Trajectories of Salivary Hormones in Pregnant Women with Anxiety and there Effect on Gingival Health Condition


  • Noor Majid Hameed
  • Athraa Mustafa Alwaheb



Cortisol, progesterone, gingivitis


Background: Hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy caused several of the physiological changes
designed for promoting growth and delivery of a healthy child. A delicate balance between immune
tolerance to fetal antigens and immunity against infectious pathogens needs to be maintained.
Aim: Assessing salivary cortisol and progesterone hormones in anxious pregnant women and their
impact on gingival health status.
Subjects and Method:A sample of 80 womenwith healthy pregnancy divided into two groups
including 40 pregnant women with high anxiety levelmatch in age with40 pregnant womenhavea low
level of anxietyin Baghdad Teaching Hospital of Baghdad city in Iraq were participated in this study.
Plaque index was used for assessing dental plaque accumulations.The gingival conditionwasmeasured
by the gingival index.Unstimulated saliva sample was collected for measuringsalivary cortisol and
Result: The strong validity and reliability of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) Arabic translationscale
make ita good indicator for measuring anxiety in Iraqi pregnant women.Data analysis of this study
revealed high anxiety group has an elevated level of salivary cortisol, decrease salivary progesterone
withsignificant differences. The correlations coefficients between salivary cortisol and progesterone
among the high anxiety group was negative strong significant correlation while non-significant
correlation in low anxiety group.The plaque indexwas higher among the high anxiety group with
significantdifferences. Concerning the gingival index; there isno significant differences among two
group. Positive strong significant correlation between plaque and gingival indices in high anxiety
group.Regarding the correlation between gingival index and salivary progesterone in low anxiety
group, it waspositive strong significant.While a positive significant correlation between plaque index
and salivary cortisol in both groups.
Conclusion: This study reported increase stress-hormone cortisol among a high anxiety pregnant
women which hasan effect ongingival health subsequently. Gingival inflammation in the high anxiety
group was a plaque induce gingivitis, while a pregnancy gingivitis was found among the low anxiety

Author Biographies

Noor Majid Hameed

B.D.S. H.D.D.S. Ministry of Health and Environment, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq

Athraa Mustafa Alwaheb

B.D.S., M.Sc., Ph.D. Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq




How to Cite

Noor Majid Hameed, & Athraa Mustafa Alwaheb. (2021). Trajectories of Salivary Hormones in Pregnant Women with Anxiety and there Effect on Gingival Health Condition. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 16(1), 1458–1465.