Pharmacology and Toxicology Teaching Patterns for Undergraduate Students in Pharmacy and Medical College at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabi: A Survey
Keywords:Pharmacology; toxicology; Likert scale; questionnaire; teaching; undergraduate students
Background: Pharmacology and toxicology is the field of biomedical sciences that cares with the study of
medication and the drug action, where a drug can be defined as any chemical substance, that, when taken by
a living organism, produces a therapeutic effect and promote well-being.
Objective : The Aim of this study was to assess the students’ attitudes toward, perceptions of and feedback
surrounding pharmacology and toxicology teaching methods.
Method : This was a cross-sectional study involved a survey given to 3rd years and 4th years pharmacy
(Pharm D + B Pharm) students and medical students with a total number of (108) participants. The study
was administered through a pre-validated questionnaire containing questions based on the internationally
accepted “Likert Scale”.
Results : The study showed that students favored many changes in pharmacology and toxicology, including
the trend of teaching them to third year and fourth year students (48%), instruction on how to choose drugs
rationally in future practice (48%), distribution of handouts before lectures (43%), clinical pharmacology
(49%), teaching certain topics during pre-final or final year (35%), and a combination of multiple choice
questions (MCQs) and written and oral rating evaluation methods for examination (40%). Students were in
favour of that pharmacology should be integrated horizontally with other paraclinical subjects and emphasis
on problem solving exercises rather than on didactic (teaching) lectures.
Conclusion : It is evident that there is an imperative need to implement radical changes in the teaching of
pharmacology and toxicology, changes that would allow the pharmacist and/or doctor of tomorrow to render
better health services.
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