Investigation of the Antibiotic-Resistant ESKAPE Pathogens in Ramadi Hospitals, Iraq
Keywords:ESKAPE, MDR, antibiotic, resistance, susceptibility
Bacterial species of the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli) are often
resistant to antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to find out the antibiotics resistance formed
by ESKAPE pathogens in hospitals in the city of Ramadi, in Iraq. All bacteria within this clinically
relevant ESKAPE group were isolated from September 2020 to April 2021. Identification of isolates
was performed by Vitek 2 system and the Sensitivity Test was carried out using a disk diffusion
method. The majority of pathogens isolated from patients at Ramadi Hospitals belong to the ESKAPE
group. The percentage of bacterial isolates was K. pneumoniae (33.96%), E. coli (20.75%), S. aureus
(20.13%), P. aeruginosa (11.32 %), E. faecalis (9.43%), and A. baumannii (4.41%). Some isolates of
E. coli were Resistance to all antibiotics, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were 100% resistant
to Vancomycin and Tetracycline. The presence of the ESKAPE group of pathogens is a major problem
in Ramadi city hospitals. The results of this study support the implementation of special antimicrobial
strategies to specifically target these microorganisms.
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