Sensitivity and Specificity of Several Malnutrition Screening Tools for Chronic Kidney Disease Patient: A Narrative Review


  • Qonita Rachmah
  • Dominikus Raditya Atmaka



malnutrition screening, chronic kidney disease, sensitivity, specificity


Introduction: Malnutrition remains a critical risk factor for morbidity and mortality among CKD patients.
However, malnutrition is preventable and treatable. Thus, early malnutrition screening of CKD patients is
crucial. The present paper is a narrative review of the several studies related the use, sensitivity and specificity of
developed malnutrition screening tools for CKD patients.
Material and Method: Articles were searched from five electronic databases i.e., PubMed, PMC, Semanticscholar, Science-direct, and Google scholar. Several keywords used for literature searching including
“malnutrition screening tools CKD”; “malnutrition CKD”; “malnutrition screening CKD”. Inclusion criteria
of this narrative review was the subject of intervention should be an aged 1 – 64 years old with experimental
randomized control trial (RCT) or non-RCT study design. The exclusion criteria for this literature study
were research published before 1990, literature studies, meta-analysis, comments, short communication, and
editorial letters. Data then narratively described.
Result and Conclusion: Twelve publication were narratively described in final analysis. Development of
malnutrition screening tools for CKD patient had been done since 1992 and still counting until 2020. At least
thirteen screening tools had been tested for its use, sensitivity and specificity. Among 13 tools we analyzed,
Simple Nutrition Screening Tool (SNST) and The Renal Nutrition Screening Tool (R-NST) revealed the
highest sensitivity and specificity value which suitable to be used in adult population, while in children,
only Pediatric Digital Scaled MAlnutrition Risk Screening Tool (PeDiSMART) showed a good sensitivity
and specificity. Further study should be focusing to look for sensitivity and specificity in other specific
population to ensure the right use of malnutrition screening tool.

Author Biographies

Qonita Rachmah

Junior Lecturer, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Dominikus Raditya Atmaka

Researcher at Center for Health and Nutrition Education, Counseling and Empowerment (CHeNECE)



How to Cite

Qonita Rachmah, & Dominikus Raditya Atmaka. (2021). Sensitivity and Specificity of Several Malnutrition Screening Tools for Chronic Kidney Disease Patient: A Narrative Review . Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(2), 598-602.