Potential Stem Cells of Oral Origin- A review on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology
Keywords:Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Nuclear Reprogramming, Osteogenic Potential, Retroviruses, Somatic Cells, Transcription Factors.
Mesenchymal stem cells are isolated from multiple tissues, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood,
umbilical cord blood, adult connective tissue, dental tissues, placenta, and amniotic membrane. Oral
derived mesenchymal stem cells (OMSC’s) are multipotent cells, though differentiates into odontoblast,
cementoblast, osteoblast, chondrocyte, adipocyte, melanocyte, endothelial cell hepatocyte, myoblast and
neural cell but shows limited differentiating into only these specific types of cells or mesenchymal origin
cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC’s) are the potential stem cells induced through reprogramming
such somatic cells genetically by presenting with distinct or causative factors. Growth factors and signalling
molecules have the capacity to induce cellular proliferation and cellular differentiation. Addition of
transcription factors to a population of differentiated cells does not promise reprogramming of the potential
stem cells. Furthermore, ethical issues related with the development of embryonic stem cells (ESC’s) do not
apply to iPSCs, which offer a non-controversial strategy to create patient-specific stem cell lines. Hence the
present review article was aimed to briefly describe numerous oral mesenchymal stem cells (OMSC’s) and
role of Induced potential pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the regenerative medicine and dentistry with a
focus on various iPSCs reprogramming techniques in the current scenario.
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