Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fresh and Smoked Clupea heregus and Hake Fish Consumed in Ekiti State, Nigeria and their Health Implications
Keywords:Clupea herengus and Hake, hazard index, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, gas chromatograph
Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fresh and smoked Clupea herengus (shawa) and
Hake (panla) fish commonly consumed in Ekiti State, Nigeria were investigated using gas chromatographic
method. Effect of smoking on the PAHs level was also considered. The PAHs concentration ranged from
0.0001 µg/kg Acenapthene and Indeo (1,2,3-cd) pyrene to 0.240 µg/kg (Benzo (a) pyrene) for fresh unsmoked
Clupea herengus (SF), 0.0001µg/kg Acenapthene and Anthracene to 0.638 µg/kg Benzo (b) fluoranthene for
smoked C. herengus (SF), 0.0001 µg/kg Acenapthene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene and Benzo(ghi) perylene
and Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene to 0.171 µg/kg (Benzo (a) pyrene) for fresh Hake (panla) fish (PF) and 0.0001
µg/kg Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene to 0.966 µg/kg pyrene for smoked Hake (panla) fish (PS) samples. Results
also revealed TPAHs levels in the smoked fish were 62.3-62.5% times higher than the fresh. Values of PAHs
levels in the fish samples were below EU-regulatory limits (30µg/kg) for PAHs. Hazard index and lifetime
excess carcinogenic risk of the samples revealed no potential cancer and mutagenic risks.
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