The Monomer Elution of Bulk-Fill Sculptable Composite and Flowable Composite after Photopolymerization
Keywords:Residual monomer, monomer elution, bulk-fill composite, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Introduction: Composite resins have excellent mechanical properties, including fast polymerization,
aesthetic quality, easy handling, and the ability to adhere to the enamel surfaces. However, there are also
some disadvantages from this material, one of them is residual monomers. Bulk-fill composite resins are
available in sculptable (solid) and flowable (liquid) form. Most composite resin matrix is aromatic or
aliphatic acrylates. Bis-GMA, UDMA, and TEGDMA are the matrix monomers that are commonly used but
show a high cytotoxicity level. They also have poor mechanical properties such as wear resistance, hardness,
tendency to change color, and may cause pulp reactions. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the
number of residual monomers in bulk-fill sculptable and flowable composites in the submersion of 75%
ethanol solution (10 minutes, an hour, and 24 hours). Methods: Sculptable and flowable composites were
used in this study. Samples (4 mm thick, 5 mm diameter) were prepared and polymerized for 10 seconds
with an intensity of 1025 mW / cm2 of a light emitted diode (LED). After the sample was made, each sample
was immediately immersed in a 75% ethanol solution as an extraction liquid and stored in amber-colored
bottles at room temperature. Samples were taken as many as 7 cc at intervals of 10 minutes, an hour, and 24
hours. Samples were analyzed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The data obtained
were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis Test, Independent T-Test and Mann-Whitney Test at a significance
level of p <0.05. Result: The amount of elusion remaining monomers of the bulk-fill flowable composite
was higher than bulk-fill sculptable composite. UDMA composite of bulk fill flowable submersed in 75%
ethanol solution for 24 hours was the highest among other monomers. Conclusion: Residual monomers
eluted inside bulk-fill composite resins in all time periods and the amount of eluted monomers increases
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