Combined Effect of Physical and Psychological Stress Exposure during Pregnancy on the Expression of Caspase-3 Cerebrum and Cerebellum of Newborn Mus musculus
Keywords:Caspase-3, stress, pregnancy, cerebrum and cerebellum
Background: Prenatal stress affects fetal development including brain development. When a stressor is
felt, the brain as the main target for stress will release a hormone that stimulates the release of pro-apoptotic
proteins and activate caspase-3 which acts as an executioner caspase in the cell death process. The aim of the
study was to analyze the effect of combined stress during pregnancy on the expression of caspase-3 cerebrum
and cerebellum of newborn Mus musculus. Methods: An experimental study using 24 pregnant mice (Mus
musculus). Subjects were randomized into four groups, consisting of physical stress exposure group (forced
swimming) (G1), psychological stress exposure group (noise) (G2), combination stress exposure group
(forced swimming + noise) (G3), and control group (G4). Stress exposure was given on 6th-15th days of
pregnancy. From each mother, three Newborn of Mus musculus were taken to make preparations from brain
tissue. Immunohistochemical examination was performed to assess caspase-3 expression. Results: The
study shows that the mean and standard deviation of the expression of caspase-3 cerebrum and cerebellum
in the physical stress exposure group is 5.70 ± 0.99 and 5.80 ± 1.35, the psychological stress exposure group
is 7.23 ± 1.39 and 7.40 ± 1.24, the combined stress exposure group is 8.67 ± 1.09 and 9.30 ± 1.12, and the
control group 4.17 ± 1.18 and 3.90 ± 1.06. ANOVAs statistical test results show significant differences
among groups with a value of p = 0.000 in the cerebrum and p = 0.000 in the cerebellum. Conclusion:
Exposure to physical and psychological stress during pregnancy increases the expression of caspase-3 in the
cerebrum and cerebellum of newborn mice.
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