Integrating Temperature Data with Other Forensic Methods for Time Since Death Estimation


  • Pradeep kumar Yadav
  • Rajiv Ratan Singh
  • Sachin Kumar Tripathi



Algor mortis, Cooling rate, Body mass, Humidity, Rigor mortis, Time since death, etc.


To reliably calculate the time since death is most important for investigating officers in all unnatural death
cases. Reliability of the study can be obtained only when potential influencing factors are considered during the calculation of time since death. One of the methods used for calculating the time since death is based on the cooling of the body. Cooling of the body is influenced by various internal as well as external factors. There are various body temperature-based methods in practice (Henssge’s rectal nomogram, Henssge’s brain nomogram, and Baccino’s both interval and global formulae based on ear temperature) to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI). The rectum has been traditionally used to determine the central core temperature after death, though the external auditory canal has been proposed as an alternative site. According to published research, techniques based on ear temperature are just as trustworthy as those based on rectal temperature for determining the early PMI and may be employed as rapid, easy, and non-invasive procedures on the scene. It is vital to keep in mind that other aspects such as rigor mortis, lividity, and decomposition must also be taken into account to achieve a more accurate estimate, even if calculating the time since death based on the cooling of the corpse might be informative.
Aim: The goal of this study is to thoroughly examine some of the available approaches, compare the accuracy of the results, and determine which method is more accurate (reliable) at estimating the time of death.
Methods: It was decided to evaluate some of the earlier research’ published works from different publications and databases. A digital database was searched. Picks were made at random from the studies that were thought to be pertinent to the present goal.
Result: Therefore, in addition to the body’s cooling rate, other factors like post-mortem lividity, rigor mortis,
chemical changes in the body, and mechanical and electrical excitability of the skeletal muscles, are crucial for a more accurate prediction of the time of death.
Conclusion: It is usually advisable to take into account additional factors in addition to the algor mortis-based one when determining the time since death so that a more exact and trustworthy time of death can assist the investigating officer in more precisely resolving medico-legal matters.

Author Biographies

  • Pradeep kumar Yadav

    Assistant Professor, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute

  • Rajiv Ratan Singh

    Professor (Jr), Department of Emergency Medicine, Dr.RML Institute of Medical Sciences
    Lucknow, India, Lucknow, India.

  • Sachin Kumar Tripathi

    Scientific Assistant, Toxicology Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh




How to Cite

Integrating Temperature Data with Other Forensic Methods for Time Since Death Estimation. (2024). Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 18(1), 92-96.