthetic Zone http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3215 <p>Background: Soft tissue around dental implant is an important anatomical feature contributing to the long-term implant success and esthetics, different factors may influence the soft tissue-implant interface. The purposes of the current study were to evaluate the soft tissue profile around one-piece and two-piece implants loaded in esthetic zone. Method: Totally thirty patients who had single missing tooth in premaxillary region were included in the study. Fifteenth patients’ group-A were assigned to immediate loading one-piece implant and fifteen patients’ group-B were assigned to early loading two-piece implant protocol. Flapless approach was performed for both groups. In group-A, implants were loaded immediately with a temporary crown within 48h, while group-B, were loaded after two months following conventional impression for metal ceramic crown. Clinical outcomes were evaluated after two and six months in terms of success rate, papillary index, plaque index and width of keratinized mucosa. Results: The success rate in group-A found to be 80%, which was lower than the success rate in group-B (100%). On comparison, there was no statistically significant difference in success rate between the two study groups. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups over time in clinical parameters like plaque index, width of keratinized gingiva and papillary index. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that using either immediately loading one-piece implants or early loaded two-piece implants protocol demonstrated the same enhancements of implant esthetics</p> Rezan Anwar1, Ziwar Al Qasab2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3215 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of CaCl 2 Crosslink Solution Concentration on the Characteristics of Gelatin Alginate Microspheres http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3216 <p>Alginate as a constituent of microspheres matrix has a weakness, namely the lack of ability to slow the release of drugs from the system, causing the effects of drug therapy to the body to be less than optimal. To obtain preparations with slowed release, sodium alginate needs to be combined with other polymers such as gelatin. This study aims to determine the effect of the concentration of CaCl 2 connection solution on the characteristics of alginate-gelatin microspheres. In this study, alginate-gelatin microspheres were prepared using ionotropic gelation aerosolization techniques. Three formulas were made, each of which was replicated three times. F1 with CaCl concentration2 0.5 M, F2 with CaCl concentration2 1.0 M, F3 with a concentration of 1.5 M. The three formulas were made in the ratio of alginate-gelatin (1.5: 1)% and a crosslinking time of 1.5 hours. Evaluation of the characteristics of microspheres includes yield percentage, organoleptic, moisture content, morphology of microspheres, size and size distribution of microspheres, and swelling index. The data of this study were analyzed using one way ANNOVA. The results reveals a loss of specific uptake of the COO-manuronate alginate group and the occurrence of wave number shifts as well as an increase in the absorption intensity of the C = O group. Organoleptic examination results of alginate-gelatinin microspheres showed that microspheres of the three formulas had the same organoleptic, and formed spherical microspheres. On the inspection of swelling index, it was found that F1 and F2 reached the peak of swelling at 2 o’clock, while F3 reaches the peak of swelling at 3 o’clock. The greater the level of CaCl2, then the average diameter of microspheres will also increase, while the swelling index will decrease with increasing levels of CaCl2. In the results of moisture content examination, there is no difference in different CaCl 2.</p> Rizka Safitri1, Tutiek Purwanti1, Widji Soeratri1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3216 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Adiponectin and IgE levels with occurrence of asthma in Babylon Province http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3217 <p>ackground : Asthma is a health condition that affects breathing in people. Breathing comfortably is not something most of us need to think about. But if you have asthma, there are times when you have difficulty breathing.The main objectives in the current study are:Determine the role of adiponectin, a hormone that acts as an anti-inflammatory, In addition determine the concentration of immunoglobulin E (IgE) In asthma patients. Method: This study included two groups:Group 1: 80 Patients with asthma were divided into two parts (40 samples obese and 40 samples non-obese).Group 2: 80Group of healthy subjects with no history or clinical evidence of asthma. samples were divided into two parts (40 samples were obese and 40 were not obese). Asthma was diagnosed through a pulmonary function test (PFT) and then invited to a private clinic and measured nitric oxide gas (FeNO) to confirm the diagnosis.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA ) technique was used to determine the concentration of adiponectin and IgE in serum. Results: The present study demonstrated the increase of adiponectin level with asthmatic patients compared with the control group and showed significant difference between non-obese patients group and non-obese healthy group. Conclusion: Adiponectin related with obesity play crucial role in asthma development and inverse relationship between IgE and adiponectin</p> Ruwaida Wahab Salman AL-Jebory Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3217 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the Total amount of Macrophages on Full Thickness Wound Bed in The Use of Tulle, Freeze-Dried Amnion, and Microbial Cellulose http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3218 <p>Background: The wound is the most frequent problems faced by plastic surgeon. Many factors can affect the wound healing process. Macrophages are as one indicator of wound healing which present in the wound within 24-48 hours after injury. Currently, there is a variety of wound dressing available which can increase the levels of macrophages in the wound healing process according to previous research. Objectives: To compare the total amount of macrophages on full thickness wound bed in the use of tulle, freezedried amnion, and microbial cellulose on the second day. Material and Method: The study design was experimental, post-test only group design using 21 male rats Rattus norvegicus. The wound was closed with tulle, amnion, and microbial cellulose which was evaluated on the second day. The samples wounds were fixed by 10% formalin solution then examination of samples was conducted by Wright-Giemsa staining routine/Hemato-eosin under a microscope. Results: Macrophages obtained at a given tulle ranges between 41-96, freeze-dried amniotic at 51-142, and the microbial cellulose at 55-96. In other hand, the mean number of macrophages in the wound by the microbial cellulose at 77.4; its 1.3 times higher than the given tulle at 59; meanwhile its 0.9 times lower than the freeze-dried amniotic given by 83. Conclusions: There were no differences in the increase number of macrophages in the wound bed by the use of tulle, freeze-dried amnion and microbial cellulose on the second day.</p> Saktrio Darmono S.1, Beta Subakti Nata’atmadja1, David Sontani Perdanakusuma1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3218 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Women’s Perception toward Childbirth Experience after Utilization of Pain Management Practices at Al -Elwyia Maternity Teaching Hospital http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3219 <p>Objectives: To evaluate the women’s perception with Childbirth Experience after utilization Pain Management Practices. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study conducted on non-probability of (30) women whom admitted to Al-Elwyia Maternity Teaching Hospital suffering from labor pain for the period of (4th July 2018 through 24th October 2018). Descriptive&amp; Inferential statistical analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: show that the highest percentages of non- pharmacological methods used was frankincense oil, and related to women perception of labor pain they are assessed high as general, and they are accounted 24(96.0%). Conclusions: The study concluded that there are a positive evaluation observed regarding women’s perception with childbirth experience after utilization pain management practices. Recommendations: The study recommended developing structured training program and clinical practice guideline of non-pharmacological pain management methods during labor and childbirth should be made available in English and Arabic which contains information about the proper use of non-pharmacological pain management methods and its advantages to midwives working in delivery room.</p> Sarab Nasr Fadhil1, Rabea Mohsen Ali2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3219 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mention the Treatment of Anger in Hospitalized Patients in the CCU department of Social Security Hospitals of Golestan Province http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3220 <p>Background: Anger is one of the worst negative predictions in cardiac patients. Therefore, this study aimed to cure the anger of patients admitted to the Cardiac Care Unit. Method: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 60 cardiac patients admitted to the heart care unit in a non-randomized sampling method in two groups (n = 30) and control (n = 30). In the test group, four to five times a day, the patient whispered to Allah Akbar or the prayers of Hazrat Zahra. In the control group, routine care was performed. The instrument for collecting information was anger questionnaire which was completed by self-report method before and after the intervention by the patients. The results were analyzed by inferential statistics (T-test, T-test and Independent T-test). Result: Paired t-test showed a significant difference in the test group before and after the intervention (P &lt;0.01). But in the control group there was no significant difference (P = 0.92). Independent t-test before intervention in the control and experimental group did not show a significant difference (P = 0.22), but this test showed a significant difference after the intervention (P = 0.006) Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness of the therapeutic approach to reducing the rate of anger in heart patients, this non-therapeutic method can be used to reduce stress and psychological disturbances in patients and to increase the compatibility and relaxation of patients.</p> Soudabeh Aloustani1, Leila Mamashli2, Adeleh Sadeghloo3, Mohammad Reza rajablou4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3220 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Comparison of Social Support Against the Life Quality of The Spinal Cord Injury Under Stress http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3221 <p>Introduction: The stress of war has caused severe problems for the individual and family. Spouses of veterans are gradually involved in family erosion. Lack of social protection and social dysfunction decreased life satisfaction and reduce intimacy between partners. Purpose: this study has been done in the purpose of comparing social support against the veteran’s life who are under stress. Method: This cross-sectional study was done on 79 posttraumatic stress disorder veteran wives and it was also done on 79 ordinary wives through convenience sampling. The instrument to collect the required information was the quality of life questionnaire which contained 36 SF questions and Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SS).and the needed information was collected by self-reported method. Results: Veteran wives social support with the mean and the standard deviation was 19.3±5.1 while it was 31.1±3.7 versus the ordinary wives and this difference was significant (Pless than 0.01).It showed the veteran wives quality of life with the mean and standard deviation of 46.3±.088 while it showed 66.9±8.5the mean and standard deviation for the ordinary wives and it showed the significant difference (Pless than 0.01). Conclusions: the obtained result showed that the quality of life related to the health and social support in veteran wives is lower in compare with the ordinary wives with the same situation, therefore educational, treatment and supporting and promoting plans for this group is necessary</p> Soudabeh Aloustani1, Karvan Bekmaz2, Adeleh Sadeghloo3, Hamid Hojjati1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3221 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Factors Related To Mastalgia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3222 <p>Background: Breast pain becomes more complicated in many humans. Various hospitals are planning for surgery in the initial stages. The main aim of this paper to find the various factors which cause mastalgia, this is mainly causing the abnormal conditions of the breast. Method : The experiments conducted on 400 patients and this is collected from various surveys, for patients older than the age of 40 the mammography and ultrasonography (US). Results : The mean age was 44.23 ± 9.23 years. This group consists of 300 cases, the asymptomatic group consists of 100 persons. Due to the various reasons that are related to mastalgia (p &lt; 0.05). These are based on their breastfeeding to the child. If it is more than 4 times or more were higher in the mastalgia group (p &lt; 0.04). The breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS 2) mammography results were associated with mastalgia (p &lt; 0.05). These two are more common in the mastalgia group (p &lt; 0.05) that is Fibro cysts and fibro adenomas. Based on the previous history the malignant breast disease was simultaneously higher in the mastalgia group (p &lt; 0.05). Conclusions : Life stress, high caffeine consumption, smoking, lactation frequency, and benign disorders were factors identified to be related with mastalgia. Though a significant relation between mastalgia and malignant breast disease was detected in our study, more studies are still necessary to investigate this relationship.</p> Suhad Kahdum Ali Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3222 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genetics Risk Factors and Progression of Renal Failure http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3223 <p>Objective: “MYH9 gene” is “expressed” in “kidney, platelets and liver and in lesser amounts in the thymus, spleen, and intestine”, its responsible for encoding a protein called “non muscle myosin heavy chain”. To evaluate the role of MYH9 SNP on developing of renal failure. Method :This study depending on “methodology of Case-control study”, subjects involved were one hundred as patients and control; 50 “patients” complaining renal failure and 50 apparently healthy controls. DNA was extracted from venous blood. The “MYH9 gene polymorphisms” were recognized by applying the procedure of (“PCR-RFLP”). Result :Genotype at rs4821480 in patients with RF: finding that obtained were TT (59%), GT (34%), and GG (6.0%) and for control TT (45%) GT (40%) ,GG(15%). This analysis of data indicated the TT genotype homozygote at rs4821480 convenes independently a threating of RF than does the GT and GG genotypes. a variation in the genotype at rs3752462 was shown in patients with RF: CC (4.8%), CT (73.2%), and TT (22.0%). Conclusion :The outcomes indicate that the CT genotype at rs3752462 confers independently a risk factor of RF than those of TT and CC genotypes. There is no significant correlation between distribution of alleles and age, sex, resident, jobs, smoking habit, family history, body mass index (BMI), and medical history (P&gt;0.05).</p> Suhayr A.Alqaysi Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3223 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Diagnostic Accuracy of Phalen Test and Prayer Test in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3224 <p>Background of Study: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a series of symptoms and signs because of pressure on the median nerve in a small space in the wrist called carpal tunnel. In diagnosing CTS, it is required anamnesis and thorough physical examination which includes CTS provocation test, for instance Phalen test, Prayer test, and Tinel sign. The aim of this study is to reveal the diagnostic accuracy of Phalen test and Prayer test in diagnosing CTS. Methods: The samples that fulfilled inclusion criteria were 19 subjects went through Phalen test, Prayer test, and nerve conduction study using CSI in Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia. The nerve conduction study using CSI was conducted by EMG Cadwell equipment. The data analysis was conducted by using SPSS software. Result of the Study: The sensitivity of the Phalen test and Prayer test combination in diagnosing CTS was 94.1 %. The specificity of Phalen test and Prayer test combination in diagnosing CTS was 100%. The positive predictive value was 100% while the negative predictive value was 66.7%. The result of person chisquare examination was obtained asymp. Sig value of 0.001 &lt; ? 0.05. Conclusion: There was a correlation between the combination of Phalen test and Prayer test with CTS.</p> Suroso Agus Widodo1, Fatchur Rochman1, Ratna D. Haryadi1, Patricia Maria K1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3224 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Conservative & Operative Management of Tuberculous Spondylitis in Children http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3226 <p>Background: Tuberculosis is a deadly disease worldwide. Tuberculosis usually occurs in the lung, but there are other tuberculosis most commonly afflicted by the patient and involves the spine and is called tuberculosis of bones and joints. Management of tuberculous spondylitis is conservative and operative. Aim: This study aimed to compare the results of conservative and operative therapy in the management of tuberculous spondylitis in children. Methods: The sample used was teaching with tuberculous spondylitis in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital who underwent operative and conservative therapy that became group 1 and group 2. Inclusion criteria included patients aged &lt;18 years old, suffering from tuberculous spondylitis by conservative or operative therapy in Dr. Soetomo Hospital. Results: In patients receiving conservative therapy, the Visual analog scale (VAS) decreased significantly (p = 0.001), while frankle improved but not significantly (p = 0.157). Cobb’s angle of patients receiving conservative therapy increased significantly (p = 0.007). Patients who received operative therapy showed significant improvement of VAS and Frankle (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011). The patient’s Cobb’s angle after surgery decreased but it was not significant (p = 0.575). Conclusion: The role of surgical action has an important role in the treatment of tuberculous spondylitis and gives better results than conservatives in patients with pain, neurological deficits and Cobb’s angle progression.</p> Teuku Arief Dian1, Komang Agung Irianto2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3226 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A New Automated Approach for Early Lung Cancer Detection with Improved Diagnostic Performance – A Preliminary Analysis http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3227 <p>Lung cancer is becoming the major cause of cancer-related deaths in human worldwide and Saudi Arabia is not an exception. Therein the identification of potentially malignant lung nodules is essential for the diagnosis and clinical management of lung cancer. Unfortunately, in clinical practice, however, interpretation of Computed Tomography (CT) images is challenging for radiologists due to the large number of cases. It is therefore extremely important task to develop computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems that can aid and enhance the radiologist to potentially reduce false positive (FP) findings. Even though numerous methodologies are proposed for CAD system in the literatures, the one proposed in this work will definitely stand out in improving the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of small nodules particularly in low dose CT images. This work attempts to employ the powerful tool, radiomics quantitative imaging features within curvelet domain to detect and characterize lung nodules with improved sensitivity and specificity. Subsequently, support vector machine (SVM) is used to learn the 2D stochastic and 3D anatomic features of curvelet coefficients and classifies suspected regions either as malignant or benign based on geometric, texture and intensity. A preliminary analysis of the proposed methodology is presented and compared against the metrics, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy on publicly available LIDC database to serve as a benchmark for future research efforts.</p> Thavavel Vaiyapuri1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3227 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Validity of Star Excursion Balance Test as Dynamic Balance Test In Subjects with Non-Operative Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3228 <p>Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most common knee injury that might occur during exercise. An ACL causes a balance disorder that can be considered as a risk factor for recurring injury. Identification of balance disturbances in subjects with ACL injury should be conducted to minimize the risk of re-injury. Objectives: this study aims to determine the validity of star excursion balance test with biodex balance system SD as a gold standard Method: This study is a diagnostic test with cross-sectional study approach. The number of research sample was 20 respondents selected as control group, five people with ACL injury as the case group. All subjects were examined with the biodex balance system SD (Overall Stability Index) and star excursion balance test (% MAXD). Results: The result of the correlation analysis between the overall stability index and %MAXD was not significant with r = -0.316; p = 0.175. Hence, the cut-off point could not be determined due to the insignificant correlation, thus the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the star excursion balance test could not be determined. Conclusion: Star excursion balance test was invalid as a dynamic balance test if the Biodex Balance Test SD was used as a gold standard.</p> Yudith Dian Prawitri1, Imam Subadi1, Bayu Santoso1* Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3228 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between Parenting Styles and Peer Attachment with Aggressive Behavior Potentials in Adolescent Boys http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3229 <p>Background: Adolescence is a transitional phase that causes biological, cognitive, social-emotional, and behavioral changes. One of the issues of concern is aggressive behavior in adolescents. Parenting styles and peer attachment are one of the factors that have an influence on potential aggressive behavior in adolescent boys. Objectives To analyze the relationship between parenting styles and peer attachment to the potential aggressive behavior of adolescent boys. Method: The subjects were junior high school male students who are cared for by both biological parents and can follow all of the research procedures. The research design was cross-sectional with total sampling technique. Subjects performed anamnesis related data self, parent demographic data, and peers. (PAQ), (IPPA) (BPAQ). The analyzes used were Pearson, Spearman, and Anova. Results: The majority of parenting styles was permissive (34.06%; 48.00%). Parenting styles and peer attachments did not have a significant relationship with potential aggressive behavior (p = 0.798; p = 0.071; p = 0.695). There was a negative correlation of peer attachment with alienation dimension (p = 0.001). Other significant dimensions with potential dimensions of aggressive behavior were trust (p = 0.018; 0.022) and communication (p = 0.029; p = 0.000). Conclusion: Parenting styles and peer attachments did not have a meaningful relationship with potential aggressive behavior in adolescent boys. However, there were some significant correlations between the dimensions of parenting and peer attachment with potential dimensions of aggressive behavior.</p> Yunias Setiawati1, Kusufia Mirantri1, H. J. Mukono2, Joni Wahyuhadu3, Endang Warsiki1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3229 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bacteriological Study of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Burn Patient in Al-Najaf City http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3230 <p>A total of (60) clinical specimens were collected from patients suffering from various burns during the period from) November 2018 to January, 2019). These specimens were collected from patients attending to Al-Furat Al-Awsat burn center during the studied period . All specimens were cultured on the MacConkey agar plates and incubated at 37°C under aerobic condition for 18 - 24 hour. In 60 patients, 36 (60%) were female and 24 (40%) were male. Several morphological, physiological and biochemical tests were made to identify bacterial isolates. Results showed that K.pneumoniae constitute 15 isolates (25%) of these isolates. A collection of 15 K. pneumoniae isolates diagnosed by the morphological ,cultural and biochemical characters, the identification was confirmed by molecular method for the presence of magA . The results showed that only 10 (66.6%) isolates was carrying magA which are diagnosed as K.pneumoniae. The results of antibiotic sensitivity screening test revealed that the isolates of K. pneumoniae exhibited highly sensitivity to Azithromycin ,moderate sensitivity for Gentamicin and Imipenem while the findings showed absolute resistant to Erythromycin , highly resistant to Ciprofloxacine , Trimthoprime. According to this result it can considered that Azithromycin as best treatment against K. pneumoniae.</p> Zahraa Hameed Oda Alquraishi1, Basaad Abdzaid Al-Fatlawi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3230 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immunomodulation of IraqiLyciumbarbarium Carotene in vitro http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3231 <p>The contents of Lyciumbarbarumactive constituents as wild Iraqi plant was extracted then estimated qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC method. Effect of the extracted carotene was employed in the current study on the normal human blood lymphocytes to estimate the extract effect on IL-6 and IL-8 levels as immune modulating agent.L.barbarumconsidered as a good source for caroteneas it’s containedwas 0.287mg/g dried fruits.The current study results about the effect of extracted carotene on normal human lymphocytes and interleukins 6 and 8 levels showed that the compound can enhance cell-mediated immune responsesthrough enhance lymphocytes proliferation with increasing in IL-8 and decrease IL-6 level</p> ZainabYaseen Mohammed Hasan1; NajwaShAhmed1; Raghad K. Al-Lihaibi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3231 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Activity of Biosynthesized Reduced Graphene Oxide against Multidrug resistant Uropathogenic Bacteria http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3232 <p>The effect of Bacterially Reduced Graphene Oxide (BRGO) as inhibitory agent alone and in combination with antibiotics against some multidrug resistant (MDR) uropathogenic bacterial isolates as well as the antibiofilm activity was investigated. BRGO nanosheets were synthesized biologically by Escherichia coli strain E-NO.7 (accession no. MK685205). Different concentrations 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 10 mg/ml of BRGO nanosheets showed potent inhibitory effects of all concentrations against tested MDR uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. Results showed that the growth inhibition zones increased with increasing in BRGO concentration. The combinations of BRGO (0.5 mg/ml) and different broad spectrum antibiotics exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity against all the studied isolates in comparison with the effects of antibiotics alone. It has been observed that BRGO effectively restricted biofilm formation, and the antibiofilm effect was dose- dependent, since the biofilm inhibition gradually increased with increasing in BRGO concentration.</p> Zina Bakir Al-Hilli1, Nawfal Hussein Aldujaili 2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3232 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Legal Protection Against Women in Sexual Violence http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3233 <p>Introduction: Sexual violence is one of the morbidities and mortality factors in women. Sexual violence of women causes physical and physiological sequences that make them vulnerable to health problems. Material and method: It was normative legal research with a literature study and document study as a method to collect the research data. Findings: Marital sexual abuse or the highest personal relation was incest with 1,071 cases followed by raping with 818 cases, and molestation with 321 cases. Meanwhile, marital rape reached 195 cases. The forms of sexual violence consist of sexual harassment, sexual exploitation, coercion of contraceptive use, compulsion in abortion, rape, marital compulsion, prostitution, sexual bondage, and sexual torture. The protection against victims of sexual violence was considered to be not optimal due to a lack of public understanding of the causes and effects of sexual violence. Conclusion: So far, the legal protection against women in sexual violence cases have not been optimally implemented. The minimum legal protection triggered impunity, reoccurrence, and even the victims’ frustration to accept justice and recovery.</p> Absori Absori1, Fitriani Nur Damayanti2, Kelik Wardiono1, Sri Rejeki2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3233 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Clinical Function Comparison of Post Operative Nerve Grafting and Nerve Transfer in Patients with Brachial Plexus Injury http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3234 <p>Background: Brachial plexus injury is most commonly caused by motorcycle accidents and leads to a deficit of motor strength, pain and disability of the upper limb. The main purpose of reconstructive action of brachial plexus injury is to restore the function of the shoulder and elbow. Aim: This study aimed to compare the clinical function of post-operative nerve grafting with nerve transfer in patients with brachial plexus injury. Methods: This study enrolled a sample of patients who had surgery and evaluated the range of active movement of shoulder abduction and elbow flexion; motor strength using the scale of the British Medical Research Council (BMRC); neuropathic pain using Visual Analog Scale (VAS); and upper extremity disability using the Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick DASH) questionnaire. Results: 30 patients were divided into groups of nerve grafting and nerve transfer with each group consisting of 15 patients. 13 patients (87%) of each group had motor strength of functional shoulder abduction (&gt;M3) (p = 0.874). 13 patients (87%) had better functional elbow flexion motor strength (&gt;M3) in the nerve transfer group than 11 patients (73%) of the nerve grafting group (p = 0.036). Conclusion: The postoperative nerve transfered clinical function showed a better elbow flexion function with a lower severity of upper limb disability.</p> Agung Tristyanto1, Heri Suroto2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3234 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Combination Use of Aloe Vera and VEGF Promotes Osseointegration and Stability of Titanium Implants http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3235 <p>Background: Aloe vera was used to enhance defense mechanisms, and it has a variety of components that affected on periodontal healing and other oral condition .It was used also around dental implants to control inflammation from bacteria contamination. Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) is of particular interest because of its ability to induce neovascularization (angiogenesis), VEGF also acts to recruit and activate osteoclasts as well as stimulate osteoblast chemotaxis, differentiation, and matrix mineralization. Aim of study: The objective of this research was to illustrate the biological actions of topical application of aloe vera and growth factor VEGF on implant tissue contact surface which is involved in osseointegration . Materials and Method: Commercially pure Titanium(cpTi) implants with aloe vera /and VEGF ,were placed in the tibia of (24) New Zealand white rabbits, Mechanical test (torque removal test) was performed as an indicator for the presence of osseointegration and bone implant contact (BIC)measurement as a test for the property of bone-implant interface. Histological investigation was performed on all the implants of both control and experimental groups at (1,2, and 6weeks) healing intervals. Results: Findings illustrated that removal torque mean and BIC values in experimental implant showed high value in comparison to control. Histological results show an early bone deposition and early maturation in combination group . Conclusions: Bone formation &amp;maturation was accelerated by adding biological materials and using a combination of Aloe Vera and VEGF is a powerful tool for enhancement of osseointegration.</p> Athraa Y Al-Hijazi1; Zaid M.Akram2; Emad H Abdulla3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3235 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anthropometric Study of Nose Parameters in Iraqi Arabic and Kurdish Subjects (Possible Personal Identification Tool) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3236 <p>Background and Purpose: The human nose has been reported to differ in its anatomy and morphology between different racial and ethnic groups. Nasal anthropometric features when studied can provide useful information for reconstruction or esthetic surgical procedures and personal identification for forensic purposes. Method: A total of 311 subjects with age (19-23) years were divided according to gender, race (Arabic or Kurdish), and residence regions in Iraq (north, middle and south). Different nose parameters were measured for the subjects using digital Vernier caliper. Results: Comparing races, the nose height and nose length were significant between Arab and Kurds, nasal index showed (60, 60.6) for Arabic vs. Kurdish, respectively. Sexual dimorphism was significant in all the parameters obtained. The fine nose was the commonest among all subjects. Parameters analysis revealed high positive significant correlation among various parameters except the nasal index that showed negative correlation with nasal height and length. Conclusions: Nasal morphometric parameters were unique for each person and have variations between different race (Arabic and Kurdish), gender variation and the correlation among various parameters been recorded for Iraqi people. These morphometric evaluations are the key for standardization among Iraqis, and in comparison with different countries, this have great values in anatomical, surgical (aesthetic) and forensic aspects regarding personal identification.</p> Sinan S. Farhan1 , Watheq M Al-Jewari1 , Aiman Q. Afar2, Aiman Al-Qtaitat2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3236 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Subjective Work Fatigue Due to Hot Work Climate (A Study on Indoor Production Workers of Ud King Rack Surabaya Indonesia) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3237 <p>One of physical factors contributing to the increasing number of work accidents and deaths is the hot working climate. One of the effects of hot working climate is work fatigue. The purpose of this study is to analyze the strength and direction of the relationship between the hot work climate and work fatigue in indoor production workers. This is an observational descriptive study using a cross sectional design. The sample was 33 workers. This study collected data of workers weight, workers height, pulse rate, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, reaction timer and Subjective Self Rating Test. Data was analyzed using univariate and bivariate analysis. The result showed that only working area of Oven 1 and Oven 2 that have the hot work climate exceeding the threshold limit value. All of 6 workers in those areas reported to experience subjective work fatigue. This study found that hot work climate and work fatigue has fairly strong and unidimensional relationship.</p> Putri Arianto1, Endang Dwiyanti1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3237 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Histopathological Assessment of Hepato-Nephrotoxicity Induced by Nano Copper Particles in Adult Male Albino Rats and the Potential Protective Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid: A Chronic Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3252 <p>Background: Copper nanoparticles (CNPs) have unique physical and chemical properties for this reason it was widely used in various medical and non-medical applications. This study aimed to study the toxic effect of copper nanoparticles on liver and kidney through histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues and if there is improvement of hepato-nephrotoxicity after cessation of exposure and to study the potential protective effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) against hepato-nephrotoxicity induced by copper nanoparticles. Finding: Histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues in rats received CNPs showed significant alteration, cessation of exposure can cause slight improvement and ALA can cause significant improvement. Conclusion: Copper Nanoparticles have hepato-nephrotoxic effect and ALA can be safely used as a protective agent against CNPs toxicity.</p> Rabab Abdulmoez Amin Eltokhy1, Mervat Hamdy Abdelsalam1, Eman Abdelfattah Elzoheiry1, Marwa Issak Mohamed1, Laila Ahmed Rashed2 and Reham Shehab Elnemr3. Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3252 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Safe Concentration of Benzene Exposure to Worker’s in Gas Station at the Area of Diponegoro University, Semarang http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3254 <p>Benzene is one of the aromatic hydrocarbon compounds that are widely used in the industrial sector. Benzene exposure in the work environment has been set a threshold value. Benzene exposure in humans can provide health effects especially disrupting the central nervous system, hematopoietic system, and immune system. Acute effects can include laryngeal irritation, dizziness, pallor, shortness of breath, headache, fatigue, drowsiness, and fainting. While the chronic effects can be cancer. This research is a study with an environmental health risk analysis approach with the aim to assess and make predictions that will occur due to exposure to benzene in public fuel station (SPBU) officers around the area of Diponegoro University, Semarang. The Environmental Health Risk Analysis (ARKL) approach consists of several steps, namely hazard identification, response dose analysis, exposure analysis, and risk characteristics. The results of the measurement of benzene concentrations in gas stations around the Diponegoro University in Semarang at point 1 were 0.38 ppm and at point 2 was 0.51 ppm. So that the concentration is still below the Threshold Value (NAB) according to the Minister of Manpower Regulation Number 5 of 2018. Based on manual calculations for safe limits benzene concentration is obtained 0.08538 mg / m3 or 0.02672 ppm. This means that the highest concentration of benzene in the work environment is 0.51 ppm, with an average body weight of 55.67 kg, height of 159 cm with a working time of 8 hours, and safe concentration so as not to cause a non-carcinogenic risk is 0.08538 mg / m3 or 0.02672 ppm.</p> Rizki Adi Sulistyanto1, Abdul hamid1, Aditya1, Dyah Ayu Kusumaningrum1, Novvini Miriam Suaebo1, Abdul Rohim Tualeka1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3254 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Local Anesthesia and Extraction on Mouth Opening http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3263 <p>Background: Trismus is defined as painful limitation in mouth opening due to a muscle spasm. Trismus, also called lockjaw, (restricted jaw range of motion).There are various causes of trismus, one is spasm of the muscles of mastication. Assessment of the effect of local anesthesia and extraction on mouth opening ability. Methodology: Total sample of 40 patients included both genders (27 male and 13 female) participated in this study, all Patients were healthy with no allergy to local anesthesia, don’t use alcohol or any drug therapy. Lidocaine HCL 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 is used to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve using IAN block technique, while surgical tools were used for extraction in the usual way. Baseline mouth opening was evaluated pre-operatively, during the effect of local anesthesia and post-operatively by using digital Vernier caliper. Results: significant difference in mouth opening between the measurements (pre-operative, during anesthesia, post-operative) is found , mouth opening decreases when measurement is directed toward postoperatively.</p> Ali Falah Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3263 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Physiological and Gen Study for Animals Exposed to Leaves of Plant (Eucalyptus) from Selected Locations at, Al-Nassiriy/ Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3267 <p>Our study was carried out during the period from November 2018 to May 2019. 24 rats were used assigned and divided into three groups. The first group was the control group and a second group were injected with aqueous extraction of Eucalyptus leaves extract at concentrations of 100 and 150 mg /Kg experiment lasted 30 days. Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu were measured in the leaves of plant and after confirming the presence of these heavy metals, we exposed the laboratory animals to the Eucalyptus aqueous extract and after the end of the period rats were sacrifice and blood collected. Blood were used to measure study parameters and relative gene expression of (SOD and catalase). Moreover, antioxidants and enzymes AST and AL were measured from serum. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in the plant was 0.19?g/g. The highest mean Zn was 14.23?g/g. The Cd concentration was 0.35?g/g and the copper concentration were 2.31?g/g from previous data we can find out that the amount of heavy metals is not really high. we would be expected low impact on animals since not high concentration found. The results of blood parameters of rats showed different outcome where it has been noticed that a significant increase in Hb, PLT and RBC at the 100mg/kg exposure and an increase in WBC in both concentrations. In addition, our results showed a significant decrease in RBC and Hb at the 150mg/Kg decrease MDA, MCV and MCH levels are decreased at both concentrations. A significant decrease in AST at 150mg/kg while the results showed a significant increase in lower concentration.</p> Sabah H. Enayah1, Mohanned A. Gati1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3267 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Metronidazole on Clopidogrel Bisulphate Efficacy in Male Albino Rats http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3291 <p>The data about this combination effect on platelet function and hematological parameters are sparse, but there is only mention in many medical science websites such as Medscape, there are possible interaction between it, in which metronidazole cause inhibition to cytochrome CYP3A4 which responsible on clopidogrel metabolism, this may put the patients that on clopidogrel bisulphate therapy at risk of clot formation and may be progress, this may occur because clopidogrel is at inactive form and need to activation by cytochrome mention above, so this study was performed in order to achieve the following aims: studying the efficacy of clopidogrel bisulphate on coagulation process by measuring bleeding time when giving clopidogrel alone and in combination with metronidazole and studying the possible effect of two drug alone and in combination on hematological parameters in male albino rats.</p> Saddam Jumaa Nasser1, Muhammed M. Al-Ani2, Mohammad Sinjar Farhan3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3291 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Serum AdiponectinIrisin and Apelin in Iraqi Obese Women Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3328 <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a status that impact a woman’s hormone levels.A total of (128) samples was divided into four groups (Obese with PCOS, low weight with PCOS ,Obese without PCOS ,and Healthy control) collected from Kamal Al-Samarraiehospital, Ministry-of Health in Baghdad-Iraq during the period of April 2017- August 2017. The aim of the study toevaluation from Serum AdiponectinIrisin and Apelin in Iraqi obese women patients with PCOS. The result shows The BMI of obese with PCOS patients and obese without PCOS was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) when compared to the values of the control group. No significant with other groups ,also Significant increase of Prolactin (p&lt;0.05) in Obese with PCOS and low weight with PCOS groups in relation to Obese without PCOS and control groups. A non- significant elevation (p&gt;0.05)when comparing between Obese without PCOS, and control groups. The levels of FSH , LH and Testosterone showed significantly change(p&lt;0.05) in Obese with PCOS and low weight with PCOS groups when comparing with Obese without PCOS and control group. followed by no-significant with other groups ,also shows significant change(p&lt;0.05)when comparing between Obese without PCOS and control group ,showed that adiponectin level showed a significant higher level in the control group ,Obese without PCOS group ,low weight with PCOS patients ,and Obese with PCOS patients . Oppositely, the results of the Irisin showed a significant higher level in the Obese with PCOS patients then the low weight with PCOS group followed by the Obese without PCOS and control group. While Apelin level recorded the highest level Obese with PCOS group.</p> Sarah Ibrahim Hashoosh1 , Asmaa A. Hussien2, Salah Al Chalabi3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3328 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Centaureabruguierana (Asteraceae) from Iraq http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3330 <p>The methanol and aqueous extracts of Centaureabruguierana. (Asteraceae) from Iraq were tested for their biological activity against two Gram positive , two Gram negative bacteria and four fungal species by using agar well diffusion method . The crude methanol extract (100mg/ml) and its dilutions and the crude aqueous extract( 100mg/ml) showed biological activity against all bacteria and fungi studied. Compared with the aqueous extracts , methanol extracts, particularly the crude one, were more bioactive against bacteria and fungi studied . Among the studied microbes, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureusand Microsporumcanis were the most sensitive species to C.bruguierana extracts tested. Methanol extract at all concentrations and aqueous extract at high concentrations showed close or more antibacterial activity( except in case of P.auruginosa) than that of the bacterial control ( tetracycline) . The crude methanol extract was more bioactive against all fungi studied than the fungal control ( nystatin ).This is the first report on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of C. bruguierana extracts from Iraq and its bordering countries.</p> Shaima H. A. ALAbbasi1, Talib O.H. Al-Khesraji2, Sirwan H.Salih3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3330 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Infection Control Rules by Iraqi Orthodontists http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3332 <p>Orthodontics represent an important dental speciality which deals different situations of patients malocclusion, they use many kinds of sharps and cutting instruments, making them liable to different types of infections which could be transmitted from either the patients or the instruments if they don’t follow the infection control principls. The data were collected by answering a questionnaire by 101 orthodontists, the results showed different responses of the participants to the variables used by the questionnaire leading to a conclusion that more efforts are needed to improve the application of infection control guidelines between Iraqi orthodontists.</p> Rehab adil Al-Rawi1 Noor Nourie Abbass Abdulla1, Fudhla Sadoon Al- Zubaydi2, Bassam Alsheekhly1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3332 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mast cell, IL-1 Beta and IL-6 for Wound timing and Vitality in Forensic Practice http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3333 <p>the application of immunohistochemistry has opened a new era for examining the age of the wound by forensic specialists, The aim of our study was to illustrate the use of immunohistochemical marker of mast cells activation (mast cell tryptase “MCT”) as a reliable and promising factor of wounds vitality and to Identify the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL 1 beta and IL 6 as parameters of wound age determination. The study was done in the Medico-Legal Directorate of Forensic Medicine (MLD) in Baghdad. The specimens were sera and skin tissues for immunohistochemistry examination, and staining procedures and immunohistochemistry (MCT) ELISA sandwich plate will measure the levels of interleukins. Total autopsy cases were 88 and divided into study group (SG) and control group (CG) .We found that density of Mast cells in sample group was significantly high and higher infiltration that correlates with time passing in the study group as compared by other group in dermis of the sample and control lesions and positive relationship ..dnuow fo ssergorp emit dna level 6?LI &amp; ateb?1 LI fo slevel neewteb</p> Mohammad Abdul Mohsin Jebur1, Nabeel Ghazi Hashim2, Salim R. Hamoudi Al-Obeidi3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3333 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association between Genetic Polymorphism of 5-HTTLPR, and SGOT, SGPT and Catalase with Alcoholism of Iraqi People http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3334 <p>A case- control study on the relationship of 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism with alcohol abuse among Iraqi individuals was conducted during period from December 2018 to June 2019. DNA was extracted from the blood samples of the study subjects. The genetic polymorphism analysis was conducted by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) for SLC6A4 gene. The results raveled that the odd ratio for the LL genotype was 1.697 indicating that homo mutant genotype were at higher risk for alcoholism than the wild type SS. This result showed that L allele frequency was (0.78) in alcoholism group and (0.53) in control group whereas S allele frequency was (0.22) in the alcoholism group and (0.47) in the control group. So, the results showed there was a significant difference in allele frequencies of SLC6A4gene between case and control (P&lt;0.01; OR=1.697; 95% CI=0.86-1.64). There was a significant positive correlation between the SGOT activity and the genotype of 5-HTTLPR (SS, SL, LL).Additionally, there was a significantly increased level of liver enzymes (GOT and GPT) and catalase in serum samples of alcoholic males compared with non-alcoholic males.</p> Anwar A. Abdulla Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3334 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Sensitive Simultaneous Estimation of Atorvastatin. Ca in Pure and Dosage Forms Via Developed CFIA Using 1,2 Naphthoquinone-4-Sulfonate as a Suitable Organic Agent http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3335 <p>Objectives: A sensitive visible spectrophotometric method and FIA/merging zones technique was developed for the determination of atorvastatin calcium in pure material and tablet dosage form. Method: Atorvastatin calcium has a free carboxylic moiety in its structure, which when being deprotonated in basic medium facilitates associated the reagent with the drug. This method was based on the formation of red colored chromogen of drug with 1,2-Naphthaquinone-4-sulfonate(NQS) in basic medium (NaOH). The absorbance of the chromogens was measured at their respective wavelengths of maximum absorbance against the corresponding reagent blank Results: The red colored product is directly completed in basic medium and exhibits maximum absorption at 525 nm. Different factors affecting the formation of the product and optimized in order to obtain the best conditions for the experiment and its stability were studied. Method validation was done over a concentration range of 2-10 and 1-20 ?g/mL for batch and FIA method respectively.</p> Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3335 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Gall Bladder Wall Thickness: Sonographic Accuracy and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Conversion Rate, Evaluated by Histopathology http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3336 <p>Background: Preoperative prediction of a difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy can help the patient as well as the surgeon to prepare better for intraoperative risk and the risk of conversion to open Cholecystectomy. Aim of study: Evaluation the impact of gall bladder wall thickness, on the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and conversion rate to open cholecystectomy assessed by sonography preoperative and postoperative measurement of gall bladder wall thickness by histopathology. Patients and Methods: A prospective study conducted in the surgical unit, Department of surgery, Baghdad Teaching Hospital between November 2010 and November 2011. Abdominal Sonography performed in 110 consecutive patients before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The surgeon re-verified sonographic finding in operative room, and postoperatively, the gall bladder specimens were sent for histopathological measurement of wall thickness. Results: Out of 110 patients with cholecystolithiasis on sonography, we encountered easy laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 80 patients (72.7%), difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 24 (21.8%) and the procedure was converted to open cholecystectomy in six patients (5.5%). The difference between Sonographic and histological measurement was within 1 mm in 102 patients (92.7%), and the other 8 patients was with 1.5 mm (7.3%) with sensitivity of (100%), specificity of (83.3%) and accuracy of (97%). Conclusion: An accurate preoperative diagnostic sonography is mandatory for planned laparoscopic gall bladder surgery to provide information for the selection of the most appropriate approach and avoid intraoperative difficulties and surprises. On sonography gall bladder wall thickening is the most sensitive indicator of technical difficulties during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Such difficulties may require conversion to laparotomy.</p> Mohammad Faraj Dawod Al. Jafary 1 , Ammar Fouad Abdulrazaq1 , Ayman Nadeem Kadum3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3336 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Effect of Addition of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle on Some Physical Properties of Flowable Composite Resin http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3337 <p>Objective: The flowable dental composite resins were introduced to the dental specialty because of the advantages they possess over the conventional composite resins. The use of nanotechnology in the dentistry field is one of the growing innovations in recent years. The aim of the present study was to evaluate certain physical properties of flowable dental composite after incorporation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs). Materials and Method: In the present study, TiO2NPs at 1.25 % and 2.5% concentrations were added to flowable composite, while the unmodified composite was used as control. Then the physical properties of the control and modified composite resins, including flowablity, radiopacity and water sorption and solubility were tested. Data were analyzed with One way ANOVA, using SPSS 20. Results: The results showed that there was statistically significant difference among the tested groups regarding flowability and radiopacity (P&lt;0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference among control group and TiO2 modified groups regarding water sorption and solubility. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, a flowable dental composite was successfully reinforced with TiO2. Incorporation of small weight percentages of this nanofiller exhibited properties similar to the control material regarding water sorption and solubility. The flowability was slightly reduced and radiopacity of the reinforced composites was increased, these changes were acceptable for clinical applications and below ISO standards limits.</p> Sazgar Srbast Qasim 1, Diyar Khalid Bakr1, Dara H. Rasheed Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3337 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Activities of Green Biosynthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using F. Carica Fruit Extract http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3338 <p>In the current study, iron oxide nanoparticles (IO NPs) were synthesized via modified green synthesis technique using F. carica fig extract as reducing agent. Furthermore, the microstructural properties of the synthesized IO NPs have been thoroughly elucidated. In details, the acquired NPs diameter was found to be in the range of 11-29 nm and of root mean square (RMS) of 0.64 nm using TEM and AFM techniques, respectively. Consequently, the antifungal and antibacterial activities of the synthesized IO NPs were screened against Candida and Aspergillus species as well as Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Acinetobacter species, respectively. The presented IO NPs play an active role in the antimicrobial activities evidencing the well-organized materials system for biomedical applications.</p> Nada Khudair Abbas1, Azhar A. F. Al- Attraqchi2, tutor Jenan Hussien Taha3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3338 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Detection of Antibiotics Resistance Genes in Burkholderia Cepecia Isolated From Diabetic Foot Infection http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3339 <p>This study aimed to isolate and diagnose Burkholderia cepetia from clinical specimens of diabetic foot and study the resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agent in Najaf governorate from Augest 2019 to November 2019, which includes 120 clinical specimens for both sexes with an age ranged between )35-70) years old. The diagnosis of bacteria isolates was based on microscopy, as well as the culture and biochemical characteristics as an initial diagnosis. The final diagnosis by the Vitek-2 compact system . Burkholderia cepacia 8(6.6%). Antibiotic sensitivity test was examined by dick diffution method, Burkholderia cepacia isolates showed high level of resistance almost for all ?-lactam antibiotic classes under study which included;, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin and Cefepime, with percentage of (100%); ticarcllin with clavulalnic acide ,piperacllin , ceftazidime, tobramycine, ciproflaxcin and levofloxacin with percentage of (87.5%); aztreonam and amikacine with percentage(62.5); meropenem , imipenem and gentiamycin with percentage of (37.5%). At molecular study, the investigated the presence of antibiotic-resistant genes (blaImp, blaOxa, blaKpc,blaCTX-M) using PCR technique and electrophoresis systems. 6/8 Burkholderia cepacia isolates were with blaOXA and (6/8) of isolates carry blaCTX-M gene, all isolates of Burkholderia cepacia gave negative result of blaIMP and blaKPC gene. Finally PCR analysis showed that the integron gene was (3/8 %).</p> Maryam Riyadh Al-Muhanna1, Mahdi Al-Ammar1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3339 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation the Antimicrobial Effect of Glycerin Magnesia on Some Bacteria, in-Vitro Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3340 <p>This study was aimed to assess the efficacy of glycerin magnesia on some bacteria. A thirty percent of glycerin magnesia were prepared as explained below. Many types of bacteria including Proteus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp. were selected for this study and obtained from university of Tikrit, college of veterinary medicine. A bacterial broth were prepared, a then a sterile swab were emulsify in these broth and streaked on muller hinton agar plate and allowed till dry, then a holes were filled with a given glycerin magnesia and incubated for 24hrs. at 37?C . The results showed that a higher antibacterial effects of glycerin magnesia against Staphylococcus aureus followed by Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Acinitobacter, E. coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis respectively. In conclusion, the glycerin magnesia have a wide range antibacterial effect and can be used in future in wound healing.</p> Maher Saber Owain1, Khalid Ismael Oleiwi2, Ali Ghazi Atiyah1, Mustafa Salah Hasan1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3340 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of CTX-II , Dyslipidemia ,Vitamin D in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3341 <p>This study aimed to study the serum measurement of clinical value of type II collagen (CTX-II) in syndrome of polycystic ovary in women and indicter as osteoarthritis disease marker analyzed in future levels with a recent available immune enzyme-linked sorbent assay (ELISA) kit. For increasing sensitivity test, the protocol was modified. Levels of CTX-II increased significantly as well total protein, while decrease vitamin D and difference in lipid profile were practical between the patients compared with healthy women’s. The obtained results suggested the monitoring interest of the serum CTX-II for the OA development in patients of polycystic ovary syndrome in women and the relevance of the analysis of multiple time point for this biomarker.</p> Samah Amer Hammood1 Alaauldeen S. M. AL-Sallami2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3341 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Histopathological Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions in Al-Muthanna Province for Two Years Duration http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3342 <p>Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is a common form of cancer among women globally. It is considered 5th cause of death in females with equally to 522,000 patients / year. Nowadays it is considered 15.4% of death in developed countries after lung cancer. In developing nations, breast cancer considered the 1st cause of death for females 324,000 cases of deaths (14.3%) for total deaths. Method: One hundred and six female patients with breast lesion were collected from the Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital Laboratory/Histopathology department –Al-Muthanna province, during the period from January 2018 to January 2020. The data for cases were collected to study the age, type of breast lesion whether benign or malignant. Haematoxylin/ Eosin staining done in Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital Laboratory / Histopathology department. Results: Cross sectional study for 106 patients done in Al- Muthanna proven for assessment breast mass and identify malignant and benign lesion, mean age of patients was (39.4 ± 15.8) years old, with min age 13 years and max age was 81 years old. Types of biopsy taken from surgeon were 71% excisional biopsy, 21% mastectomy and 8% true cut biopsy. After pathological assessment of biopsies showed 51% malignant and 49% benign. In addition, this assessment distributed as following: fibroadenoma 31.1%, IDC/ grade II 29.2%, IDC/ grade III 9.4%, ILC and fibrocystic changes 5.7% and IDC grade I 3.8% and other types of malignant and benign after pathological assessment. Significant association between age groups and cancer of breast. Conclusion: After pathological assessment of biopsies, malignant breast cancer (IDC/ grade II, IDC/ grade III, ILC and fibrocystic changes) most common changes, significant association between age group and breast cancer development more age group 41- 50 years old and then (31- 40), (51– 60) years old respectively.</p> Sarah Ali Abed1; Ali Adnan Jabbar2; Roaa Salih Mahdi3; Ali Mohammed Khaleel4; Suha Suhiel Hussein5; Maha Khadum Ghayadh6 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3342 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Histological and Histochemical Study on Olfactory Bulbs to Detection Amyloid Protein Depositions by Congo-Red and Routine Staining Techniques http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3346 <p>In this study, histological and histochemical techniques were used to examine olfactory bulbs in the albino rat male. Thirty male albino rats were split into three age groups (10 animals each) in the current research: Group I: consider as a control group, including adult animals aged 3 months .Group II: include animals aged 6 months. Group III: include animals aged 12 months. The histological architecture of the layers of olfactory bulbs and their main cells was identified by using H &amp; E staining techniques, meanwhile the composition of each layer in albino rat was evident. In the glomerular and mitral cell layer of group III, olfactory bulbs showed reduced neural density. Modified staining with Congo - red was conducted for histochemical studies. Compacted amyloid cores were found in group III animals’ olfactory bulbs, while dispersed amyloid cores were found in group II&amp;III olfactory bulbs’ cortex. The present study adds to our knowledge of the impact of amyloid protein on olfactory bulbs and their prospective neurodegeneration involvement.</p> Rajaa Ali Moheiseen Al- Taee1, Muna Hussain Al-Aameli2, Yarub Modhar Al-Qazwini3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3346 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Intraperitoneal-Ketoprofen-Histopathological Induced Alterations in the Wistar Rat Kidneys http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3347 <p>The current-focused study was carried out to generate a data profile about expected changes that could be induced in the kidneys of rats due to the use of intraperitoneal ketoprofen (KP). The study involved using 24 adult male Wistar rats sorted randomly into four groups (six animals per group). One group was treated as a control group, C, which was supplied with distilled water (DW) only. The remaining animals were presented as (50KP), (25KP), or (12.5KP) groups that received 50mg/kg.b.w., 25mg/kg.b.w., or 12.5mg/ kg.b.w., respectively, of KP. The experiment was continued for 70 days, and the kidney tissue samples were collected from the scarified animals at the end of day 70 of that experiment. The kidney tissues of the 50KP animals revealed dilation of the tubules throughout the outer strip of the outer medulla with necrosis and sloughing of the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs). However, the 25KP group suffered lesser grades of epithelial-cell sloughing of the PCTs with lower levels of dilation of tubules than those recorded in the 50KP group. On the other hand, the kidney tissues of the 12.5KP group showed only dilation in the PCTs. The present experimental data unveil the side effects generated by the use of the intraperitoneal KP in the examined rat kidneys which should be used as a launching set of information for better use or further study this drug and its side effects in human patients.</p> Samer Riyadh fadhill, Hakim Bahlok Jebur2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3347 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association between IL12A Gene of G/A genotype Polymorphism and Pulmonary Tuberculosis Risk in Baghdad Population http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3348 <p>The study included eighty samples. This cases-controlled study was performed including fifty Pulmonary tuberculosis patients, their ages ranged from 12 to 77 year (27 female and 23 male) and thirty controls (healthy), their ages ranged from 19 to 58 year (15 female and 15 male). We confined the frequency of IL12A gene (G/A rs568408 genotype) polymorphism by Tetra-ARMS PCR (Tetra amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction) technology. Also, we determined the association of IL12A Gene (G/A rs568408 genotype) polymorphism with Pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Baghdad. Statistical results showed significant difference in genotype frequency of IL12A Gene (G/A rs568408 genotype) polymorphism between Pulmonary tuberculosis patients and control (healthy). The G allele shows high frequency in Pulmonary tuberculosis patients comparison with control (healthy) and present related with etiological fraction risk of Pulmonary tuberculosis patients and its ratio 62% in patients and 51.67% in control (healthy), While A allele shows high frequency in control (healthy) comparison with Pulmonary tuberculosis patients and present related with protective fraction of Pulmonary tuberculosis patients and its ratio 48.33% in control and 38% in Pulmonary tuberculosis patients. The genotypes of GG and AA homozygotes shows high frequency in Pulmonary tuberculosis patients comparison with control (healthy), and its ratio 42% and 18% respectively in Pulmonary tuberculosis patients, while its ratio 3.33% and 0% respectively in control (healthy), also GG and AA genotypes appear related with etiological fraction risk of Pulmonary tuberculosis patients, while the GA heterozygote show high frequency in control (healthy) and its ratio 96%, GA genotypes related with preventive fraction of Pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Our findings demonstrate that the IL12A Gene (G/A rs568408 genotype) polymorphism may represent a significant risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Baghdad population.</p> Anwar Abed Nasser Dhabaan1, Mayes Abdul-Hadi Mahdi2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3348 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Allogenic Bone Marrow on Integration Dev-Mesenchymal Stem Cell And Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3349 <p>Background: The integration of the tendon graft within the bone tunnel is one of the decisive success factors of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In ACL reconstruction that uses tendons as graft, the healing process that occurs in the bone tunnel is healing with fibrotic tissue. Aim: This study aims to determine the role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and vascular endothelial growth factor intraarticularly in improving the biomechanical strength. Methods: This study uses experimental research design by using animal as a testing tool. The animals used in this study are male New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), with the weight ranging of 2000 grams up to 3000 grams. Results: From the experiment, all samples from both treatment and control groups were all evaluated and no post-operative complication was found. At the evaluation time of 3 weeks, the difference between the mean of maximum strain rate between the treatment group and the control group was not statistically significant (p &gt;0.05). At the evaluation time of 6 weeks, it was found that the difference in mean value of the maximum strain load force between the treatment groups versus the group was statistically significant. Conclusions: From this study, it can be concluded that intraarticular BM-MSC and VEGF administration can increase the ultimate tension strength of postoperative graft tendon rosary ACL reconstruction.</p> Ferdiansis Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3349 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of BRACA Usage on Self Improvement of Breast Cancer Patient by Post Mastectomy http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3350 <p>Background: Breast cancer is an abnormal tissue, rapid growth and uncontrolled cells found in breast tissue. This body image disorder is thought to be related to the occurrence of post-mastectomy depression. Objectives: To know the influence between the use of BRACA with self-image improvement in patients with post-mastectomy breast cancer in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya. Method: The subject was a patient who has undergone a mastectomy on one side of the breast. The study design was a queasy experimental type of pre-post control design by sorting the sample and dividing it into 2 groups where 1 control group (not using BRACA) and another group in intervention using BRACA. Statistical analysis using t-test. Result: There was an increase in the self-image of respondents who intervened with BRACA’s use of pre and post use by showing a significant effect between BRACA use and self-improvement of post-mastectomy breast cancer subjects in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya (p = 0.000). Conclusion: The major cases occur on the right side of the breast with the duration of surgery more than one month. BRACA can be used as an alternative to improve the patient’s self image after mastectomy as it increases the self-image of the patients.</p> Dewi Maryam1, Iskandar Ali1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3350 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscles Strength with Knee Osteoarthritis Stages and Pain Levels in Elderly Female Subjects http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3351 <p>Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common disease occur in elderly. It is commonly occurs in knee, hips and interphalangeal joints Pain caused by knee OA may result in functional disorders that affect patient’s life quality. Objective: To analyze correlation of quadriceps and hamstring muscles strength with knee OA stages and pain levels in elderly female subjects. Methods: 38 elderly female subjects (average age of 67.18 ± 4.91) were assessed for pain scale using numeric rating scale (NRS). We used 1RM protocol (EN-Tree) to measure quadriceps and hamstring muscles strength. We performed anterior-posterior and lateral knee X-rays to determine OA stage. The process of data analysis was conducted using several tests, including Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Pearson’s correlation test, Spearman’s correlation test and Mann-Whitney test to measure difference between knee OA level using 1RM quadriceps muscle and quadriceps/hamstring (Q/H) ratio. Results: The average NRS was 3.68 ± 1.19, 1RM quadriceps and hamstring muscles strength were 2.68 ± 1.23 and 1.11 ± 0.44, respectively, quadricep/hamstring ratio (Q/H) was 2.53 ± 0.95. A total of 30 subjects had OA stage 2, while 8 subjects had OA stage 3. Conclusion: The 1RM quadriceps and hamstring muscles was not correlated with NRS. There was no difference in 1RM quadriceps and hamstring muscles between subjects with OA stage 2 and 3. We found a positive correlation between Q/H ratio and the NRS. The Q/H ratio in subjects with OA level 2and 3 was different.</p> Mohammad Fathul Qorib 1, Hening Laswati1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3351 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on Liver of Broiler Chicks Infected with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus. Biochemical and Histological Study http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3353 <p>A number of (80) birds (Ross 308) at one day old were obtained from a local hatchery in the area. The birds were allotted into four equal groups (no.=20) and were supplied with basal scientific diet. Palm date (PD) was supplied to G3 and the birds were challenged with virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV). G4 was treated with palm date 3 days prior to challenge age. G2 was challenged without supplementation of PD. G1 was neither given PD nor challenged. Inclusion rate of PD was 10%. The challenged age was at 33 days old. Blood serum was assayed for evaluation of transaminases and lipid profile 10 days post infection period (PIP). The result showed that histopathological investigation is more accurate in determining the health state of the birds and the palm date have to be supplied in more than 10% to give its significant effect.</p> Balqees Hassan Ali1, Ziad Khalaf Jalob2, Zaid Yaseen Ibrahim3, Ahmed Sami Jarad4, Mustafa Salah Hasan5 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3353 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Identifying the Correlation between the Incidence of Breast Cancer and Hepatitis B Virus of Iraqi Women http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3356 <p>Objective: Women are half of the Iraqi community and their health should be priority to the country. Breast cancer Occurs is increasingly rising in Iraq due to so many problems that the country has suffered. Several privious studies have studied breast cancer; however, none of them has explore the presence of HBV and the basic molecular mechanism are generally obscure and research studies are not enough and disintegrated. Method: Therefore, this study are focusing on discovering a novel technique to detect breast cancer as early as possible to kept women lives. Advancement in routine breast cancer risk assessment will prevent chemotherapy uptake in women. subsequently , the women with or without breast tumor have expose to plasma assay to reveal HBV, Estrogen, Progesterone, complete blood count .The women test are divided into many classes of such as age , smoke and non-smoke to test their ability to detoxify carcinogenic aromatic amines in cigarette smoke. Result: 64% of the malignant women were smoker while 36% were none smoker. 45±12 years is the most vulnerable age to get cancer. HBsAg were demonstrated in 10% of the all malignant ladies, while antiHBs Ag have detected in only 5 % of the total number. ,complete blood counts and hormonal levels were dysregulated in the breast cancer patients. Conclusion: The hormones are negatively correlated with the presence of cancer, HBV have detected in several samples but the no significant correlation. Smoking is the most factor significantly associated with breast tumor . For all these reasons .Iraqi government strongly argue to make smoking cigarettes prohibited in public areas.</p> Minen Al-Kafajy Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3356 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Wave One Gold, F6 SkyTaper, One Curve, and AF Blue R3 NiTi Rotary Instrumentation Systems http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3360 <p>Objective: This in vitro study is aimed to compare and evaluate the cyclic fatigue of four varying NiTi rotary instrumentation systems. Method: In this study, four types of rotary files were used in four groups (10 files for each group), namely, Group A: Wave One Gold; Group B: AF Blue R3; Group C: One Curve; Group D: F6 SkyTaper. These groups were evaluated by a cyclic fatigue apparatus to measure cyclic fatigue resistance within the artificial metallic simulating canal that has a 60° angle of curvature, the curvature radius was 5 mm, whereas the inner diameter of the canal was 1.5 mm. All the files were rotated in artificial canals until they fracture. The resistance to cyclic fatigue was determined by counting the number of cycles to fracture, and the time to failure was recorded in seconds then transformed to minutes. In addition to that the fractured fragment length was evaluated. Results: One-way analysis of variance test showed a significant difference (P&lt;0.001) in the average values of cycle number and time needed for file fracture and average fractured portion length among all groups. The t-test results indicate a significant difference (P&lt;0.001) among all groups. Conclusions: The study concluded that with an apical curvature of an artificial canal with an angle curvature of 60°, AF Blue R3 and F6 SkyTaper instruments exhibit a higher resistance to cyclic fatigue than One Curve and Wave One Gold files most possibly due to surface and alloy feature variation.</p> Zainab M. Abdul- Ameer1, Samar Abdul Hamed2, Rasha H. Jehad3, Jacob Al-Hashemi4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3360 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relation between Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measured with Six-Minute Walk Test and Walking Speed Measured with 1— Meter Walk Test in Patients of Post-Subacute and Chronic Ischemic Stroke http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3362 <p>Background: Cardiorespiratory fitness measurement using 6MWT (Six Minute Walking Test) and walking speed measurement using 10MWT (Ten Minute Walking Test) in post-stroke patients are measurement to assess post-ischemic stroke patients in subacute or chronic phase. This study is to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and to measure walking speed of post-stroke patients in subacute and chronic. We also aim to observe the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and walking speed in post-stroke patients. Method: This study involved 38 subjects as samples. 6MWT assessment was conducted by measuring the mileage in six minutes. Walking speed was conducted afterwards with self-speed and fast-speed which were respectively assessed through three repetitions. Results: We found string correlation in 6MWT assessment results with mileage in meter and VO2 max (r = 0.680 and p = 0.000). The result of 6MWT measured with VO2 max (ml/kg/minute) indicated strong correlation with 10MWT both with self-speed (r = 0.715, p = 0.000) and fast-speed (r = 0.687 p = 0.000). Conclusions: We concluded that there was a relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and walking speed in post-subacute and chronic ischemic stroke patients.</p> Hening Laswati1, Cut Jaswanita Eka Putri1, Patricia Maria Kurniawati1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3362 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison Study of Urinary Retention Incidence in Assisted Vaginal Delivery Case with and without 24-Hour Catheterization http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3365 <p>Background: Urinary retention is a condition commonly seen after vaginal delivery, especially in the highrisk cases, such as assisted vaginal delivery, grade 3-4th perineal rupture, or another high risk. Urinary retention caused by unsynchronized between the contraction of the bladder detrusor. Urinary catheterization is one of the preventions of urinary retention. It gives a time for perineal trauma to relieve and no longer edema, so that urethra can be fully relaxed. Therefore, 24-hour catheterization expected to prevent bladder overdistention. It also prevents the bladder from becoming atonia. Objective: This research aims to study the incidence of urinary retention in assisted vaginal delivery with and without 24-hour catheterization. Method: This study used randomized control trials that compared two groups with 24-hour catheterization and without 24-hour catheterization. This study was conducted on 40 women in each group who experienced assisted vaginal birth at Dr Soetomo Hospital, Indonesia. Result: Six women (15%) experienced urinary retention with 24-hour catheterization and six women (15%) had urinary retention without catheterization. There was no significant difference in the incidence of urinary retention with 24-hour catheterization and without 24-hour catheterization (p-value = 1.00). Also, there was no significant interference of urinary retention in the normal and prolonged second stage of labor (p-value = 0.736), and there was no significant risk factor contributing to urinary retention. Conclusion: No significant difference in urinary retention occurred in assisted vaginal delivery with and without 24-hour catheterization</p> Eighty Mardiyan Kurniawati1, Hari Parathon2, Suskhan Djusad1, Fernandy Moegni1, Junizaf1, Budi Iman Santoso1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3365 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Additional Intranasal Phototherapy through Decrease Score of Nose Symptom and Eosinophil Mucosa on Persistent Allergic Rhinitis http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3366 <p>Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common atopic disease but the available treatment has limited used and success rate. It has been suggested that intranasal phototherapy represents an alternative choice in the treatment of AR. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effect of additional intranasal phototherapy to loratadine therapy compared with single loratadine therapy in order to decrease total nasal symptoms score (TNSS) and nasal mucosa eosinophil count in persistent AR patients. Method: Fifty-four persistent AR patients were divided into two treatment groups: group A and B treated with 10 mg loratadine once a day with additional intranasal phototherapy at 660 nm. 4.4 minutes 3 times a day for group B. Evaluation was based on TNSS and nasal mucosa eosinophil countpre and post 14 days of treatment. Result: The study conducted from July to August 2014 demonstrated significant average of TNSS decrease on group B compared to group A (p = 0.002). Also significant average of eosinophil mucosa nasal count decrease on group B compared to group A (p = 0.049). Both group A and B showed the smallest score of TNSS pre-therapy was 4 vs 6, however the highest score was 6 vs 12. Group A and B showed the smallest score of TNSS post-therapy was 0 vs 0, however the highest score was 8 vs 7. Conclusion: Additional intranasal phototherapy to loratadine therapy showed more effective compared with single loratadine therapy in order to decrease TNSS and nasal mucosa eosinophil count in persistent AR patients</p> Hamna Fitriah1, Roestiniadi Djoko Soemantri1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3366 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hydration Status and Degree of Clinical Severity Patients with Thrombotic Infarction Stroke http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3367 <p>Background: Dehydration is common in acute ischemic stroke patients and associated with a poor increase in clinical outcomes. It is caused of the increase of hematocrit related to the infarct volume which is wider to the cerebra infarct patients. It is also related to the repeatedly emboli stroke and thromboembolic vena after the occurrence of the acute stroke. Objectives: To analyze the correlation between hydration status and clinical severity in patients with acute thrombotic stroke. Methods: This study was conducted by using control design consecutive admission sampling technique. Serum BUN and creatinine measurements were performed when patients were administered to the hospital. Dehydration was defined if the ratio of BUN/serum creatinine was &gt;15. Patients were divided into dehydration and non-dehydrated groups. The degree of clinical severity was measured by using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at 7 days of onset of stroke. Data were analyzed using chi square, fisher, t dependent test, and mann whitney (p &lt;0.05). Result: There were 19.23% stroke patients with dehydration were in the case group and the control group were 9.62%. There was no significant correlation between hydration status and clinical severity in acute thrombotic stroke patients (p = 0.126; OR = 2.625). Conclusion: There was no correlation between hydration status and clinical severity in acute thrombotic stroke.</p> Agung Nugroho1, Hendro Susilo1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3367 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Benign Vocal Cord Disorder at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya Indonesia in June 2015-June 2016 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3368 <p>Benign vocal cord disorder is a common case but its prevalence is difficult to determine. Reporting on the number of benign vocal cord disorder events is important for data management to arrange the effective management. Objective this research to determine the prevalence of benign vocal cord disorders, i.e. nodules, cysts, and vocal cord polyps. Method is a retrospective descriptive study conducted using medical record data of outpatient unit of Otolaryngology-HN division of larynx-pharynx Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya in the period of June 2015 to July 2016. Result benign vocal cord disorders consisted of 65.00% of subjects with nodules, 15.00% of subjects with polyps, and 20.00% of subjects with cysts. The ratio of male and female was 1: 1. The most age was 20-59 years old with 60.00%. The largest occupational group is professional voice user with 60.00%. The location of benign vocal cord disorders was in 1/3 of the bilateral anterior as much as 85.00%. The most frequently used therapy is non-operative with 65.00%. The conclusion benign vocal cords disorder with the types of vodal, polyps, and vocal cord cyst occurred in 4.21% of all patients with dysphonic complaints. Vocal cord nodules had the highest incidence among other types of cord vocal diseases with 2.73% while the highest prevalence was shown by vocal cord nodules with 4.42%.</p> Lucia Miranti Hardianingwati1 , Diar Mia Ardani1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3368 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of Deconcentration Health Funds in Planning, Budgeting, and Implementation in Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3369 <p>Background: Deconcentration funds are funds that given to regions in achieving the target echelon 1 indicator of the main units in the ministry of health with program performance indicators, then translated into echelon 2 targets with the achievement of activity performance indicators. This deconcentration fund is one for health financing in achieving the National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN) in the health sector. Aim: to examine the allocation of deconcentrated funds in planning, implement, monitoring and evaluating. Method: the secondary data document was analyzed for the allocation of deconcentrated funds, from the center in each division of the program. This research was conducted for 4 months from September to December 2018. Result: the highest deconcentration funds from 2016 to 2017 were highest in the North Sulawesi provincial health department of 75.68% and 98.64%, while the lowest in the North Kalimantan provincial department was 39.25% and 68.03%. Whereas for 2018 the highest realiation was in the Southeast Sulawesi provincial health department at 97.36% and the lowest in the Aceh provincial health department was 72.86%. Conclusion: the deconcentration fund planning it is done top down and a menu of programs or activities has been determined. The amount of fund allocation has also been determined by the center, the regions only make and implement what has been made by the center. Activities in the area need to be monitored and evaluated both in substance and financial programs</p> Gurendro Putro1, Ristrini1, Tumaji1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3369 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Slow Stroke Back Massage, Cold-compress and Warm-compress to the Level of Prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) in Primary Dysmenorrhea http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3370 <p>The cause of primary dysmenorrhea is excessive release of the hormone prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF2?). The aim of this study was to assess the influence of SBBM, cold-compresses and warm-compresses toward the level of PGF2? in primary dysmenorrhea, using Post Test Only with Control Group Design and PretestPostest Control Group Design. The subjects were 76 female-student, selected by purposive sampling. NRS used to measure the pain level and ELISA used to measure PGF2? levels. The data were analyzed by using Paired Sample T-Test, One-Way Anova and Kruskal-Wallis test. SSBM, cold-compresses and warmcompresses are effective to decreasing of pain level and PGF2? levels in primary dysmenorrhoea.</p> Mukhoirotin1, Kurniawati1, Diah Ayu Fatmawati1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3370 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Dexterity and Perturbation Exercise on Knee Osteoarthritis through Functional Balance and Power Improvement of Quadriceps and Hamstring http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3372 <p>Backgrounds and Objective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a set of joint disorders caused by different factors but has the same pathological changes. OA of the knee joint occurs mainly due to the tibiofemoral and patelofemoral joints as a continuous body weight support throughout human life both static and dynamic, thus gradually causing changes in the structure of the knee joint tissue. This study aimed to know the function and strengthening of muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring in patient with knee osteoarthritis. Method: Twenty-two patients with knee OA (average age of 51.7 years; range 40 to 65 years) were randomly grouped into intervention group (agility and perturbation exercises plus strengthening exercise of quadriceps and hamstring muscles) and the control group (strengthening exercise of quadriceps and hamstring muscles). Both group participated in a four-week exercise. Balance function, quadriceps and hamstring muscles strength (BBS, TUG, EN-Tree 1 RM) were assessed before and after intervention. Result: The intervention and control group improved 1 RM quadriceps muscle (p = 0.0001) and 1 RM hamstring muscle (p = 0.0001) but there was no statistically significant difference between groups, score of BBS in intervention group improved significantly (p = 0.0001) and statistically increased significant between groups (p = 0.0001), score of TUG in intervention group improved significantly (p = 0.002) but there was no statistically significant difference between groups (p = 0.324). Conclusion: Supplementation of agility and perturbation exercises on strengthening exercise of quadriceps and hamstring to balance function provided additional benefit with respect to the BBS score after four-week intervention of patients with knee osteoarthritis.</p> Rini Lestari Ansanay1, Damayanti Tinduh1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3372 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biocompatibility Test of Decellularized Cartilage Bovine Scaffold in Vitro and In Vivo http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3373 <p>Background: Incidence of cartilage defects was reported at 65.00% of the routine arthroscopy procedures. Dr.Soetomo Teaching Hospital Network Bank developed a cartilage scaffold from bovine that has been deselularized decellularized cartilage bovine scaffold (DCBS). It takes a study of biocompatibility test to prove that DCBS is not cytotoxic to cells and not generate a host response. Objective: To analyze the biocompatibility of decellularized cartilage bovine scaffold (DCBS) in vivo and in vitro. Methods and Materials: The subjects were experimental rats and experimental with in vitro and in vivo trials. The subjects were treated by toxicity test with MTT assay, irritation test using Draize Scale, acute/ pyogenic systemic toxicity test by observing changes in body weight and temperature, and implantation test by observing fibrous capsule formation and Immunoglobulin G. Data was analyzed by using Kolmogorovsmirnov, Independent T-test, Mutivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), and Mann Whitney. Result: The percentage of viable DCBS (81.78%) and CBS (92.45%) was ?70% of the control; thus, it is non-toxic to the cell. Draize scale in each group was in grade 0. Changes in body weight (p = 0.981) and temperature (p &gt;0.05) had no significant association between groups. There was a significant difference mean of the fibrous capsule (p = 0.000) thickness and no significant difference in the mean number of Immunoglobulin G which was formed at week 1 (p = 0.87) and week 4 (p = 0.63) after implantation between CCBS and DCBS. Conclusion: The biocompatibility test shows that DCBS is compatible as a biomaterial.</p> Achmad Fachrizal1, Dwikora Novembri Utomo1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3373 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Predictors of Hospital Utilization Among Papuans in Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3374 <p>Hospitals were advanced referral health facilities or referrals for basic health services, it was very important for policymakers to know the factors that it was able to predict hospital use. The research objective was to determine the predictors of hospital use among Papuans in Indonesia. Data source from raw data of the 2013 Indonesia Basic Health Survey. Indonesia Basic Health Survey was a cross-sectional survey. The multistage cluster random sampling method was used to get 30,620 Papuan respondents. Multinomial Logistic Regression Test is used to determine the predictors of hospital utilization. There were 8 predictors of hospital utilization in outpatients used consisting of age, urban-rural area, gender, education level, socioeconomic status, insurance ownership, travel time and transportation costs, there were 5 predictor variables in hospital utilization in patients hospitalization consisting of gender, type of work, socio-economic status, travel time and transportation costs, and there were 2 predictors in hospital utilization in outpatient and inpatient care at the same time consisting of the cost of time travel and transportation to the hospital. Overall there were 9 predictor variables of hospital utilization in all categories (outpatient and inpatient).</p> Agung Dwi Laksono1, Ratna Dwi Wulandari2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3374 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hydration Status and Degree of Clinical Severity Patients with THRoMBotic Infarction Stroke http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3375 <p>Background: Dehydration is common in acute ischemic stroke patients and associated with a poor increase in clinical outcomes. It is caused of the increase of hematocrit related to the infarct volume which is wider to the cerebra infarct patients. It is also related to the repeatedly emboli stroke and thromboembolic vena after the occurrence of the acute stroke. Objectives: To analyze the correlation between hydration status and clinical severity in patients with acute thrombotic stroke. Methods: This study was conducted by using control design consecutive admission sampling technique. Serum BUN and creatinine measurements were performed when patients were administered to the hospital. Dehydration was defined if the ratio of BUN/serum creatinine was &gt;15. Patients were divided into dehydration and non-dehydrated groups. The degree of clinical severity was measured by using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at 7 days of onset of stroke. Data were analyzed using chi square, fisher, t dependent test, and mann whitney (p &lt;0.05). Result: There were 19.23% stroke patients with dehydration were in the case group and the control group were 9.62%. There was no significant correlation between hydration status and clinical severity in acute thrombotic stroke patients (p = 0.126; OR = 2.625). Conclusion: There was no correlation between hydration status and clinical severity in acute thrombotic stroke.</p> Agung Nugroho1, Hendro Susilo1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3375 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Allogenic Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell - Platelet Rich Plasma (Bmscs - Prp) Intra-Articular Injection Effect on the Regeneration of Full-Thickness Joint Cartilage Defect on Rabbit http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3376 <p>Introduction: Full thickness cartilage defects are still a problem until present since the handling has not give any satisfactory results. Current handling is performed through cartilage enginering using mesenchymal stem cells alone and or in combination with growth factor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of injection of intra-articular injection of Allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell - Platelet rich plasma (BMSCs-PRP) on regeneration of full thickness cartilage defect in rabbits. Method: The design of this study is a post-test only control group design using 36 New Zealand white rabbits divided into three groups treated with PRP, BMSCs and BMSCs-PRP. Results are evaluated after 10 weeks. Results: In the evaluation, macroscopic images showed the best healing in the BMSCs-PRP group. Histopathologic examination showed that in the MSCs-PRP group there was a significant increase in the amount of chondrocytes (p = 0.000), cartilage area (p = 0.000), as well as the number of Agecoprogenitor expec- tion cells (p = 0.000) and type 2 collagen (p = 0.000). Conclusions: Intra-articular injections Allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs-PRP) is able to regenerate and cure full-thickness joint cartilage defects through differentiation of MSCs into condroblasts.</p> Ahmad Taufik.S1, Dwikora Novembri Utomo2, Hari Basuki Notobroto3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3376 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Health Wisdom in the Traditional Healing of the Panaragan Java Subethnicity: The Case Study of Warok Ponorogo http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3377 <p>The Panaragan Java Subethnicity has a customary leader called warok. This leader is known for his ability to possess supranatural powers which may heal diseases. This traditional skill is obtained from the ancestors. It uses natural materials complete with the mantras. The aim of this research is to know the local wisdom in the field of health, especially in the art of Reyog from Ponorogo. This research uses a descriptive-qualitative design. The data is obtained through the technique of observation and interview. The results show that there are three types of health wisdom in the Panaragan subethnicity which are the wisdoms of health profession, medicine, and healing.</p> Alip Sugianto1, Wakit Abdullah2, Sumarlam3, Sahid Teguh Widodo4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3377 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between Coenzyme Q10 Level Long-Term Steroid Inhalation in Patients with Bronchial Asthma http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3378 <p>Background: The main therapy of asthma is inhaled steroids and is often used for long periods of time. Coenzyme Q10 is a potent antioxidant produced largely by mitochondria. Treatment of long-term oral steroids can cause mitochondrial damage which lowers the level of coenzyme Q10. Objective: To analyze the relationship between coenzyme Q10 levels and long-term steroid inhalation in asthma patients. Method: The study was conducted at Asthma Unit/COPD of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya Indoensia, Pulmonology Unit of. Dr. M. Soewandhie General Hospital Surabaya Indonesia, and Pulmonology Unit of Universitas Airlangga Hospital Surabaya Indonesia. We measured coenzyme Q10 levels and the duration of inhaled steroid use in the subjects. The data were processed using computer statistics program. The correlation between coenzyme Q10 level and long-term steroid inhalation was analyzed using Pearson correlation test (p &lt;0.05). Result: Coenzyme Q10 levels in all samples were normal and increasing. There was no low coenzyme Q10 level found in all samples. The result of Pearson’s correlation test between coenzyme Q10 level with longterm steroid inhalation showed r = -0.037; p = 0.848 (p&gt; 0.05). Conclusion: There was no correlation between coenzyme Q10 level and long-term steroid inhalation found in this study.</p> Deny Perdana Putra1, Arief Bakhtiar2, Muhammad Amin2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3378 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association between Fear of Falling, Balance and Functional Mobility in the Elderly http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3379 <p>Background: Falling is the main problem that causes fear of falling in the elderly. Impaired balance is an important factor that causes falling. Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a tool to measure fear of falling, while balance condition can be measured using Biodex Balance System-SD (BBS-SD). Moreover, Timed up and Go Test (TUG) is a tool to measure functional mobility. The research aimed to determine correlation between fear of falling, balance and functional mobility in the elderly. Methods: The research was conducted in 39 elderly subjects at Outpatient Medical Rehabilitation Clinic of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, who were measured using FES-I, BBS-SD and TUG. Results: The FES-I and BBS-SD probability values showed no correlation between fear of falling and balance, with p=0.064 (p&gt;0.05). Moreover, the FES-I and TUG probability values also showed no correlation between fear of falling and functional mobility, with p=0.251 (p&gt;0.05). Conclusion: There was no correlation between fear of falling, balance and functional mobility in the elderly at Outpatient Medical Rehabilitation Clinic of Dr. Seotomo General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.</p> Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3379 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relation between the Increase of Alpha Fetoprotein Serum Level and the Size of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Multi Slice Computed Tomography Examination http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3380 <p>Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma can be diagnosed based on the result of Multi Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT) imaging only without histology result confirmation Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the relation between the increase of alpha fetoprotein serum level and the size of hepatocellular carcinoma in MSCT examination in Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital. Methodology: This is a retrospective, observational analytic study which uses secondary data. There were 50 samples with hepatocellular carcinoma. The data were collected from the medical records of MSCT subjects and AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein) serum level result. All recorded and analyzed statistically. Results: Of all the 50 samples, 41 are male (82%) and 9 are female (18%). The ages of the samples ranged from 19 to 76 years old with the majority of 51-60 years old in 15 patients (30%). Most distribution of AFP serum level was &gt;400 ng/ml with 29 patients (58%) and tumor size of &gt;5 cm with 49 patients (98%). The analysis using Spearman correlation test shows the correlation value p = 0.418 (p &gt;0.05). Conclusion: There was no relation is found between the increase of alfa fetoprotein serum level and the size of hepatocellular carcinoma in MSCT examination.</p> Ika Putri Maharani1, Nifa Koesmarsono1, Budi Laraswati1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3380 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Gastroesophageal Reflex Disease in Adult Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3381 <p>Gastrointestinal symptoms are relatively common in clinical practice in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. type II DM has been described as possible risk factor for the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, in this study we aim to detect the prevalence of GRED in symptomatic patients with type II DM , also to see the accuracy of reflex disease questionnaire ( RDQ) in the diagnosis of GERD in patients with type II DM in relation to the esophagogastroduodenoscopy finding and to study the relation of autonomic neuropathy to the prevalence and stages of GERD in diabetic patients . Methods: A ninety patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms was divided in to tow groups according to whether had type II DM or not and then each group involved in a two stage process (a ) – a RDQ , ( b ) – OGD. And patients in the DM group underwent another step to detect diabetic neuropathy by a bed side clinical test . Results: The prevalence of esophagitis in this study was higher in the DM group. RDQ had a statistical significance in detecting esophagitis in the DM group. There is no relation of autonomic neuropathy to the prevalence of GERD in diabetic patients . . Conclusion : The prevalence of GERD was high in patients with type II DM , RDQ is a sensitive tool for the diagnosis of GERD in diabetic pateints , Autonomic neuropathy did not increase prevalence of esophagitis in diabetic patients .</p> Maysam Riyadh Mohammed Hussein Alaasam1, Sadiq Jabar Almohana2, Hayder Nadhum Muhsen3, Jalal Jasim ALbdairi Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3381 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association between Dose and Duration of Cisplatin Exposure with Sitotoksisity Effect on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Stem Cell http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3382 <p>Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is ranked 6th of malignant tumors in Indonesia, while cisplatin is an effective chemotherapy therapy but the side effects and resistance problems are two major constraints limiting its application. Objective: To analyze the correlation of dose and duration of cisplatin exposure with cytotoxic effects on nasopharyngeal carcinoma stem cells Methods: A true experimental laboratory in vitro with the factorial design was used in this study. The biopsy NPC tissue was cultured and processed to obtain NPC stem cells to be treated with cisplatin exposure at different doses (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1 and 2 ?g) and different durations (24 and 48 hours). The number of dead cells after exposure will be calculated using a hemocytometer after 24, 48, and 72 hours of NPC stem cells free of cisplatin. Results: Death stem cell density of NPC was mostly obtained at the exposure of 2 ?g/ml cisplatin dose after 24 hours observation was 81.37%, while the smallest death cell density a dose of 0.05 ?g/ml after a 72-hour observation was 21.3%. Statistical analysis with multiple regression correlation tests between the density of death cell and cisplatin dose was obtained the coefficient correlation 0,827 and value p = 0,000. The analysis of the correlation between cisplatin exposure duration and death cell was also significant with the correlation coefficient -0.357 and the value p = 0.001. The cutoff point that correlated the dose and death stem cell of NPC by 50% in both 24 and 48 hours of exposure was 1 ?g (EC50). Conclusion: There was a correlation between the increased dose of cisplatin with the cytotoxicity effects on NPC stem cell.</p> Widodo Ario Kentjono1, Lakshmi Kusuma Wardhani1, Achmad C Romdhoni1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3382 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization of Streptokinase Mutant Protein Purification Method Using Affinity Chromatography Technique http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3383 <p>Protein purification has always been one of the most critical and challenging stages of drug-protein production. Streptokinase as the most common, and currently, the most cost-effective fibrinolytic drug is no exception. In this study, the mutated streptokinase producing clone (SK263cyc) to which the histidine tag was added was grown in TY2x medium, and SDS-PAGE assessed protein expression after induction of protein expression. Three different methods did protein purification; in the first one, metal, ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) technique was used. In the second solution, first, by filtration with ammonium sulfate, the purification was carried out, and then by affinity purification, chromatography continued. In the third solution, hydrophobic chromatography was used to purify the streptokinase protein. The purity of ophthalmic purity was 93.2%, and the purity of hydrophobic purity was about 90.4%, whereas the combination of pre-treatment with ammonium sulfate and the purity of the ophthalmic method did not achieve more than 88%.In general, the results of this study show that the IMAC method is more suitable as a final method in the process of streptokinase purification than the other two approaches.</p> Nastaran Rahimi1 , Mohammad AlinezhadChamazketi2, Amir Yaghoubi Nezhad3, Forough Talaeizadeh4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3383 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Dietary Energy Density on Increasing Blood Glucose Pattern and Hunger-Satiety Sensation http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3384 <p>Background: There was no data how these food density could effect on glucose and visual analog levels based on hunger-filled scales in Indonesian population. Objective To determine the effect of food energy density on glucose levels and hunger-satiety sensation. Material and Methods: Seventeen women 18-22 years of age with BMI&gt; 25, were given low energy density breakfast (n = 9) and high energy density (n = 7). The subjects were fasted for 10 hours, fasting blood glucose levels was measured as well as hunger-satiety sensation with a visual analog scale (VAS), prior to treatment. Breakfast was started at 08.00 a.m chew up to 32 times for 15 minutes. Blood glucose levels and VAS measurement were taken back in 2 hours and 4 hours afterward. Result: There was a significant differences in glucose levels between 4 hours postpandrial and 2 hours postpandrial (p = 0.031) and also between 4 hours postpandrial and fasting state (p = 0.042) in both groups. Analysis of hunger level VAS (p = 0.02) and satiety level VAS (0.04) at 4 hours postpandrial also differ significantly. Correlation analysis between hunger level VAS and blood glucose was different significantly (p = 0.01) with r = -0.59. Conclusions: The low energy density foods produce a pattern of increasing blood glucose levels were more stable, thus, more able to suppress the sensation of hunger than high energy density.</p> Ni Luh Putu Ayu Putri Sariningrat1, Purwo Sri Rejeki1, Irfiansyah Irwadi1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3384 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Phenytoin Usage Duration Against Hs-Crp Levels in Epilepsy Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3385 <p>Background: Patients with epilepsy have a higher risk of death than the normal population. Epilepsy patients have increased mortality due to cardiovascular disease with standardized mortality ratios ranged between 1.2 and 2.5. The incidence of non-fatal coronary heart disease also increased significantly between 34% and 63%. Atherosclerosis as an inflammatory state has an important biomarker namely hs-CRP. Longterm use of phenytoin will have an effect on hs-CRP. hs-CRP is an atherosclerotic biomarker with a better cardiovascular predictor than blood lipid and homocysteine levels Methods: This study was conducted in epilepsy patients who fulfill ESR the criteria of inclusion and exclusion in Outpatient Unit of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital from October 2014 to April 2015. Patients were divided into a control group and case group. The control group was patients with hs-CRP levels &lt;1.7 meanwhile, control group was &gt;1.7. Tracking of phenytoin usage duration was performed in both groups. Results: Thirty-four subjects were enrolESR in this study which consisted of 21 males (61.76%) and 13 females (38.23%). The mean age of subjects in the case group was 31.6 + 12.6 years and control group was 26.52 + 11.3. Data of phenytoin usage duration and hs-CRP levels were analyzed. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between hs-CRP levels on phenytoin usage duration of &gt;2 years and &lt;2 years with p = 0.290</p> Ratna Wajiayanti1, Kurnia Kusumastuti1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3385 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Clinical Severity Improvement Degree between Acute Thrombotic Stroke Patients with Low and High Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3387 <p>Background: Stroke is a cause of disability and dependency in both humanity and economic. Studies on the association of Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) levels with improved clinical severity are currently limited. Objectives: To determine the improvement of clinical severity in acute thrombotic stroke patients with high and low MMP-9 levels. Methods: Patients acute thrombotic stroke were grouped into low and high MMP-9 levels. MMP-9 levels were considered low when &lt;840 ng/mL and high when ?840 ng/mL. Clinical severity improvement was assessed using the ?NIHSS scale. Results: Eighty subjects were enrolled that consists of clinical severity improved patients with lower MMP9 (37.9%) that higher than high MMP-9 (21.6%). This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.115). Conclusion: There was no difference in clinical severity improvement in patients with acute thrombotic stroke with low MMP-9 levels in blood serum compared to high MMP-9 levels.</p> Muhamad Hamdan1, Hendro Susilo, Paulus Sugianto1, A. Firdaus Sami1, Mohammad Saiful Ardhi1, Sita Setyowatie1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3387 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Model Intervention Towards the Intention of Early Detection of Cervical Cancer with Via Test http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3392 <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the woman of childbearing age decision’s model towards the intention of early detection of cervical cancer with the VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid) test. The design was quasi-experimental. The population of women of childbearing age and sample size was 70. Technique Paired samples statistics. Statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon test with a probability of 0.05. The difference in the value of the pre and post test were seen from the difference in the mean value between the pre and post test. In the treatment group, the difference test results were significant between the pre and post test, the value of p = 0,000. In Control group, the results of the difference test were not significant between the pre and post test, the value of p &gt; 0.05. The Decision Model was a new finding of research where have the highest level of situation awareness on the situation, events and dynamics of its health condition. The decision model showed that with a high level of awareness, the women decided to make early detection of cervical cancer supported by high self efficacy and intention.</p> Sondang Sidabutar1, Santi Martini2, Rachmat Hargono Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3392 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Wide Pore Drain in Successes of Sponteneous Closure of the Cysto- Biliary Fistula after Hydatid Disease of The Liver http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3393 <p>This study to determine the role of wide pore use up in successes of spontaneous closure of cystic- biliary fistula after surgery of liver hydatid disease and decrease the postoperative morbidity. The study was conducted in AL-Zahra teaching hospital from May 2006 until May 2014.On134 patients undergo surgery operationused forthe liver hydatid cyst, complain of drain amount producedreliable with a biliary form and a bilirubin levelelevatedcompared with serum bilirubin level after fifth postoperative day, patients were divided based on the presence of wide pore drain(64 patient) group A or classical drain(70 patient) group B . Sex, age, length of hospital stays, drain output, postoperative intervention relationship between cyst diameter and time for fistula to close spontaneously recurrence, and mortality were compared among both group, In group A, meantime for spontaneous fistula closure was12.3 days, no recurrence or death reported, while in group B, meantime for spontaneous fistula closure was17 days. There were three patients(4.3%) recurrence after one year follows up. There was one old female patient (1.4%) died.</p> Jalil Ibrahim Awaid alrubaye1; Hussein Ali Abed Ahmad2; Salah Mahdi Tager3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3393 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Causes of Emergency Hysterectomy in AL-Fallujah Maternity & Children Teaching Hospital http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3394 <p>Objective is to detect hysterectomy and maternal morbidity and mortality that occurs in emergency hysterectomy in secondary hospital . This retrospective study of 9 patients done for obstetrics indications from January 2018 to January 2019, in department of Gynecology and obstetrics Al-Fallujah teaching hospital. patients and methods 9 cases at this study period underwent emergency hysterectomy , data collected from hospital record their personal data , chief compliant , past obstetric ,cause of hysterectomy and complication was recorded. Result There were 9 cases emergency hysterectomies done for obstetric condition. The indications and surgical complications was studied. Conclusion : The emergency hysterectomy is mandatory to save life of patients. The outcome is depending on the decision time and the expert of the judgment because any delay may cause increase mortality and morbidity</p> Huda Hamid Al-Janabi1; Omar Mahmood Shakir2; Bashar Talib Huweidy3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3394 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Immunological Study of Salmonella Infantis in white Mice Immunized with Killed Antigen http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3395 <p>The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of formalin-killed antigen for Sallmonellainfantis in vivo with the study of cellular immune response through the study of cytokines.Sallmonellainfantis were isolated and diagnosed from local milk products (milk and cheese). 74 milk samples and 53 cheese samples were taken.The media were usedgeneral and special culture media as well as biochemical tests were used to diagnose the isolates and the diagnosis was confirmed by using API 20. Sallmonellainfantis antigens were used systemically. 50 Swiss white mice of both sexes were randomly divided into three groups. The first group prevented (20 mice) with the bacterial antigen killed by formalin in a dose (0.3) I.P for each animal. The group was injected with a booster dose and the same first immunization dose two weeks after the first dose. The second group (20 mice) and the third group (10 mice) were counted as positive and negative control groups respectively. The first group and the second group received a dose of 0.3 ml of stuck S.infantis containing (1×108 live cells / ml) I.P, while the third group injected 0.3 ml of neutral phosphate buffer solution under the skin. The results showed that 4 animals from the first group were killed and all the remaining animals from the first group were killed 20 days after the challenge dose and serum was taken to measure cellular immunity. The results of serological tests showed that the level of (IL-4 and IL-6) were (38.48 ± 2.1 and 31.81, 3.01) respectively, as well as the results of measurement of concentration (INF gamma and TNF-?) were (401 ± 2.12 and 173.421 ± 3.11) respectively.We conclude from the study that there was a high percentage of S.infantis isolated from milk products as well as we conclude that the formalinS.infantiskilledantigen partially protected against the infection.</p> Basimraihan Sahar1, Khalied Yassenzakairalzamily1, Alaa SalimHamzah2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3395 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Inhibition Effects of Withania somnifera leaves Extracts for Multi Drugs Resistance Bacterial Isolates http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3396 <p>The continuous resistance of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics and failure of treatment of human diseases cause by these micrograms in addition to important of withania somniera plant in herbs medicine the present study carried out to assessment the antibacterial effect of three types of leaf extract : acetone , methanol and water in different concentrations to four multidrug resistance pathogenic isolates were selected two Gram positive and two Gram negative , the result showed that all types of isolated were inhibited by leaf extracts whereas the acetone record the highest effect were the inhibition zone (millimeter ) of growth of four bacteria isolates pseudomonas aeruginosa ,Klebsiella pneumonia , Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia reach 15,14,13 15 mm respectively at 100 mg / ml concentration of acetone , the current finding indicated that leaf extracts useful as a good natural alternative drug from antibiotics in treatment of numerous infectious diseases these result from both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria .</p> Kareem Ibrahim Mubarak Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3396 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Diagnostic Role of Anti-Human Salivary Gland Protein-1 (anti-SP1) in the Early Detection of Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome in Some Iraqi Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3397 <p>Background: Primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS) is a chronic disorder described by its immune devastation to the salivary and lacrimal glands. The detection of pSS is complicated especially at the early stage. Thus, the emergence of novel markers preceding the conventional diagnostics for early detection of pSS before its aggravation is required.Objective: This study purposed to reveal the possible use of anti-SP1 as a beneficial indicator for early revelation of pSS in some Iraqi patients.Methods: Eighty-seven Iraqi patients (42 and 45 patients with newly diagnosed pSS and idiopathic sicca symptoms, respectively) enrolled in this study between February 2018 to July 2019. The diagnosis of pSS reliant on AECG and ACR criteria. All patients were assessed for RF, ANA, anti-Ro/SSA, and anti-SP1 by ELISA.Results: A greater prevalence of anti-SP1 was shown in pSS patients than control patients. Anti-SP1positive pSS patients revealed significant shorter sicca duration with lowered Schirmer’s test and USFR, and predominantANA and anti-Ro. Anti-SP1 evinced positive correlations with disease duration, ANA, and anti-Ro,alsonegative correlations with Schirmer’s test and USFR. Higher sensitivity (92.9%) and specificity (95.6%) of anti-SP1 in pSS patients than other diagnostic parameters.Conclusion: Despite small sample size, anti-SP1 still be a dependable marker for diagnosis of pSS at the early stage and discrimination of pSS patients than those with idiopathic sicca symptoms.</p> Haael Subhi Abbas1 ; Laila Hamzah Huzaim2 ; Tiba Salim Naseif 3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3397 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Sunlight and Vitamin D3on some Men Fertility Parameters http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3399 <p>The current study aim to clarify the effect of the exposure to sunlight on the vitamin D level and the effect of this on characteristics of seminal fluid and some hormones in infertile men. The study included 45 men (aged between 18-44 years) who suffer from infertility. These men attend the Infertility Treatment Center at Kut Hospital, Wasit, Iraq. infertile men were exposed to the sunlight without using sunscreen for ten minutes at daily intervals over 3 months. Seminal fluid parameters, as well as the level ofVitamin D3, Folliclestimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Testosterone, were measured before and after exposure to sunlight. The study showed that there was a significant increase in count, activity and normal morphology of seminal fluid as well as elevation in LH, FSH, testosterone and vitamin D3 level in blood after the exposure to sunlight</p> Riyadh Hussein Wally Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3399 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Different Die Materials on the Marginal Fit of CAD/ CAM crowns pre and pos -cementation http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3400 <p>Theobjective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the vertical marginalgap pre and post-cementation ofIPS e.Max CAD crowns constructed using different die materials. Materials and method:Thethirty standard aluminum dies were fabricated to receive a full contour IPS e.Max CAD crowns.An impression with two-stage putty-wash impression with spacer technique was taken.The thirty impressions were distributed into three groups;as follows; Group (A) Ten impressions were poured with type IV die stone,Group (B)Ten impressions were poured with type V die stone and Group (C)Tenimpressions were poured with Exacto-form model resin die material.Each die was scanned and IPS e.Max CAD full contour crown was fabricatedusing Sirona CEREC in-Lab CAD/CAM System. Sixteen gap measurements were taken for each sample (Buccal, Mesial, Lingual and Distal), Pre and postcementation process were measured using a digital microscope.The results of this study showed that there and post-cementation procedure.From the results of this study,it could be concluded that the Exacto-form provided the least vertical gap, when used IPS e.Max CAD full contour restorations. Die stone type V could be the next choice, which is preferred over to die stone type IV.cementation step incressed the marginaly</p> Sara AbdulBasit Turky AL-Bayat BSc1, Amal Abudl Latif MSc1, Abdulla M.W. Al-Shamma2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3400 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation Inhibin B, FSH, and LH in Male with Thalassemia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3401 <p>Background : - Hypogonadism is the most frequently reported endocrine problem, affecting 70–80% of patients with thalassemia.Aim of study: -The current study is aimed to found correlation among inhibinB,FSH, LH and testosteronein male with thalassemia. Material and Subject: The study carried out 40 healthyvolunteermale, age range between (18-30) years,and enrolled 40 patients with thalassemia major age range between 18-30 years. The concentrations serum inhibin-B was estimated by two-side enzymelinked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), While FSH, and LH estimated by using Cobas e analyzers.Results: LH reduce significantly in thalassemia patients when compared with healthy individuals, while FSH and testosterone decrease significantly in thalassemia patients when compared with healthy. Inhibin B was reduced significantly in thalassemia patients when compared with healthy individuals.Conclusion:Infertility common in thalassemia patients, that correlation with decrease inhibin B.</p> Fatimah Kadhim Ibrahim AL- Mahdawi1, Zaid Nabeel Elia2, Hayder Abdulhafedh Kurji3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3401 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-phosphoryl Choline and hs - CRP in Serum of Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular Patient with Chronic Periodontitis http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3402 <p>Background: Periodontitis and Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular disease are chronic inflammatory diseases which are highly prevalent. Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. The aim of study: was to evaluate the periodontal health status in study groups (Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease patients with chronic periodontitis (ATH+CP) and patients having chronic periodontitis (CP)), to investigate the serum level of antiphosphorylcholine antibody-IgG(AntiPC IgG) , and the systemic level of inflammatory marker of cardiovascular diseases like high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in chronic periodontitis with and without atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease as well as to examine the relationships between these mediators and clinical periodontal parameters. Material and Methods: Blood samples were collected from sixty patients (30 CP patients and 30 CP+ATH patients) and from 25 apparently healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (P.I), gingival index (G.I), bleeding on probing(BOP), probing pocket depth(PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) and Serum levels of Anti-PC IgG was estimate by enzymelinkedimmunosorbent assays (ELISA) and hs-CRP was estimate by immunoturbidimetric. Results: The current data revealed a significant elevation (p&lt;0.01) in median level of hs-CRP in CP group and CP+ ATH group in comparison to that in healthy control, moreover, the comparison between two groups of patients showed significant differences between two groups (p&lt;0.05) .Whereas the serum level of antiphosphorylcholine-IgG was not observed significant differences between study groups (p&gt;0.05) except for CP group when compared to control group (p?0.05).Moreover, in regards to the correlation between serum antiphosphorylcholine –IgG and hs-CRP, and clinical periodontal parameters, did not show any correlation with clinical parameters of periodontitis (p&gt;0.05). Conclusion: inflammatory mediator (hs-CRP) may increase inflammatory activity in atherosclerotic lesions and potentially increasing the risk for cardiovascular events in CP+ATH, furthermore, about the effect of Anti-PC IgG in ATH +CP group, further studies are needed to obtain more understanding result.</p> Reham Adnan Radhi1 Alaa Omran Ali ALmosawi1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3402 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Diagnostic Test in Lumbosacral Vertebrae Image towards Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Radicular Low Back Pain http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3404 <p>Background: Lower back pain is one of the most common consulted cases in neurology and neurosurgery. The approximately 80% of these cases are musculoskeletal disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is still a rare examination in the suburban area and requires a relatively high cost. Moreover, there are contraindications in patients who have cardiac pacemakers and metal objects in the body. The examination of lumbosacral image is easy to conduct. The price is relatively inexpensive and there are no contraindications to perform the test. Objectivity: This study aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the lumbosacral image towards MRI in patients with radicular lower back pain. Method: The study was a clinical, crosssectional study, analytical, and a diagnostic test design. It was performed on all patients with radicular lower back pain in Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital Surabaya from April to July 2012. There were 34 subjects who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results: The sensitivity of plain images to MRI in detecting radicular lower back pain was 87.5%. This figure indicated that the plain image had a high sensitivity. However, the specificity was only 50.0% which meant that plain image had a low specificity. Conclusion: The lumbosacral image had high sensitivity. However, the specificity was low for the examination of radicular lower back pain.</p> Dhimas Hantoko1, Isti Suharjanti1, Sri Andreani Utomo2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3404 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Gastroesophageal Reflex Disease in adult Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3405 <p>Gastrointestinal symptoms are relatively common in clinical practice in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. type II DM has been described as possible risk factor for the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, in this study we aim to detect the prevalence of GRED in symptomatic patients with type II DM , also to see the accuracy of reflex disease questionnaire ( RDQ) in the diagnosis of GERD in patients with type II DM in relation to the esophagogastroduodenoscopy finding and to study the relation of autonomic neuropathy to the prevalence and stages of GERD in diabetic patients . Methods: A ninety patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms was divided in to tow groups according to whether had type II DM or not and then each group involved in a two stage process (a ) – a RDQ , ( b ) – OGD . And patients in the DM group underwent another step to detect diabetic neuropathy by a bed side clinical test. Results: The prevalence of esophagitis in this study was higher in the DM group. RDQ had a statistical significance in detecting esophagitis in the DM group. There is no relation of autonomic neuropathy to the prevalence of GERD in diabetic patients . Conclusion : The prevalence of GERD was high in patients with type II DM, RDQ is a sensitive tool for the diagnosis of GERD in diabetic pateints , Autonomic neuropathy did not increase prevalence of esophagitis in diabetic patients .</p> Maysam Riyadh Mohammed Hussein Alaasam1, Sadiq Jabar Almohana2, Hayder Nadhum Muhsen3, Jalal Jasim ALbdairi4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3405 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Health Information Technology on Time and Cost Saving in Remote areas of Iran http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3407 <p>The present study aims at investigating the effect of health information technology on time and cost saving in the perspective of users of teaching hospitals in in remote areas of Iran. This is an applied study with a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional method conducted on users of hospitals in remote areas of Iran using stratified random sampling. Data collection instrument was a selfmade questionnaire, the face validity and reliability of which were confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha 0.94. Data were collected in person and analyzed by SPSS software V. 21 and descriptive and analytical statistics. Based on the Chi-square test results, there was a significant relationship between the effects of health information technology on time saving as well as cost saving. The results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant relationship between education level, age and work experience and time and cost saving as well. User satisfaction is one of the most important aspects of the success of information systems, therefore, it is recommended that senior managers pay attention to the individual aspects of the employees working in the organization, provide them with necessary training before implementing the information systems, and involve them in the decisions in using such technologies.</p> Mahdie Shojaei Baghini1, Massume Mir Nejad2, Sedisghe Shojaei Baghini3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3407 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Iron Overload Complication in Thalassemia Patients http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3409 <p>Thalassemia is an inherited disorder. All the types of thalassemia that require continuous blood transfusion, lead to increase of absorption of iron, which will lead to iron overload eventually. The precipitation of iron will affect many organs in the human body, and can be measured by S- ferritin. In this study, patients with all kinds of thalassemia that require multiple blood transfusion, have been evaluated for the level of ferritin and iron overload as well as other complications such as liver diseases, heart diseases, bone disorders, and hormone disorders. One-hundred patients have been selected randomly with different ages to evaluate the serum ferritin, calcium level, liver enzymes, and Hb by use enzyme linked assay. This study confirms the use of chelation therapy to remove the iron overload.</p> Khdsayer T. Rotha Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3409 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Diet Quality and Obesity in Tikrit Secondary Schools Students http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3420 <p>This study to estimation the relation between diet quality and adiposity measures among secondary school students in Tikrit City. Patients and methods: cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study was carried out to estimate the relation between diet quality and it’s association with anthropometric changes among 153 students (80 girls and 73 boys) in secondary school students in Tikrit city and also its association with demographic differences selected by means of a simple random sample. Results: In this study, a total of 153 secondary school students were surveyed. The majority were females (52,29%) and most of them (41.25%) were between 16-18 years old. Most of them (55.56%) had a BMI range from 18.5-25 and their waist-to-height ratio (&lt; 0.5) were (67.32%). (32.03%) of students had a family history of obesity while (67.97%) had a negative family history. Conclusions: Most of the students have a normal BMI (55.56%) , so the frequency of overweight was more common in female gender (60%), while in male (50.68%). And (32.03%) of students had a positive family history of obesity while (67.97%) had negative family history, From students who have a positive family history, (32.66%) had an overweight BMI (25-30) and (44.9%) waist-to-height ratio which considered as indication of central obesity.</p> Athraa Essa Ahmed1; Shaimaa Essa Ahmed2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3420 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relation of Epstein Barr virus with interleukin-10 Levelamongmen with Prostate Cancer in Ramadi City http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3425 <p>The study aimed at evaluating the relation of Epstein Barr virus (EBV)with level of interlukin-10 (IL-10) in men withprostatecancer(PC). The study was carried out in Ramadi city from 12th of January to 12th of September 2018, and included a total of 95 women withbreast cancerwho admitted to oncology clinic ofRamadi Teaching Hospital whose ages were between 40-80 years. Patients were investigated for detection of EBV by using Real Time PCR and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by ELISA technique.The rate of prostate cancer men with EBV was (16.84%). The highest rate of prostate cancer menwas within the age group 50-59 years with no significant relation between prostate cancer and age. The study showed that the highest means of IL10 level (19.43 pg/ml) were found in prostate cancer men without EBV.There was significant difference (P value&lt;0.05) between EBV infection with IL-10. The highest rate of men withprostate cancer was fromurban areas.</p> Arkan AbdullahAbbas1, Israa Hashim Saadoon1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3425 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Histological Study of the Renal Corpusclenephron Distribution in Iraqi Camels (Camelusdromedaries) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3467 <p>Aims: The present histological study was carried out to map the renal corpuscle nephron distribution and their histological properties in Iraqi camels(Camelusdromedaries).Materials and methods: Both kidneys from each of 10 (5 males and 5 females) adult camels were collected as soon as possible after the camels were sacrificed for human consumption purposes in a slaughterhouse. Following the preparation of tissues(cortex and medulla), the sections were slide-stained using alum hematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E) stain and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain. The renal corpuscle diameters (numbers and percentages) in the subcapsular area, the cortical area, andthe juxtamedullary area were measured using an ocular micrometer.Results:The findings demonstrated that the renal capsule in camels is thick.The numbers of the renal corpuscles were low in numbers in the subscapular region which keep increasing towards the midcorticaland the Juxtamedullary regions. Moreover, the camel kidney has high numbers of long-loops of Henle nephrons and low numbers of short-loop nephrons. No significant (p?0.05) differences in the renal corpuscle diameters were noticed between midcorticaland juxtamedullaryareas. However, a significant (p?0.05) decrease in diameters of the renal corpuscles was seen in the subcapsular region. In addition, two layers consist the renal corpuscleswith a tuft of capillaries. The proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs)showed wide lumens with the presence of cuboidal epithelial cells (CuECs)and spherical nuclei. The distal convoluted tubules(DCTs) displayedthe presence of CuECs (smaller and lighter than those in the PCTs with apical spherical nuclei(ASN).Large lumens and simple columnar epithelial cells (CoECs). Furthermore, PAS staining showed high positive results in the basement membrane of the renal corpuscles.Conclusion: The current histological study provides insight about the renal corpuscle nephron distribution and their histological properties in Iraqi camels(Camelusdromedaries).</p> Ali Fayadh Bargooth1, Ahmed Saad Al-A´araji 2, Masarat Swadi Medakel2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3467 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlated between Sera Levels of Interleukins( IL-6, IL-17 and IL-23 ) with Virulence Genes Detected in CarbapenemResistant E.coli http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3479 <p>Current study demonstrated that 14.58% of isolated E. coli which positive for each of Omp -A, IMP- A, NDM- A and Fim- H genes were resistant to carbapenem and the study showed that 30.51% of E. coli isolates with KPC were resistant to carbapenem while other E. coli isolates with negative all genes were resistant to carbapenem , so the Percentage as 72.92% of isolated E. coli were positive for each of Omp – A, IMP – A, NDM- A and Fim – H genes were occurred in females compared with 27.02% occurred in males and 40% of isolated E. coli with positive for KPC gene were in females with UTI. as well as 10, 50% of isolated E. coli were positive for each of Omp- A, IMP - A, NDM- A and Fim - H genes were occurred in the age group 15-24 year and no isolate were form patients above 54 year. the highest mean levels IL-6 and IL-17 was recorded in UTI patients infected with E. coli positive for each of Omp- A , IMP- A , NDM- A and Fim- H comparing with patients infected with E. coli negative to these genes. Conclusion Carbapenem-resistant E. coli correlated with founded each of genes ( Omp -A, IMP- A, NDM- A and Fim- H ) , whilst highest correlated between Carbapenem-resistant E. coli with KPC.so sera levels of both interleukins (IL-6 and IL-17) were recorded in UTI patients infected with E. coli positive for each genes ( Omp- A , IMP- A , NDM- A and Fim- H ) comparing with patients infected with E. coli negative to these genes.</p> Mehsen A.Mohammed Al-Warmeziary1, Suzan Saadi Hussain1, Nihad Khalawe Tektook2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3479 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of KV Reduction on image quality in OPG X-Ray http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3481 <p>Panoramic radiographs are widely used to obtain an overall survey of the maxillofacial complex. One of the advantages is the reduction in radiation dosage compared with complete intraoral radiography. Digital imaging was first introduced in dentistry for intra-oral radiography. but is now widely available for panora micradiography. Many studies have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a degree of dose reduction in digital panoramic radiography.</p> Mohammed Abdul Sattar1, Sajid Hamza Aluaan2, Wael Abdul Alrazzaq1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3481 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Population Prevalence of Asthma in Aljiza District http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3483 <p>Background: Asthma is a condition in which your airways narrow and swell and produce extra mucus. Objective: In this study we determine the prevalence of asthma among the population of Aljiza District, Jordan. In order to determine the prevalence of asthma in Aljiza District (Amman, Jordan), Method: a questionnaire was distributed to 4200 respondents of different age and gender. Results and Conclusions: The responses were reviewed and the incidences were determined. From the 4200 questionnaires by respondents 131 person (3.1%) suffered from physician-diagnosed asthma. No attempt was made to confirm the diagnosis and the results relied upon responses to questionnaire. The prevalence of asthma in adult females was higher than that of males in all groups. Adult females and males showed a significant priority on other age groups, and children, 5-10 years group have higher prevalence than children, 10-15 years group, in both males and females. In order of frequency, the triggering factors were common cold, dust, allergens, smoke, exercise, and chest infection. A relationship between asthma and paternal smoking, family history and to a lesser extent recurrent chest infections was suggested. The prevalence of asthma in Aljiza District is less than that reported in the southern and northern parts of Jordan and some Middle East countries. Although our results show a low prevalence of asthma, it still is a health problem among children and the adults in Aljiza District.</p> Khalil Altaif1, Nahla Aqel1, Ghazi Al Jabal1, Mohamed J Saadh1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3483 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Rituximab in the Treatment of Refractory Myasthenia Gravis: Studying the Outcomes Using MMT Score And Need for Plasmapheresis in Baghdad Teaching Hospital http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3485 <p>Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an uncommon autoimmune disease that is caused by acetylcholine receptor antibodies (AChRA) at the neuromuscular junction. Its pathogenesis involves complement fixing antibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors, muscle-specific tyrosine kinase or low density lipoprotein receptor–related protein. Method: A descriptive case series study investigating rituximab in refractory MG was conducted in Baghdad teaching hospital .Patients who were included in the study had received a regimen of rituximab that was deemed appropriate by their treating physician. Results: A total of 24 patients with mean disease duration of 6.3 years ±3.6 standard deviation were included in this study. The results showed that the average age of patients was 33.3 ,years ±10.1 SD and 62.5% was females. All twenty four patients showed an obvious improvement in clinical status after finishing the follow-up period. The results demonstrated from all patients that enrolled in our study, only one patient that who was on 14 sessions of plasmapheresis was in need for plasmapheresis after induction of rituximab and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: There were a great clinical improvement as shown with MMT score in addition to discontinuation of plasma exchange treatments fallowing treatment with rituximab.</p> Abeer Abdulhadi Rashid1, Sarmad Abdulrasool Almashta2, Rana Ali Hussein3, Ahmed khaleel Mashaallah4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3485 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Antifungal Efficacy of Incorporating KappaCarrageenan Powder Into “Heat-Cured, Acrylic-Based Soft Denture Lining Material http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3487 <p>Denture stomatitis is one of the serious problems that are related to the continuous use of soft lining material due to the accumulation of microorganisms. It is caused mainly by fungal growth, especially of Candida albicans. It, therefore, becomes necessary to examine the effectiveness of incorporating an antifungal drug into the soft lining material. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of adding the kappa-carrageenan powder to heat-cured, acrylic-based soft lining material against Candida albicans adherence. A pilot study was performed to decide the best concentration of kappa-carrageenan to be used with the heatcured, acrylic-based soft liner. Five percentages by weight of kappa-carrageenan powder (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5wt.%) were evaluated and compared with the control group (0wt.%). The Candida albicans adherence test was performed to assess the efficacy of kappa-carrageenan powder in preventing the adherence of Candida albicans. Results showed the 1.5wt.% and 2wt.% groups as having the best effect. The main study included preparing thirty samples and dividing them into three groups based on the percentage of powder of kappa-carrageenan added to the heat-cured acrylic-based soft lining material (control: 0wt.%; experimental: 1.5wt.% and 2wt.%). The purpose of performing Candida albicans adherence test was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of kappa-carrageenan powder addition, and all the resulted data were analysed using “one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Dunnet T3 post-hoc test at a significance level of p&lt;0.05”. The results of Candida albicans adherence test revealed a highly significant decrease in the values of the adhered Candida albicans cells after incorporation of 1.5wt.% and 2wt.% of kappa-carrageenan powder when compared to the control group (p&lt;0.01). The result of this study suggests that the addition of kappa-carrageenan powder is an effective drug against Candida albicans adherence on the surface of the heat-cured acrylic-based soft lining material, and the addition of 2wt.% is more effective than 1.5wt.%.</p> Hiba A. Salih1, Faiza M. Abdul-Ameer1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3487 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Age Related Changes of Mandible and Maxilla In Human (Morphometric Study) http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3490 <p>The properties of bones change during life and with age , it may improving in function, ,but in some times function deteriorates. Throughout development and aging, bone shape alters in response to load. This study provide information on the development and normal growth of dental arches in both sex. Forty adult person of both sex were used. They divided in to 4 groups (A, B, C, and D). We will use different size of trays and take alginate impression material to get anatomical impression for the upper and lower jaw from the male and female and obtained a dental cast which is identical to the dental arch and make a table for all measurement that acquired. The results showed that the age have a reliable degradation effect in both sex specially after 40 years old and except in the transverse measurement of female in mandible which started to decline after 30 years excluding the inter canine width which decrease after 40 years.</p> Noor Ghazi Saab1; Abdul-Jabbar Jameel 2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3490 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of the Course of the Inferior Dental Canal in the Iraqis Population Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3492 <p>Introduction: The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is one of the most important vital structures found in the mandible, knowing the precise location of the mandibula canal is helpful to decrease the incidence and avoid the injury to the (MC). Material &amp; Method:30 males &amp; 30 females were selected from the data of the (CBCT) stored in the computer joined to the device and the measurements were taken as follow “ The first section in transaxial view after mental foramen, where the loop of mandibular canal is formed, was selected as point A and interludes of 10 mm were selected for subsequent measurements (respectively, points B,C,D). On these sections, the shortest linear distances (in mm) from the most lingual aspect of the canal to the outer lingual cortical plate of the mandible(L) and from the mandibular canal to the inferior border of mandibular body(I) were measured. Furthermore, the minimum distance between the buccal cortices and the mandibular canal(B) were evaluated” as in (Fig. 1). Using SPSS software Version 15 the data that had been obtained was analyzed. Results: The results had been showed that there is no significant difference in measurements were taken between males and females groups in the measurement of the distance of the inferior dental canal to the buccal cortical and in the measurement of the distance of the inferior dental canal to lingual cortical bone of the mandible , only in the measurement of the (IDC) to inferior border of the mandible there was a significant difference in only one point Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that the information can be obtained by the (CBCT) about the location of the (MC) can helpful for the surgeons to avoid damage to (MC) throughout surgical procedures in the mandible , and those information can give good overview and conception for course of the (MC) through the mandible.</p> Omar Basheer Taha AL-Tekreeti1, Noor Sabah Irhayyim2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3492 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Urine Leukocytes and Urine Bacteria Using Current Sitometry Using Urine in Patients of Children Channel Infection http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3494 <p>Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is a common illness. The gold standard for UTI diagnosis is urine culture, but it takes a long time and often gives negative results. Currently developed a method of flow cytometry for checking urine sediments. This tool is able to detect leukocytes urine and urine bacteria in quick time. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of urine leukocyte count and the number of urine bacteria using flow cytometry with urine culture in patients with UTI Method: Eighty-four patients were enrolled in this study that consisting of 43 patients with suspected UTI and 43 patients with non-ISK treated at Inpatient Installation, Emergency Installation Department of Health Sciences at Dr.Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya for 4 months. The examination of urine leukocytes and urine bacteria was using current cytometry method (UF-500i, Sysmex, Japan). While, examination of urine culture using blood agar plate and Mac. Conkey. Results: There was a significant relationship between the number of leukocytes and the number of colonies. The relationship between leukocytes and the number of colonies was weak, this was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficient (rho) value of 0.376. There was a significant relationship between bacteria and the number of colonies. p &lt;0.05. The relationship between the number of urine bacteria and the number of colonies was quite strong indicated by rho = 0.729. Conclusion: There was a relationship between urine leukocyte count and the number of urine bacteria using flow cytometry with a urine culture.</p> Adriyani Amin1, IGAA Putri Sri Rejeki1, Ninik Soemyarso Asmaningsih1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3494 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Visum Et Repertum and Forensic Examination of a Rape Case as a Sexual Crime Towards an Indonesian Migrant Worker in Taiwan http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3496 <p>This research aims to describe the forensic examination in the handling of the sexual crime which happened to an Indonesian migrant worker in Taiwan. It is well known that the level of human rights protection in Taiwan is quite good compared that of the other destination countries for migrant workers. Yet, is the good level of human rights protection balanced also with medical treatment or medical forensic examination of the Indonesian migrant worker sexual crime victim who worked in that country. This research uses a nondoctrinal method. This is because the law is not only a normative theory. Yet, it also views the sociological aspects which happen in the society. The research results show that Taiwan is a country with a worrying rate of sexual crime. Yet, it has underwent good procedures in forensic examination, including in visum et repertum and other examinations for sexual assaults which happened to migrant worker victims. The visum et repertum preliminary examination which applies in Taiwan is done through a special unit which is provided for sexual assault victims. The results are acknowledged as evidences of sexual crime. It will be directly coordinated with the Taiwan special unit of justice for sexual crime.</p> Rizka Rizka1, Wafda Vivid Izziyana2, Arief Budiono2, Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho3, Sofyan Wimbo Agung Pradnyawan4, Rika Maya Sari2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3496 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Forensic and Toxicological Tests for Protecting the Patients of Esthetic Beauty Clinic as the Constitutional Right in Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3498 <p>Esthetic beauty clinic is many people’s need, but the critical point of protection for its patients is still weak. Many problems often affect the patients of esthetic beauty clinic. Patients deserve protection of medical service standard constituting something important to maintain and to improve. Forensic and toxicological medical sciences are needed to give adequate protection to the patients of esthetic beauty clinic. Through its scientific method, the state could prove, prevent, and take action all at once against the esthetic beauty clinics operated haphazardly. The clinic selling, concocting, using, and promoting hazardous and toxic drug and cosmetic can be detected and acted on, while forensic test was intended to prove the consequence or output of esthetic beauty clinic’s service. This scientific method supported the protection and the right of patients of esthetic beauty clinic, corresponding to the constitution.</p> I Gusti Ayu Ketut Rachmi Handayani1, Pujiyono2, Siska Diana Sari3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3498 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Principal Fairness and Equity within Healthcare Services based on BPJS Kesehatan http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3501 <p>Health services are the right of all Indonesian citizens. The health service system in Indonesia refers to the class system because based on the Law on BPJS itself it explains that the Indonesian public health service is in accordance with the premiums paid. The class system often triggers differences in services that are not the same equity and risk discrimination against health services. BPJS is a Universal Health Coverage (UHC) system in Indonesia. UHC system abroad, the health service is not based on classes, premium payment is the same. Comparison to other countries is not a wise view but it can be a benchmark of the progress or value of the service system in our country. Gradually, non-class based health services must be implemented to equalize and prevent discrimination in health services so that a conducive, fair and patient-based service environment can be created.</p> Sulardi1, Yusufa Ibnu Sina Setiawan2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3501 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Forensic Examination and Restorative Justice for Drug Abusers: An Alternative in Handling Drug Cases in Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3502 <p>The approach of restorative justice is a new paradigm in responding the crime of drug abuse. So far, the efforts in acting upon drug abuse uses the prohibitionist principle. This approach has the perspective that the drug abuse is illegal and is a violation of law, and therefore must be prohibited. The focus of this policy is the efforts of controlling policies in minimizing drug black markets through punitive ways and imprisonment. Restorative justice is the most logical and humane choice for drug abusers who are not involved in the distribution network. They are victims who must be healed and restored, as opposed to being imprisoned. There are many positive effects of drug abuse rehabilitation. The drug abuser will be saved from their problem of addiction of illegal drugs. It is hoped that when they are healed, they can return to the society and socialize with the people as before.</p> Warsino Warsino1, Supanto Supanto2, Widodo Tresno Novianto3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3502 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Hegemony of The Exxonmobil and Freeport Contract in Investing in Indonesia and Also The Abandonment of The Local People’s Health Rights http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3503 <p>The type of contract carried out nowadays, which is the Product Sharing Contract (PSC) and contract of work in the natural resource sector results to product sharing, which is on one hand thought to not yet fulfill the principle of justice for the state. On the other hand, the government still needs funds from foreign investors to carry out economic development. The balancing position between the foreign investment and the domestic investment in the capital market investment in the oil, gas, and the gold-copper mining sector of Freeport in Papua and Exxonmobil in Indonesia shows a foreign domination. It means that there is a natural resource sector investment hegemony by foreign investors. The implication of this condition is the lightening burden of the state budget, the increase of workforce absorbment and the transfer of technology. It also causes opportunity cost. There is the environmental destruction, including the aspect of healthcare for the local people in the mining location as a compensation. For that, the government needs to review the contract regulation for these two natural resources and revise what is necessary.</p> Yuli Tri Cahyono1, Khudzaifah Dimyati2, Harun Harun2, Bambang Setiaji3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3503 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Stage III-B Cervical-cancer of Young Age in Medical, Bioethics and Clinical Ethics Perspectives http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3504 <p>Background: The incidence of cervical-cancer in Indonesia is mostly obtained at the age of 40-50 years. But now many are found at the age of 25-40 years. Method: Case-report. Findings: Female, 25 years old with a diagnosis of cervical-cancer stage 3B planned for chemotherapy. Patients complain of vaginal bleeding. Married 2 times, at the age of 16 years and 19 years with infertility. The central dilemma: a young woman with advanced stage cervical-cancer was planned for chemotherapy as a gold standard, in terms of patient-autonomy and family refusal. Informed concent was required in the delivery of bad-news and human approaches based on Kubler-Ross’s theory (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance) with the concept of SPIKES (Settings, Listening-Skills, Patient’s Perception, Invitation to share Information, Knowledge transmission “bad-news”, Explore Emotions and Empathize, Summarize and Strategize). Both medical indication and quality of life were appropriated but in terms of patient preference and contextual feature were refused by patient and families. Resolving this case was not enough with medical-aspects, it also required a bioethical and clinical ethics approach. Conclusion: Medical, bioethical and clinical ethics approaches are methods of resolving a case with an ethical dilemma.</p> Nasrudin Andi Mappaware1,4, Septian Sima2, Erlin Syahril3, Shulhana Mokhtar4, Ida Royani4, Muhammad Mursyid4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3504 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Malaria Prevention and Eradication Program Towards Malaria-Elimination in West-Seram http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3505 <p>Malaria is a health problem in the world spread in 95 countries. The research objective describes the evaluation of malaria-prevention and eradication programs including inputs, processes, and outputs using qualitative approach. Data were collected by in-depth interview. Research informants were 1 key-informants and 4 supporting-informants. Malaria-elimination program in West-seram District based on the guidelines of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia and operationally outlined in the form of a technical guide. Case surveillance has not been carried out. Malaria vector control was done by eradicating mosquito nests and using mosquito nets containing insecticides. Cross-program and cross-program cooperation had been going well, but cross-sectoral collaboration, still needs to be improved. The funding was largely supported by donor agencies namely the Global Fund for AIDs, TBC, and Malaria (GF-ATM) while Government of West-Seram allocates microscopic slide examination costs. It is necessary to increase health personnel, facilities and infrastructure, discovery, prevention, and case management.</p> Sahrir Sillehu,1 Wiwi Rumaolat1, Sunik Cahyawati1, Tri Niswati Utami,2 Dewi Kartika3, Wa Rina4, Suparji5 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3505 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Related to Nurses’ Work Stress in the Toto Kabila Hospital http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3506 <p>Stress at work can not be avoided, nurses are at risk of experiencing work stress. The purpose of this study is to find factors related to the nurse’s work stress. This type of research was observational analytic using a cross-sectional study design. The sample was 96 nurses working in the Toto Kabila hospital. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests. The marital status (p-value=0.001), length of work (p-value=0.001), working conditions (p-value=0.004), social support (p-value=0.010) had significant relationship with work stress. The results of this study are expected to be used as input and consideration for nurses at Toto Kabila Hospital to maximize how to deal with stress.</p> Suwarly Mobiliu1, Ratnawati2, Lisdiyanti Usman2, Lusiane Adam2, Fatmawati Mohamad2, Fifi Ishak3, Dewi Kartika4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3506 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 microRNA as Potential Biomarker for Pediatric Tuberculosis? http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3507 <p>The diagnosis of pediatric TB is based on history taking, clinical symptoms, physical examination and support. In recent years the role of microRNA (miRNA or miR) has become a concern for researchers as biomarkers of diagnosis and therapy in TB in adults and children. MicroRNA is a ribonucleic acid that does not encode proteins with 18-25 nucleotide transcripts that interact with gene targets and regulate mRNA expression. miRNA works with other regulatory elements such as transcription factors to control mRNA translation. More than 100 different miRNAs are expressed by immune system cells; they have the potential to broadly influence the molecular pathways that control the development and function of innate and adaptive immune response regulation. During TB infection, the innate immune response provides an initial defense mechanism against infection. It is well known that macrophages are the main stem cells for mycobacteria, survival in macrophages is determined by host-pathogen interactions. Several studies have shown that miRNA can be used as a biomarker and TB therapy agent because it is stable in plasma and other body fluids, difficult to degrade and excreted in the form of exosomes or micro vesicles. Other studies say miRNA is stable despite repeated exposure to heat, cold, acids, bases, and other extreme conditions. microRNA levels are reported to be increased in individuals with TB.</p> Ayling Sanjaya1, Dwi Yuni Nur Hidayati2, Susanthy Djajalaksana3, HMS Chandra Kusuma4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3507 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on The Quality of Life of Post Stroke Patients in Aloei Saboe Hospital http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3508 <p>Quality of life is a global concept that emphasizes dimensions of health status including finance, housing, and work. The quality of life of post-stroke sufferers can experience disturbances or obstacles due to physical disabilities, cognition, psychological and social disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ACT interventions on changes in the quality of life of post-stroke patients at Aloe Saboe Hospital. The method used in this research is quasi-experimental research method pre-posttest with the control group. The sampling technique used was the purposive sampling technique. The number of samples studied was 60 respondents divided into the experimental group (ACT Therapy and health education) and the control group (health education). The variables used are independent variables namely ACT therapy and the dependent variable is the quality of life of patients after stroke. Based on the results of the analysis, there is an effect of ACT intervention on improving quality of life in post-stroke patients as evidenced by the results of t count = -9.015, then the Significant value is 0,000. This shows that the value of p &lt;0.05 then Ho is rejected, so the research hypothesis is proven that there is an effect of ACT therapy on the quality of life of post-stroke patients at Aloei Saboe Hospital, Gorontalo City.</p> Fatmawati Mohamad1, Wenny Ino Ischak1, Heni Panai1, Hafni Van Gobel1, Yusrin Aswad1, Rini Fahriani Zees1, Dewi Kartika2 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3508 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determinant Factors on Active and Latent Tuberculosis among Children in Surabaya http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3509 <p>Background: Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in the world and Indonesia. The difficulty of diagnosis is a major factor in eradicating TB in children. Active and latent tuberculosis in children often shows no symptoms so it is difficult to diagnose and affect the treatment. Several determinant factors need to be assessed with the hope of optimal handling of TB in children. Objective: To analyze the determinant factors on active and latent tuberculosis among children in Surabaya. Methods: A case control study was done with 25 cases with TB divided into active TB, Latent TB. Pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed using the Indonesian Pediatric Tuberculosis Scoring System. Determinant factors for tuberculosis development were history of contact with a TB patient, age, BCG immunization, knowledge, socioeconomic status and overcrowding living condition. Analysis was done using Fisher’s Exact and Mann-Whitney test. Findings: The characteristics of the study subjects consisting of 16 active TB children and 9 latent TB children. In the group of active TB children the largest population is girls (11 children), whereas in the latent TB group are boys (8 children). There was a significant difference between groups of active TB children and latent TB children (p = 0.000 &lt;0.05). The other factors are showing nothing different in the both of group TB. Conclusion: The most significant determinant factor in active TB and latent TB in children is the appearance infiltrate of chest X-ray where active TB shows filtration and normal appearance in latent TB.</p> Ayling Sanjaya1, Dwi Yuni Nur Hidayati2, Susanthy Djajalaksana3, HMS Chandra Kusuma4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3509 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Musculoskeletal Disorders Complaints by Part Body Fishermen Village Labuang Namrole South Buru District http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3510 <p>Indonesian people living in coastal areas work as fishermen. Musculoskeletal disorders are felt by fishermen in the muscles and bones resulting in the decreased system of movement. The purpose of the study was to identify differences in musculoskeletal complaints based on body parts. The study design uses observational analytic, using a cross-sectional design. Fishermen’s research samples amounted to 35 people. The results of the majority of respondents aged 51-55 years and 61-65 years, tenure of&gt; 10 years and unnatural work postures. Nordic Body Map (NBM) measurement, musculoskeletal complaints due to unnatural/forced work postures experienced by respondents. Low extremity musculoskeletal complaints with a mean value of 18.8 and the lowest score of 12 while the highest is a score of 20. Conclusions based on the Nordic Body Map (NBM) musculoskeletal complaints occur because of unnatural/forced work postures. The majority of complaints experienced are found in the lower extremities. It is recommended that fishermen dynamically adjust their work positions.</p> Masudin Sangaji1, Kuswandi Saalu2, Sahrir Sillehu2, M. Taufan Umasugi2, Johanis Hursepuny2, Tri Niswati Utami3, Suparji4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3510 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Related to Hearing Disorder on Traditional Fishermen in Namrole Sub-District South Buru Regency http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3511 <p>Namrole sub-district, South Buru regency, is one of the sub-districts in Maluku province where the majority of the people have a livelihood as fishermen. The process of fishing is done by diving using a compressor at depths exceeding 10 meters. This causes various complaints such as headaches, spasms and hearing disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with a hearing disorder in traditional fishermen. The research method used is quantitative descriptive. Statistical test results using the chi-square test showed that the depth of diving has a significant correlation with a hearing disorder with a value of ? = 0.01, while the period of work, duration of work, and frequency of diving do not correlate with the hearing disorder in traditional fishermen in Namrole district, South Buru Regency.</p> asudin Sangaji1, Sahrir Sillehu2, M.Taufan Umasugi2, Ira Sandi Tunny2, Rapiah Sarfa Marasabessy3, Wa Rina4, Irhamdi Achmad4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3511 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Open Court Principle in the Implementation of Courtroom Television in Indonesia and the Psychologycal Mind of Defendant http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3512 <p>This research aims to analyze and carry out theoretical criticism related to the open court principle, in the implementation of courtroom television in Indonesia. There are differences in the implementation of courtroom television in several cases in Indonesia. As in the case of Jessica Kumalawongso, the entire trial process, including the verification process, was broadcasted live. The research method is the socialjuridical method. In such events, the presumption of innocence principle and the principle of witnesses being prohibited from communicating with each other were also damaged. The implementation of courtroom television affected the defendant’s psychological condition. Thus,s this research will conduct a theoretical study related to the open court principle in the implementation of courtroom television in Indonesia and its consequences.</p> Suprapti1, Hartiwiningsih2, Widodo Trisno Novianto3 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3512 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Criminal Liability of Doctors in the Case of Malpractice in Indonesia http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3513 <p>One of the Human Rights elements that must be achieved in accordance with the ideals of the Indonesian people is the Health aspect, the profession as a doctor devotes his/her knowledge to the public interests, has freedom and independence which is oriented to human values in accordance with the code of ethics. In implementing the code of medical ethics, it as much as possible avoids the occurrence of medical error. The error can occur in the diagnostic stage such as error or delay in diagnosis, not implementing the appropriate examination, using an examination method that is no longer used or does not act on the examination or observation result, etc. The risk that occur if it is not carried out thoroughly and carefully, is that it will result in a fatal error. The method used in this research is the normative juridism method, namely the addition method by holding on to the applied norms or legal rules. The result in this research is the liability’s manifestation of the doctor who performs medical malpractice as a form of criminal legal protection in Indonesia, it is basically based on intentional or unintentional mistakes or negligence. If it results in the victim’s death, it is equal to murder, and if the victim does not die it is called an act of persecution with the sanction of persecution.</p> Tongat1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3513 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards and 2005 Growth Diagrams of Indonesian Children: Impact on Burden of Malnutrition http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3514 <p>Background: Child nutritional status needs to be assessed accurately so that early and appropriate management can be carried out. Indonesia has launched child growth standards in 2005, known as Growth Diagrams of Indonesian Children (GDIC), while the WHO 2006 child growth standards (WHO-CGS) is currently use as standards to assess growth of Indonesian children. Aim: This study aims to analyze differences in the interpretation of nutritional status between 2006 WHOCGS and 2005 GDIC. Method: This is a cross sectional study. 1162 children aged 0-60 months in five selected villages in a public health center in East Java, Indonesia were included in this study. Interpretation of growth was categorized into weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, and weight-for-length/height based on two growth assessment standards; 2006 WHO-GCS and 2005 GDIC. Results: 2005 GDIC detected underweight, stunted, wasted, and obese children fewer than the 2006 WHOCGS. There are significant differences in the interpretation of weight-for-age in girls aged 0-50 weeks (p&lt;0.001) and length/height-for-age in children aged 0-60 months (p&lt;0.001). While weight-for-length/ height showed significant differences in boys aged 0-60 months (p=0.008) and aged 6-36 months (p=0.027). Conclusion: 2005 GDIC detects fewer children with malnutrition than 2006 WHO-CGS. The significant difference on interpretation between two growth charts was particularly found in height-for-age.</p> Wigit Kristianto1, Irwanto1, Kharisma Nindya Hapsara1 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijfmt/article/view/3514 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000