Bronchodilator Effect of Crataegus azarolus var aronia Unripped Fruit Extracts on Rat’s Tracheal Smooth Muscle


  • Aveen A. Mohammed
  • Omar A. M. Al-Habib



Crataegus, trachea, bronchodilator, methanol, hydromethanol, ethylacetate, extracts.


Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the bronchodilator effect of different Crataegus azarolus
var aronia unripped fruit extracts on tracheal smooth muscle of rats and to study the roles of K channels and
EDHFs in produced responses.
Background: Crataegus is widely used in Kurdistan Region for the prevention of several diseases such
as respiratory, cardiovascular, hypertension …. etc. due to its content of several bioactive compounds like
aromatic amines, phenolic acid, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins.
Method: The bronchodilator effects of various Crataegus fruit’s extracts on rat’s tracheal rings and the roles
of K+, Ca2+ channels and EDHFs in bronchodilation using specific blockers.
Results: Most of Crataegus fruit’s extracts used showed a potent bronchodilator effect on trachea, in which
the HME produced a highly significant dilation, followed by methanol and ethyl acetate extracts which
showed a considerable relaxant effect. The results confirmed that the induced dilation was NO and PGI2
dependent, along with activations of KATP and Kir and Kca while Kv plays a minor and limited role.
Conclusion: The novel results indicate that HM, M, EA extracts prepared from Crataegus unripped fruit
produce a potent bronchodilator effect, which was NO and PGl2 dependent along with the activation of KATP,
Kir and Kca2+ channels.

Author Biographies

Aveen A. Mohammed

Lecturer, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Zakho

Omar A. M. Al-Habib

Professor, Department of Biology, College of Science, Nawroz University, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq




How to Cite

Aveen A. Mohammed, & Omar A. M. Al-Habib. (2021). Bronchodilator Effect of Crataegus azarolus var aronia Unripped Fruit Extracts on Rat’s Tracheal Smooth Muscle. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(4), 826–834.