International Journal of Nursing Education <p> <strong>International Journal of Nursing Education</strong> is an international double blind peer reviewed journal. It publishes articles related to nursing and midwifery. The purpose of the journal is to bring advancement in nursing education. The journal publishes articles related to specialities of nursing education, care and practice. The journal has been assigned international standard serial numbers 0974-9349 (print) and 0974-9357 (electronic). The journal is covered by many international databases. </p> <div> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p> </p> </div> en-US (Prof Amarjeet Kaur Sandhu) (Kavita ) Wed, 30 Dec 2020 10:54:40 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of Clinical Pathway Application on Stroke Patients’ Outcomes <p>A clinical pathway is a process for managing patient by states the goal and main elements of care based<br>on Evidence Based guidelines, best intervention to enhance quality of care; outcomes and reduce length of<br>patient’s hospitalization.<br>Aim of the Study: To evaluate the effect of clinical pathway applications on stroke patients’ outcomes.<br>Design: Quasi-experimental design was used to test the research hypothesis.<br>Subjects: A purposive sample of 78 patients, they divided randomly and alternatively into two equal groups<br>38 patients in each as follows: (1)The study group (I): received their care by application of clinical pathway<br>(2) The control group (II): received routine hospital care.<br>Setting: The current study was conducted at Emergency, Intensive Care Unit and Medical ward at Menoufia<br>University Hospital; Menoufia Governorate; Egypt. Tools for data collection: four tools were utilized by<br>the researchers to achieve the aim of the study and to collect the necessary data. Tool (I): Semi structured<br>questionnaire (demographic and medical data Sheet); Tool (II): bio- physiological measurements (indicators<br>of improved patients’ outcomes); Tool (III): National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, or NIH Stroke Scale<br>(NIHSS); and Tool (IV): Multidisciplinary planned sheet team.<br>Results: There was improvement in values of vital signs, oxygen saturation, central venous pressure, arterial<br>blood gases interpretation, central venous pressure, blood glucose level during the last measurements after<br>applying clinical pathway in study group compared to control group, also there was a highly statistical<br>significant difference between two groups regarding to post stroke complications. Additionally there was<br>highly statistical significance difference between them stroke severity. Shorten length of stay in hospital in<br>study group compared to control due to improvement in study group outcomes.<br>Conclusion: clinical pathway has a positive effect on reducing length of patient’s hospitalization stay, and<br>early improvement in patients’ outcomes with apparent positive effect on quality of patient care.<br>Recommendation: The researchers recommended that; application of clinical pathway on large samples<br>and variable measurements are in need to generalization of the results. Clinical pathway should be carried<br>out routinely for managing stroke patients in intensive care unit.</p> Abeer El Said Hassan El Sol1 , Asmaa Hamed Abd Elhy1 , Hassnaa Eid Shaban Mosa1 , Yasser Ibrahim Fathy Mohamed2 , Rosa Khalil Mohammed Babikir Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Online Socialization Self-Directed Learning Video of Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) to Knowledge Attitudes and Stress Levels of Learning at PMR SMAN 1 Singosari <p>Introduction: Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) is a cardiac arrest that happened outside the hospital.<br>Incidence comparison OHCA two times more than the IHCA (Intra Hospital Cardiac Arrest), so efforts to<br>increase the number and capacity of by stabder CPR must be increased.<br>Materials and Method: This study used a quasi-experimental design with a pretest-post test design with<br>a control group. Responsden is divided into two groups, the treatment group and the control group. The<br>treatment group was given CPR training using the Self-Directed Learning Video (SDLV) method with<br>google form media while the control group was given lecture method training.<br>Results: The study stated that the respondent’s knowledge before the intervention 41.96 (± SD 2.368 CI<br>= 40.96 - 42.96) increased up to 4.83 points. Attitudes before intervention 42.79 (± SD 4.579 CI = 40.96 -<br>42.96) increased up to 7.42 points. Meanwhile, the score of learning stressor at home before the intervention<br>19.79(±SD4.344CI=17.72-21.67)increase up to 4.68 points.<br>Conclusion: The results of the study showed that Self-Directed Learning method with video that integrated<br>into the google form media, effectively increased the knowledge and attitudes of respondents. While the<br>stress level of learning at homes ho wed increasing. However, CPR socialization that given is not the main<br>cause of the stress.</p> Ahmad Rosuli1 , Ahsan2 , Yati Sri Hayati2 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Nursing Students towards COVID-19 Pandemic in Oman <p>Background: COVID-19 pandemic is a global emergency that requires the implementation of drastic<br>measures to halt the disease’s fast spread. Students commitment to preventive measures is impacted by their<br>knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward the disease.<br>Method: We sought to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding COVID-19<br>pandemic among Omani nursing students. A cross-sectional study was conducted at college of nursing,<br>Sultan Qaboos University. A valid and reliable online survey was used to gather the data.<br>Conclusion: We found that 96.9% of nursing students have moderate to high level of knowledge about<br>COVID-19. The majority of nursing students held optimistic attitudes about the successful control of<br>COVID-19 (78.5%) and the ability of Oman to conquer the virus (75.5%). While 87.7% of nursing students<br>stayed away from crowded places, only 47.9% wore a mask when leaving their homes. Predictors of good<br>knowledge included being a clinical student, wearing a mask while leaving home, and having a positive<br>attitude about controlling the pandemic (p&lt;0.001). Predictors of good preventive practices included being a<br>woman and having higher knowledge scores (p=0.05). Omani nursing students have satisfactory knowledge<br>and held positive attitudes regarding COVID-19. However, they do not maintain adequate practice measures.</p> Aisha Alshdefat1 , Jansirani Natarajan2 , Mickaël Antoine Joseph3 , Rasha Abu Baker4 , Mohammed Ghalib Qutishat5 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Students Nurses’ Preparedness and Readiness for to Care for Critically ILL Patients and Implication for Patient’s Safety <p>Background: Unsafe nursing care provided to critically ill patients by unqualified nurses can cost a patient’s<br>life. When nursing care falls short of standards because nurses are lacking knowledge and or practical skills,<br>nursing education programs shoulder much of the responsibility.<br>Aims: aims of the current study were to explore the students’ nurses (senior students) preparedness<br>and readiness to care for critically ill patients, determine the students’ nurses’ perceptions toward their<br>preparedness and readiness to practice as critical care nurse and, compare between the students’ nurses<br>clinical knowledge and their self – perceptions.<br>Method: To fulfill the aims of the study, senior students in the Faculty of Nursing at the University of<br>Alexandria were recruited during the last month of the internship year. Three tools were used to collect the<br>data. Tool one “Generation of Core Competencies” that was aimed at identifying crucial competencies that<br>are required for new students’ nurses to provide competent and safe patient care. Tool two “Exploring the<br>students’ nurses’ preparedness and readiness to care for critically ill patients” that was aimed to exploring<br>the clinical knowledge of the students’ nurses (objective tool) and Tool three “Casey-Fink Readiness for<br>Practice Survey (CFRPS)” that was aimed to determining the students’ nurses’ perceptions toward their<br>preparedness and readiness to practice as critical care nurse (subjective tool).<br>Results: Results of the current study revealed that the median knowledge score was generally low (MD:<br>14) denoting insufficient students nurses’ knowledge. The average number of correctly answered questions<br>by participants was only 14 out of 50 (mean, SD 14.12, 4.03).However, the nurses’ perceptions or attitudes<br>toward their preparedness and readiness to practice as a critical care nurse were generally positive and high.<br>About 50% of nurses answered at least 11 questions as “strongly agree” out of 15 questions of perception.<br>Conclusions: Although the study was conducted at the end of the internship year as the clinical internship<br>experience improved the nurses’ knowledge and perceptions of readiness for practice, there was a<br>contradiction between the student nurses’ knowledge (low) and perceptions of their readiness (high).</p> Amina Hemida Salem Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Influencing Self-Care Behavior in Older Persons with Hypertension <p>Background of the Study: Hypertension and self-care behavior in older persons with hypertension are<br>chronic health problems and this continues to increase in the Thai population.<br>Objectives of the Study: To identify factors influencing self-care behavior among older persons with<br>hypertension in relation to personal factors and risk factors pertaining to illness and treatment.<br>Method: This was a prospective observational study design. The samples were to be 60 years of age,<br>diagnosed with hypertension more than six months, and receiving the treatment at aTambol Health Promotion<br>Hospital. The 127 patients were enrolled in the study. Data were collected during March – September 2020.<br>Finally, data were analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis method.<br>Result: There were 127 patient included in the present study, it was found that the samples who are<br>farmers had dietary behavior score 6.74 times higher than other occupations (AOR = 6.74, 95% CI:1.47-<br>30.97, p=0.01). The female subjects with waist circumference over 80 cm had a adherence score of stress<br>management 5.69 times higher than those with waist circumference less than 80 cm (AOR = 5.69, 95%CI:<br>1.19-27.17, p=0.020) and the older persons with a good level of knowledge of hypertension had proper<br>self-care behavior better than those with a lower level of the knowledge with statistical significance at 0.05.<br>In addition, factors not associated with self-care behavior included age, gender, body mass and duration of<br>hypertension.<br>Conclusion: Personal factors and factors related to illness that influence of self-care behavior included<br>farmers, waist circumference and knowledge of hypertension.</p> Amornrat Sangsaikaew1 , Benjayamas Pilayon2, Khunphitha Junsevg1 , Chaiwat Inchaiya3 , Chinnakorn Dankasai2 , Apinya Koontalay4 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comprehensive Review Article on May-Thurner or Cockett Syndrome <p>May-Thurner syndrome—it is also called iliocaval compression syndrome, Cockett syndrome or iliac vein<br>compression syndrome, which occurs secondary to compression of the left iliac vein by the overriding right<br>iliac artery. In the mid-19th century, it was observed that deep vein thrombosis was five times more prone<br>to occur in the left leg. Risk factors for MTS are Female gender, especially those who are postpartum,<br>multiparous, or using oral contraceptives.Clinical presentations of symptomatic MTS include, acute<br>extremity pain and swelling, venous claudication, or chronic development of symptoms/signs of venous<br>insufficiency. The diagnosis of May-Thurner Syndrome is based on the clinical presentation of left lower<br>extremity swelling and pain in association with radiologic evidence of compression. Doppler ultrasound<br>will identify if there is a DVT is present in the iliac vessels, but is unable to visualize iliac vein compression<br>and spurs.In the absence of DVT and for patients with only mild symptoms of left leg swelling or pain,<br>conservative measures of prevention are used, specifically, compression stockings. These are also used if the<br>severity of MTS requires more aggressive invasive interventions.</p> Balaji M.S.1 , Darshan Sohi2 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Nurse Intervention Programme on Knowledge Regarding Prevention of Puerperal Infection among Post Natal Mothers in KLE Prabhakar Kore Hospital at Belagavi Karnatak <p>Introduction: Pregnancy and childbirth are normal physiological process and outcomes of the pregnancies<br>are mostly good. However, a few pregnancies and childbirth expose mothers at risk. Puerperal sepsis or<br>pyrexia is one of the risks, which will develop after delivery, which is often, and unpredictable.<br>Material and Method: The study was conducted on post natal mothers Pre-validated structured questionnaire<br>was used for the selection of sample. Pre-test was conducted by using questionnaire. The questionnaire<br>had two sections. First consists of eight responses of social demographic variables, second consisted of<br>structured questionnaire about prevention of puerperal infection, intervention was given after five days<br>followed by post test. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed according to the objectives of the study<br>using descriptive and inferential statistics.<br>Results: Findings revealed that the total mean knowledge score is increased by 70.29 with mean ±SD of<br>19.47±9.93, after the administration of nurse intervention programme (NIP). Paired ‘t’ test was used to<br>find the effectiveness of nurse intervention programme (NIP). The calculated ‘t’ value in knowledge (38.38<br>p&lt;0.05), was greater than the table value. This showed that the gain in the knowledge was significant after<br>administering nurse intervention programme (NIP).</p> BelgundkarB.1 , Heikham G.1 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship Between English-Speaking Ability and Anxiety of Undergraduate Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey <p>This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between English-speaking ability and anxiety<br>of undergraduate students. A total of 395 undergraduate students’ in Thai University were selected using<br>a multi-stage sampling method and the data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and Pearson’s<br>Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Results showed that the English-speaking ability of undergraduate<br>students was at the moderate level (x? =2.946, S.D. = .419), anxiety of undergraduate students was at the<br>moderate level (x? = 2.955, S.D. = .415)and these measures were negatively correlated between Englishspeaking ability and the levels of undergraduate students’ at a level of significance of .001 (r = - .225).</p> Bovornpot Choompunuch1 , Thidarat Surarat2 , Siwakorn Sakeaw2 , Wanich Suksatan3 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Emotional Intelligence and its Associated Factors among Nursing Students in a Middle Eastern University <p>Introduction: Emotional intelligence (EI) needs to discover the quality location as a core element inside the<br>continuum of nursing education and the professional nurse.<br>Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the level of emotional intelligence (EI) of baccalaureate<br>nursing students and to develop a dashboard of information for further interventions.<br>Method: This is a cross sectional descriptive study conducted in a public university in Oman using simple<br>proportionate randomized sampling technique. Data was collected from 232 participants using TEIQue- SF<br>Questionnaire (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form) during the fall and spring semesters<br>of 2018.<br>Results: The majority of the nursing students (85.5%) had normal scores in total (43.1 to 71) and all the<br>subscales of emotional intelligence. Statistically significant higher scores were reported in male nursing<br>students in total and emotionality component scores. There were significant associations reported between<br>the EI scores and the CGPA and level of study. Higher age category and being male predicted higher EI<br>scores.<br>Conclusion: The findings of the study has paved an understanding on the level of emotional intelligence<br>of the nursing students on which the researchers can build suitable interventions for furtherance of their EI.</p> Deepa Shaji Thomas1 , Jansi Natarajan2 , Blessy Prabha Valsaraj3 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Structured Teaching Programme Regarding Selected Aspects of Safe Motherhood on Knowledge among Primipara Mothers <p>Saving mother’s life is a global aim as the health of mothers has long been considered as cornerstone of<br>public health and attention. Safe motherhood means ensuring women receive care they need to be save and<br>healthy throughout pregnancy, during and after child birth.1<br>Mothers health status during pregnant and after delivery determines health status of the child. Therefore<br>health care of the mother and children occupies an important place in our health care system and is an<br>integrated part of primary health care.2<br>From the above reviews an investigator felt that the nurses are still needed to practice the routine maternal and<br>new born care and are reluctant to practice anything new. It was educative and evaluative approach with one<br>group pre test, post test design. The study was conducted at selected Hospital at Hassan District, Karnataka.<br>The target population was 60 selected by Non Probability purposive sampling tecnique. The method of<br>data collection include 30 structured knowledge Questionnaire. The findings are Pre-test knowledge score<br>was 34.6% with mean knowledge level 10.38+/- 1.30 and Post-test knowledge score was 82.8% with mean<br>knowledge level 24.83+/- 2.14. The hypothesis has accepted with the calculated paired t-test that was<br>significant at the level of (P=0.001). According to the findings of the study statistically significant association<br>was present between the level of knowledge gain and age, place of residence and education at the P&lt;0.001.</p> Harimati Huidrom1 , Dinesh Kumar2 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Factors that Influence the Stress Assessment of the Parents of Childern with Autism <p>Introduction: Parental stress arises related to the behavioural problems and abilities of children, cost<br>required, education and therapy, relationship problems and supports of family members of parenting to the<br>children with autism. Parental stress can result in parenting behaviour of children with autism becoming<br>inappropriate. The purpose of study analyses the factors that influence parental stress of children with autism.<br>Method: The method used the observational quantitative study through a cross sectional approach. The data<br>collection used Multi Stage Random Sampling in 5 therapy centers/SLB Autism represented Surabaya. The<br>number of samples were 105 that chosen by random sampling.<br>Result: Hypothesis calculation analysis of factor influences to the parental stress assessment used T-test<br>that derived from the result of significant influences with the significance level &lt;0.05. The insignificant<br>influences are factors of family function, mother and educational services to the stress assessment. The<br>significant influence is the factor of children to the stress assessment.<br>Discussion: Factors of family, mother and educational services functions insignificantly influence to the<br>stress assessment. The factors of children as personal stressor significantly influences to the assessment of<br>parental stress. The parents are hopefully able to manage the support of family, educational services and<br>mother is more able to adapt to the children in parenting children with autism.</p> Hasyim As’ari1 , Suriana1 , HilmiYumni3 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Implementation of the Small Group Discussion Method in the Learning Process with the Results of Nurse Competency Test in Akademi Keperawatan Sehat Binjai 2019 <p>Objects: To analyses implementation of the small group discussion method in the learning process with<br>results of nurse competency test.<br>Method: The study was analytic with a cross-sectional approach. The samples were thirty-two selected by<br>saturated sampling with inclusion criteria. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analysis using the<br>spearman correlation test.<br>Result: There was a statistically significant correlation between the implementation of the small group<br>discussion method in the learning process with the results of the nurse competency test (p&lt;0.001).<br>Conclusion: The learning method of small group discussion can improve student learning abilities in the<br>field of nursing services and the competence of nurses will have an impact on performance which will ensure<br>the quality of nursing services where nurses work.</p> Irma Handayani1 , Leli Herawati1 , Sri Wahyuni1 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Impact of Shift Work on Health among Staff Nurses at SRM General Hospital, Kattankulathur <p>Objective: The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of shift work on health among staff<br>nurse and to associate the level of impact of shift work on health with the selected demographic variables<br>among staff nurses.<br>Methodology: Descriptive cross sectional research design and Quantitative approach was used to assess<br>the impact of shift work on health among staff nurses. The study was conducted at SRM General Hospital,<br>Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram district .Samples were selected by non-probability purposive sampling<br>technique. Sample includes 100 staff nurses who were working at SRM general hospital and fulfil the<br>inclusion criteria The tool used for data collection was the “modified version of Standard Shift work Index”<br>. It comprises of two sections: Section –A includes Structured questionnaire to elicit demographic variables<br>such as Age, gender, religion, qualification, duration of work, year of experience. Section –B includes<br>Structured questionnaire to assess the impact of shift work on health. Likert scale rating was used to evaluate<br>the level of impact of shift work on health .<br>Results : The present study findings revealed that the majority of 79% of staff nurses had moderate impact<br>of shift work on health. 20% had less impact,1% had severe impact and none of them had very less impact<br>of shift work on health. There was no significant association between the demographic variables and level<br>of impact of shift work on health among staff nurses.<br>Conclusion :There was moderate impact of shift work on health among staff nurses and there was no<br>significant association between the demographic variables and level of impact of shift work on health among<br>staff nurses. Nurses involved in shift work are at risk for decreased health and poor job performance. Their<br>needs should be identified and in service education should be frequently conducted in the hospital in order<br>to ensure that the staff nurses maintain healthy life style.</p> K. Silambu Selvi1 , Jayabharathi B.2, S. Minisha3 , K. Swratha3 , M. Vairava Priya3 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Balancing Academia with Clinical Proficiency in the Training of Nurses at the University Level: The Case of Ghana <p>Background: At the University level, the preparation of student nurses involves acquisition of theoretical<br>knowledge and clinical practice, when this is done well, it can serve as a double-edged sword for blending<br>theory and practice. We explored the ability, role, and experiences of nurse academics in balancing theory<br>and practice in training nurses.<br>Method: Using exploratory research with methodical triangulation design, data were collected from nursing<br>lecturers and student nurses using interviews, questionnaires, and focus group discussions.<br>Conclusion: Findings indicate that clinical practice is recognized by lecturers and students as an important<br>measure for enhancing theoretical preparation of nursing students. University academic calendar does not<br>favor inclusion of clinical practice, thus, balancing theory with clinical practice is difficult. University nurse<br>educators in Ghana are obligated to blend theory and practice. However, challenges are encountered in<br>doing so. Curricula for nursing education should be designed to be autonomous to place priority on clinical<br>practice. The Nursing and Midwifery Council of Ghana should also put monitoring mechanisms in place to<br>ensure clinical practice competencies of nursing lecturers.</p> Lily Yarney1 , Belinda Adzimah-Yeboah2 , Kwame Ameyaw Domfeh3, Anthony Q.Q. Aboagye4 Copyright (c) 2020 Lily Yarney1 , Belinda Adzimah-Yeboah2 , Kwame Ameyaw Domfeh3, Anthony Q.Q. Aboagye4 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Effectiveness between PBL and LBL in Improving Student Learning Outcomes <p>This research explores the differences in test results and the use of some generic skills in the Problem-Based<br>Learning (PBL) model and the Lecture-Based Learning (LBL) model. This research was conducted with a<br>mixed research method, namely quantitative method and qualitative method. The researcher implemented<br>the two models in two different classes, the control class (N = 28) and the experimental class (N = 72).<br>Both learning method successfully activate the use of self-directed learning skills, teamwork skills, critical<br>thinking skills, and problem-solving skills. However, PBL is better in motivating and increasing awareness<br>about lectures so there is a better use of these skills in lectures. Students are very challenged to solve clinical<br>problems relevant to the nursing profession with their group of friends. This in turn has an impact on the<br>higher test results obtained by the experimental class than the control class. Therefore, researchers suggest<br>applying it widely in all nursing majors.</p> Lisbeth Laora Silitonga1 , Rahmaini Fitri Harahap1 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Factors on Quality of Life of Pregnant Women: A Qualitative Study <p>This study aimed to identify factors of quality of life in pregnant women in East Java Province, Indonesia.<br>This research is a qualitative assessment. The research participants were 13 pregnant women in rural and<br>urban areas in East Java Province, who were asked for information on all aspects related to the quality of<br>life during pregnancy based on their perceptions. The research was conducted using a qualitative content<br>analysis approach. The data analysis results resulted in 123 codes, 25 sub-categories, and 4 main categories:<br>physical health factors, mental health factors, social health factors, and environmental factors. This study’s<br>conclusion consists of physical factors: the ability to perform daily activities, mobility abilities, need for<br>help from others, sleep disorders, and pain and discomfort. Mental health factors consist of aspects of selfperception, positive feelings, and negative feelings about pregnancy. Social factors consist of the husband’s<br>support aspects, family support, social support, and sexual relations. Meanwhile, social factors consist of<br>financial aspects, social health insurance, opportunities to obtain information, the physical environment,<br>recreation and hobbies, and transportation.</p> Nunik Puspitasari1 , Yuly Sulistyorini2 , Mahmudah3 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Reducing Anxiety among Heart Failure Patients by Doing the Six-Minute Walk <p>Heart failure has been one of the emerging diseases in terms of prevalence, morbidity, and mortality, which<br>cause a physical and psychological impact on society. Anxiety was found as the most common issue among<br>them. Inadequate anxiety management leads to the treatment compliance, aggravate functional status,<br>prolonge hospitalization and increase mortality rate, thus effective management is essential. The present<br>study was to investigate the impact of a safety exercise of the six-minute walk in reducing anxiety level<br>among heart failure patients. A quasi-experimental study was performed at a cardiovascular outpatient of<br>the acute care setting in Indonesia. The anxiety level of respondents was measured by using the Zung<br>Self-rating Anxiety Scale. A descriptive and paired t-test was performed for data analysis. Fifteen heart<br>failure outpatients enrolled in the study, most were male with the maximum age of 78 years. More than<br>half of respondents experienced anxiety during pre-test in the first week of this program, then their anxiety<br>level reduced after a moth implementation of the six-minute walk. This study provides baseline information<br>reflecting the effectiveness of the six-minute walk in reducing anxiety level among heart failure patients.</p> Nurhayati Nurhayati1 , Fatsiwi Nunik Andari1 , Larra Fredrika1 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Perception and Precautionary Behaviour Against Covid-19 Pandemic among Health Workers in Calabar, Nigeria <p>This study aimed at assessing risk perception and precautionary behaviour against COVID-19 pandemic<br>among health workers. Through descriptive cross-sectional survey, 400 respondents were conveniently<br>sampled to elicit data using respondent’s self-administered questionnaire designed by the researchers. Data<br>collection which spanned through two months were collected, cleaned, sorted, coded, inputted and analyzed<br>using SPSS version 20 software. Association between risk perception and precautionary behaviour was<br>tested using Chi-square statistics significant at 95% confidence level. Results were presented in descriptive<br>and inferential statistics. Risk perception and the feeling of being very susceptible to contracting COVID-19<br>was high 382 (95.5%). This created a spike in improved and positive precautionary behaviour 398 (99.5%)<br>by strict adherence to consistent use of Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) amidst the COVID-19<br>pandemic. To majority 339 (84.8%), the frequently use of PPEs was to prevent COVID-19 and other hospitalrelated diseases while for some 312 (78.0%), the consistent use of PPEs has been habitual. The study found<br>a significant association between risk perception and precautionary behaviour of healthcare workers against<br>COVID-19 pandemic (P &lt; 0.001; df = 1; Chi-square = 11.280). There is need for healthcare workers to<br>continue in the habit of always being conscious in the use of their PPEs even after the COVID-19 pandemic.<br>This is because, there are still and may still be re-emerging diseases that needs to be prevented. Therefore,<br>there is need for healthcare workers to always be proactive and be at alert at all times because the healthcare<br>setting is like a war front for all manner of diseases where the first attack or target is the healthcare worker.</p> Okoi, Nta Obono1 , Etim, John John2 , Akomaye, Thomas Udida1 , Inde, Margaret Uyilewhoma3 , Usen, Ime-Obong Jerome2 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Exploratory Study to Assess Knowledge Regarding Complementary Feeding among Postnatal Mothers <p>The self structured questionnaire was prepared to assess the knowledge of postnatal mothers regarding<br>complementary feeding. The study was conducted on 60 postnatal mothers in civil hospital and Gurcharan<br>Kanwal hospital, district Hoshiarpur Punjab. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample.<br>The results of present study concluded that as per the knowledge majority of postnatal mothers i.e. 53.33%<br>of postnatal mothers had average knowledge regarding complementary feeding followed by 30% subjects<br>had poor knowledge and only 16.67% of subjects had good knowledge regarding complementary feeding.<br>While analyzing, As per the findings related to the association of knowledge regarding complementary<br>feeding among postnatal mothers with demographic variables, there was statically significant relationship<br>between the education, type of family,place of residence, parity and knowledge regarding complementary<br>feeding among postnatal mothers where as there was statically non significant relationship between age,<br>occupation, religion, family income, source of information, number of children and level of knowledge<br>regarding complementary feeding. Guidelines were distributed regarding complementary feeding to study<br>subjects that are postnatal mothers in civil hospital and Gurcharan Kanwal hospital, district Hoshiarpur<br>Punjab</p> Ramandeep Kaur1 , Navneet Kaur2 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the Attitude of Nursing Students towards their Clinical Learning Environment in Selected Private and Government Colleges of Nursing <p>A comparative study was conducted to assess the attitude of B.Sc. nursing 4th year students towards their<br>Clinical Learning Environment in selected Private and Government Colleges of Nursing. 160 Samples were<br>selected from Private and Government Colleges of Nursing. The structured questionnaire was used to assess<br>the demographic variables among nursing students while Clinical Learning Environment Scale was used<br>to assess the Attitude of Nursing Students towards their Clinical Learning Environment. The data were<br>analyzed by using descriptive statistics (mean, frequency, percentage and standard deviation) and inferential<br>statistics (unpaired ‘t’ test, ANOVA).<br>The study indicated that students of Private Colleges were having higher Attitude than the Students of<br>Government Colleges of Nursing which was compared by using unpaired ‘t’ test which project ‘t’ value<br>of 1.975 which was statistically significant at p &lt; 0.005. The calculated ‘t’ value was greater than the table<br>value. The study also shows the comparison of mean, SD, mean % and mean difference of Attitude score<br>of nursing Students towards their CLE in selected Private and Government Colleges of Nursing in terms of<br>certain areas i.e. pedagogical environment, work culture, clinical assignment, method of evaluation. This<br>was compared by using unpaired ‘t’ test which showed ‘t’ value 1.98 of which was statistically significant<br>at p &lt; 0.005. The calculated ‘t’ value was greater than the table value. The study concluded that the students<br>of B.Sc. Nursing 4th year studying in Private colleges are having more positive attitude then the students<br>studying in Government colleges of Nursing.</p> Rebecca Dillu1 , Roseline Soren1 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Simulation on Maternity Nurses’ Knowledge, Practice and Self-efficacy During Management of Eclamptic Fits <p>Background: Simulation-based nursing education is an increasingly and wide-spread preferred educational<br>approach. It offers opportunities to acquire clinical skills and decision-making through various situational<br>experiences.<br>Aim: Evaluation of simulation effects on maternity nurses’ knowledge, practice and self-efficacy during<br>management of eclamptic fits.<br>Design: A quasi experimental design was utilized.<br>Setting: The study done in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Benha Teaching Hospital.<br>Samples: A convenient samples include 40 nurses.<br>Tools: Data collecting by using 3 tools: A Structured self-administered questionnaire, observational<br>checklists and self-efficacy scale.<br>Results: A highly significant difference among pre-intervention and immediate post-intervention and 8<br>weeks’ post-intervention regarding knowledge, practices and self-efficacy of nurses concerning management<br>of eclamptic fits.<br>Conclusion: Simulation-based training is effective training approach that enhances maternity nurses’<br>knowledge, practice and also increases their self-efficacy regarding management of eclamptic fits.<br>Recommendations: All maternity nurses in different settings should attend regular simulation-based and<br>refreshing courses to improve their knowledge, practice and self-efficacy</p> Samah Abd Elhaliem Said1 , Elham Abozied Ramadan Saied2 , Hanan Amin Ali Gaafar2 , Amira A. El-Houfey3 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Combination of Wound Treatment and Massage for Healing Diabetic Foot Ulcers <p>Background: Diabetic ulceris also called diabetic foot ulcers, estimated that 25-50% of cases of diabetic<br>ulcers are a common reason to be hospitalized, and 1 out of 7 patients with Diabetic Mellitus will be<br>experienced diabetic ulcers throughout their lifetime. This study aimed to determine the effect of combination<br>of wound treatment and massage for healing diabetic foot ulcers in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.<br>Method: Method of this research is a true experimental design. True experimental design, pre-and posttest<br>with control group. There were two groups in the research, treatment group and control group. The treatment<br>group received wound treatment and massage while the control group only got wound treatment. The total<br>number of respondent was 42. A t-test was employed to determine if there is a significant difference between<br>treatment and control group.<br>Results: It is resulted that in the first three weeks of the study, there was no differences of wound healing<br>progress between treatment and control group. The significance difference was in the fourth week (p =<br>0.013, t= 2.591). The average mean in the treatment group was 8.81 while in the control group was 11.29.<br>Conclusions: The combination of wound treatment and massage is very effective for healing diabetic ulcer<br>wounds. It is recommended to apply massage to areas of the extremity that are prone to neuropathy to<br>prevent complications, especially diabetic ulcers.</p> Sunarmi1 , Adi Isworo1 , Sunarko1 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of an Interprofessional Education Module on Care of Autistic Children in Enhancing the Interprofessional Competencies among Students of Healthcare Professions: A Study Protocol <p>Background: Autism Spectrum Disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders that are being identified in<br>children in current days due to the emerging technological and healthcare advances. Most often, children<br>require specialized care from various healthcare practitioners by referral systems which requires parents/<br>caregivers to take children from one place to another. Interprofessional Practice is a collaborative approach<br>in professional care where healthcare providers work with people from within their own profession, with<br>people outside their profession and with patients and their families. The process becomes laborious when<br>practitioners do not appreciate the concept of Interprofessional Education. Being the future workforce,<br>students from health professions should learn together to have better understanding of each other’s roles<br>and responsibilities and learn to have effective team communication. A collaborative approach is crucial in<br>autism, to enable quality care for well-being and assist to provide early and comprehensive evaluation and<br>appropriate interventions.<br>The objective of the study is to develop an Interprofessional Education Module on care of autistic children<br>for Students of Healthcare professions and evaluate its effectiveness in enhancing the Interprofessional<br>Competencies among them.<br>Method: Quantitative pre-test-post-test approach. Phase 1 - development of the Module and Assessment<br>Tool; Phase 2 - testing the Tool among 40 students from selected disciplines. Module and Tool will be<br>prepared based on review of literature, semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and needs<br>assessment. Reflective summaries will document the Interprofessional Education experience of the students.<br>Discussion: There are no comparable method of Interprofessional Education for care of children with<br>autism, therefore, appraisal by experts will be considered as a critical step in validating the module and tool.<br>Descriptive and Inferential Statistics will be used for analysis.</p> Sunitha Solomon-Calvin1 , Ciraj A.M.2 , Ravishankar N.3 , Shashidhara Y.N.4 , Anice George4 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Case Series of Testicular Tuberculosis in Calabar, South- South Nigeria <p>Introduction: Bilateral testicular tuberculosis should be considered as an important differential of testicular<br>swelling and scrotal ulcer in a country like Nigeria with high burden of tuberculosis infection.<br>Case Reports: Here we present three cases of negroid male ranging in age from 39 years to 70 years who<br>had orchidectomy on account of testicular malignancy that turn out to be genital tuberculosis which was<br>diagnosed histologically.<br>Conclusion: Private medical practitioner in low income countries and in region of high tuberculosis burden<br>should always have a high index of suspicions for tuberculosis in patients presenting with scrotal ulcers or<br>testicular swelling that fails to respond to antibiotics therapy. Adequate evaluation of patients with testicular<br>swelling and ulcer by means of abdominal and scrotal ultrasound, bacteriological studies and PCR is<br>critical to diagnostic accuracy, optimal treatment and possibility of avoiding surgery in those with testicular<br>tuberculosis and guiding against litigation.</p> Ugbem Theophilus Ipeh1 , Okoi, Nta Obono2 , Ushie, David Edem1 , Ebughe, Godwin Abeng1 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nursing Students’ Preferences in Test-taking, E-Books, and Learning Styles: A Longitudinal Study <p>Aim: This study was conducted to determine the preferences of testing and learning styles of undergraduate<br>nursing students within a baccalaureate school of nursing.<br>Background: Historically, nursing education has been in a face- to face (F2F) lecture format. One of the<br>most pronounced trends in higher education over the last decade has been a strong growth in distance<br>education through online course work 1.<br>Method: A survey was given to 685 undergraduate sophomore level nursing students within a baccalaureate<br>undergraduate school of nursing over eight semesters. This same survey was given again to these sophomore<br>undergraduate nursing students during their senior year to determine if results waivered. There were 228<br>seniors surveyed over four semesters.<br>Students were asked to indicate their age (17 to 27 years, 27 to 37 years, &gt; 37 years)<br>Students were queried about their preferences among the following categories:<br>1. Test taking preference: computer exams, or paper and pencil exams<br>2. Book preference: traditional hard copy textbook, or E-book<br>3. Learning style preference: online learning, or attending classroom lecture, or both<br>Results: Overwhelmingly, sophomore and senior level undergraduate nursing students surveyed,<br>selected their preferences in test taking, book usage, and instruction styles, to support traditional learning<br>methodologies<br>Conclusion: The results from this study emphasize the need for nurse educators to listen attentively to their<br>students and not assume that advanced technology is the ultimate learning method to be utilized</p> Lou Ann Gloekler1, Debra Lucas2 Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000