The Effect of Chemical Weapon Exposureon Semen Fluid Analysis and the Determination of SOD and MDA Levels in Peshmerga against ISIS War


  • Yasin Kareem Amin



Exposure, Peshmerga, semen fluid analysis, MDA, and SOD.


The identification of chemical weapons as “weapons of mass destruction” highlights their possible damaging
consequences on many civilians’ health.The effect of chemical weapon agents has been documented to
cause reproductive toxicity and have adverse effects on semen, leading to infertility in those exposed to
those chemical agents. This study analysesthe semen fluid and follows up the exposed Peshmerga forces
to the chemical weapon during the ISIS war.A prospective cohort study in which 58 exposed Peshmerga
in three chemical attacks, compared with the same number of the non-exposed Peshmerga. Semen fluid
analysis was performed for all, following up after one year.The serum level of both MDA and SOD was
measured. An individual’s BMI was calculated.The participants’ mean agein this study is (32.5) years in the
case group while (35.5) years in the control group, with a standard deviation of5 years in both groups. All
participants are male, and no gender effect be seen. All chronicillnesses have been excluded from the study.
The mean body mass index is 22.4, with a standard deviation of about 3.1 kg/m. Hypospermia developed in
18% of the exposed group(20% of the total participants), oligospermia (20% overall, only 3% of these in the
non-exposed), and decreased motility in 19% of all participants, but 16 of this 19% where the exposed group
with significant relative risk results, while morphology not changed inboth groups, also the findings showed
that significant elevation in MDA level and SOD activity. Chemical weapons cansignificantly affect semen
fluid analysis and interpretation through quantitativedisturbances in the volume and account of sperm, while
the percentage of abnormal spermcounts has been increased considerably in peoples exposed to chemical
weapons. However, the morphology of semen fluid sperms has not changed to the same degree, and its
functioncannot be estimated. Even when functioning, the genetic errors on future generationsmay need
further testing.

Author Biography

Yasin Kareem Amin

Assist. Prof. Hawler Medical University, General Directorate of the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Kurdistan



How to Cite

Yasin Kareem Amin. (2021). The Effect of Chemical Weapon Exposureon Semen Fluid Analysis and the Determination of SOD and MDA Levels in Peshmerga against ISIS War. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(4), 2885-2892.