International Journal of Nursing Education 2020-07-29T06:50:42+00:00 Prof Amarjeet Kaur Sandhu Open Journal Systems <p> <strong>International Journal of Nursing Education</strong> is an international double blind peer reviewed journal. It publishes articles related to nursing and midwifery. The purpose of the journal is to bring advancement in nursing education. The journal publishes articles related to specialities of nursing education, care and practice. The journal has been assigned international standard serial numbers 0974-9349 (print) and 0974-9357 (electronic). The journal is covered by many international databases. </p> <div> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p> </p> </div> Effect of Incentive Spirometry on Recovery of Post-Operative Patients: Pre Experimental Study 2020-07-23T08:30:45+00:00 Akashdeep Batra1, C. Vasantha Kalyani2, Kusum K.3 <p>Objective: Post-operative care is management of patients after any surgery. The main goal of post-operative<br>care is to prevent complications i.e. atelectasis and infection. The other objective is early healing of the<br>surgical incision and return of patient to a state of health. About 17% to 88% of people in postoperative<br>duration will have decreased lung volumes. This decreased lung volume problem can be solved with use<br>of incentive spirometry in postoperative period on Day 1. Incentive spirometer is perioperative respiratory<br>therapy given to postoperative patients to improve lung volume of patients and hasten recovery of patients<br>also. The main aim of study were to identify effect of Incentive spirometry on postoperative patient’s<br>recovery.<br>Method: It was pre-experimental study with pretest- posttest design only, which was done on post-operative<br>patients at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh.<br>Results: Majority (52 %) of participants were 41 to 50 years age group. Male and female ratio for<br>participants were 46:54. Paired ‘t’ test p value i.e. 0.00* with CI [0.72, 1.03] showed that on Pretest and Day<br>3 Performance level on incentive spirometry of participants showed a significant value, which indicate that<br>spirometer enhance recovery of post-operative patients by increasing their lung volumes.<br>Conclusions: This study revealed that incentive spirometry is effective in improving of pulmonary function<br>among post-operative patients, which further improves blood circulation and hasten early recovery of<br>surgical wound. This spirometry should be integral part of Post-operative care. All nurses who are involved<br>in Postoperative units should encourage patients to do it on regular basis and document it as a vital sign.<br>Good compliance to incentive spirometry can improve better outcome of patient’s.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Review Article on Corona Virus 2019-nCoV (COVID-19) 2020-07-23T10:56:53+00:00 Balaji M.S. <p>Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, the viruses cause</p> <p>respiratory infections which are typically mild, including the common cold; however, rarer forms such as</p> <p>SARS, MERS and the novel coronavirus causing the current outbreak can be lethal. Coronaviruses were</p> <p>discovered in the 1960s. On 31 December 2019, the outbreak was traced to a novel strain of coronavirus,</p> <p>which was labelled as 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organization (WHO). Human to human transmission</p> <p>of coronaviruses is primarily thought to occur among close contacts via respiratory droplets generated</p> <p>by sneezing and coughing. Clinical laboratories performing routine haematology, urinalysis, and clinical</p> <p>chemistry studies, and microbiology laboratories performing diagnostic tests on serum, blood, or urine.</p> <p>There is currently no vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. The best way to prevent infection is to avoid</p> <p>being exposed to this virus.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effectiveness of Mirror Therapy on Motor Function among Patients with Cerebro Vascular Accident 2020-07-23T11:03:54+00:00 Brigin Ann Varghese1 , C. Margret Nisha2 , A. Reena Evency3 <p>The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy on motor function among patients</p> <p>with cerebro vascular accident . Quasi experimental non- randomized control group design was adopted</p> <p>for the study. The sample were selected out of 60 samples, 30 were in study group and 30 in control group.</p> <p>Mirror therapy was given for 30 minutes to the study group for 10 days and with holded for control group.</p> <p>Post test was done for both study group and control group after 14 days. The findings revealed that, in study</p> <p>group, the mean score on level of motor function among patients with Cerebro Vascular Accident in study</p> <p>group was 1.46 in pre test and 2.46 in post test. The estimated paired ‘t’ value was 8.41 which was significant</p> <p>at p ? 0.05. Hence the research hypothesis (H1) was accepted. The mean score on level of motor function</p> <p>among patients with Cerebro Vascular Accident in study group was 2.46 and in control group was 0.71. The</p> <p>estimated unpaired ‘t’ value was 6.25 which is significant at p ? 0.05. Hence the research hypothesis (H2)</p> <p>was accepted. The study concluded that the Mirror therapy is effective to improve the level of motor function</p> <p>among patients with Cerebro Vascular Accident.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effectiveness of Facilitated Tucking on Physiological and Behavioral Responses among Neonates Receiving Hepatitis B Vaccination 2020-07-23T11:09:43+00:00 M.S. Immaculate Jessy1 , A. Reena Evency2 <p>The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Facilitated tucking on Physiological and Behavioral</p> <p>responses among neonates receiving Hepatitis B vaccination. Quasi experimental non-randomized control</p> <p>group design was adopted for the study. The structured questionnaire was developed to collect the data.</p> <p>The sample were selected by purposive sampling technique and data collection was carried out among</p> <p>60 neonates in a selected hospital. Pretest and posttest conducted before and after facilitated tucking.</p> <p>The finding reveals that the physiological responses of ‘t’ value in heart rate was 3.01 respiration 1.52</p> <p>and oxygen saturation 3.59 and behavioural responses of ‘t’ value was 5.6 which significant at p&lt;0.05. It</p> <p>shows that Facilitated tucking was effective in enhancing physiological and behavioral responses among</p> <p>neonates. There was a significant association between the age, gender, weight of neonates with physiological</p> <p>and behavioural responses. The study concluded that providing facilitated tucking was very effective in</p> <p>enhancing physiological and behavioral responses among neonates.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effectiveness of Guided Imagery on Level of Stress among Old Age People 2020-07-23T11:13:52+00:00 J. Jebasingh1 , A. Reena Evency2 <p>A experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of level of stress among nursing students</p> <p>at Kanyakumari district. While assessing the pre test level of stress among old age people, none of them</p> <p>were low stress, 23(46%) of them were moderate stress and 27(54%) were with high stress. While assessing</p> <p>the post test score of stress among old age people, 29(58%) of them were low stress, 21(42%) of them were</p> <p>moderate stress and none of them were with high stress. While revealing effectiveness, at a significant level</p> <p>of p&lt;0.05, the mean pretest value was 21.78 with the standard deviation 4.19. The mean post test value was</p> <p>10.48 with the standard deviation 2.41 and the calculated ‘t’ value was 29.62*. The calculated’ value was</p> <p>greater than the table value, so there was a significant difference between pretest and post test score. There</p> <p>was a significant association between the pretest level of stress among old age people with demographic</p> <p>variables such as age,sex, religion, education, previous occupation, previous income, present income. Hence</p> <p>the research hypothesis (H2) is accepted. As per the study the investigator concluded that the level of stress</p> <p>among nursing students.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effectiveness of Leg Ergometric Exercise on Level of Fatigue among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Haemodialysis 2020-07-23T11:17:55+00:00 J.M. Agisha Mol1 , C. Margret Nisha2 , A. Reena Evency3 <p>The study was to evaluate the effectiveness of leg ergometric exercise on level of fatigue among patients</p> <p>with Chronic Kidney Disease undergoing Haemodialysis.Quasi experimental non randomized control group</p> <p>design was utilized to perform the study. The samples were selected by purposive sampling technique. Data</p> <p>were collected from the patients with Chronic Kidney Disease undergoing Haemodialysis who fulfilled the</p> <p>inclusion criteria. The tool used in this study consists of demographic data and modified FACIT (Functional</p> <p>Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy) scale. The findings revealed that unpaired “t” test value was 5.60,</p> <p>which was significant at p&lt;0.05. It shows that leg ergometric exercise is effective in reducing the level of</p> <p>fatigue among patients with Chronic Kidney Disease undergoing Haemodialysis. There was a significant</p> <p>association between age and duration of illness with level of fatigue. The study concluded that providing leg</p> <p>ergometric exercise was very effective in reducing the level of fatigue among patients with chronic kidney</p> <p>disease undergoing haemodialysis.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Knowledge and Frequency of Experience of Workplace Incivility among the Staff Nurses 2020-07-23T11:22:03+00:00 Kanitha D.1 , Poonam R. Naik2 <p>Now a day’s health care setting shows increase in incidences of workplace incivility. Workplace incivility</p> <p>has a greater impact on quality of nursing care by causing stress and dissatisfaction of job among the staff</p> <p>nurses. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and frequency of experience of workplace</p> <p>incivility among the staff nurses. Quantitative cross-sectional descriptive survey approach was used to</p> <p>conduct the present study. A total of 34 staff nurses were selected by convenient sampling technique from the</p> <p>wards and ICU of selected Multi-speciality hospital. Structured self- administered knowledge questionnaire</p> <p>was used to collect the data regarding knowledge and frequency of experience of workplace incivility.</p> <p>Findings of the study showed that mean age of the participants was 32 years. Majority (91%) were females</p> <p>and they studied General Nursing and Midwifery. Majority (76%) of the participants had up to 15 years of</p> <p>working experience and 44% of them were temporary employees. Almost 56% of them were working 8</p> <p>hours per day. Assessment of knowledge regarding workplace incivility revealed that the majority (82%) of</p> <p>the staff nurses had inadequate knowledge regarding workplace incivility and majority (77%) experienced</p> <p>incivility in their workplace.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module (SIM) on Knowledge Regarding Post Operative Care of Cesarean Mothers among Staff Nurses in Selected Government Hospitals of Haryana 2020-07-23T11:25:05+00:00 Kiran Nanda1 , Sathish Rajamani2 , Priyanka3 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The post-operative period demands appropriate guidance from nurse, so by preventive</p> <p>and primitive postoperative care the women can be helped to avoid the post-operative problems and</p> <p>complications, which can help in early recovery.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong></p> <ul> <li>To evaluate the pre - post test knowledge of staff nurses working in maternity Hospital regarding post</li> </ul> <p>operative care of caesarean mothers.</p> <ul> <li>To evaluate the effectiveness of self instructional module on post-operative care of caesarean mothers</li> </ul> <p>among staff nurses working in selected hospitals of Haryana.</p> <ul> <li>To find out association between pre - post test knowledge regarding post operativecare of caesarean</li> </ul> <p>section with their selected socio-demographic variables.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was pre- experimental one group pre- test and post-test design. The sampling</p> <p>technique used for the study was Non-probability convenience sampling technique. Sample consists of 60</p> <p>staff nurses3 Government hospitals (BheemSenSacchar Hospital of Panipat), (Nagrik Hospital of Jind),</p> <p>(Nagrik Hospital of Sonipat) Haryana.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>There was a good effectiveness of Self instructional module on postoperative care after caesarean</p> <p>section. The researcher also found the association between post – test knowledge and age of the samples.</p> <p>Hence self instructional module is very much effective for staff nurses.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that there was a good effectiveness of self instructional module on post</p> <p>operative care after cesarean section.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Level of Holistic Health & Wellness and its Percieved Influencing Factors among Baccalaureate Nursing Students: A Mixed Approach 2020-07-23T11:28:50+00:00 Rinu J. George1 , Sindhu Anil Menon2 , Chanchal Sahu3 , Himanshi Patel4 , Neetu Thakur5 , Shiny T. Sam6 <p><strong>Background:</strong> A Nurse of strong mind, body, and spirit will deliver better patient care, resulting in better</p> <p>outcomes, satisfaction scores &amp; ultimately, reimbursements. The health and well-being of student nurses</p> <p>is of at most importance when considering their inexperience in the field, the demands of the course and</p> <p>profession, as well as the implications for patient care Because research proves that high levels of burnout</p> <p>adversely affect patient outcomes &amp; satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To Check the level of holistic health &amp; wellness among baccalaureate nursing students.</p> <p><strong>Design and Method:</strong> A mixed non-experimental &amp; qualitative approach was adopted. 120 Baccalaureate</p> <p>Nursing Students selected using Simple Random sampling. Holistic Health &amp; Wellness survey tool was used</p> <p>for data collection.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Showed that 34.2% of Baccalaureate nursing students had excellent level of holistic health and</p> <p>wellness, 55% had good level of holistic health and wellness, 9.2% had fair and 1.7% had below average.</p> <p>ANOVA test for finding the difference in between the groups reveled that there is significant difference</p> <p>between year of course at (p=0.003) level and no difference found with area of residence (p=0.681) and</p> <p>gender (p=0.105). post hoc test done to find out exactly which intergroup differed one another and result</p> <p>showed difference between first year &amp; second year at (p=0.02) and first year &amp; forth year (p=0.03).</p> <p>Chi square test was found to be insignificant. Based on Focused group discussion two themes emerged,</p> <p>which influenced the level of holistic health &amp; wellness such as i) materialistic &amp; environmental factors ii)</p> <p>motivational determinants &amp; barriers.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effectiveness of Soya Beans Versus Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercise on Level of Menopausal Symptoms among Postmenopausal Women 2020-07-23T11:33:01+00:00 S. Asha1 , D. Shiny Mary2 , A. Reena Evancy3 <p>The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of soya beans versus diaphragmatic breathing</p> <p>exercise on level of menopausal symptoms among postmenopausal women. Quasi experimental design was</p> <p>adopted for the study. The structured interview questionnaire was developed to collect the data. The sample</p> <p>were selected by simple random sampling (lottery) method and data collection was carried out among 70</p> <p>postmenopausal women in selected villages. Pretest was conducted with Modified Greene Climacteric Scale</p> <p>and Post test was conducted on 21st day. The findings revealed that the mean score level of menopausal</p> <p>symptoms among postmenopausal women in study group I was 39.25 in pre test and 36.34 in post test</p> <p>respectively. The paired ‘t’ value of 1.69 which is significant at p&lt;0.05. It shows that soya beans was effective</p> <p>in reducing the menopausal symptoms. In study group II the mean score on level of menopausal symptoms</p> <p>among postmenopausal women was 36.71 in pre test and 29.62 in post test respectively. The estimated</p> <p>paired ‘t’ value was 1.69 which was also significant at p&lt;0.05. In this study the investigator concluded</p> <p>that soya beans and diaphragmatic breathing exercise are effective in reducing menopausal symptoms, but</p> <p>diaphragmatic breathing exercise was more effective than soya beans.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effectiveness of Foot Reflexology on Level of Depression among Old Age People 2020-07-23T11:54:00+00:00 S. Selva Daphine1 , Medonna Shajini2 , A. Reena Evency3 <p>Depression is the most common mental disorder among old age in India and one of the most disabling</p> <p>condition worldwide. It is difficult to differentiate clinical symptoms of depression in old age from symptoms</p> <p>of normal ageing. Depression is found among 15% to 50% of residents in long term care depending on old</p> <p>age home. It is possible to improve mental capacities and coping skills that are affected by depression with</p> <p>daily activities that delay the onset of behavioural disturbances and reduce caring time. Foot reflexology</p> <p>would be the tool that may help to preserve mental capacity of old age people. The study was conducted to</p> <p>evaluate the effectiveness of foot reflexology on level of depression among old age people. Pre experimental</p> <p>one group pre-test post-test design was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of foot reflexology on level</p> <p>of depression among old age people. 50 participants were selected using purposive sampling technique.</p> <p>Yesavage’s Geriatric Depression scale was used to assess the level of depression among old age people.</p> <p>Pre-test was done among old age people with depression and foot reflexology was given to the selected</p> <p>participants with mild and severe depression for 20 minutes, once in every three days for 10 sessions. The</p> <p>post-test was done after the intervention with the same scale. Findings reveals that pre-test score of depression</p> <p>among old age people, none of them were normal, 38(76%) of them had mild depression, 12(24%) of them</p> <p>had severe depression. While analysing the post-tests core of depression among old age people, 26(52%)</p> <p>of them were normal, 18(36%) of them had mild depression, 6(12%) of them had severe depression. The</p> <p>mean pre-test value was 17.94, the mean post-test value was 10.86,the standard deviation was 4.948 and</p> <p>the calculated ‘t’ value was 26.2*. The calculated ‘t’ value was greater than the table value, so there was a</p> <p>significant difference between pre-test and post-test score. Hence the research hypothesis (H1) is accepted.</p> <p>The score represents that foot reflexology was effective in reducing the depression among old age people.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Prevalence of Dental Caries and the Effectiveness of Demonstration on Dental Hygiene among Primary School Students in Selected Schools of Rural Community, Assam 2020-07-23T11:58:14+00:00 Sanaton Konthoujam1 , Sangita Kalita2 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Oral health promotion through schools is recommended by WHO for improving knowledge,</p> <p>attitude and behaviour related to oral health and for prevention of dental diseases among school children.</p> <p>In India, 70 -72% of population live in the rural areas of which more than 40% are children. These children</p> <p>tend to be more vulnerable to oral health problems.</p> <p><strong>Aim and Objective:</strong> To assess prevalence of dental caries and the effectiveness of demonstration on dental</p> <p>hygiene among primary school students.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method: </strong>The study was a cross</p> <p>?</p> <p>sectional study conducted at selected schools of Rani rural</p> <p>community of Kamrup District, Assam. 118 primary school students of class IV and V were selected using</p> <p>consecutive sampling technique. The subjects were assessed for the presence of dental caries using dmft</p> <p>scoring and observed for their practice of brushing with Fones method of brushing. Later demonstration</p> <p>for the Fones method was given to the participants and post test was done to evaluate the effectiveness</p> <p>of demonstration. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. <strong>Results: </strong>The study</p> <p>showed that more than half i.e., 92 (78%) of the students have dental caries. It was found that in pre-test,</p> <p>79 (61%) of the participants have good practice of dental hygiene which was increase to 93 (78.8%) in post</p> <p>test. Again, in pre-test 46 (39%) of the participants have poor practice of dental hygiene, which was reduced</p> <p>to 25 (21.2%) in post test. The mean post test practice score (7.03) is higher than the mean pre test practice</p> <p>score (4.70) of dental hygiene. The median post test practice score (7) is also higher than the median post</p> <p>test practice score (5) of dental hygiene and the post test SD (0.67) seems to be less disperse than the pre test</p> <p>SD (0.73) of dental hygiene. It also shows that the “t” value (-28.482) and p -value 0.00 is highly significant</p> <p>at 0.05 level of significance. So it is evident that the demonstration on Fones method of brushing is effective</p> <p>in increasing the dental hygiene practice among the students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Regulating good practice of dental hygiene is important during the early school period. As</p> <p>health personnel, community nurse can take active role in imparting information on dental hygiene practice</p> <p>among students by conducting school health programme and demonstrating on brushing technique. And also</p> <p>recommending inclusion of dental hygiene in the curriculum of the school.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Facilitators and Barriers in Initiation of Breastfeeding within One Hour of Child Birth among Women at Selected Community 2020-07-23T12:01:34+00:00 Saraswathy K.1 , Latha Venkatesan2 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Most of the world’s new-born are left waiting too long to begin breastfeeding. In 2017, 78</p> <p>million new-borns were estimated to wait more than one hour to be put to the breast. This study aimed to</p> <p>assess the facilitators and barriers in initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of child birth.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A retrospective study was conducted at selected community in Chennai with a sample size of</p> <p>60 mothers through purposive sampling technique. Data was collected using demographic variable proforma,</p> <p>obstetrical variable proforma, checklist to assess the facilitators and barriers in initiation of breastfeeding</p> <p>within one hour of childbirth.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In initiation of breastfeeding Majority of the mothers felt antenatal preparation (100%) and support</p> <p>from health professionals (54.4%) as Facilitators,96% of the mothers considered Pain during labour and new</p> <p>borns refused to feed as the barriers. There was significant association between initiation of breastfeeding</p> <p>within one hour of childbirth and selected Variables such as age of the mother (?2= 5.1428), knowledge</p> <p>about breastfeeding (?2=4.826) and source of information from health professionals (?2= 4.343, p&gt;0.50).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study helps in understanding the facilitators and barriers in initiation of breastfeeding.</p> <p>By analysing these factors, Nurses and nursing students can step up to empower mothers to promote early</p> <p>breastfeeding.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effectiveness of Hand and Foot Massage on Level of Pain Perception among Lower Segment Caesarean Section Mothers 2020-07-23T12:04:19+00:00 W. Shebi Mol1 , D. Shiny Mary2 , A. Reena Evency3 <p>The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hand and Foot massage on level of pain perception</p> <p>among Lower Segment Caesarean Section mothers. Quasi experimental non randomized control group design</p> <p>was adopted for the study. The structured questionnaire was developed to collect the data. The samples were</p> <p>selected by purposive sampling technique. The study was conducted on 60 lower segment caesarean section</p> <p>mothers. The participants were divided into two groups 30 each in study group and control group. Pre test</p> <p>was done for both the groups by using Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Hand and foot massage was given for</p> <p>30 minutes to the study group for 5 days (Morning). Post test was done for both the study group and control</p> <p>group. The estimated paired ‘t’ value was 1.70 which was significant at p &lt; 0.05. This shows that the hand</p> <p>and foot massage is effective in reducing the level of pain perception among Lower Segment Caesarean</p> <p>Section mothers.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A Systematic Review of Patient and Family Violent Behaviour in Saudi Arabian Emergency Units 2020-07-23T12:07:09+00:00 Ali AlShehri <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nurses working in emergency departments in Saudi Arabian hospitals have been affected by</p> <p>violence at workplace instigated by patient or family. This gradually had significant impact on nurses’ job</p> <p>satisfaction and security at work or affected their performance. Often this behaviour has been found to be</p> <p>precipitated by certain factors.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Aim of this review is to assess the different factors causing violent behaviours among patients and</p> <p>their families towards nurses in Emergency units and to suggest possible management strategies in reducing</p> <p>such behaviours as well as assess its implications for Saudi Arabian nurses.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This review considers selected studies related to violent behaviour of patients and their</p> <p>family’s in emergency units of Saudi Arabia. It examines evidence of such factors identified by different</p> <p>studies including overcrowding, waiting times, communication, and inability to meet patient’s needs and</p> <p>staff shortages among others.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Findings from review indicate that strong policies are required to ensure patient overcrowding</p> <p>in Saudi Arabian emergency units. Most patients consider ED as their first point of call whether it is an</p> <p>emergency or not, thereby causing overcrowding and posing threat of staff shortage in such areascompared</p> <p>to primary healthcare centres and hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Further studies recommend understanding reporting system for patients’ violent behaviour</p> <p>in Saudi Arabia, and effectiveness of policies and actions taken to address such behaviours, which could</p> <p>protect nurses at their workplace. The study is limited to studies of nurse’s perception of violent behaviour,</p> <p>without considering patient’s data and their perception on such behaviour.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effectiveness of a Participatory–Learning Program of Pre-retirement on Personal Satisfaction with Older Adults: Urban and Rural Area, Thailand 2020-07-23T12:15:33+00:00 Apinya Koontalay1 , Aumpornpun Teranuch2 , Amornrat Sangsaikeaw3 <p>This study is a quasi-intervention investigation to examine the result of the participatory learning program</p> <p>of pre-retirement on personal satisfaction with older adults’. The participants were 120 older adults living</p> <p>in cities and rural areas selected by purposive sampling technique. The sample group is divided into 2</p> <p>groups: urban and rural groups, intervention and control group of thirty each group. The intervention was</p> <p>conducted for 12th weeks to improve readiness aging and personal satisfaction as measured by demography</p> <p>questionnaire, pre-retirement survey form, and personal satisfaction form assessment parameter. Data</p> <p>on pre-retirement and personal satisfaction were collected before and after a 12th-week participatory</p> <p>learning program of pre-retirement. Participants in the control group received the convention care. There</p> <p>were significant differences between the two groups on autonomous regulation. There was no significant</p> <p>difference found in the pretest mean value base on pre-retirement in both groups. The posttest mean values</p> <p>of the pre-retirement and personal satisfaction were significantly higher than those of the control group.</p> <p>There was a significant difference between groups (p&lt;.001).</p> <p>The results of the study have shown that a participatory-learning program is effective in pre-retirement and</p> <p>personal satisfaction. It would improve the successful aging and quality of life in a long later life.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Rational Model-Based Training Retain the Health Cadres’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Stroke Issue 2020-07-23T12:18:40+00:00 Husniyatur Rizqiyah Dhomiri1, Karyono Mintaroem2 , Setyoadi3 <p>Stroke is a medical emergency that the patients of it ideally should have received stroke management ?3</p> <p>hours since the attack. Emergency situations can occur at anytime, thus the health cadres participation in</p> <p>minimizing pre-hospital delay through FAST method is needed. In order to make the cadres have knowledge,</p> <p>positive attitudes, and good practices about FAST, the rational model-based training was conducted. The aim</p> <p>of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of rational model-based training on the health cadres’ changes</p> <p>on knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the stroke symptoms detection using FAST. This study used quasi</p> <p>experimental research design through pretest-posttest control group design. 50 respondents were divided</p> <p>into intervention and control groups. Data analysis used independent sample t-test and mann whitney test.</p> <p>The results show that there were differences in attitude and practices changes between the intervention and</p> <p>the control groups after training, with p values 0.009 and 0.000. There was no any difference in the retention</p> <p>of knowledge, attitudes, and practices in both groups, the p value was 0.849; 0.626;0.456.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Investigating Health Information Literacy Assessments and Efforts for Students Taking Health Care, Nursing and Medical Courses: An Abbreviated Review of the Extant Literature 2020-07-23T12:21:29+00:00 Kimberly N. Howard <p>Health information literacy is a skill set that is being formally evaluated and included in the curriculum of</p> <p>health care, nursing and medical students. While health information literacy is referenced in many different</p> <p>types of articles, the assessments and interventions related to it vary greatly when considering the academic</p> <p>or public landscape. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize the existing literature related to health</p> <p>information literacy measurement tools and efforts to valuate and or improve the skill sets of students in</p> <p>the institutional environment. The review will also consider how health information literacy is defined and</p> <p>evaluated in the academic environment in comparison to how it is defined and measured when considering</p> <p>the general public.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mental Health: Breakdowns in Health Care Service Throughout the Continuum of Patient Care and Recommendations for the Future 2020-07-23T12:27:50+00:00 Kimberly N. Howard <p>This phenomonelogical work integrates the relevant literature along with a lived experience of mental</p> <p>healthcare. The article considers the role of consumers as participants in healthcare services and as</p> <p>contributors to the knowledge base. The article highlights the potential for phenomonelogical studies to be</p> <p>beneficial to the literature, since they can be analyzed to distinguish what, if any,similar areas exist, and as a</p> <p>result, what areas might be improved.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Scoring Trauma with Revised Trauma Score in Scoring Patient Motility with Traumatic Head Injury 2020-07-23T12:32:10+00:00 Lilispuspadariani1 , Sri Andarini2 , Rinik Eko Kapti2 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Head traumatic is a condition where the head structure getting bump outside and having some</p> <p>potential to get brain function disruption. The patients assessment with head traumatic can use traumatic</p> <p>score, by using traumatic score will give quantitative assessment so it will be shown the traumatic degree</p> <p>and assessing the mortality patient.</p> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Revised traumatic score is the assessment physiologist by doing data summarized that include</p> <p>systole blood pressure, respiration, and Glasgow Coma Scale for knowing the patient mortality in head</p> <p>traumatic.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This systematic review is begin by making question, determining the objectives then finding the</p> <p>appropriate key words to identify searching data that is need with the methods and the objectives “AND”</p> <p>and “OR”. After getting the data searching in 2005 up to 2019 by using database international request,</p> <p>pubmed, science direct and continue with PRISMA <em>flow</em> diagram and <em>JBI</em> critique tool up to get 6 articles</p> <p>that relevant to be analyzed be systematic review.</p> <p><strong>Result and Discussion:</strong> Traumatic Scoring with revised traumatic score is a physiologist scoring system</p> <p>that is used as medical instrument hospital that can help to determine the traumatic patients whether caring</p> <p>in primer hospital ormain traumatic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Revised traumatic score is one of the traumatic assessment that able to know the patients</p> <p>mortality with head traumatic by using assessment indicator that is systole blood pressure, respirasi and</p> <p><em>Glasgow Coma Scale</em></p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Levels of Depressive Disorder among Displaced Citizens in Displacement Camps in Baghdad City 2020-07-23T12:37:58+00:00 Maan Hameed Ibrahim Al-Ameri (PhD)1 , Raad Kareem Faraj (PhD)2 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Internally displaced people are those who are compelled to escape but they either cannot</p> <p>or do not desire to cross an international border. In addition, internal displacement can affect persons in</p> <p>particular or an entire groups(1). The most common psychological reactions found in internally displaced</p> <p>people in addition to PTSD are depression, somatization, and existential problems(2). It was found that the</p> <p>prevalence of depression symptoms range among displaced individuals was 38%-41%(3).</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study aims to find out levels of depressive symptoms among displaced citizen in Baghdad</p> <p>city and to find out whether there is any relationship between those levels and some socio-demographic</p> <p>characteristics of displaced citizens.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive analytic design study was conducted from November 10th, 2017 to the April</p> <p>10th, 2018 with the purpose of assessing the levels of depressive disorder among displaced citizens who</p> <p>temporarily live in displaced camps in Baghdad city. A non-probability (purposive) sample of 110 of those</p> <p>displaced citizens was recruited to join in present study. To meet the goals of the study a questionnaire was</p> <p>made. The questionnaire has two functions: primarily, four socio-demographic characteristics of displaced</p> <p>people: gender, age, level of education, and marital status; and furthermore, fifteen items represent Geriatric</p> <p>Depression Scale (GDS-15) for Almeida (1999)(4)which expected to determine the levels of depressive</p> <p>disorder among the displaced people. Collected data were examined by means of: a descriptive statistical</p> <p>analysis: frequencies and percentages and tables of distribution; and inferential analysis which was Chi2.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results indicate that about three quarters of the participants are male; half of them are of</p> <p>twenties decade of age; about half of those displaced are unmarried; and three quarters of them have primary</p> <p>and secondary levels of education. And the results reveals too that more than half of displaced citizens have</p> <p>moderate level (64.5%); and only 11.8% are within normal level of depressive disorder; and nearly quarter</p> <p>of them have severe level (23.6%).</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong> The study recommends for the necessity to provide mental health services for displaced</p> <p>citizens in displacement camps. And an escalation in the extent of mental health and psychosocial support</p> <p>services for those displaced citizens. The necessity is needed to sufficiently support and offer broad healthcare</p> <p>for them.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ethical Work Climate, Moral Courage, Moral Distress and Organizational Citizenship Behavioramong Nurses 2020-07-23T12:41:28+00:00 Maha Abdeen Abdeen1 , Nora Mahdy Attia2 <p>Ethical work climate and moral courage are important elements influencing the actions of nurses and their</p> <p>organizational citizenship. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ethical work climate,</p> <p>moral courage, moral distress, and organizational citizenship behavior among nurses at Zagazig university</p> <p>hospitals, Egypt. A descriptive correlational design was used for this research. A stratified random sample</p> <p>of 384 nurses was chosen from the above mentioned settings. Four tools were utilized for data collection:</p> <p>Hospital ethicalclimate scale, professional moral courage scale, moral distress scale and organizational</p> <p>citizenship behavior scale.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Revealed that,89.1% of nurses had positive perceptions of ethical work climate. Likewise, 85.4%</p> <p>and 83.1% of nurses had high levels of moral courage and moral distress respectively, and 47.7% of them</p> <p>had moderate level of organizational citizenship behavior.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Ethical work climate was significantly and positively correlated to moral courage and</p> <p>organizational citizenship behavior, while it was negatively correlated to moral distress.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong>Developed continuing education, and discussions promote positive ethical climates</p> <p>within the organization</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lived Experiences of Mothers with Leukemic Children Residing in Kathmandu 2020-07-23T12:44:35+00:00 Mankeshari Maharjan1 , Lalita Rai2 , Sharada Acharya3 <p>Childhood leukemia is one of the expanding non-communicable diseases in Asian countries including Nepal</p> <p>with significant mortality and morbidity. The main objective of study was to explore lived experiences of</p> <p>mothers with leukemic children residing in Kathmandu. This was a hermeneutic phenomenological study</p> <p>conducted in 2017. Ten participants were selected purposively from hospital record of Kanti Children’s</p> <p>Hospital,Nepal. In-depth interview guideline, case study method, digital recording and field notes were</p> <p>used for data collection. Data was analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and ATLAS.</p> <p>ti 7 software 7.5.7 version. Five major themes emerged: Socioeconomic Burden, Alteration in Life, Crisis</p> <p>Situation, Coping Strategies and Optimistic Attitude. Initially, mothers experienced distress, disbelief, denial</p> <p>and gradually accepted the condition. It has created distressing adverse impact on life. Hence, an educational</p> <p>package and counseling should be provided focusing on disease, child care and coping strategies to make</p> <p>aware to mothers and prepare them physically and emotionally.</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Women’s Views and Experience of Respectful Maternity Care While Delivering in Three Regional Referral Hospitals of Bhutan 2020-07-23T12:47:10+00:00 Sonam Deki1 , Kencho Wangmo2 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Labour and childbirth represent one of the most vulnerable periods in women’s life and</p> <p>ensuring the quality of respectful maternity care during labour and childbirth still remains challenging.</p> <p>There are activities to promote respect for women’s right, including respect for their autonomy, dignity;</p> <p>feelings, choices and preference. However, little has been known about the elements of respectful maternity</p> <p>care provided to women during labour and childbirth in health facilities.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The purpose of the study is to explore the attitudes, views, behaviors and emotional experienced</p> <p>by women related to labour and childbirth and to describe women’s satisfaction with RMC in three regional</p> <p>hospitals of Bhutan.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Cross-sectional study with the sample size of 426 from JDWNRH in Thimphu, CRRH in Gelephu</p> <p>and ERRH in Mongar. All women who delivered in November - December 2018 were included in the study.</p> <p>The structured questionnaire was used, relevant literature sources were reviewed and finalized in our setting</p> <p>and was piloted in Bajo Hospital after approved by Research Ethics Board of Health (REBH). Descriptive</p> <p>analysis done and all the information gathered are presented in the form of frequencies, percentages and</p> <p>number for categorical variables. The scientific significance shows in foul language (0.033) and scolding</p> <p>(0.020).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Satisfaction rate ranged from excellent to unsatisfactory concerning the services, women stated</p> <p>excellent (37.10%), very good (31.20%), Good (20.20%), mixed feeling (9.20%), rather unsatisfactory</p> <p>(1.90%) and unsatisfactory (0.50%). Concerning the whole process of labour and childbirth, dreadful</p> <p>experiences was (41.8%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is need to improve on communication for information, permission, policy for dignity</p> <p>and privacy for women. Need to include in the pre-service curriculum for nurses and health workers and to</p> <p>provide in-service education on RMC to all health personnel providing maternity services</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Effect of Implementing Guidelines Regarding Administering Inotropic Medications for Critically Ill Patients on Nurses’ Practice 2020-07-23T12:50:47+00:00 Mohamed Elsayed Ahmed Allawy1 , Wafaa Ismail Sherief2, Amal Bakr Abo El–Ata3 , Samia Husseini Gaballah4 <p><strong>Background:</strong> There is no teaching guidelines depicted for improving the practice of nurses towards</p> <p>inotropic medication administration, which emphasizes the importance of clinical guidelines in improving</p> <p>nurses’ practice, Purpose: To assess the effect of implementing guidelines regarding administering inotropic</p> <p>medications for critically ill patients on nurses’ practice, Methods: This single-hospital, Quasi-experimental</p> <p>research design was used in the study. The present study was carried out at Critical Care Units. A convenient</p> <p>sample of all staff nurses (60 nurses), the data were collected using one tool named nurses’ observational</p> <p>checklist, Results: 93.3% of studied nurses had satisfactory level of practice regarding inotropic medications</p> <p>post implementing intervention guidelines. The post and follow up-intervention practice mean score</p> <p>was high 48.80, 48 respectively when compared with pre-intervention practice mean score 31.40 with P</p> <p>value&lt;.001*, Conclusion: There was significant difference in the nurses’ practice mean scores regarding</p> <p>inotropic medications in post and follow-up implementing guidelines when compared with pre-intervention</p> <p>mean practice score with P value&lt;.001. .</p> 2020-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020