Epidemiological Study Evaluating Type of Labial Frenum, Attachment Level and Gingival Biotypes in Chennai Population


  • Siddharth Narayan
  • Kaarthikeyan G




labial frenum morphology, attachment, gingival biotype, gingival recession, periodontal, survey, transgingival probing.


Background: Periodontal diseases are multifactorial and while formulating a diagnosis multiple factors
must be taken into account and considered which may cause the disease or alter the treatment plan and
prognosis. Some of the factors affecting surgical prognosis include the gingival biotype and labial frenal
level, type, morphology and attachment. The frenal attachment and level may causes additional pull and
force on gingiva affecting healing, gingival biotype affects the kind of flap to be raised or flapless technique,
time taken for healing and also the amount of tissue required while procuring connective tissue and free
gingival grafts. The present study was undertaken to get a better understanding of the relation between
Gingival Biotype and Labial Frenal attachment by conducting an Epidemiological survey in a Chennai
population. Methodology: A total of one hundred and fifty systemically healthy patients were screened
at random from the outpatients of a dental college and hospital between age groups 22 to 60 years. Each
patient was screened by a single clinician, where the patients demographic data, type of frenal attachment,
the medial maxillary labial frenal classification based on morphology, morphology of labial frenum, level of
frenal attachment, Miller`s grade of gingival recession, gingival biotypes, visibility of the periodontal probe
through the gingival sulcus and gingival thickness measured using an endodontic reamer. Conclusion:
Among all the patients who had Simple single frenum with no nodule and elongated parallel margins with
gingival recession, two thirds of them had a Thin gingival biotype.

Author Biographies

Siddharth Narayan

Postgraduate Student

Kaarthikeyan G

Professor, Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha
Institute of medical and technical sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India



How to Cite

Siddharth Narayan, & Kaarthikeyan G. (2021). Epidemiological Study Evaluating Type of Labial Frenum, Attachment Level and Gingival Biotypes in Chennai Population. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(2), 942-948. https://doi.org/10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14435