The Undernutrition Prevalence of Under-Two-Years Infant in Indonesia: Do breastfeeding Practices Ecologically Matter?
Keywords:Undernutrition, breastfeeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding
Undernutrition due to inappropriate feeding practices for children increases morbidity. Breastfeeding is
considered the most important in a baby's growth and development. Breastfeeding started within one hour of
birth and was maintained exclusively for the first six months until one year of age or more to obtain optimal
benefits. The study aims to determine the ecological relationship between undernutrition in 2-year-old infant
and breastfeeding practice in Indonesia. This study is based on environmental analysis using a report of the
2018 Indonesia Basic Health Survey. The dependent variable was the prevalence of undernutrition in 2-yearold
infant. Besides, the independent variables were four optimum breastfeeding practices. The analysis
used bivariate analysis with scatter plot in statistic application. The study results show . The higher the
proportion of early initiation of breastfeeding in a province, the lower the levels of undernutrition in children
aged two years in that province. The higher the ratio of starting to breastfeed less than one hour in an area,
the lower the undernutrition levels in children aged two years in that area. On the other side, the higher the
proportion of the mother giving all colostrum in a province, the lower the undernutrition levels in children
aged two years in Indonesia in that province. The higher the proportion of still being breastfed 0-23 months
in a region, the lower the undernutrition levels in children aged two years in that region. The study concluded
that optimal breastfeeding practices negatively affect the levels of undernutrition in children aged two years.
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