Role of Hand and Foot Print Dimensions in Stature Identification among Indian Population
Keywords:Anthropology, Stature, Regression formulae, hand and foot length and breadth
Introduction: The four essential factors in Forensic Anthropology, representing in determining personal identification
are age, sex, stature and ethnicity. Among this ‘big fours’ of the biological profile, determination of stature is
considered as one of the main parameter of personal identification in forensic examinations. Thus, this study will aim
to correlate relation between hand and foot measurements with stature of individual.
Aim of the study: The study aimed to estimate the relationship between statures of an individual on the basis of hand
and foot prints, in Indian populations.
Materials and Method: The study group comprised of 100 subjects (age group above 18 years) with normal growth
Measurement of height: The measurements of height was made using standard anthropometer by making the subject
stand erect on the horizontal plane. The distance of the subject from the ground to the highest point of the vertex in
the median sagittal plane was recorded.
- a) Hand length and Hand breadth: Hand length (HL) was measured from mid-point below radial and ulnar
tuberosity to tip of middle finger. Hand breadth (HB) was measured from base of 5th to 2nd metacarpus by drawing
the outline of hand on paper.
- b) Foot length and breadth: The foot length was measured as a direct distance from the most posterior point
of back to tip of the Hallux or to tip of the second toe .The foot breadth was measured as the direct distance between
the most prominent point on medial side and the most prominent on lateral side.
- d) Heel Ball Index Measurement
The breadth of the foot at ball and at heel (BBAL, BHEL) were measured. The HB Index of the foot was calculated
as (BHEL+ BBAL) x 100.
Results: Correlation of the various hand and foot parameters showed a regression coefficient range of 0.331-0.377.
Among all variables measured, hand length exhibited the highest correlation with stature (r value of 0.377 p-value <
0.003). Further forward stepwise linear regression analysis [Height = 115.426+2.615* Hand length (Left)] established
hand length to be the single best predictor of height (r value of 0.377 and standard error of 7.35cms).
Conclusion: Thus, the foot length provides highest reliability and accuracy in estimating stature of unknown males
and females. Also this study will help to generate population-specific equations using a simple linear regression
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