Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Challenges Faced in India in COVID-19 Prevention: A literature Review
Keywords:COVID-19, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, infection, prevention.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection. This is caused by severe acute respiratory
syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 was first found in Wuhan, China on December 2019.1
On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic.2
India ranks second in COVID-19 cases. There is no proven specific treatment for the infection.3 Infection
Prevention and Control (IPC) through Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and frequent Hand Washing
with Soap (HWWS) is the key in stopping the spread of COVID-19.4 This paper, using secondary data
sources discusses on challenges faced in the country in adopting WASH practises to prevent COVID-19.
Besides social distancing and other hygiene protocols, HWWS is a simple and primary preventive measure
to combat COVID-19 but face challenges due to water unavailability or low access to water. Poor sanitation
and hygiene plays a role due to lack of water and awareness. Ensuring clean access to water, good sanitation
and improved hygiene practices in the communities and health care facilities will prevent COVID-19
transmission. Policies on water management, water conservation will address the issue of water challenge,
which not only will help in addressing COVID-19 transmission but in the days to come. An intensive
social behavioural change programme to be conducted at various levels to eradicate myths associated with
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