The Effectiveness of Breathing Exercises on the Physiological and Psychological Variables of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Keywords:Breathing exercises, physiological variables, psychological variables, pulmonary tuberculosis patients.
A study to evaluate the effectiveness of breathing exercises on physiological and psychological variables of patients
with pulmonary tuberculosis in selected hospital at Ambala, Haryana.
TB is a 7th killer disease in the world and one of the top 10 causes of death. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an
infection, which causes widespread pulmonary fibrosis and cavitation, and often leaves the patient with a chronic
respiratory deficit as a result.
Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of breathing exercises on physiological
and psychological variables of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
Material and Methods: A quasi experimental design using non-equivalent control group pretest- posttest design
was conducted on 110 pulmonary tuberculosis patients (55 in comparison group and 55 in experimental group) in
DOTS center of UPHC RavidasMajriInderpuri colonyAmbala city, UPHC Baldev NagarAmbala city, UPHC Durga
Nagar Ambala city and CHC Mullana. The dependent variables were physiological variables (dyspnea, spo2, heart
rate, respiratory rate) and psychological variables (anxiety, quality of life). Pretest was taken in UPHC Durga Nagar
Ambala city and CHC Mullana on day 1 and posttest was taken inUPHC RavidasMajriInderpuri colonyAmbala city
and UPHC Baldev NagarAmbala cityon day 30. In experimental group, breathing exercises were administered by the
researcher two times a week. Each session was of 30 minutes including 4 breathing exercises (pursed lip breathing
exercise, diaphragmatic breathing exercise, deep breathing exercise and segmental breathing exercise) and each
exercise was performed for 6-8 times. Other days patients were estimated to perform breathing exercises themselves
at home and on day 30, posttest was taken.
Results: Both the groups were homogenous with respect to physiological and psychological variables before the
administration of breathing exercises. On day 30, the mean dyspnea score and anxiety score of experimental group
was significantly lower than comparison group (p<0.05). The quality of life of patients in experimental group was
significantly better than comparison group at day 30.
Conclusion:Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that breathing exercises are effective in reducing
the dyspnea, anxiety, HR and RR. Breathing exercises are effective in improving theO2saturation, blood pressure and
quality of life among pulmonary tuberculosis patients.
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