Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Psychiatric Manifestations-A Consise Review

Authors

  • Roshan Kumar Jha
  • Deepika Kanyal
  • Ritu Devi
  • Lata Kanyal Butola

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37506/ijfmt.v15i3.15707

Keywords:

Depression, Schizophernia, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Obsessive compulsive disorder.

Abstract

Vitamin B12 deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as mental
confusion, memory changes, cognitive slowing, mood disorder, violent behaviour, fatigue, delirium
and paranoid psychosis. Vitamin B12 plays a crucial role in cell reproduction, normal erythropoiesis,
nucleoprotein and myelin synthesis, normal growth, DNA synthesis, and one carbon metabolism. Vitamin B12
helps in synthesis of methionine from homocysteine and conversion of methylmalonylcoA to succinylcoA.
Methionine is converted to SAM which donates its methyl group to myelin, membrane phospholipids and
various neurotransmitters and free THF is liberated from N5 methyl THF which is used in synthesis of
purine, pyrimidine and nucleic acid. An elevated level of Hcy as a neurotoxin was also shown to affect
the redox signalling pathways in neurons through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a
decrease in endogenous antioxidants. If patterns of DNA methylation in redox-related genes can modulate
cognitive impairment caused by vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia is therefore of interest,
low levels of vitamin B12 can cause serious cognitive dysfunction. Psychiatric symptoms attributable to
vitamin B12 deficiency have been described for decades. The earlier studies are for the most part in accord
with more recent ones, despite being diagnostically less precise in psychological and hematologic terms.
These symptoms tend to fall into many clinically distinct categories: slow cerebration; confusion; memory
changes; delirium, with or without hallucinations and/or delusions; depression; acute psychotic states; and
more rarely) reversible manic and schizophreniform states. In conclusion, psychiatric disorders can be rare
manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency, which are reversible with therapy. Serum Vitamin B12 level should
be checked in patients with psychiatric manifestations as it results in neuro psychiatric manifestations such
as peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, optic atrophy, delirium, dementia, psychosis
and mood disorders

Author Biographies

Roshan Kumar Jha

Tutor, Department of Biochemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, DMIMS, Sawangi, Meghe, Wardha
Maharashtra

Deepika Kanyal

Tutor, Department of Hospital Administration, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, DMIMS,
Sawangi, Meghe, Wardha Maharashtra

Ritu Devi

Tutor, Department of Biochemistry, Dr YS Parmar Government Medical
College, Nahan, Himanchal Pardesh

Lata Kanyal Butola

Tutor, Department of Biochemistry, Dr YS Parmar Government Medical
College, Nahan, Himanchal Pardesh

Published

2021-05-17

How to Cite

Roshan Kumar Jha, Deepika Kanyal, Ritu Devi, & Lata Kanyal Butola. (2021). Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Psychiatric Manifestations-A Consise Review. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(3), 2664-2667. https://doi.org/10.37506/ijfmt.v15i3.15707

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