Detection of toxin-associated genes in seven spa-types of Staphylococcus aureus in Iraq


  • SamarahJafar Alwash
  • Rasmiya Abed Aburesha



sea, pvl, tst, spa-type, Iraq, wound


Background: Staphylococci frequently cause opportunistic infections in patients with underlying disease,
such as those with prosthetic devices, surgical patients, and patients with diabetes or individuals undergoing
dialysis. Consequently, detecting the toxin-associated genes in different S. aureus strains, isolated from
patients with wound and burn injuries and their environments, is essential to monitor and prevent the
complication in such cases.
Methods: Identification ofS. aureus that isolated from burn and wound injuries has been done according
to the biochemical tests, then Spa-typing method was used to diagnose at the strain level. Toxin-associated
genes, enterotoxin gene(sea, seb),exfoliative gene(eta), toxic shock syndrome gene(tst), and pantonevalentine leukocidin(pvl), were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
Results: Two isolates were harboring tstand a single isolate harbored pvl, at the time that no isolates were
foundetaandsebpositive among 19 S.aureus. While sea was the predominant toxin-associate gene in the
studied S. aureus strains, it was detected in 13 isolates.
Conclusion: Distribution of specific spa-type/sea-positive in diabetic foot ulcers at hospitals, indicating the
poor sanitization conditions at Iraqi wound wards, and it is recommended to take swabs from the patients
and their environments as a routine procedure

Author Biographies

SamarahJafar Alwash

Scientific Researcher, Environment and Water Department, Ministry of Science and Technology, Iraq

Rasmiya Abed Aburesha

Professor, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq



How to Cite

SamarahJafar Alwash, & Rasmiya Abed Aburesha. (2021). Detection of toxin-associated genes in seven spa-types of Staphylococcus aureus in Iraq. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(3), 4156-4164.