Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology <p>Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology is a double-blind peer reviewed international journal. The frequency is quarterly. It deals with Forensic Medicine, Forensic Science, Toxicology, DNA fingerprinting, sexual medicine, environmental medicine, Forensic Pathology, legal medicine and public health laws. It has been assigned International standard serial No. p-0973-9122 and e-0973-9130. The Journal has been assigned RNI No. DELENG/2008/21789.The journal is also abstracted in Chemical Abstracts (CAS) database. The journal is also indexed /abstracted with many databases. </p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> Institute of Medico-legal Publications Pvt Ltd en-US Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 0973-9122 <p><strong>Re use and mixing of content policy</strong>- We follow Creative Commons Licence Policy. We follow CC BY. Please refer below for all details</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>CC BY</strong></p> <p>This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon our work, even commercially, as long as they credit us for the original creation.</p> <ol> <li>The journal allows readers to <em>read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles</em> and allow readers to <em>use them for any other lawful purpose</em>.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions</li> </ol> Comparative Study between Variable Computer Printed Documents to Identify the Type of the Producing Output Devices <p>Background: Within the last years, forgery has markedly increased and expanded to encompass<br>computers and printers’ usage, their wide evolution facilitated the production of fraudulent printed<br>documents by even non-experts. The printers and photocopiers leave their imprints on the produced<br>documents. Examination of printed output of a questioned document is essential as it provides<br>information about the producing device.<br>This study aims to compare the characteristics of different computer printed documents to identify the<br>type of the producing output devices (photocopier, inkjet, and laser printers).<br>Methods: 132 documents were typed and printed using different models of inkjet, laser printers<br>and photocopiers. The produced documents were examined with direct light digital microscope and<br>ultraviolet light and the printed markings were compared.<br>Conclusion: Our results revealed that each class of the studied printing devices induced specific criteria<br>on the examined printed documents. These criteria are class characteristics but differ from one type of<br>device to another.</p> Abeer Sayed Abdo Borae Yasser Fouad Abd El-Monem Al-Akid Khaled Abd El-Azeem Mahmoud Tamim NesrineAbd El-Rahman Mahmoud Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 1 10 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17905 A Correlation Study between Fingerprints and Lip Prints among Twins <p>Introduction: Fingerprints and Lip prints has its reliability for its uniqueness and can be used solely<br>as an aid in identification for civil and criminal cases. Hence a correlation between the fingerprints and<br>lip prints can bring up a new approach or idea in the field of Forensic Medicine for solving medicolegal<br>cases. The present study was conducted on 25 pairs of twins with the main objective to find any existing<br>correlation between fingerprints and lip prints and to determine the most predominant finger print and<br>lip print pattern among Twin A and Twin B individually.<br>Materials and Methods: The study was done is subjects age ranging from 6-18 years. A proforma with<br>subject particulars and consent form was prepared. Lip prints were obtained in a drawing chart, the<br>middle part of the lower lip was analysed based on Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. Fingerprint of<br>left thumb finger was obtained in a white paper and analysed based on Henry’s system of classification.<br>Results: The present study showed that there was no significant correlation between the Lip prints and<br>Fingerprints in Twins with p value &gt;0.001. Among twin A and twin B the most predominant Lip print<br>pattern was Type I’ and the Fingerprint pattern was Loop pattern respectively.<br>Conclusion: Lip prints and Fingerprints are two important parameters for an individual in identification.<br>There are various studies till now in individuals but very few in twins. So, in this study we made an<br>attempt to find the correlation between the parameters, whether they were existing or not and found that<br>there was no significant correlation yet can be used as a separate tool. Hence it is essential to perform<br>further studies on a larger group and create a database for getting accurate results.</p> M.Sugatha R.Jenifer Jacquiline M.Taqiuddinkhan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 11 19 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17908 Demographic Study of Blunt Trauma Chest in Varanasi Region <p>The mortality rate of chest trauma is 10%. Incidence has significantly increased due to development of<br>rapid mode of transport, new high speed vehicles, ignorance of road safety measures, fall from height,<br>fall on road injuries due to construction activities violence ,fall from under construction building.<br>Human fatality associated with chest injuries worsening each year.<br>This drew the impact on reducing burden of chest trauma ,prevention and its measures at social, medical,<br>economical, and governmental. So that understanding the problem is the one of the first step towards<br>awareness and averting the problem.<br>Present study has been undertaken to analyse the most neglected aspect of human suffering . It is an<br>effort to know the pattern of blunt trauma chest and to elucidate the multi-factorial causations leading<br>to rise in everyday blunt trauma cases.<br>Here in this paper 300 cases of chest injuries by blunt forces are studied for their epidemiological,<br>demographic aspects. Majority of them are adult/middle ages male between 41 -50 years of age ,most<br>of them are caused by road traffic accidents. Male to female ratio is 7.1:1.Majority of the cases are<br>happened on highway.</p> Roopam Mourya S.K.Pandey S.K. Bhartiya Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 20 26 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17911 Legal Aspects of Maternity Nursesperforming Childbirth Assistance Measures in the Framework of Carrying Out Doctor’s Duties Against the Birth Process in Breach Locations <p>Health is a human right, meaning that everyone has the same rights in obtaining access to health<br>services and professionalism from health workers. Nurses are the most numerous health workers in<br>Indonesia. Nursing staff who perform nursing actions must be following the competence of nurses and<br>Law Number 38 of 2014 concerning Nursing. The purpose of writing this article is to find out how the<br>legal aspects of maternity nurses who carry out delivery assistance actions carry out the doctor’s duties<br>in the Breach delivery process By using the normative juridical research method, it can be concluded<br>that the competence of the maternity nurse is to assist childbirth but does not have the authority to<br>provide delivery assistance, especially in cases with fatal risks that can cause death to the mother and<br>fetus. When referring to the criminal provisions of Law Number 36 of 2009 concerning Health Workers,<br>Article 84 paragraph (1), any Health Worker who commits serious negligence resulting in serious injury<br>to the Health Service Recipient shall be sentenced to a maximum imprisonment of 3 (three) years. Then<br>in paragraph (2), namely If the gross negligence as referred to in paragraph (1) results in death, each<br>Health Worker shall be sentenced to a maximum imprisonment of 5 (five) years.</p> Makhfudli Gregory Agung Himawan Nisa AmaliyaVariansyah MokhamadKhoirul Huda Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 27 34 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17912 Isolation and Identification of Salmonella typhimurium in an Umbilical Area from Chicks in Kerbala City <p>One hundred samples ofumbilicus were taken from chicks .Out of these, 27 (27%) were positive.<br>The most common of bacterial isolates were Salmonella typhimurium. The biochemical tests for all<br>isolates, whether from chicks, showed a positive test to check the production of hydrogen sulfide gas,<br>the fermentation of glucose sugar, the use of citrate as a source of carbon, non-lactose fermentedand<br>negative for urease enzyme, the result found the most common infection in the cold weather February<br>, they were found nine isolates (33.33%) more than other groups as 29.63%, 14.82 %and 11.11%,<br>for January , November , December and October , respectively. The resultswere found a total of 27<br>isolates were Salmonella spp., on the other hand 11 isolates wereidentified as Salmonella typhimurium<br>(40.74%) by Vitek 2 compact system, , All Salmonella spp. showed high susceptibility against<br>Nitrofurantoin, 27 (100%) and ciprofloxacin24 (88.8%), whereas they were highly resistance against<br>AmoxicillinCefotaxime, and Vancomycin 24 (88.8% ).. Chicks with umbilical area were found to<br>harbor different pathogens and they are considered a source of infection during successive days in the<br>life of broilers chickens.</p> Mustafa Mahmood NaemaAl-taeeand Sahar Mahdi Hayyawi Al-Rubay Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 35 41 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17914 The Effect of Hypertension as a Comorbid Factor on the Length of Stay in Patients Undergoing Cholecystectomy <p>Background: One of the gold standard procedures for cholelithiasis is cholecystectomy. Cholecystectomy<br>has numerous variated Length of stay results relies upon every nation and medical clinic. Hypertension<br>is perhaps the most widely recognized comorbid factors and are thought to impact prolonged length of<br>stay.<br>Aim of Research: To study the effect of hypertension as a comorbid factor on the length of stay in patients<br>undergoing cholecystectomy in Dr. Ramelan Naval Hospital Surabaya from June 2019-September 2020.<br>Method of Research: This is an analytic descriptive research with retrospective study. The sampling<br>technique used in this research is total sampling. The data were collected from medical record data of<br>patients at the Internal Medicine and Digestive Surgery Polyclinic.<br>Result of Research: The number of patients who underwent cholecystectomy with hypertension<br>who underwent a length of stay &gt; 5 days were 36 people (83.7%). The result from the Coefficient<br>Contingency test shows that there is a correlation between hypertension as a comorbid factor and the<br>length of stay (p&lt;0,0001).<br>Conclusion: This research shows that there is comorbidity such as hypertension affects the length of<br>stay in cholecystectomy.</p> Albertus Magnus Arya Abisatya Diah Purwaningsari Wahyu Prasasti Mutiadesi Redemptus Yudadi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 42 48 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17915 Prostate Specific Antigen as Predictive Factor for Androgenemia in Women <p>Background: Sex hormones of steroid origin - androgens, play an important role in the life of the<br>body. They are involved in the regulation of bone maturation, gonadotropin secretion and the synthesis<br>of high-density lipids, the production of β-endorphins. Along with the anabolic effect, androgens<br>regulate libido and sexual potency, stimulate the function of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles.<br>At physiological concentrations, androgens participate in the regression mechanism of the follicle in<br>the ovaries and provide pubic hair and inguinal hair growth .The present study was conducted with<br>the aim the possibility of using PSA for the diagnosis of hyper androgenic conditions in women. The<br>study included 105 girls aged 17–26 were examined. The concentration in the peripheral blood of<br>PSA and a androgens, testosterone and DHEA-S, were determined. In addition, the concentration of<br>the transport proteins of androgens SHBG and albumin was investigated. The calculation of (FT) and<br>(BT) was carried out according to special computer programs. The aim of this work was diagnostics of<br>hyperandrogenic conditions in women. The result shows that the concentration of PSA increases with<br>an increase in T peripheral blood, the concentration of PSA increases with an increase in DHEA-S in<br>peripheral blood and the concentration of PSA increases with an decrease in SHBG in peripheral blood.<br>In conclusion, we found that there is a relationship between androgen levels and PSA concentration in<br>peripheral blood, and PSA is a valuable marker in the diagnosis of hyperandrogenism in women.</p> Ali Mohammed Mooshly AL-Bahadly Maytham Khazza Kadhim AL-Behadili Mohammed Shakir Atiyah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 49 55 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17917 The Effect of ARV on Rate of HIV Vertical Transmission from Exclusive Breastfeeding Mothers: A Systematic Review <p>Objective: To give a visualization and explanation whether the use of ARV during exclusivebreastfeeding<br>period is able to reduce the rate of transmission during exclusive breastfeeding.<br>Methods: Systematic review of cross-sectional studies, case control, cohort studies, and prospective<br>studies using Pubmed, LWW Journals, and Science Direct for literature search. Literature published<br>between 2010 and 2020 are researched. Results are recorded using PRISMA, MMAT is used for biasrisk<br>evaluation.<br>Results: A total of 2090 breastfed infants were included among the 2 studies. The first journal included<br>was by Coovadiaet al.2012 was a 3rd phase clinical regarding the use of extended NVP on HIV exposed<br>infants were exclusive breastfed, concluded that the transmission rate for the group that received<br>extendedNVP was only 1.1%. Rutagweraet al. 2019, focused on the shedding of HIV virus into the<br>breastmilk which is why this study used breastmilk as their sample4,6. Rutagweraet al. 2019. found<br>almost 80% of their subjects shed HIV virus into their breastmilk6. This number is correlated to the<br>transmission of HIV vertically in breastfeeding mother.<br>Conclusion: To conclude, the use of ARV does affect the rate of transmission of HIV from mother to<br>child during breastfeeding.</p> Amanah Fatmadani Suwarno Dwiyanti Puspitasari Pudji Lestari Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 56 64 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17919 The Possible Effect of Celastrol on Ameliorating Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neuro-inflammation in Sodium Valproate Induced- Rat Model of Autism <p>Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease with impairment in social interactions,<br>language and repetitive stereotypical behaviors. Celastrol is a natural safe compound that has antiinflammatory<br>and as a neuroprotective effects. 48 male offspringswistar rats divided into 6 groups;<br>normal control group, offsprings receive vehicle, autistic offsprings receive vehicle, autistic offsprings<br>receive risperidone, autistic offspringsreceive celastrol, autistic offspringsreceive both risperidone&amp;<br>celastrol. At the end of experiment behavioral tests were performed then neurochemical analysis<br>and histopathological examination. The obtained data showed that celastrol improved social deficits,<br>decreased repetitive/restricted behaviors in T-maze test, significant increase in SIRT-1, GSH level<br>with significant decrease in DRP-1, IL-6, caspase-3 and MDA with amelioration of histopathological<br>findings in VPA-induced ASD in both cerebellum and hippocampus. These findings pave the way for<br>using celastrol as an adjuvant therapy during long-term clinical use of risperidone in ASD.</p> AmlAlaa El-Din El-Sayed Ahmed Samia HussienAbou El-Seoud Fleur Fathi Abdel Moneim Rasha Osama El-Esawy Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 65 76 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17920 The Effectiveness of Facet Joint Local Corticosteroid Injection in Diagnosis and Treatment of Facet Joint Syndrome <p>Objectives: To evaluate outcomes of lumbar facet joint injection with local corticosteroid in treatment<br>of chronic low back pain according to Oswestry disability Index(ODI).<br>Patients and Methods: Interventional prospective study on 23 patients attended the outpatient clinic of<br>Orthopedic Surgery in Cairo University Hospitalscomplaining of chronic low back pain not responsive<br>to medical treatment and physiotherapy from September 2018 to august 2019.<br>Results: The mean age of the patients was 41.17 ± 9.74 years and 47.8% were males. Facet joint<br>corticosteroid injection resulted in significant reduction of pain severity of patients as it ranged 5:10<br>(mean 7.3 ±1.5) pre-injection and improved to 0 :6 (mean 3.6 ± 1.7) 3-month post injection(Pvalue:0.001)<br>while the ODI score ranged 26:80 (mean 47.4 ±15.7) pre-injection and improved to 4:46 (mean 28.8 ±<br>10.4) three months post injection(Pvalue 0.001).<br>Conclusion: intra-articular facet joint injection is crucial in the diagnosis and treatment of facet joint<br>syndrome.</p> Amr Sabry AlBakry Ahmed Saleh ElSayed Hamada Mostafa AbdulAal ElSaid Hamdy Zaki Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 77 86 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17922 The Management of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) Overlapping with Sjogren Syndrome : A Case Report <p>Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an autoimmune vasculitis involving large and medium arteries. GCA is<br>rarely associated with autoimmune diseases, such as Sjögren’s syndrome. Glucocorticoids (GC) are<br>the cornerstone of the treatment of GCA as they are very effective but are often given for 1 year to<br>avoid relapses. Here we report a rare case of GCA overlapping with Sjögren’s syndrome along with the<br>management.</p> Arina Mana Sikana Awalia Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 87 93 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17923 Smart Materials- A Review <p>3rd Year Post Graduate Student, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education</p> Arpit Arora Anushka Arora Karthik Shetty Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 94 100 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17926 Effect of Oxytocin Augmentation on Neonatal Bilirubin Levels : A Case Control Study <p>Introduction - Hyperbilirubinemia is a commonly encountered problem in both term as well as preterm<br>infants and is a source of concern to neonatologists.<br>Aim- to determine the relationship between the usage of oxytocin during labour and the development<br>of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.<br>Methodology- a case controlled study was conducted. 50 patients were given intravenous oxytocin<br>for the augmentation of their labour and 50 patients delivered spontaneously without the usage of<br>oxytocin during their labour. The neonates born to both these categories of patients were studied for<br>their bilirubin levels of day 2 of life.<br>Results- hyperbilirubinemia developed in 34% of the neonates whose mothers were given oxytocin for<br>augmentation of labour and hyperbilirubinemia developed in only 14% of the neonates whose mothers<br>delivered spontaneously without the usage of oxytocin.<br>Conclusion- A positive relationship between the usage of oxytocin during labour and development of<br>neonatal hyperbilirubinemia has been established.</p> Jitendra Shukla Shubhra Buch Piyusha Chandrayan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 101 104 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17928 Study of Working Hours of Indonesian Civil Servant Doctors in Relation to the Rule of Three Licenses for Practice and Labor Law <p>There are no specific rules about doctors’ working hours in Indonesia, it causes working hours of<br>Indonesian doctors to be excessive. Following the rules of the labor law that the maximum work of a<br>worker is 40 hours a week. However, with the applicable 3 Licenses For Practice rules, the doctor’s<br>work hours will be more than 40 hours a week. It was to examine whether the working hours of<br>Indonesian Civil Servant doctors are rational.Based on Law No. 13 of 2003 about Manpower article<br>77 paragraph (2), the maximum working hours of a worker is 40 hours. In reality, with the 3 Licenses<br>For Practice rules, if it was calculated, the working hours of civil servant of doctors in Indonesia was<br>very excessive. In other countries, there were already standard rules. Doctors work 40 hours a week<br>or a maximum of 80 hours a week. Therefore, it needed to be studied further, whether the 3 Licenses<br>For Practice policy had provided a solution or had actually aggravated the condition of a civil servant<br>doctor. The monoloyalty discourse of a doctor needed to be balanced with an increase in the services or<br>incentives of a civil servant doctor.With the rule of three Licenses For Practice, the working hours of<br>civil servant doctors in Indonesia became excessive.</p> Noviana Indarti SherlyIntan Sylvia Meylinda Tagor Sibarani Mokhamad Khoirul Huda Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 105 114 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17932 Profile of Pneumocystis JiroveciiPneumoia in HIV/AIDS Patients in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital of East Java Province <p>Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients if not treated will experience<br>acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). People with AIDS will suffer opportunistic infection.<br>One of the common opportunistic infections is Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). PCP is an<br>infection caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii which infects patient’s lungs. The purpose of this<br>study is to analyze the profile of HIV/AIDS patients with PCP in Dr. Soetomo Hospital.<br>Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study based on medical records obtained from the inpatient<br>ward of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya. A total 21 patients enrolled in this study who met the<br>inclusion criteria. The data are retrospectively described by demographic characteristics, CD4 count,<br>clinical symptoms, blood gas, and lungs radiographic features.<br>Conclusion:Major findings of PCP in HIV/AIDS patients was in the group of age 25-49 years (85,7%),<br>male (85,7%), high school graduate (71,4%), employed and unmarried (66,7%). The most common<br>clinical symptoms were dyspnea (100%), PaO2 ≥70 mmHg (61,97%), CD4 count &lt;50 cells/μL (76,2%)<br>and the most common radiographic features was bilateral interstitial infiltrates (95,2%).</p> Pius Sebastian Ginting Bramantono RestiYudhawati Meliana Musofa Rusli Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 115 121 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17933 Early Childhood Malnourishment and its Associated Factors - Uttarakhand <p>Malnutrition, a word which seems to shake our roots and disturb our future. Today the underdeveloped<br>and many developing countries are battling this threat in many ways. The reason behind malnutrition is<br>the determinants which make it prevail in our neighborhood and our country on the whole. Malnutrition<br>possess a very serious threat to the future of our country especially the children between (1 – 3) years of<br>age. This paper attempts to identify the existing prevalence of malnutrition in Uttarakhand, to explore<br>the predisposing factors contributing to it in under five children and compare the prevalence with the<br>selected neighboring states. An in – depth survey of all the related literatures and published articles in the<br>selected area was made. It has been reported in recent times about the hike in India’s hunger problems<br>and the number of reported cases of stunting and wasting has also rocketed though underweight has<br>slightly reduced. The only way to curb malnutrition is by; breaking the shackles of the determinants,<br>thorough regular surveys and screenings, improved and adequate health care services, reaching out to<br>the needy and spreading awareness among the masses.</p> Pratiti Haldar Lekha Viswanath Ashok Kumar Srivastava Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 122 128 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17935 A Quasi-Experimental Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Guided Imagery Therapy on Infertility Related Stress and Quality of Life among Infertile Women <p>Introduction and Background: According to WHO infertility is failure to achieve a pregnancy<br>after 12 months or more than or without use of any contraception method, it is a reproductive system<br>disease.Infertility can cause increase level of stress and create negative thought. So this study is<br>aimed to find out effectiveness of guided imagery technique on stress and quality of life of infertile<br>women. Methodology: The research approach used was quantitative approach. Quasi experimental:<br>nonequivalent control group, Pre-test post-test design was used. 66 infertile women were selected for<br>both the group was selected 33 subjects in each group. Pre assessment for stress level &amp; quality of<br>life was done for both experimental and control group. The tool of data collection included a sociodemographic<br>Performa, Perceived stress scale (PSM- 10) and FertiQol scale assessment tool. Guided<br>imagery provided to experimental group. The intervention was given to infertile women is recorded<br>15 minutes audio tract. Participants had listened the infertile specific GI recording once in a day for 7<br>consecutive days. In control group, the GI therapy did not provided. Result: The data was analyzed<br>by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study result shows that effect of GI intervention on<br>stress intensity and on QoL are effective and P value for stress was &lt;0.001 and for QoL p value was<br>&lt;0.001. Conclusion: The study concluded that Guided imagery technique is effective in reducing stress<br>level and improve quality of life.</p> Priyanka Christian Sapna Bhavin Patel Anjali Tiwari Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 129 138 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17937 Meta Study of the Relationship between Knowledge and Incentives with Posyandu Cadre Performance <p>Background: Posyandu cadre performance refers to the role of cadres in posyandu activities as in<br>the Posyandu cadre handbook, explaining the role of posyandu cadres is divided into three stages,<br>namely before posyandu opening days, posyandu opening days and after posyandu opening days. Many<br>studies report different results on the performance of health cadres related to knowledge and incentives.<br>The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between knowledge and incentives with the<br>performance of posyandu cadres.<br>Method: The research method used is meta-analysis to assess how big the effect of the knowledge and<br>incentive variables will be on the performance of posyandu cadres.<br>Result: Based on the results of the study of research articles, the combined P-value of 0,000 on the<br>knowledge variable, and the combined p-value of 0,039 on the incentive variable.<br>Conclusion: There is a relationship between knowledge and incentive variables on the performance of<br>posyandu cadres.</p> Arjan Arkasi Syamsul Arifin Ari Yunanto Eko Suhartono Fauzie Rahman Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 139 142 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17939 Comparing Walking age, Receptive and Expressive Language Profiles between Speech Delay Children with and without Hearing Loss <p>Objectives : The study aimed to investigate whether walking age, receptive, and expressive language<br>profiles differ between speech delay children with hearing loss and speech delay children without<br>hearing loss; to identify walking age, receptive, and expressive profiles between speech delay children<br>with hearing loss and speech delay children without hearing loss.<br>Methods : The study is an observational analytic with retrospective cross-sectional design using<br>medical records data for two years. Data was collected using a total sampling technique.<br>Results : The study involved 92 children with speech delay, consisting 72 children in the hearing loss<br>group and 20 children in the normal hearing group. The average age at walk as gross motoric profile<br>shows that speech delays children with hearing loss have an average age that is later than speech delays<br>children without hearing loss. Also, walking age significantly differs between children with speech<br>delay in hearing loss group and normal hearing group. Both receptive and expressive language profiles<br>show no different between the groups.<br>Conclusions : Findings have consequences for consideration motor developmental delay in children with<br>speech delay, especially in hearing loss group. So that, the findings can be a reference to consideration<br>in further management basis for speech delay interventions with and without hearing loss in children.</p> Aulia Sakinah Nyilo Purnami, Thtkl K Nuniek Nugraheni S Sulistiawati Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 143 150 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17940 Association of Plasma Interferon-a(IFN-a) with C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Level and Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Patients <p>Background: CRP is normal or only slightly increased in active SLE. It is presumed that IFN-α may<br>inhibit the transcription process during CRP synthesis. There is also increasing in IFN-αgene expression<br>in active SLE. This study examined the correlation of plasma IFN-α with CRP and SLE activity.<br>Methods:Forty SLE patients were included. SLAM and SLEDAI were used to measure SLE disease<br>activity. Laboratory tests were examined at dr.Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. CRP was measured using<br>immunoturbidimetry. C3 and C4 were measured by radial immunodiffusion technique. IFN-αwas<br>measured using ELISA.<br>Results and conclusion:Twenty-six patients from the outpatient clinic and 14 from wards were<br>included from August 2019 to February 2020. The median age was 31.5 years old. The median SLAM<br>score was 8.5. Mean CRP was 5.19±2.69 mg/L. Median plasma IFN-α was 46.02 (16.43-177.96).<br>Spearman correlation test revealed a moderate negative correlation between plasma IFN-α and CRP<br>level (p=0.003; r=-0.455). A moderate positive correlation was showed between plasma IFN-α level<br>and SLAM score (p=0.001; r=0.568). No correlation found between CRP and SLAM. There was a<br>strong correlation between complement levels with SLEDAI. Linear regression revealed a significant<br>association of IFN-α and C3 (not C4) level with SLEDAI.</p> Awalia Harianto Notopuro Joewono Soeroso Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 151 157 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17942 Assessment of Factors Influencing Uptake of National Programme on Immunization among People in Chanchaga L.G.A., Niger State, Nigeria <p>This study assessed the Factors influencing uptake of national immunization programme among people<br>in Chanchaga L.G.A., Niger state. Immunization has brought sound health to many children in the<br>world, reduced the agony experienced by parents during child rearing and reduced the mortality rate<br>among children. The purpose of this study was to examine cultural belief, fear of parents, religion, level<br>of service and uptake of national immunization programme among people in Chanchaga L.G.A., Niger<br>state.<br>Descriptive research design of survey type was adopted for the study. The population comprised of all<br>people in Chanchaga L.G.A., Niger state. A multistage sampling technique which consist of simple<br>random sampling technique, purposive and convenience sampling technique was used to select 384<br>respondents for this study. Questionnaire was validated by three experts in the Department of Health<br>Promotion and Environmental Health Education for data collection from the respondents. A reliability<br>coefficient (r) of 0.76 was obtained through split half method using Spearman Brown for analyzing<br>data generated. The inferential statistics of Chi-square was used to analyze the data collected for the<br>postulated null hypothesis at 0.05 alpha level.<br>The findings revealed that:<br>1. Cultural belief of people is a significant factor influencing the uptake of National Immunization<br>Programme among people of Chanchaga Local Government Area, Niger State because the calculated<br>value 271.20 is greater than the table value 21.3<br>2. Fear of parents about immunization is a significant factor influencing the uptake of National<br>Immunization Programme among people of Chanchaga Local Government Area, Niger State because<br>the calculated value 175.76 is greater than the table value 21.3<br>3. level of coverage of service of people will significantly be a factor influencing the uptake of National<br>Immunization Programme among people of Chanchaga Local Government Area, Niger State because<br>the calculated chi-square value 247.09 is greater than critical table value of 21.03 (Cal χ2 val ˃ Tab χ2<br>val)<br>The study concluded that cultural belief, fear of parents, religious belief and level of service are<br>factors influencing the uptake of National Immunization Programme among people of Chanchaga<br>Local Government Area, Niger State. It was therefore recommended among others that there should be</p> <p>sensitization programme by health workers to community leaders and indigenes in villages in order to<br>publicize the benefits of immunization, parents should be well informed by health workers or through<br>media before the start of immunization programmes to reduce the fear about immunization among<br>others.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Baba A. Dare Muhammad Ibrahim Nakadiri Kperogi, I.I Jidda K. A Abdullahi Muhammed Bukola Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 158 165 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17944 Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia Coli and its Susceptibility to Antibiotic in Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Patients at Hospital in Province of West Nusa Tenggara <p>Objective – This study aimed to analyze the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli<br>from urine samples of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) patients at the General<br>Hospital at Province of West Nusa Tenggara. Also measured the pattern of sensitivity to several<br>antibiotics.<br>Methods –This study is a descriptive observational with a cross-sectional approach. A total of 60 samples<br>were used in this study. Bacterial identification was carried out according to standard bacteriological<br>culture techniques. Furthermore, the antibiotic sensitivity test following the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion<br>method using several antibiotics, including amoxycillin (AMP), ciprofloxacin (CIP), ceftriaxone<br>(CRO), and sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim (SXT).<br>Results –The results showed that bacteria causing CA-UTI were Staphylococcus aureus (43.33%),<br>Escherichia coli (21.67%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Proteus mirabilis (6.67%), Enterobacter<br>aerogenes (6.67%), Serratica marcescens (5%), Klebsiella sp (3.33%), and Pseudomonas sp (3.33%).<br>The antibiotic susceptibility test found that 4.58%, 11.25%, 9.16%, and 3% of bacteria were resistant to<br>amoxycillin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim, respectively.<br>Conclusion –Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most gram-positive and gramnegative<br>bacteria causing CA-UTI, respectively. The most resistant antibiotic was ciprofloxacin, and<br>the most sensitive antibiotic is sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim.</p> BaiqIsti Hijriani ManikRetno Wahyunitisari Agung Dwi Wahyu Widodo Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 166 173 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17945 The Outcome of Limberg Flap Procedure in the Management of Primary Chronic Sacrococcygeal Pilonidal Sinus Disease <p>Introduction: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus (PNS) is a common chronic benign disease of young age<br>group, associated with morbidity, often with a prolong loss of normal activity. Still there is ongoing<br>debate regarding the best treatment option as all the methods have complications, although; the current<br>evidence supports the use of off- midline techniques because of lower recurrence rates and avoidance<br>of all disadvantages of open treatment.This study was done to determine the postoperative outcome<br>of rhomboid excision and Limberg flap reconstruction as a main procedure in the treatment of PNS<br>disease in our institute.<br>Patients and Method: A prospective study conducted at the Department of General Surgery- Baquba<br>Teaching Hospital- Diyala- Iraq, from January 2017 to June 2019, in which 98 patients (78 male and<br>20 female) with chronic primary sacrococcygeal PNS were enrolled. The age of the patients ranged<br>between 16 – 38 years. Patients with acute abscess were first treated by incision and drainage before<br>definite surgery. Patients were operated by rhomboid excision and Limberg flap reconstruction.<br>Results: In this study, 98 patients were enrolled, 78 male (79.59 %) and 20 female (20.4%) with male<br>to female ratio of 3.9:1. The age of the patients ranged between 16 to 38 years with the mean age of<br>25 years. During the follow up period; 6 patients (6.12%) developed seroma, 4 patients (4.08%) had<br>infection and 4 patients (4.08%) had recurrent sinus after few months and one patient (1.02%) had<br>wound disruption.<br>Conclusion: Rhomboid excision and Limberg flap reconstruction of PNS diseaseis safe and reliable<br>technique with low complication and recurrence rates if performed according to appropriate surgical<br>principles.</p> Bashar Akram Al-Bayati Salah Salih Mohammed Mohamad Theyab Hamad Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 174 179 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17947 Effectiveness of Educational Intervention Regarding Child Sexual Abuse on Knowledge and Attitude of Parents <p>Background: Child sexual abuse is a serious violation of children’s rights and abuse of power. CSA is<br>a matter of global concern and occurs across all socio-economic, educational, racial, and ethnic groups.<br>There is a lack of knowledge and awareness regarding child sexual abuse and its preventive aspects.<br>Parent education regarding CSA is important for keeping children safe.The study aimed toevaluate the<br>effectiveness of information package as an educational intervention,on the knowledge and attitude of<br>parents regarding CSA.<br>Methodology: An experimental, pre-test post-test control group design was adopted for the study.<br>The setting of the study was selected schools of Bangalore. The sample included 300 parents (150 in<br>experimental and 150 in control group). The outcome variables were knowledge and attitude. The data<br>was collected using socio-demographicperforma, knowledge questionnaire and attitude scale.<br>Results: The majority of the parents in both the experimental and control group had an average level<br>of knowledge and a moderately favorable attitude about prevention of CSA. There was a significant<br>difference in the post-test knowledge(22.10±3.15 and 12.19±3.20; F = 101.33; p &lt;0.001) and attitude<br>scores (102.23±10.67; 84.23±15.18; F = 54.88; p&lt;0.001)of parents regarding CSA in the experimental<br>group when compared to the control group. Conclusion: The Educational interventionwas effective<br>in improving the knowledge and bringing a favorable change in the attitude of parents regarding CSA<br>in the experimental group. The Information package is recommended for use as a primary prevention<br>effort for educating parents on CSA</p> Bhavani Bangarkodi Balakrishna Valsamma Joseph Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 180 190 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17948 Legal Certainty of Hospital Service Operations During Pandemic Corona Virus Disease 2019 <p>Hospital is health service institution that provides complete individual health services that provide<br>inpatient, outpatient, and emergency services. In operatingservices the hospital is required to have<br>permit. Permit is granted if it meets the requirements and standards to ensure the safety of patients,<br>hospitals and health workers. The quality of hospital services is tested through the accreditation<br>process,it could not be done during pandemic. Therefore, many policies have been issued, including<br>the Circular of Health Minister No. HK.02.01/MENKES/455/2020 Year 2020. This circular facilitates<br>the permitextension but does not givedetail abouthow to maintain the hospitalquality and services.<br>During pandemic, the surge in Covid patients is not comparable to the hospitalscapabilities that are<br>different such as in the human resources and the facilities and infrastructure. Many hospitals are full<br>because they have to treat Corona Virus Disease 2019 patients, a lot of equipment, rooms and beds<br>must be added, but the health workers that workare limited so that health workers have to work extra to<br>serve patients that increase every day. This situation can cause physical and mental fatigue which over<br>time has impact on health services so that negligence can occur. So hospitals need to make protection<br>standards for health workers in addition to legal responsibility for losses caused by health workers<br>according to article 46 of the Hospital Law.</p> Brilian TitaPutri Cinderella A.N Rieuwpassa Gede Angga Dharmadiputra R. HardadiAirlangga Mokhamad Khoirul Huda Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 191 198 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17950 The Difference of EPDS Examination Results before and after Delivery in High-Risk Pregnant Woman at Unair Hospital <p>Background: Pregnancy is an exceptional condition for a woman who will become a mother. The<br>prospective mother will experience a phase to continue the offspring, and depression is a complication<br>that generally does not occur in childbirth. Objective: To determine the differencein the prevalence of<br>depression through the results of the EPDS examination before and after delivery in high-risk pregnant<br>women at Unair Hospital. Method: This research will use an observational analytic study design with<br>a one-group pretest-posttest design strategy—data retrieval using primary and secondary data, namely<br>by questionnaires and medical records at Unair Hospital. The sample in this study consisted of 23<br>multigravida pregnant women and one primigravida mother who sought treatment at the Outpatient<br>Installation of Unair Hospital in March 2021 - May 2021. Results: The prevalence of pregnant women<br>with a tendency to postpartum depression on the EPDS scores before and after delivery are 8% and<br>17%, respectively. There is a very weak positive correlation between pre-delivery EPDS scores and<br>post-delivery EPDS scores. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between the scores before<br>and after delivery in a high-risk pregnant woman at Unair Hospital.</p> Delvanny Alfikri Rekaputri Wicaksono Agustina Konginan Nalini Muhdi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 199 205 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17952 The Analysis of Personal Protective Equipment Covid-19 in The Hospital Sallewangan, Maros Regency 2020 <p>Purpose: to analyze of the use of Covid-19 Personal Protective Equipment on health workers at<br>Salewangang Hospital, Maros Regency.<br>Methods: The type of research used is the analytical survey method of research conducted without<br>intervention to the research subject. Data collection regarding free and dependent variables was carried<br>out online using Google Form and the results of Google Form data collection<br>Results: Availability of personal protective equipment has a significant effect on the behavior of<br>using personal protective equipment Covid-19, Knowledge of health workers has a significant effect<br>on behavior of using personal protective equipment Covid-19, Attitudes of health workers have a<br>significant effect on behavior of using personal protective equipment Covid-19 in health workers at the<br>Salewangang Hospital, Maros Regency with a sig. 0.000<br>Conclusion: there is a relation between personal equipment on helath workers at the sallewangan<br>hospital at maros regency</p> Fetrawaty Mansyur Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 206 211 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17954 Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Cochlear Outer Hair Cell Function Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Due to Influence of Cisplatin <p>Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a type of tumor sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.<br>One of the various chemotherapy drugs is cisplatin. However, the cisplatin effects on sensorineural<br>hearing loss and cochlear outer hair cell dysfunction in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma have not<br>been evidently discovered. Objective: This research aims to prove the cisplatin effects on sensorineural<br>hearing loss and cochlear outer hair cell dysfunction in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.<br>Materials and Methods: This research adopted analytical observation by employing a prospective<br>cohort study approach. In addition, the sampling technique implemented consecutive sampling. This<br>research was conducted at the ENT-HN Outpatient Unit (URJ) of the Neuro-otology Division of<br>Dr.Soetomo Public Hospital during September-November 2020 period. The auditory test was executed<br>by Pure-Tone Audiometry (ANM) and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE). Meanwhile,<br>the statistical analysis was assessed by the Wilcoxon and McNemar test. Results: This research involved<br>22 samples. The cumulative dose of cisplatin up to chemotherapy series III ranged from 260-270 mg<br>with an average of 265.45+5.10 mg. The results of the ANM test before and after chemotherapy series<br>III employing Wilcoxon test indicated significant differences in frequency of 500 Hz (p-value =0.014),<br>6000 Hz (p-value = 0.011), 8000 Hz (p-value = 0.019),10000 Hz (p-value = 0.000), and 12500 Hz<br>(p-value = 0.002). The frequency of 125 Hz with a p-value = 0.343, the frequency of 250 Hz with a<br>p-value = 0.690, the frequency of 1000 Hz with a p-value = 0.179, the frequency of 2000 Hz with a<br>p-value = 0.459, and the frequency of 4000 Hz with a p-value = 0.125 indicated no significant difference<br>witha p-value greater than 0.05. Meanwhile, the DPOAE test results before and after chemotherapy<br>series III utilizing the McNemar test demonstratedthe frequency of 1000 Hz (p-value = 1.000), 2,000<br>Hz (p-value = 0.453), 4000 Hz Hz (p-value = 1.000), 6000 Hz (p-value = 0.388), 8000 Hz (p-value =<br>0.754), and 1000 Hz (p-value = 1.000). The comparative analysis of the DPOAE test results before and<br>after chemotherapy Series 3 suggested no significant difference, with a p-value greater than 0.05 at all<br>frequencies. Conclusion: There were cisplatin effects on sensorineural hearing loss in patients with<br>nasopharyngeal carcinoma after chemotherapy series 3 based on ANM test at the frequencies of 500<br>Hz, 6000 Hz, 8000 Hz, 10000 Hz, and 12500 Hz. There were no cisplatin effects on cochlear outer haircell dysfunction in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after chemotherapy series 3.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fira Sofia H.M.S Wiyadi Achmad Chusnu Romdhoni Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 212 218 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17955 Enucleation of Scrotal Epidermoid Cyst: Case Report <p>Background: Epidermoid cyst is one of the most common forms of blockage in the pilosebaceous<br>gland. The surgical procedure for excision of the cyst aims to prevent recurrence, however, several<br>reports suggest that enucleation can be performed with certain considerations.<br>Case:A 22 year old man who lives in Wonogiri, came to Dermatology and Venereology Outpatientclinic<br>of Dr. Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta, with the chief complaint of a lump in the scrotum. The<br>lumps appeared since 3 years ago, the size of a pea seed and accompanied by itching. The results<br>of the examination of the dermatological status of the scrotal region showed several nodules of the<br>skin color, felt dense and rubbery without any signs of inflammation. Histopathology shows a basket<br>wave type parakeratosis at the stratum corneum, while the epidermal layer shows cysts filled with<br>keratin and surrounded by squamous cells. Based on the results of the history, physical examination<br>and histopathology, the diagnosis of the patient was a scrotal epidermoid cyst, then we performed two<br>enucleation measures and found improvement.<br>Conclusion: Epidermoid cyst is a form of benign epithelial cyst that can occur in the scrotal area. The<br>main treatment to prevent recurrences is surgery, where the enucleation technique can be performed<br>with several considerations such as small size of the cyst without signs of inflammation, preventing<br>dystrophic calcification and capsule routine.</p> Halim Perdana Kusuma Nugrohoaji Dharmawan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 219 224 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17957 Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Evaluation of Cervical Lymphadenopathy <p>Introduction: Cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the commonest clinical presentations of patients of<br>head and neck pathologies. Metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy is a common presentation in head and<br>neck oncology. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of FNAC as a primary investigation<br>tool.<br>Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of FNAC in diagnosing<br>cervical lymphadenopathy.<br>Material and Methods: A study was conducted in the Department of Pathology and E.N.T.,<br>SIMS, Hapur, U.P., India from January 2019 to February 2020 which included 52 patients with<br>cervical lymphadenopathy presenting to outpatient clinics. FNAC was done in patients of cervical<br>lymphadenopathy before surgery or incision/excision biopsy and the results of FNAC was correlated<br>with histopathological evaluation.<br>Results: In our study 88.47.% of sensitivity and specificity of 92.03% was found on FNAC of cervical<br>lymph nodes.<br>Conclusion: FNAC remains a safe, cost effective and appropriate first line investigation though the<br>results have to be confirmed with HPE for proper evaluation and management.</p> Harsimrat Singh Abhay Kumar Singh Inderpreet Singh Oberoi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 225 229 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17958 Effect of Tamsulosin on Biomarkers after Kidney Stones Lithotripsy <p>The disease of kidney stones is one of the urinary system’s oldest and most common issues. Children <br>with kidney stones have also become more popular, In recent years. Kidney stones are also very painful, <br>and in some people, they can continue to occur. Kidney stone attacks result in over 2 million visits <br>to health care facilities . People tend to get stones in the middle of life. During midlife, family and <br>work commitments are at their height, which makes kidney stones costly. The diagnosis, treatment and <br>prevention of kidney stones and the time away from work due to stones cost approximately $5.3 billion <br>a year. To understand the effect renal some biomarkers in patients with kidney stones, before and after <br>Lithotripsy and to evaluate the effect of Tamsulosin on these biomarkers in patients. Forty patients and <br>twenty healthy persons were participate in this case-control study, Bl.urea, level of ALP, Level of KIM1, and level of Na c were investigate in serum with kidney stones patients and control healthy persons. <br>The results were shown significant elevation in the levels of KIM-1, and serum urea were decreased <br>significantly (p value &lt;0.05) while the levels of ALP and serum sodium show an improvement when <br>compared to patients who were not used tamsulosin but it’s results were statistically not significant. the <br>results were given an evidence for the crucial role of some biomarker in serum in patients with kidney <br>stones, also the effects of using tamsulosin for 14 days in patients with kidney stones who underwent <br>lithotripsy compared with those patients who were not used tamsulosin.</p> Iman A. Ismael Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 230 236 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17966 Stimulation of Growth and Development of Pandalungan Toddler in Indonesia <p>Background: The delay in growth and development is still a serious problem for both developed and <br>developing countries in the world. One of the factors that cause delays in growth and development in <br>toddlers is the lack of early stimulation of toddler development.Solving the problem of child growth <br>and development cannot be separated from the existence of cultural diversity.<br>Method: The qualitative research methods through a phenomenological approachwas chosen as the <br>approach because this study tried to explore parents’ behavior in fulfilling the growth and development <br>stimulation of the Pandalungan ethnic group.The sampling technique in this study used purposive <br>samplingParticipants in this study were 15 participants with in-depth interviews used a semi-structured <br>interview. <br>Results: The results of the research get three main themes, and each theme has a sub-theme. The <br>theme of stimulation from the family (Interaction with family, Parent’s Education, Parent’s Economic <br>and Technology).The theme stimulation from social (Interaction with neighbors and government <br>regulation). The theme Stimulation from culture and value(Cultural factors and values in society and <br>Religious factors).<br>Conclusion: The role of the family is needed in stimulating the growth and development of children <br>because it will affect the growth and development of children.Social influences and government policies <br>affect parents in stimulating growth and development. Culture and values will affect the growth and <br>development of children because children are raised in that environment, so that they must follow the <br>rules in the social environment.</p> Lantin Sulistyorini EkaAfdi Septiyono NuningDwi Merina PeniPerdani Juliningrum Ira Rahmawati Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 237 245 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17967 Social Status and Oral Hygiene with Quality of Life in Patients with Primary Hypertension <p>Background:The main problem in primary hypertension is that most people who have been diagnosed <br>with primary hypertension do not know the etiology clearly.To find out the the relation between social <br>status and oral hygiene with quality of life in primary hypertension. Methods:The type of research used <br>was an observational in a cross-sectional study design.The study was conducted in February-May 2021. <br>The number of sampling was 61 people. The sampling method uses purposive sampling technique. <br>The results of data collection were tested by using the Path Analysis test.Results: Research conducted <br>at Padongko Public Health Center in Barru Regency. Based on the results of the analysis of the path <br>analysis of social status tests on primary hypertension, the results obtained p value 0.188&gt; α 0.05, oral <br>hygiene against primary hypertension results obtained p value0.914&gt; α 0.05, this Ha obtained means that <br>there is a the relation but not significant, while social status on quality of life results are obtained p value <br>0.837&gt; α 0.05, oral hygiene against quality of life results obtained pvalue0.227&gt; α 0.05, this Ha obtained <br>means there is the relation but not significant, while the the relation of primary hypertension to quality <br>of life has a significant the relation where the results of p value 0.012 &lt;α 0.05.Conclusion: There is the <br>relation between social status and oral hygiene with quality of life in patients with primary hypertension <br>but does not appear significantly.</p> Masriadi Muhammad Fajrin Wijaya Maqh irah Amiruddin Tuti Alawiyah Nur Rahmayani Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 246 253 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17968 Diagnostic Problems in Leptospirosis Patients : A Case Report <p>Leptospirosis is a zoonosis infection found in almost every part of the world but is mostly endemic in <br>tropical and subtropical countries. In 2013 there were 640 new cases reported with 60 death cases (CFR <br>9.37%). An increase in new cases had caused an outbreak in Sampang, Madura due to a flood following <br>a high rainfall. A male patient aged 45 years old with Leptospirosis. The diagnosis was made based <br>on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) examination <br>data. In the early treatment, the examination of IgM and IgG Leptospira showed negative results a <br>confirmation with MAT examination was done subsequently. Diagnosis using MAT also provides <br>information about an outbreak in a region. Upon receiving antibiotic and symptomatic treatments and <br>clinical recovery, the patient’s condition continued to improve.</p> Megawati Musofa Rusli Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 254 258 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17969 Serum Levels of Interleukin-2 and Interleukin-6 among Helicobacter Pylori Positive Patients in Relation to Prognosis of Gastro-duodenal Disease <p>Background: Helicobacter pylori is the most widespread pathogenic associated with gastro-duodenal <br>Disease. Interleukin 2 and interleukin 6 are the main cytokines involved in host immune response to <br>H.pylori infection. The aim of the present study are to assess the serum level of IL-6 and IL–2 in <br>H.pylori infected patients and to study their association with gastric endoscopy findings. Methods: <br>One hundred and seven suspected patients and 19 healthy were recruited. The confirmed positivity of <br>H.pylori detection was based on a rapid urease test (R.U.T) and stool antigen test. Serum concentrations <br>of IL-2 and IL-6 were measuring by ELISA. Results: Seventy-five (70%) patients were positive for <br>H.pylori. Both interleukins were found at higher levels in patients than in healthy (p- value &lt;0.05). <br>Interestingly, the level of IL-2 was lower in patients infected with H.pylori (43.40 pg/ml) than those <br>who were not infected (85.2 pg/ml), while the level of IL-6 was higher in patients infected with H.pylori <br>(117 pg/ml) than those not infected (40 pg/ml), p-value &lt;0.05. Furthermore, the increasing levels of <br>both interleukins were correlated with disease progress.</p> Methaq M. Neamah AL-Hilfi Khairallah A.S Mohammed Naael H. Ali Ali Dawood AL-Hilfi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 259 265 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17970 Transnasal Esophagoscopy Procedure in Outpatient Clinic at Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital <p>Background: Transnasal esophagoscopy is a small caliber flexible esophagoscopy technique that has <br>the same as diagnostic accuracy as conventional esophagoscopy. In addition, this technique is safer <br>than any other techniques and has patient tolerance. Aims: This study aims to analyze and evaluate the <br>transnasal esophagoscopy (TNE) procedure in patients. Method: retrospectively approach was used in <br>this study by taking data from the activity register of the broncho-esophagology division of outpatient <br>unit of ORL-HNS Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital. TNE report book and patient medical <br>records were collected to have the data. The observation period was 2013 to 2017. Result: patients <br>who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was 99 patients, with a male to female ratio of 2.3: 1. Most <br>endoscopic findings were normal esophagus (56.57%). Existing abnormal findings included esophageal <br>stenosis (18.18%), esophageal mucosal lesions (14.14%), and esophageal tumors (11.11%). TNE <br>examination complications were found to be 1%. Conclusion: Transnasal esophagoscopy is widely <br>used in patients aged 51-60 years with dysphagia, reflux or globus as the most common indications. <br>TNE is quite safe to do in an outpatient hospital setting.</p> Muhammad Qodri Anantomo Rizka Fathoni Perdana Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 266 272 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17971 Comparison of the Effect of Glycemic Control on the Incidence of Fetal Macrosomia and Large for Gestational Age in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Patients; A Systematic Review <p>Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can be managed with blood glucose control <br>management, which includes a healthy lifestyle, insulin therapy, and oral anti-diabetic drug (OAD) <br>medications when needed. Sub-optimally or poorly managed GD Mmay lead to arisk of complications, <br>one of which is an abnormal growth in the fetus. This study aimed to compare the effect of blood <br>glucose control management on the incidence of fetal macrosomia and large for gestational age (LGA) <br>births in patients with GDM. Methods: This systematic review study obtained data from formerly <br>published studies from the Science Direct database. The article search method used the characteristics <br>of PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) and compiled using the Preferred Reporting <br>Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) method. Conclusion: The use of medical <br>nutrition therapy (MNT) and exercise in the therapeutic regimen, as well as routine monitoring of <br>glycemic levels are very important to control the patient’s glycemic level. The use of metformin can <br>increase the success of therapy due to reduced levels of LGA and macrosomia in GDM patients</p> Natasha Tiara Bernadette Budi Prasetyo Sony Wibisono Bambang Purwanto Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 273 281 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17972 Antibacterial Activity of Antimicrobial Peptide Indolicidin against Multidrug-Resistant Klebseilla pneumoniae Isolated from Patients with Burns <p>The emergence of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a significant problem <br>worldwide and also being a major threat to patients with burns infections. The therapeutic action of <br>antimicrobial peptides derived from humans or animals or synthetic peptides attracted attention as <br>alternatives for antibiotics in order to treat the resistant strains especially with strains isolated from burn <br>patients. The current study investigated the role of antimicrobial peptide Indolicidin as an antibacterial <br>agent with multidrug K. pneumonia isolates from burns. The collection of study samples has taken place <br>at the period between November 2020 and completed at end of March 2021, it has included 250 clinical <br>specimens as burn swabs from inpatients with burn infections admitted in four hospitals in Baghdad. <br>The results of selective media, biochemical tests, and Vitek2 system identified 40 isolates (16%) as K. <br>pneumoniae from all collected bacterial cultures. The results of the antimicrobial susceptibility test by <br>using the disc diffusion method for the isolates under study showed that K. pneumoniae clinical isolates <br>were moderate resistant to the majority of the antibiotics tested. The majority of K. pneumoniae isolates <br>were high resistant to Erythromycin (100%) and Ceftazidime (85%), also, it was obvious resistance to <br>Ceftriaxone, Cefepime and Cefotaxime, while the lowest percentage of resistance was for Impenem <br>(25%) and Meropenem (38%). The results of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of indolicidine <br>against (10) K. pneumoniae isolates which multidrug resistant and formed the strong biofilm, revealed <br>that range of concentrations of indolicidin was (0.7-100 µg/ml) and it was obvious that there is a <br>significant effect of indolicdin on the growth of K. pneumoniae at very low concentrations. In this <br>study, we believe that the development of these antimicrobial peptides may become a new generation <br>of urgently needed antimicrobials that can overcome bacterial resistance mechanisms.</p> Noor Ibrahim Zaidan Kais Kassim Ghaima Hayder Mazin Rasool Al-Haboobi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 282 290 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17973 The Relationship between Stress Level and Nutritional Status of Students at SMP Negeri 56 Surabaya <p>Background: Stress prevalence increases by 5% in 15-year-olds and over in Surabaya. Stress causing <br>negative effects is called distress. It may affect teenagers’ nutritional status without considering their <br>diet, leading to growth inhibition if it occurs continuously. It follows Riskesdas’s (2013) data stating <br>that 13-15-year-olds have a nutritional status of 3.3% very thin, 7.8% thin, 8.3% overnutrition, and <br>2.5% obese. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the relationship between stress level and nutritional <br>status at SMP Negeri 56 Surabaya due to its dense academic and non-academic activities. Based on <br>, several students hurt themselves using a blade due to psychological problems. Methods: <br>This study used an observational analytical study design through a cross-sectional approach. Data <br>collection was performed using the DASS-21 questionnaire and weight and height measurements, then <br>analyzed using the Pearson Correlation or Rank Spearman test. Conclusion: the stress level was not <br>related to the nutritional status of eighth-grade students of SMP Negeri 56 Surabaya, observed from the <br>current nutritional status (BB/U), past nutritional status (TB/U), and body proportion (IMT/U).</p> Rani Lauriencia Permatasari Sri Umijati Khairina Izzatul Fithriyah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 29`1 297 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17974 Meta Analysis: Relationship of Husband’s Knowledge and Support During Pregnancy with Antenatal Care (ANC) Visits by Pregnant Mothers <p>Antenatal Care (ANC) is a health service by trained health workers for mothers during their pregnancy, <br>which must be carried out routinely, according to standards and in an integrated manner. ANC services <br>are indispensable and recommended for pregnant women in order to maintain the health of the mother <br>and fetus during pregnancy, detect and treat abnormalities early and prepare the mother for safe <br>delivery. In fact, there are still many pregnant women who do not access ANC services according to <br>standards, so this situation can contribute to morbidity and mortality rate (MMR).The research was <br>conducted in November 2020 – March 2021 by searching for secondary data from two electronic <br>databases, namely Google Scholer and Pubmed (2015 to 2020). Studies were selected through the <br>PRISMA protocol and critically assessed using JBI’s Critical Appraisal Tool. Test for heterogeneity, <br>summary effect and publication bias using the JASP application version 0.14.1. Odd ratio with 95% <br>confidence level (CI) was used to calculate the effect size. From the selected data, the husband’s <br>knowledge and support factors have quite a lot of differences in research results, so it is necessary to <br>re-analyze the relationship of husband’s knowledge and support during pregnancy with ANC visits by <br>pregnant women to produce more accurate conclusions. Based on the inclusion criteria, there were 17 <br>studies that could be included in the meta-analysis, with 3.956 respondents from Indonesia, Ethiopia <br>and Vietnam. Homogeneous data with the combined OR value of knowledge of pregnant women with <br>ANC visits is 2,48 (95% CI; 2,01-3,03) and the relationship of husband’s support during pregnancy <br>with ANC visits is 2,03 (95% CI; 1,65-2,51), and there are publications biased. This meta-analysis <br>confirms that there is a significant positive relationship between husband’s knowledge and support <br>during pregnancy and ANC visits.</p> Rizka Yuli Wahyuni ZairinNoor Roselina Panghiyangan Husaini Meitria Syahadatina Noor Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 298 309 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17976 Use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in Health Facilities During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Case of Morocco <p>Background: The Covid-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented global crisis. It has placed many strains on <br>the health systems of countries around the world. They had to, among other things, fight simultaneously against <br>this pandemic, treat the affected people, preserve the rest of the population, while continuing to take care of <br>the other patients. Faced with this situation, the development of the use of ICT in health establishments is a <br>necessity today more than ever in order to limit any kind of contamination in hospitals, especially that caused <br>by the spread of covid-19 on the one hand, and to digitize the relationship between caregiver and patient on <br>the other hand. All these challenges require the availability of digital tools in health institutions and require <br>health professionals well informed and trained in this sense. In this respect, the use of digital tools and telehealth <br>(E-health, telemedicine, telecare....) is a priority step to consolidate health systems, as these new technologies <br>allow patients to receive accessible, safe and adapted virtual care.Objective: The aim of our study is to evaluate <br>the level of adaptation of the Moroccan health system to the covid-19 pandemic through the use of information <br>and communication technologies (ICT) in health facilities (hospitals and primary health care facilities), in order to <br>combat coronavirus contamination in the latter (stop contamination: professional to professional, professional to <br>patient and patient to patient). Methods: The online questionnaire technique allowed us to collect 500 responses <br>from health professionals spread over all Moroccan regions. Results: (86%) of the interviewees declared the <br>existence of a covid-19 service within their institutions, with a majority of (91%) never received training in the <br>use of ICT. (51%) of the health, professionals confirmed the absence of digital tools in the covid-19 services. <br>(87%) announced that the covid-19 services do not have applications for the registration of patients suspected <br>or affected by SARS covid-19. In addition, (79%) of the respondents expressed their dissatisfaction with the use <br>of ICT. In the same context, (72%) of the participants stated that the use of ICT can limit the spread of SARS <br>covid-19 in health facilities. <br>Conclusion: The health crisis has confirmed the importance of digitalization in the health sector. To do so, the <br>state must place digital tools at the center of its interests as a major reform project for the Moroccan health system. <br>The adoption of new technologies in the health sector can help health care practitioners to efficiently provide <br>quality care to patients in order to limit any kind of contamination.</p> Rouani Abdeljabbar Al Ibrahimi el Mehdi Lamri Driss Himmi Bennacer Elouakfaoui Aziz Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 310 318 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17979 The Role of IL-5, IL-33 and Total IgE in a Sample of Workers Suffering from Paints and Mills Asthmatic Patients <p>A case-control retrospective study was conducted during November 2020 on 88 asthmatic patients (38 <br>male mill and 50 male paints workers)with age ranged between (15-25),and 44 control with age ranged <br>between (15-25)years to assess the role of total IgE ,interleukine5(IL-5),and interleukin33(IL-33)serum <br>levels in pathophysiology of disease using ELISA and multiplex immunoblot kits. Some hematological <br>changes such as(Eosinophil and Basophil%)by Beckman coulter. The patients’ samples were obtained <br>from Nature Dyes Company Ltd in the industrial region of Aweerij Industrial, as well as Al-Dora flour <br>mill in Baghdad, which is part of the general company for grain processing. The tests were carried out at <br>the Specialized Center of Allergy in Baghdad/Al-Rusafa from October 2020 to April 2021. Specialized <br>respiratory disorders and Asthma diagnose these cases, which are clinically diagnosed according to <br>international guide lines. The present study confirms the highly significant role of total IgE and IL5,IL-33 levels compared with control in pathophysiology of bronchial asthma and it correlation with <br>disease severity and allergen type in adults. Results showed that there were highly significant increase in <br>Eosinophil and basophil % in cases asthma of paints and mills patients with control group. In addition, <br>there were a positive correlation between Eosinophil and Basophil in asthma of paints, and in asthma of <br>mills. There was positive correlation between total IgE with IL-5 and IL-33 in asthmatic group.</p> Ruaa Adnan Ali Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 319 325 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17981 The Relation between the Plasma Level of Testosterone Hormone and the Severity of COVID-19 in Iraqi Patients <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 discovered in December 2019, Wuhan, China. It was transmitted globally <br>producing the present COVID-19 pandemic. Concerns have been raised about the potential impact <br>of COVID-19 on male reproductive organs and male fertility as the number of infections in the male <br>community has increased. The objectives of current study are studying the relationship between the <br>plasma levels of testosterone and the markers of immune reaction with the severity and mortality in <br>a sample of COVID-19 patients. A cross section study included NO= 103 male patients affected by <br>SARS- CoV-2 pneumonia, diagnosed by PCR and chest CT scan, (≥ 18 years old), and recovered <br>in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). Several biochemical risk factors were determined Free <br>Testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent <br>Assay(ELISA), D-dimer, Ferritin, CRP, Urea, Creatinine were measured by automated method by <br>using Abbott Architect c4000 and Complete Blood Count(CBC). The results show that the serum free <br>testosterone and SHBG levels a significant lower in non-survivor patients than survivor patients with <br>COVID-19. While the other biomarkers (D-dimer, Ferritin, Urea, Creatinine) were significant higher in <br>non-survivor patients than survivor patients. The CRP, WBC and lymphocyte showed that no significant <br>between the both group of patients. In conclusion the study showed that lower free testosterone and <br>SHBG levels enable significant role in increasing risk of COVID-19 mortality amongst adult male <br>patients</p> Rusul A. Abass Manal K Rasheed Ghassan T. Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 326 333 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17983 The Effects of Water Provision and Education on Students’ Hydration Status, Cognitive Abilities, and Fine Motor Function in A Full-Day Primary School <p>Background/aim: Dehydration due to inadequate water intake in children may disrupt brain functions. <br>This study aimed to investigate the effects of hydration education with water provision on hydration <br>status, cognitive functions and motor performance. <br>Materials and Methods: Forty-eight children in primary full-day school (age 8 – 11 years) were <br>recruited in this study. The intervention of hydration education was performed for two days, both for <br>students and teachers. The water was provision for 12 days. Letter cancellation task (LCT), symbol <br>digit modalities test (SDMT), and direct image different test (DIDT) were used to assess cognitive <br>functions. Motor performance was evaluated using a finger tapping test (FTT). Hydration status was <br>determined with urine specific gravity (USG) and urine color (UC). Before and after interventions, all <br>parameters were evaluated.<br>Results: Most students found dehydrated (&gt;65%). The students had lower USG and UC after the <br>intervention and it was correlated with each other (before; rs=0.45, P = 0.001 and after; rs=0.82, P = <br>0.001). All cognitive and motor functions were significantly higher after an intervention (P &lt; 0.05). <br>Conclusion: Hydration education to students and teachers combined with water provision at primary <br>full-day school increases hydration status and enhances cognitive and fine motor skills.</p> Saidah Rauf Santi Aprilian Lestaluhu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 334 342 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17984 Effect of Lifestyle Modification Guidelines on Mild Preeclampsia <p>Background: Preeclampsia has an adverse effect on both mother and fetus, and may be life-threating <br>condition. Lifestyle modification can improve the clinical presentation of preeclampsia. Methods: <br>Aim of the current study was to examine the effect of lifestyle modification guidelines on improving <br>mild preeclampsia. A Quasi-experimental design was adopted on a purposive sample of 80 pregnant <br>women with mild preeclampsia at the antenatal outpatient unit in Port Said Maternity Hospital, they <br>were assigned into two groups; the study group received lifestyle modification guidelines alongside the <br>routine care and pharmacological management, while the control group received the routine care and <br>pharmacological management. Two tools were used for data collection, Interviewing Questionnaire <br>Sheet and Follow Up Assessment Sheet. Results: The findings showed that lifestyle modifications <br>guidelines lowering the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, gestational weight gain, and <br>proteinuria. Also, reducing risk of delivery before 34 weeks of gestation by 10.0%, delivery from <br>34 to 36 weeks of gestation by 30.0%, altered liver function by 22.5%, altered kidney function by <br>15.0%, and cardiac symptoms by 17.5%. Conclusion: Lifestyle modification guidelines alongside with <br>routine care and pharmacological treatment are effective method in modifying mild preeclampsia and <br>its complications</p> Sally Ebrahim Rashad Ali Ragaa Ali Mohamed Abdraboo Nagat Salah Shalaby Inaam Hassan Abdelati Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 343 350 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17986 Dhikr and Prayer Guidance on Peace of Mind and Blood Pressure Control <p>Background: The Effectiveness of Dhikr and Prayer Guidance on Peace of Mind and Blood Pressure <br>Control. WHO data (2015) indicate the 1.13 billion people worldwide with hypertension. The purpose <br>of this study is to know the effectiveness of dhikr and prayer guidance on peace of mind and blood <br>pressure control in the elderly with hypertension. Methods: The research design was a quasi-experiment <br>with a pretest-posttest approach. The samples are 24 respondents. Results: The results showed that the <br>pvalue0.036 &lt;0.05 means no significant effect on the peace of mind of the elderly with hypertension in <br>the intervention group who given dhikr and prayer guidance. Pre and post blood pressure tests in the <br>intervention group obtained pvalue0.000 &lt;0.05, which means that there is an effect of the intervention <br>group variable (systole) on blood pressure. Conclusion: Dhikr and prayer instructions can be a <br>complementary therapy in overcoming mental calm and blood pressure in the elderly with hypertension.<br>We hope that the results of this study can be used as a reference material in providing therapy to patients <br>with hypertension in order to help lower blood pressure.</p> Samsualam Masriadi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 351 357 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17988 Emotional and Cognitive Impairment among Cardiac Patients - A Narrative Review <p>Cardiovascular disease is a major group of contributing 31% of global mortality rate. The lifestyle <br>changes are the key role to develop such diseases. The cardiovascular diseases are altering the life <br>style practices and need to change their routine life style. There are many related co morbidities that <br>may arise after the cardiac event. In which the emotional and cognitive co morbidities are making <br>further risk to the subsequent cardiac event. Therefore the correct and prompt treatment is needed for <br>the prevention of the co morbidities. The main aim of this narrative review is to find out the burden of <br>emotional and cognitive impairment and to find out the effect of relaxation technique on the reduction <br>of the emotional and cognitive impairment among cardiac patients. Mainly the online data sources <br>including PubMed, PubMed central, Cochrane, Medline, Google scholar were searched for the related <br>studies. The main emotional imbalance are depression and stress. In which depression is contributing the <br>major role among cardiac patients. The major pathophysiological changes after myocardial infarction <br>that lea to the emotional and cognitive symptoms are due to the reduced blood supply to brain and the <br>anaerobic metabolism. There are different complimentary therapies are there for the management of <br>the emotional co morbidities. In which the relaxation therapy is very useful therapy in the emotional <br>imbalance management.</p> Sarika M L Sasmita Das Suresh Kumar Behera Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 358 365 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17989 Molecular Detection of abaI Genes in Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Clincal Speciemens in Some Iraqi Hospitals <p>Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important causative bacteria of nosocomial infections. <br>Attention turned toward this Gram negative bacterium due to its extensive resistance to antibiotics. <br>Clinical One hundred thirty five samples sources (urine, sputum, wound burn,) were collected during <br>the period from the between from the late September 2020 to the Mid-January 2021,from patients <br>attending four hospitals in Anbar governorate which include (AlRamadi Genera Teaching ,Al- Fallujah <br>Genera Teaching and Fallujah Maternity and Children’s Hospital). Regarding to the age group factor, <br>the age group (40-49) years more susceptible to the infection is constituting 6(46.1%), followed by <br>group(30-39) years with 3(23.1%) while (20-29)(50-59) and (60-69) years with percentage at 1(7.7)%. <br>Also, the study indicated that the A.baumannii was disrupted equal in male (53.8%) and female (46.2 <br>%) with appear no significant. All specimens were cultured on culture media including blood agar and <br>MaCconkey agar. After the growth of bacteria, the isolates were identified by microscopic examination <br>as well as the biochemical tests including the manual biochemical tests that include( oxidase, catalase, <br>Simmon Citrate, Motility, Indole, Urease ,haemolysin,Lactose fermentationrowth at 44 ºC) .The <br>identification of P. mirabilis confirmed by using the VITEK-2 system. A total of 13(9.6%) isolates of <br>A.baumannii were identified,other bacteria obtained were identified as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas <br>aeruginosa, Klebsiella .pneumoniae and streptococcus spp. in percentage recorded (37%) , (22%) <br>(20.2%) and (11%) respectively. The genomic DNA of A.baumannii isolates were extracted using <br>wizard genomic DNA purification kit, the extracted genomic DNA was analyzed using 1% agarose gel <br>electrophoresis, and then the concentration and purity of the extracted genomic DNA were determined <br>using Nanodrop spectrophotometer device, to detect A.baumannii isolates by molecular methods, the <br>extracted genomic DNA of these isolates was submitted for amplification to detect the specific gene <br>Bap and abaI by the singleplex PCR assay. At the molecular level of this study, the results of PCR <br>reaction showed the presence of abaI gene in 8 (61.54%) isolates carried the gene responsible for <br>quorum sensing</p> Shahad Mahdi Salih Zainab H.Abood Al-Asady Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 366 373 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17991 Wild Strawberry Fragaria vesca L. extracts Hepatoprotective Activities Against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats <p>Background: Administration of high-dose paracetamol had been indicated to induce several molecular <br>and biochemical cascades of hepatotoxicity. The abundant amount of ROS formation following the <br>uptake of the medication exceeds the physiologic antioxidant capacity of the body, leading to the <br>occurrence of oxidative stress. Wild strawberries (Fragaria vesca L)extractsare thought to have <br>hepatoprotective activities regarding the high activity of antioxidants contained.<br>Method: Aspartate Transaminase (AST) activity was used as a marker of hepatotoxicity. In the 10 <br>days trial, randomized samples of 24 male Wistar rats (Rattus Norvegicus) were used and divided <br>into three groups: 1 group without treatment, 1 group receiving oral paracetamol 1750 mg/kg in <br>CMC-Na suspension, and 1 group receiving oral paracetamol 1750 mg/kg following administration <br>of strawberry extract 400 mg/kg. The strawberry extract was administered from day 1 to 10, while <br>high-dose paracetamol was administered on day 9. AST activity analysis was done on day 10 of the <br>trial. Significant results were found showing an increased AST activity in the paracetamol-only group <br>(p=0.001) and a decreased AST activity in the group receiving strawberry extract (p=0.001). <br>Conclusion: Fragaria vesca L extracts were proven in vivo to have hepatoprotective activities against <br>paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity</p> Sihning E. J. T Diah Purwaningsari Nita Pranitasari Liliawanti Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 374 380 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17995 Successful Treatment with Rectal tube Placement and Barium Enema in Uncomplicated Acute Sigmoid Volvulus: A Case Report <p>Sigmoid volvulus is a condition in which sigmoid colon wraps around itself and its own mesentery, <br>which then causes a closed-loop obstruction. This condition accounts for 50-90% cases of twisted <br>large intestine and often affects adults and are commonly found in males. The classic triad signs and <br>symptoms are abdominal pain, distention, and constipation. Although the emergency resection seems to <br>be the right procedure in treating acute sigmoid volvulus, there is still non-surgical treatment often done <br>in several conditions. We reported a 52-years-old male with uncomplicated acute sigmoid volvulus who <br>underwent non-surgical treatment due to his refusal of surgical therapy. Non-surgical treatment was <br>successfully done and no recurrence found within one year. The aim of this report was to emphasize <br>that non-surgical therapy only could be successfully done without surgical treatment.</p> Stevanus Immanuel Silahooij Budi Widodo Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 381 386 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17993 The Contribution of Family Cohesion And Self-Efficacy on the Mental Health of Older Adults: A Survey Conducted in Aceh, Indonesia <p>Background: Mental illness is recognized as a critical global issue and is a critical aspect of health <br>problems, especially in older adults.Many studies analyze the correlation between self-efficacy and <br>mental health. Still, studies that analyze the correlation between family cohesion and mental health <br>among older adults in Aceh remainlimited.<br>Methods: This study employeda survey method. The survey was carried out on older adults aged 60 <br>years or more by applying a cross-sectional design with the number of samples was 483. At the same <br>time, the data collection technique was done for four months in 2019. A logistic regression test was <br>conducted for statistical analysis to answer the research hypothesis.<br>Results: The finding of this study proved that family cohesion (OR&gt; 3, p&lt;0.001)and self-efficacy (OR <br>&gt; 2, p&lt;0,001) were correlated with the mental health of older adults.<br>Conclusions: The researchers conclude that families with good cohesion and older adults with high <br>self-efficacy can support and improve the mental health of older adultsin Aceh.</p> Sufyan Anwar Sukma Elida Khairunnas Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 387 394 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17998 Soluble Antimicrobial Peptide Pyocin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its Therapeutics: A Review Article <p>Pyocinsis a bacteriocin produced by a group of Gram-ngative bacteria that belongs to Pseudomonasspecies. <br>Pyocin is classified as a two distinct families of pyocins. (i) S-type pyocins (colicin-like bacteriocins), <br>(ii) Tailocins (high-molecular weight bacteriocins that resemble phage tails).The structure of S-type <br>pyocin is similar to that of colicin except that many S-type pyocins have three domains. Under normal <br>conditions, the expression of prtN is repressed by PrtR. Upon exposure to stress conditions, such as DNA <br>damage by chemicals or ultraviolet irradiation, an activated RecA triggers autoproteolytic cleavage of <br>PrtR, which abrogates prtN repression and leads to pyocinproduction. The outer membrane receptors <br>for three pyocins have been identified. These are FpvAI, FpvAII and FptA, all of which are involved <br>in the uptake of iron-siderophore complexes. Before being translocated through the membrane and <br>killing their target.This is becoming increasingly important as microbial imbalances in the natural gut <br>flora have been suggested to play a role in a range of chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel <br>disease, diabetes, obesity and rheumatoid arthritis.Pyocin has now been shown to have antimicrobial <br>activity againstbacteria in a biofilm is a limiting factor in the successful treatment of a range of chronic <br>infections</p> Sura Saleem Alberman EssamFadel Al-wan Al-Jumaili Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 395 403 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.18003 Anthropometric Measurement of Nasal Parameters in Adult Malay Population <p>Objectives: Anthropometry is notable for its suggestions in, human anatomy, forensic science, and <br>physical human studies. Human nose is an unmistakable rule in close to recognizable proof and is an <br>impression of uniqueness of each person. The information on nasal estimation is essential to clinicians <br>like maxillofacial specialists, craniofacial specialists empowering them in identification of typical or <br>strange changes, help with repair and reconstruction. Prosthetic recovery additionally requires the <br>capacity to envision the position and measurement of the nose inside the facial closeness. In this way, <br>the admittance to nasal information for every populace are worthwhile. The main intension was to <br>quantify the parameters of outer nose of adult Malay populace and to decide the critical distinction in <br>nose measurement among races.<br>Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was led on 420 people (80 Malay male, 80 Malay <br>female, 60 Indian male, 70 Indian female, 60 Chinese male and 70 Chinese female) in the age range <br>18-45 years. In this study digital caliper was utilized to identify the nasal landmarks. This research was <br>conducted that the mean of variables were statistically significant differences in nose measurement <br>scores among adult Malay population. All the average independent variables were measured and <br>compared whether differs at the same time among races and ethnic groups.<br>Results:It was discovered that nasal measurement were remarkably larger in Indian and Malay than <br>in Chinese for nasal tip protrusion, nasal height and nasal length. There were larger in Chinese than in <br>Malay for nasal width and alar base root. There were larger in Indian than in Malay for nasal width, <br>nasal height and nasal length. But there was no significant difference in nasal parameters among genders <br>of Malay populace. <br>Conclusion: Thestatisticallysignificant difference in nasal anthropometric nasal parameters were <br>found among three ethnic groups of adult Malay population. But there was no significant difference in <br>anthropometric nasal values among genders of Malay populace</p> Thin Thin Aung Kartikeya Tiwari Osama Bahaa Mahammed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 404 412 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.17999 Evaluation of Blood Parameters When Infected with Candida Albicansand Its Recovery Using Probiotics <p>Purpose: To study, blood components and some indicators of liver function were measured andCandida <br>albicans was isolated and identified from infected cows’ vagina with inflammatory signs then <br>experimentally in rabbits treated with estradiol hormone. <br>Introduction: Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast,.Candida can multiply and cause an infection <br>if the environment inside the vagina changes in a way that induces its growth.<br>Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of candida albicans isolate from cowʼ vaginitis <br>(40 samples), duration in November 2020 till May 2021 then treated with saccharomyces cerevisiae. <br>Candida albicans inoculums at 1.5 ×108 cell /ml, in non-pregnant vagainal’ Rabbits a weight (2 kg) <br>after treated with estradiol hormone for several days before the infection occurred. The experiment <br>was carried out in the microbiology laboratories in College Veterinary Medicine- the University of <br>Baghdad, the blood, liver parameters, and rabbits’ vaginal histology was studied.<br>Results: The Hb parameters in G2 showed higher significant differences ( 8.31±0.75107) compared <br>with G1(12.80 ± 2.42782), G3 (13.26 ± 1.465), G4 (12.46 ± 1.987), G5 (12.75 ± 2.128) respectively, <br>the effectiveness of the treatment with S.cerevisiae and its ability to return hemoglobin and liver <br>functions to its normal value and the treatment cause inhibitory effect of C.albicans infection, the <br>vagainal histological section in G4 showed narrow folding of mucosa thrown with mild MNCs infiltrate <br>LP and submucosa, no inflammatory cells seen in a muscular layer or in the serosa. <br>Conclusion: The study proved the effectiveness by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and treating rabbits <br>vaginal infection with pathogenic Candida albicans, that Injected estradiol hormone S\C then, recovery <br>the blood and liver parameters to their normal condition, in addition, the treatment of vaginal tissue and <br>its return to its normal state</p> Umniyahqays jasim Dalia abdalkareem Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 413 424 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.18011 Impact of Dietary Ginger and Ginseng Powder in Broiler Diet on the Physiological Traits and Immune Response of Avian Influenza <p>The study aimed to investigate the synergistic effect of dietary ginger (Gn) and ginseng (Gs) powder <br>on performanceandevaluate the immune response to Avian Influenza(AI) vaccinein broilers. A total <br>of 160 unsexed broiler chicks (Ross 308) at one day- old were randomly divided to four equal groups <br>with two replicates. The chicks of the 1st group (control) were fed on a basal diet. The 2ndgroup fed <br>on a basal diet with adding Gn at (5gm/ kg feed). The 3rdgroup was fed on a basal diet with adding Gs <br>(5gm / kg feed). While the chicks of the 4thgroup were fed on a basal diet with adding Gn and Gsat <br>(2.5 gm/kg feed) of each. Immune response against AIwas measured at aged (5, 15, 25 and 35) days, <br>while hematological and biochemical tests were measuredat the end of the experiment. The results <br>showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in 2ndgroup in the total protein and globulin concentrations as <br>compared to other groups and control at 35 days old. No significant differencein albumin concentration, <br>liver enzymes (ALT, AST). Also, the 2nd and 4th groups recorded a significant increase in WBC, RBC, <br>Hb and PCV%, as well as, the superiority in the Abagainst the AI at 35 days of age as compared to the <br>other groups. Finding of the current study indicated that groups which receiving dietary Gn and Gs <br>powder showed better health and higher Ab against AI disease vaccine</p> Vian A.A.M. Hussein Mushtaq T. Abdulwahid Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 425 432 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.18014 Pharmaceutical Nano-Delivery Systems: A Review <p>Nanotechnology is the science that deals with the processes that occurs at molecular level and of nanolength scale size.Reduction of drugs toxicity and enhancement of their bioavailability, biocompatibility, <br>stability and appropriate release are of high opportunities to be accomplished by size reduction, which <br>make pharmaceutical field highly interesting in nanotechnology. Formulation and preparation of highly <br>advanced nano-materials as drug delivery systems achieve the desired therapeutic objective. Current <br>review will discuss in brief types of pharmaceutical nano-sized drug delivery systems by focusing on <br>the specificity and the nature of each type.</p> Wissam S. Mahmod Essam FadelAlwan Al-Jumaili Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 433 439 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.18017 The Legal Responsibility to the Family for Shackling People with Mental Illness During the Covid-19 Pandemic <p>During the COVID-19 pandemic until June 2020, there were 277,000 mental health cases in Indonesia. <br>The number increase compared to 2019. The number of shackling due to mental illness increased <br>from 5,200 in 2019 to 6,200 in 2020. Shackling is strictly prohibited because it violates the law and <br>human rights. Criminal sanctions in Article 333 of the Criminal Code are prepared for those who <br>shackle people with mental illness. The punishment stipulated in this article is also applied to people <br>who intentionally give space to the deprivation of other people’s freedom.The program of “Indonesia <br>Shackle-Free” was launched in 2010, the target was forced to be pushed back until 2019 and remains <br>challenging to achieve. The number of shackling increases due to a lack of public understanding of <br>mental health. This paper aims to explore further the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and <br>the condition of people with mental illnesses (ODGJ) in Indonesia. Another impact of the COVID-19 <br>pandemic on ODGJ is drug withdrawal because of the disruption of drug circulation during the <br>pandemic. The allocation of health financing is also focused on dealing with the pandemic.Promotive <br>efforts are expected to eliminate stigma, discrimination, and human rights violations for ODGJ in the <br>community. Whereas, preventive efforts by developing parenting styles that support mental growth and <br>development, communication, and education in the family are expected to provide appropriate mental <br>health services for ODGJ when entering the rehabilitation stage</p> Yuna Ariawan Cempaka Dewi Ratih Wulansari Manuaba Chandranita Manuaba Mokhamad Khoirul Huda Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 440 446 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.18022 Molecular Study Using Real Time PCR to Detect Influenza Viruses (Flu A, Flu B and RSV) in Patients at Ramadi Hospital <p>Background: Because of the increasing incidence of infections with different types of influenza of<br>various types, type A, B, and SRV, this study included investigating the type of infection in influenza<br>in women and men in different age groups and making a comparison between them. Methodology: 90<br>blood samples were collected, including 30 samples for men 30 samples for women showing clinical<br>symptoms of infection, and 30 samples from people with clinical symptoms under control. These<br>samples were placed in tubes containing an anticoagulant to ensure that blood does not clot DNA/RNA<br>extraction kit, CerTest, Spanish Company and detection by Flu A, Flu B and RSV, CerTest, Spanish<br>Company by using real time PCR. Result: Table 1 shows the investigation of some types of influenza<br>in women who showed symptoms of infection and who are between 20 to 40 years old, where the<br>frequency of infection in women between the ages of 20-30 years was high with types Flu A, SRV<br>compared with control and did not show infection with type B for the same Age group . As for women<br>aged between 30-40 years, the frequency of type B infection was high compared to control, and there<br>were no infections with Flu a and SRV for the same age group .</p> Abbas O. Al.janabi Mohammed Amer Fayyadh Aseel Khalid Hameed Najeeb Mohammed Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 447 455 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.18069 Anti-Hyperlipidemia Effects of Sijukkot Leaf Extract Ethanol (Lactuca Indica) <p>Lactuca indica from Indonesia (Humbang Hasundutan) is a plant used to treat as antihyperlipidemia :<br>Cholesterol, Trigliserida (TG), High Density Lippoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lippoprotein (LDL),<br>on 28 male rats of the wistar strain (Rattus norvegicus) that have been given high-fat diets were given to<br>3 control groups, namely rats given standard feed, groups of rats given standard and high-fat diets, and<br>groups of rats given simvastatin with treatment for 21 days. The groups with different doses were 100<br>mg/kg bw, 200 mg/kg bw, 300 mg/kg bw and 400 mg/kg bw. Giving the ethanol extract of the leaves of<br>the sijukkot plant has an effect on reducing total cholesterol levels. With the analysis obtained that the<br>Shapiro-Wilk Normality Test with a sig value &gt; 0.05, the data is normally distributed. The results of the<br>analysis in the Test of Homogeneity of Variances table obtained a Sig value of 0.510. Cholesterol Sig<br>Value 0.510 &gt; 0.05; TG 0.102&gt;0.05; HDL 0.01 &lt;0.05 and LDL 0.257&gt; 0.05. Thus, the ethanolic extract<br>of sijukkot leaves gave a positive effect on cholesterol levels in the serum lipid profile of High Density<br>Lippoprotein (HDL and Low Density Lippoprotein (LDL).</p> Ida Duma Riris Saronom S ilaban Marini Damanik Nora Susanti Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 16 2 456 462 10.37506/ijfmt.v16i2.18090