Hormonal Contraception Use and Risk of Breast Cancer Relationship Among 25-64 Years Old Women in Urban Areas of Indonesia
Keywords:Relationship, Breast Cancer, Hormonal Contraception, Indonesia
Background: In 2013 in Indonesia, breast cancer was the second highest type of cancer after cervical
cancer, with a prevalence of 0.5 ‰, or an estimated 61,682 patients. Hormonal contraception is one of the
factors that can increase the risk of breast cancer, as excessive exposure to sex hormones such as estrogen
and progesterone interferes with physiological processes in the body, including breast tissue. One example
of the use of estrogen and progesterone is in hormonal contraception.
Methods: The study used NCD (non-communicable disease) research data from the Indonesian Ministry of
Health Health Research and Development Agency, employing a cross-sectional study design. The data were
collected from 34 provinces, consisting of 76 districts and cities in Indonesia, and 35,444 respondents were
included in the study. Breast cancer was diagnosed by clinical breast examinations and confirmed by biopsy.
Odds ratios and 95% CI derived from logistic regression were used to estimate the relationship between
hormonal contraception and breast cancer.
Results: The results show that the incidence of breast cancer among 25-64 years old women in urban areas
in Indonesia in 2016 was 0.2%. The multivariate analysis showed that women who used a combination of
progestin and estrogen for hormonal contraception had a 2.178 (95% CI: 1.090-4.348) times higher chance
of developing breast cancer than women who did not uses hormonal contraception, after controlling for
covariate variables. In line with this, women who had used hormonal contraception for ? 5 years had a
1.928 (95% CI: 1.019-3.647) times higher risk of developing breast cancer than women who had used such
contraception for < 5 years, after controlling for covariate variables.
Conclusions: Hormonal contraception significantly increases the risk of breast cancer among 25-64 year
old women in urban areas of Indonesia. Women who are exposed to estrogen over a long period will face
a higher risk of breast cancer. Moreover, to reduce the risk of breast cancer it is important to reduce the
duration of hormonal contraception use, or choose non-hormonal contraception for birth control.