Human Papillomavirus DNA in a Sample of Iraqi Women with Positive Visual Inspection by Acetic Acid


  • Halah Abdulwahhab Mohammed
  • Wasan Fawzi Sanad
  • Buthaina Ahmed Alwan



HPV, Iraqi women, DNA,acetic acid.


Background: This study has conducted in Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Department of Obstetrics
and Gyanecology, Al-Habebyia H. outpatient,Ibn-Albalady H. outpatient and 6 Primary Health Care
Centers in Baghdad between June 2019 to March 2020.A Prospective and multicentric study.
Aim of the Study: To asses the prevalence of HPV in a sample of Iraqi women.
Patients and methods: The study include 268 married women between the age of 30 years old and
more, who were attending the outpatient department. Both screening tests; naked eye visual inspection
with acetic acid &HPV test were performed.
Results: The study included 268 women.The positivity rate of HPV for all women survived was 8.9%
,19 % of women with positive VIA ,81% with negative VIA.All the positive VIA cases(19 %)and some
ofnegative VIA cases(18.6%) were randomly selected(because of their symptoms) underwentHPV test.
After comparing the results of HPV test and VIA results, the sensitivity of VIA 95.8 %The specificity of
VIAwas 63.6%. Positive predictive values was 45.1%. Negative predictive values was 98%.Accuracy
rate 71.3%.
1. The prevalence of HPV infection among a sample of Iraqis women was very low.
2. Estimation of HPV infection would provide valuable data particularly to introduce the strategies for
the screening of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination in Iraq.
3.VIA with HPV DNA test may be a suitable substitute to Pap. smear as a screening tests for premalignant
and malignant disease of the cervix.

Author Biographies

Halah Abdulwahhab Mohammed

Specialist Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq,

Wasan Fawzi Sanad

Specialist Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fallujah Teaching Hospital, Ministry of Health, AlAnbar, Iraq

Buthaina Ahmed Alwan

Specialist Obstetrics and Gynecology, Abu Garib Hospital, Ministry of Health, Baghdad,Iraq.




How to Cite

Halah Abdulwahhab Mohammed, Wasan Fawzi Sanad, & Buthaina Ahmed Alwan. (2021). Human Papillomavirus DNA in a Sample of Iraqi Women with Positive Visual Inspection by Acetic Acid. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 16(1), 540–548.