Application of Two Sex Markers by Nested PCR for Gender Determination
Keywords:amelogenin gene; burnt teeth; nested PCR; sex determination; SRY gene
Sex determination is one of the basic components in victim identification. There are many available methods,
namely forensic anthropology method and conventional DNA typing method. In this study, nested PCR
technique was employed in sex typing of burnt teeth through amelogenin (AMEL) and sex-determining
region Y (SRY) markers. In this study, 17 teeth samples were burnt at temperatures that ranged from 100°C
to 500°C for 2 min - 10 min. The whole tooth was used for DNA extraction by phenol-chloroform method.
Accurate sex determination was achieved in 13 samples by both AMEL and SRY markers. The SRY marker
achieved higher sensitivity as compared to AMEL marker. The sensitivity of both markers was improved
consequent to nested PCR. Factors such as degraded DNA materials and the presence of tooth caries greatly
affect sex typing results. Results showed that nested PCR proved to be a good method to amplify highly
degraded DNA material as it greatly increased the DNA copy, and thus increased the possibility of sex
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