Identification of Giardia lamblia Genotypes among Children in Tikrit City by Using Nested PCR


  • Torkan Ahmad Hama Hasan
  • Abdul Khaleq Alwan Muhaimid
  • Ayhan Rashid Mahmood



parasites, Giardia lamblia, Giardiasis, Nested PCR.


The parasite Giardia lamblia is one of the most widespread intestinal protozoa that infects humans all
over the world, causing giardiasis. It was first diagnosed in the duodenum and ileum in human digestive
tract, where its effect is primarily on children. Giardia disease affects more than 280 million people every
year worldwide. It is also one of the most important parasitic infections in many countries in terms of
incidence and morbidity. 615 stool samples were collected from children attending Tikrit Teaching Hospital
and private laboratories during the study pehriod to investigate the spread of G. lamblia among children, and
the total infection rate was 14.30%. Where the rate of infecting children in the city was 11.54% of the total
of 50 samples. Through the molecular examination in this study, the parasite G. lamblia, the target gene TPI
triose phosphate isomerase was used to identify clusters of G. lamblia. All positive samples were positive
with group B and no infection was registered with group A.

Author Biographies

Torkan Ahmad Hama Hasan

Asst. Lec. Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Tus Khurmatu, University of Tikrit

Abdul Khaleq Alwan Muhaimid

Prof., Department
of Sciences, College of Education for pure Sciences, University of Tikrit

Ayhan Rashid Mahmood

Asst. prof., Department of Microbiology,
College of Medicine, University of Kirkuk



How to Cite

Torkan Ahmad Hama Hasan, Abdul Khaleq Alwan Muhaimid, & Ayhan Rashid Mahmood. (2021). Identification of Giardia lamblia Genotypes among Children in Tikrit City by Using Nested PCR. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(2), 1112-1117.