Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 in Patients: A MetaAnalysis


  • Bestun Ibrahim Hama Rahim
  • Muhammed Babakir-Mina



COVID-19, clinical characteristics, comorbidity, meta-analysis


An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019,
the causative agent is severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-Co-2). The virus spread quickly to
other areas and countries and the disease has become pandemic. This meta-analysis study was carried out to
evaluate the clinical characteristics and to assess the prevalence of comorbidities in COVID-19 confirmed
patients from January 1, 2020 to December 1, 2020. Totally, 5580 cases were involved in this study,
(55.2%) of them were males, the predominant clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients were fever, cough,
and fatigue (61.9, 50.1%, and 34.1% respectively). The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension,
diabetes, as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (13.1%, 7.4 %, and 5.9% respectively). The
majority of the patients in this study were male, the most prevalent signs and symptoms were fever, cough,
and fatigue. The highly repeated comorbidities in the cases were hypertension, diabetes, also cardiovascular
and cerebrovascular diseases.

Author Biographies

Bestun Ibrahim Hama Rahim

Lecturer, Community Health Department, Sulaimani Technical Institute

Muhammed Babakir-Mina

Assistant Professor, Medical Laboratory
Department, Technical College of Health, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani, Iraq



How to Cite

Bestun Ibrahim Hama Rahim, & Muhammed Babakir-Mina. (2021). Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 in Patients: A MetaAnalysis. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(3), 2672-2676.