Cyclooxygenase-2 Level in Bilharzial and Non-Bilharzial Related Bladder Cancer among Iraqi Patients
Keywords:Schistosoma, Bladder cancer, COX2, TCC, SCC.
Bladder cancer has become common cancer globally. It is the most common urological cancer; it comprises a
significant part of urologists’ work. 80 % of bladder cancers are superficial at diagnosis; they have not invaded
into the muscle. The residual 20% are muscle-invasive, which carry a much worse prognosis. Emerging
evidence mark that some parasites such as the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, Clonorchis Sinensis
and small liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini are causative agents of malignancies such as bladder cancer
caused by schistosomes and cholangiocarcinoma by liver flukes. Infection with Schistosoma haematobium
leads to urogenital schistosomiasis, which has been correlated with the occurrence of bladder cancer. The
mechanisms responsible for this association have not yet been clearly identified. This study clarifies the
association between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and bladder lesions associated with Schistosoma. The result
shows there is a high expression of COX2 in the Bilharzia related bladder cancer (BBC) while there is low
expression of COX2 in non-bilharzia related bladder cancer (NBBC). In conclusion, conceder the positive
expression of COX2 among Iraqi patients with Schistosomal-related bladder lesions is high. There may be
a strong association between high rates of bladder cancer and urinary schistosomiasis in Iraq, as the vast
majority of COX2 lesions were positive.
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