Evaluating the anti- Pseudomonas Aeroginosa Efficacy and Potential Cytotoxicity of Nerium Oleander Alcoholic Extract
Keywords:antibacterial activity, mitotic index, chromosomal aberration, oleander.
Nerium oleander known as oleander has belonged to the poisonous plants its habitat in a tropical and
subtropical region. The chemical analysis with GC-Mass of the alcoholic extract of oleander leaves revealed
that this plant has many chemical compounds more than 80 compounds and high-peaks about 29 compounds
which are represented by alkaloids, phenol, terpenes, and fatty acid. HPLC analysis showed many essential
oils that have many biological effects.
To evaluate the antibacterial activity of the alcoholic extract of N. oleander against locally isolated
Pseudomonas aeroginosa the broth micro-dilution method was adapted to different concentrations were
started from 3.9 to1000 mg/ml. The results revealed that the alcoholic extract has antibacterial activity
depending on the concentration and bacterial strain.
When treating the onion root cells as a model of the study to find the cellular toxic effect the results showed
that treatment with an alcoholic extract of oleander leaves with concentrations (control, 150, 300, 600,
and 1200 mg /ml) for four hrs., the mitotic index (MI) was decreased to less than 50%, when treated with
high concentrations 600,1200 mg /ml and many cases of chromosomal aberration were shown, such as the
abnormal shape of the cells with a percentage about 1 and 2.8 % at the concentrations 600 and 1200 mg /
ml respectively, as well as the multinucleated cells recorded the highest percentage at the concentrations
1200 mg /ml with 14.4%, and nuclear lesion (chromatin degradation) were seen in a large percentage at
the interphase were recorded 13.66, 25.42, and 32.3% at the concentrations 300,600, and1200 mg /ml
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