The Caries Experience in the Smoker and Non-Smoker among College Student
Keywords:dental caries, cigar, shisha, non-smoker
Dental caries is the scientific term for tooth decay or cavities. It is caused by specific types of bacteria. They
produce acid that destroys the tooth’s enamel and the layer under it, the dentin. The bacteria turn sugar and
carbohydrates (starches) in the foods we eat into acids. Smoking is also a global and national health problem
and is one of the most significant health risks that impact all age groups.
The Study Aims to investigate the effects of different tobacco smoking methods and their relation to dental
caries in comparison to non-smoker students.
Material and Method: A random sample of 336 students from Tikrit university aged 19-24 years, the sample
grouped to cigar, shisha, cigar and shisha together and non-smoker groups. Dental caries was recorded
according to WHO criteria (1987) were decayed, missing and filled with permanent teeth (DMFS). The data
were analyzed as a descriptive statistic includes frequency, percentage, mean, and for statistical analysis of
the data using T- test and one- way ANOVA test to detect the significance of the relation between various
Result: the result of this study showed that the severity of dental caries higher in smoking cigar and smoking
shisha than in the non-smoking group with statistically highly significant.
Conclusion Nicotine may be increasing the incidence and severity of dental caries. So that, nicotine might
be considered as a risk factor for inducing of dental caries.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Re use and mixing of content policy- We follow Creative Commons Licence Policy. We follow CC BY. Please refer below for all details
This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon our work, even commercially, as long as they credit us for the original creation.
- The journal allows readers to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allow readers to use them for any other lawful purpose.
- The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.
- The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions