Relationship between Parenting Stress and Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Elementary School Children

Authors

  • Alma Rossabela Setyanisa
  • Yunias Setiawati
  • Irwanto
  • Izzatul Fithriyah
  • Satria Arief Prabowo

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37506/ijfmt.v16i1.17448

Keywords:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Parenting Stress, Children, Elementary School

Abstract

Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder
during child development with three symptoms which are comprised of inattention, hyperactivity, and
impulsiveness that may persist into adulthood. This condition can be a stressor for parents in performing
parenting and may lead into a state of parenting stress. Objective: To analyze the relationship between
parenting stress and the risk of developing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in
elementary school children. Methods: This research was conducted in Surabaya from November 2020
to January 2021 with respondents consisting of parents of elementary school children who have ADHD
risk and agreed to participate in this study with a total of 55 samples selected using a purposive sampling
technique. The research design was cross-sectional using demographic questionnaire, Abbreviated
Conners Rating Scale (ACRS), and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) which were filled
out by respondents through an online form. The data were processed and analyzed using One-Sample
Chi-Square analysis test program with a p-value <0.05, considered statistically significant. Results:
The majority of parents experienced moderate parenting stress levels (58.2%). There was a significant
relationship between each level of parenting stress and the risk of ADHD in children (p < 0.001).
Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between parenting stress and the risk of ADHD in
children.

Author Biographies

Alma Rossabela Setyanisa

Researcher, Medical Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia,

Yunias Setiawati

Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Irwanto

Professor, Department of Child Health Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Izzatul Fithriyah

Medical Doctor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Dr. Soetomo Academic Medical Center Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia,

Satria Arief Prabowo

Associate Professor, Vaccine Centre and Tuberculosis Centre, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, London, United
Kingdom

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Published

2021-11-02

How to Cite

Alma Rossabela Setyanisa, Yunias Setiawati, Irwanto, Izzatul Fithriyah, & Satria Arief Prabowo. (2021). Relationship between Parenting Stress and Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Elementary School Children. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 16(1), 196–203. https://doi.org/10.37506/ijfmt.v16i1.17448