Biomedical Waste Management in India-A Review


  • Deepika Kanyal
  • Lata Kanyal Butola
  • Ranjit Ambad



Biomedical waste, Health care, Colour-coding, Segregation


Biomedical waste is any kind of waste either solid or liquid containing infectious, potentially infectious
materials of medical, laboratory or research origin from activities such as diagnosis, prevention & treatment
of diseases. Bio-medical waste has a higher potential of infection and injury to the healthcare worker, patient
and the surrounding community. It consists of human anatomical waste, animal waste, microbiology &
biotechnology waste, waste sharps, discarded medicines & cytotoxic drugs, soiled waste, liquid waste,
incineration ash & chemical wastes. Common generators of biomedical waste include hospitals, clinics,
medical & veterinary colleges, blood banks, mortuaries, autopsy centers, biotechnology institutions, research
laboratories, home health care & funeral homes. Hazardous chemicals & radioactive waste though noninfectious require proper disposal. World Health Organization states that 10% of hospital waste are infectious
& 5% are non-infectious but hazardous waste. World Health Organisation has classified medical waste into
8 categories which include general, pathological, radioactive, chemical, infectious, sharps, pharmaceuticals
& pressurized wastes. In India, Biomedical waste (Management & Handling) Rules 1998 along with further
amendments regulate biomedical waste management. It consists of 6 schedules which includes Category
of Biomedical waste, Colour coding & type of container, Label for Biomedical waste containers or bags
which should be non-washable & prominently visible, Label for transport of Biomedical waste containers or
bags, Standard for treatment & disposal, Schedule for waste treatment facilities like Incinerator, Autoclave,
Microwave System. Operating Standards like combustion efficiency & Emission Standards are defined.
The present review article focused on basic issues as definition, categories, problems relating to biomedical
waste and procedure of handling and disposal method of Biomedical Waste Management.

Author Biographies

Deepika Kanyal

Tutor, Department of Hospital Administration

Lata Kanyal Butola

Tutor, Department of Biochemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru
Medical College, DMIMS, Sawangi, Meghe, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Ranjit Ambad

Associate Professor, Department of
Biochemistry, Datta Meghe Medical Sciences, Wanadongri, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India



How to Cite

Deepika Kanyal, Lata Kanyal Butola, & Ranjit Ambad. (2021). Biomedical Waste Management in India-A Review. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(2), 108-113.

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