Correlation of Sex Hormones and Periodontal Disease in Women with Menstrual Cycle Irregularities


  • Noora Abd Awad
  • Noor Hazim Abdulkareem
  • Elham Hazeim Abdulkareem
  • Shaimaa Sabte Mutlak



Estradiol, gingival crevicular fluid, progesterone, periodontal diseases, sex hormones.


Background & Objectives: Variations in the levels of female sex hormones,i.e., estrogen and progesterone,
are responsible for various physiological changes,including those in the oral tissues. The aim of this research
is to determine the effects of changes in sex hormone levels in women with irregular periodsand suffering
from periodontal diseases in comparison to healthy women.
Methods: This study included70 subjects who visited the Clinic at the Department of Periodontology,
College of Dentistry,University of Anbar, during the period of July 2019to September 2019. The gingival
crevicular fluid(GCF) was collected from the patient group (35 females with irregular periodsand periodontal
disease) and the control group(25 healthy females).
Results: Compared to control, asignificantlyhighermean concentration of GCFestradiolwas found in the
patient group. Additionally, the patient group also exhibited a significantly lower mean concentration of
GCFprogesterone compared to the control group.
Interpretation & Conclusion: Changes in sex hormonesaresignificantlycorrelated with periodontal tissue
changesand GCF examination can be used as a non-invasive method to detect these hormonal changes.This
study demonstrated that GCF could prove to be a good, non-invasive method to validate the levels of sex
hormones in females with periodontal diseases.

Author Biographies

Noora Abd Awad

Lecturer Dr., Department of Basic Science; Ibnsina University of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Noor Hazim Abdulkareem

Lecturer Dr., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of Anbar

Elham Hazeim Abdulkareem

Assistant Professor Dr., Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, University of Anbar

Shaimaa Sabte Mutlak

Assistant Professor Dr., Department of Basic Science, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq



How to Cite

Awad, N. A. ., Abdulkareem, N. H. ., Abdulkareem, E. H. ., & Mutlak, S. S. . (2021). Correlation of Sex Hormones and Periodontal Disease in Women with Menstrual Cycle Irregularities. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(3), 3829-3836.