Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology <p>Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology is a double-blind peer reviewed international journal. The frequency is quarterly. It deals with Forensic Medicine, Forensic Science, Toxicology, DNA fingerprinting, sexual medicine, environmental medicine, Forensic Pathology, legal medicine and public health laws. It has been assigned International standard serial No. p-0973-9122 and e-0973-9130. The Journal has been assigned RNI No. DELENG/2008/21789.The journal is also abstracted in Chemical Abstracts (CAS) database. The journal is also indexed /abstracted with many databases. </p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> Institute of Medico-legal Publications Pvt Ltd en-US Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 0973-9122 <p><strong>Re use and mixing of content policy</strong>- We follow Creative Commons Licence Policy. We follow CC BY. Please refer below for all details</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>CC BY</strong></p> <p>This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon our work, even commercially, as long as they credit us for the original creation.</p> <ol> <li>The journal allows readers to <em>read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles</em> and allow readers to <em>use them for any other lawful purpose</em>.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions</li> </ol> Psychological Aspects in Terms of Physical, Mental and Sociological Factors During Worldwide Corona Crisis <p>Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a viral disease affecting the respiratory system , cause by coronavirus.<br>The epidemic lasted for 2 years till May 2004 when WHO declared China to be free of new cases but stated<br>that “ biosafety concerns remain” In 2019, SARS-CoV-2 was discovered which later in the present have<br>caused the COVID-19 pandemic. The first case was identified in Wuhan, china and which later on turned<br>to worldwide pandemic. The WHO had declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international<br>concern on 30 January 2020 and a PANDEMIC on 11th march 2020.<br>Considering the present scenario , there are certain articles over the internet and journals which have given<br>us a bunch of ideas over different aspects of life. Some of the long list of concepts are physical health, mental<br>health, local market uprising, and concept of work from home .<br>Based on gathered information via discussions, surveys and personal interactions with thousands of<br>individuals, differing in age, by gender and by occupations, these hereby key points and key lessons have<br>come to light and here is a brief description in terms of physical health , mental health, effect of lockdown<br>on local market and effect of work from home on people.</p> Akanksha Mandal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1 5 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14258 Anatomical Variation of Superficial Branch of Radial Nerve in Gujrat Region <p>Introduction: Radial nerve carried fibres entirely roots fifth cervical roots to first thoracic of brachial plexus.<br>It supplies posterior (extensors compartment) of upper limb.<br>Material and Method: The current study were escort working 30 human anatomy cadavers 9i (bilateral) from<br>anatomy department, Government. Medical college, vadodara of Gujarat region. The procedure dissection<br>carry out in the course of post graduation work, anatomy department to exit out the anatomical variations of<br>bifurcation of superficial branch of radial nerve in relation with lateral epicondyle of Humerus.9i<br>Results: 9i The current study notice anatomical variations of bifurcation of superficial branch of radial nerve<br>in relation with lateral epicondyle of Humerus.9i<br>Both side right and left dissections carried out. In sixteen specimen shows that level of bifurcation of radial<br>nerve at level of lateral epicondyle.<br>In six specimen shows that level of bifurcation of radial nerve above the level of lateral epicondyle.<br>In eight specimen shows that level of bifurcation of radial nerve below the level of lateral epicondyle.<br>Pictures variations of radial nerve taken with.<br>Conclusion: Afterwards the study tasks of thirty human anatomy cadaveric upper limbs the dissimilar<br>anatomical variations in the level of bifurcation distribution of superficial branch of radial nerve were came<br>across. The external branch of the radial nerve is frequently damaged peripheral nerve succeeding the spinal<br>accessory , common peroneal nerves &amp; controllable to restoration.</p> Nirali Chavda K.M. Parmar Hetal Vaishanani Kinjal Jethva Priyanka Sharma A.R.Gandotra Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 6 10 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14260 Combined Effect of Neural Tissue Mobilization and Deep Friction Massage in Piriformis Syndrome: A Research Protocol <p>Background:- Piriformis syndrome is the musculoskeletal condition which is characterized by pain along<br>with tingling and numbness which results because of compression of piriformis muscle. Various treatment<br>approaches are present for treating the piriformis syndrome but neural tissue mobilisation is manual therapy<br>similar to joint mobilisation. Deep friction massage is used to breakdown adhesion and release of scar<br>tissues. This study protocol has been created to find out the combined effect of neural tissue mobilization<br>and deep friction massage in piriformis syndrome.<br>Methods:-- On the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria 30 participants between 20-60 years of age<br>having piriformis syndrome will be select for study and are classified into two groups. Group A (n-15) for<br>Neural Tissue Mobilisation, Group B (n-15) for Neural Tissue Mobilisation and Deep Friction Massage.<br>Outcome measure are Oswestry Disability Index, Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Range of motion of hip<br>joint. Follow up of the participants are done after every 2 days and treatment duration is of 10 days.<br>Discussion:- Effect of intervention will be analyzed by Numerical Pain Rating Scale, Oswestry Disability<br>Index and Range of Motion of Hip joint. The result of this study will significantly provide the affirmation of<br>Neural Tissue Mobilisation with Deep Friction Massage in Piriformis Syndrome.</p> Vrushali K. Athawale Divya Jethwani Moh’d Irshad Qureshi Ragini Dadgal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 11 16 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14261 Police Brutality and Custodial Torture in Technological Era: Need for Anti-Torture Law in India - A Critical Analysis <p>Police audacity and brutality is not an uncommon phenomenon. It has caught the attention of the public<br>and the judiciary and eventually a catena of directions was promulgated by the National Human Rights<br>Commissions (NHRC), High Courts as well as the Supreme Court of India right from the ancient era to<br>technological era. Yet, the menace and inhumane attitude of the police officials have not declined; instead, it<br>is increasing day by day and one step ahead, Tamil Nadu has seen the worst of its effect that has resulted in<br>the death of an innocent father and his son. This incident has grabbed the attention of not only the State of<br>Tamil Nadu but also the entire Nation. In this situation, the authors intend to analyse the power of the police<br>to manhandle the public, the liabilities and responsibilities of the police in case of death caused by such<br>brutality, and third-degree methods used by the police. This article ponders on the question Does the police<br>have the power to torture the public for any reasons whatsoever? If so, what are the limitations placed on<br>the powers of the police while harassing the public? and so on… the authors aspire to analyse the duties of<br>the police while making the arrest, the duties of the magistrates while ordering for judicial custody, and the<br>authors also intend to suggest the remedial measures to curb the menace of lockup deaths.<br>Aim and Scope: To know the powers of the police to torture the public under the guise of investigation, to<br>know the judicial approach to curtail the menace of torture by the police, and its implications and to know<br>the feasibilities of technologies to be implemented during the investigating process.<br>Method: For the purpose of the research, secondary data such as books, articles, news papers, case laws, and<br>legal provisions of Indian Laws are collected and analysed.<br>Conclusion: In spite of the Constitutional and statutory provisions including International Conventions,<br>decision and directions promulgated by the Apex Court of India and the NHRC, there is a constant increase<br>in the custodial torture, custodial death and custodial ill-treatment which is a disturbing factor that causes<br>deep anxiety in the society. The Prevention of Anti-Torture Act is the need of the hour</p> A. Nirmal Singh Heera Rajasathya K.R N. Prabhavathi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 17 24 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14262 Study of Socio-Demographic Profile of Thoraco-Abdominal Injuries in Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Mangalore City <p>Background: Victims in road traffic accidents sustain large varieties of thoracic and abdominal injuries.<br>This post mortem study of profile of thoraco-abdominal injuries, type, pattern and nature of external and<br>internal injuries involved will be an attempt to highlight the trends in this region. This study is aimed to study<br>socio-demographic profile of victims died due to fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents<br>in Mangalore city. Material and Methods: Present study was a record based retrospective autopsy study<br>carried autopsies that had thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents. Results: 247<br>cases sustained thoraco-abdominal injuries in RTA were studied. The most common age group was 20 – 29<br>(21.8%) years followed by 30 -39 years (20.2%). Male victims (85.02%) were more compared to females<br>(14.98%) and male: female ratio was 5.6: 1. Most cases were happened on city roads (38.5%) &amp; pedestrians<br>comprise the greatest number of victims involving 46% cases. 69% cases had thoracic trauma with signs of<br>external injuries while external abdominal injuries were present on 54% cases. 199 (81%) cases sustained<br>internal injuries to thorax. 55% cases were associated with external injuries of thorax and 26% cases are<br>without external injuries. Most common injuries were fractures of ribs (60 %), injuries to lungs (38%) &amp;<br>injuries to heart (23%). There were 136 (55%) cases of internal abdominal injuries, most common organ<br>injured was liver (38%), followed by spleen (17%) &amp; abdominal wall (14%). Conclusion: The present study<br>was undertaken to focus light upon socio-demographic profile of thoraco-abdominal injuries in fatal road<br>traffic accidents. Maximum numbers of the victims in the present study were males (85 %) in the age group<br>of 20-39 years (42%), reported in city roads (39%), during summer season. Maximum numbers of victims<br>were pedestrians (46%).</p> Abymon K K Mohd Amjad Bhat Azia Manzoor Bhat Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 25 31 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14263 Study of Mortality Due to Thoraco-Abdominal Injuries in Road Traffic Accidents in Mangalore City <p>Background: After the strict implementation of helmet rule the number of head injuries due to road traffic<br>accidents has subsequently decreased, but injuries sustained to thoracic and abdominal regions are still<br>on the rise. This post mortem study of profile of thoraco-abdominal injuries, type, pattern and nature of<br>external and internal injuries involved will be an attempt to highlight the trends of mortality due to thoracoabdominal injuries associated with road accidents in Mangalore city. Material and Methods: Present study<br>was autopsy record based retrospective study conducted deaths associated with thoracic-abdominal injuries<br>that have definite history of road traffic accidents. Results: From 247 deaths of RTA victims who sustained<br>thoraco-abdominal injuries, most common age group was 20 – 29 (21.8%) years, male: female ratio was 5.6:<br>1. 21 % of cases were spot dead or dead on arrival to hospital, 60 % of cases died within 24 hours. 68.8%<br>cases had thoracic trauma with signs of external injuries such as abrasions (60.7%), contusion (10.5%) and<br>laceration (10.2%). External abdominal injuries were present on 54.2% cases, 48.9% cases had abrasion<br>followed by contusion in 8.9% cases and laceration in 6.5% cases. 199 (80.6%) cases sustained internal<br>injuries to thorax. Fractures of ribs were present on 59.5% cases. Injuries to lungs sustained in 37.2% cases<br>and to heart in 22.6% cases. 136 (55.1%) cases of internal abdominal injuries, most common organ injured<br>was liver (38%), followed by spleen (17%) &amp; abdominal wall (14%). Among the 247 cases, cause of death<br>in 47% cases was head injury followed by thoraco-abdominal injury (20%), head injury and thoracic injury<br>(8%), only thoracic injury (7%), abdominal injury (6%). Conclusion: The present study maximum numbers<br>of the victims were males, from age group of 20-39 years, reported on city roads, pedestrians, noted in<br>summer season and cause of death was head injury followed by thoraco-abdominal injuries.</p> Abymon K K Mohd Amjad Bhat Azia Manzoor Bhat Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 32 37 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14264 Pattern of Thoraco-Abdominal Injuries in Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Mangalore City <p>Background: After the strict implementation of helmet rule the number of head injuries due to road traffic<br>accidents has subsequently decreased, but injuries sustained to thoracic and abdominal regions are still on the<br>rise. Because of their size and anatomical position, they are major regions of trauma in road traffic accidents.<br>This post mortem study of profile of thoraco-abdominal injuries, type, pattern and nature of external and<br>internal injuries involved, was an attempt to highlight the trends &amp; pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries in<br>fatal road traffic accidents in Mangalore city. Material and Methods: Present study was a retrospective,<br>autopsy-record based study of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents. Details<br>of deceased individuals such as age, sex, information furnished by the police in the inquest papers (form<br>146 (i) &amp; (ii)), autopsy findings, investigation reports if any and cause of death were noted in proforma.<br>Results: During study period among 4271 cases 859 cases (20%) were due to road traffic accidents. Out of<br>these 859 cases of road traffic accidents 247 cases (29%) sustained thoraco-abdominal injuries. 38.5% cases<br>happened on city roads &amp; pedestrians were most common victims (45.8%). Most common injuries were<br>fractures of ribs (60%), followed by injuries to lungs (37%) cases and injuries to heart (23%). Crush injuries<br>were observed in 6% of cases. There were 136 (55%) cases of internal abdominal injuries, most common<br>organ injured was liver (38%), followed by spleen (17%) &amp; abdominal wall (14%). Among the 247 cases,<br>most common cause of death was head injury (47%) followed by thoraco- abdominal injury (20%), head<br>injury and thoracic injury (8%), only thoracic injury (7%), abdominal injury (6%). Conclusion: Most fatal<br>accidents were reported on city roads, in summer season and cause of death was head injury followed by<br>thoraco-abdominal injuries. Ribs, lungs and Liver were the organs most commonly injured.</p> Abymon K K Mohd Amjad Bhat Azia Manzoor Bhat Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 38 42 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14265 An Ayurvedic Approach for Treatment of Fissure in Ano: A Case Report of 32 Year Old Patient <p>Anal Fissure is one of the major causes for pain at anal region. In this case report we are presenting case of<br>32 year old male patient came to OPD of Shalya tantra with the chief complains of pain during defection<br>since 20days, itching at perianal region since 15 days and bleeding per rectum since 13 days. InterventionIn this case report patient is treated by using Go ghrita for the management of acute fissure in ano. Go<br>ghrita was used for local application along with sitz bath.The effectiveness of Go ghrita was assessed by<br>pain bleeding itching and healing. The patient has found effective relief from pain, bleeding, itching at<br>perianal region using Go ghrita which has anti-inflammatory activity, antiulcer activity. The outcome of this<br>management is that Go ghrita is effective in the management of Fissure in ano . Patients who take all followup after treatment will have less chance of symptom reoccurrence.</p> Alok kumar Diwedi Kiran Khandare Rakesh Khatana Harjodh Singh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 43 46 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14266 Ozone Therapy - A Boon to Dental Sciences <p>Ozone therapy has successfully being used in the medical field for the treatment of various diseases for more<br>than a decade. The versatility of ozone therapy, its unique properties like biocompatibility, antimicrobial,<br>anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, non-invasive nature, atraumatic, relative absence of side effects or<br>adverse reactions, and better patient compliance were responsible for its widespread dental and medical use.<br>Ozone (O3) is used in dentistry as gas, ozonated water and as ozonated oils. This review of literature is an<br>attempt to summarize its therapeutic potential in dentistry</p> Talukdar Alpana Kalim Ullah Rabha Arup Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 47 51 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14267 Hyperammonaemia in Absence of Deranged Liver Enzymes with Valproate: A Case Report <p>Valproate is used for various neurological and psychiatric conditions. It has various adverse effects, most<br>of which are mild and transient, however, hyperammonaemia in the absence of abnormal liver function<br>is an uncommon and life-threatening side effect. The exact mechanism for this is unknown, but several<br>mechanisms have been described for the same. We present a case of 11-year-old male patient belonging<br>to a broken family. Initially he was diagnosed as a case of ADHD with conduct disorder. However due to<br>non-response to medications, over time, a EEG was done and was found to have generalised epileptiform<br>discharges, He was maintaining well on Valproate, but had an acute exacerbation of symptoms on being<br>off medications for 2 weeks and grandmother restarting Valproate in high dose. Response to the treatment<br>provided to the patient was rewarding.</p> Amit B. Nagdive Prakash B. Behere Siddharth Sethi Rouchelle Fernandes Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 52 55 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14268 Assessment of Anxiety during COVID-19 Pandemic among General Population of India <p>Introduction -The coronavirus COVID-19 illness makes a very unpredictable future the main psychological<br>effect is elevated rates of anxiety, because of pandemic and the lockdown.<br>Aim -The aimed of the study was to Assess the level of anxiety during COVID-19 among general population<br>in India.<br>Methodology -A Snowball sampling technique was used to collect the samples from different state and<br>union territory of India. Total 829 participants respond and enrolled themselves in the study. Participants in<br>the study belong to 27 states or union territories of India and majority of them are from Delhi.<br>Result-Most of the Participant in the study was female (54%), graduate (51%), age between 18-28 (60%)<br>and Hindu (89.3%). Half of the participant were having minimal anxiety (57.1%) nearly one fourth of<br>the participant were having Mild anxiety (28.5%) and least number of participants were having Moderate<br>anxiety (11.0%) and Severe anxiety (3.5%).There was no significant association of Anxiety scores with<br>Socio-demographic variable except place of stay, suffering from any health problem and During lockdown<br>period time spent in watching news related to corona (COVID-19) on mobile, laptop, television etc.<br>Conclusion-The study concluded the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Cause anxiety<br>among the people. Understanding the risk to yourself and people you care about can make an outbreak less<br>adverse effect on mental and physical health of the people</p> Anamika Gautam Poonam Ahlawat Shikha Sharma Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 56 61 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14271 A Conceptual Study on Prevention & Management of Covid -19 Pandemic with Special Reference to Janapadodwamsa <p>Introduction: Ayurveda being one of the oldest surviving Medical Tradition, has a key role to play in<br>this crucial situation.Covid-19 it is not a simple infectious disease it is a pandemic disease caused by<br>Coronavirus which reflects in human but stay as a host in animals. These viruses contain seven different<br>strains; of which SARS-COV-2 is responsible for Covid-19. Its spread through droplets via air due<br>to sneezing, cough, talking and direct or indirect contact with an infected patient such as handshake,<br>touch surfaces contact by an infected person. This virus causes the severe acute respiratory syndrome.<br>Its incubation period varies between 2 to 14 days, the disease can transmit from symptoms less person<br>to person. Material &amp; Methods: Covid-19research information was collected from the world health<br>organization, books, research papers, journals. Ayurveda literature from reference books, internet, and<br>opinions of experts utilize as a review. Observations and Results: COVID-19 can be provisionally<br>understood from the Ayurvedic perspective as v?takapha dominant sannip?tajvara of ?gantu origin<br>with pitt?nubandha. The asymptomatic, presymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe and critical stages of<br>COVID-19 with varying clinical presentations have been analysed on the basis of nid?na, do?a, d??ya,<br>nid?napañcaka and ?a?kriy?k?la. Conclusion: It will be good to take preventive measures which boost<br>our immunity in these times. Ayurveda extensive knowledge base on preventive care by which each<br>individual can achieve by uplifting and maintain his or her immunity. In Ayurveda, Immunity comes under<br>the heading of Vyadhiksamatwa. In Ayurveda, many single drugs or compound formulation were mentioned<br>as Rasayana to boost up Immunity (Bala or Vyadhiksamatwa).</p> Anamika Khatana Rakesh Khatana Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 62 66 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14272 The Use of Information Gained under RTI Act- 2005 in Forensics and Toxicology- An Indian Perspective <p>The role of forensic reports are to prove without doubt in the court the cause of death, injury nature of death<br>or accident but courts till date do not fully rely on forensic reports as evidence. A study conducted in 2011<br>by Supreme Court and High Courts, DNA has played an important role in only 47 cases. Out of these, 23.4%<br>decisions were given by Delhi High Court alone. Furthermore, DNA evidence had been used in merely<br>4.7% murder cases and 2.3% rape and murder. The Committee on Reforms of Criminal Justice System also<br>signifies that the present stage of applicability of forensic science in crime scene investigation is somewhat<br>low in our country, with only 5-6% of the registered crime cases being referred to the Forensic Science<br>Laboratories (FSLs) and Finger Print Bureau put together.<br>Article 20(3) of the Indian constitution states that “No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to<br>be a witness against himself but the honourable Supreme Court held otherwise. In the case of The State of<br>Bombay vs Kathi Kalu Oghad And Others (AIR 1961), the Supreme Court held that, compelling any person<br>to give any sort of forensic evidence does not violate Article 20(3) of the constitution. The same is given<br>in Section 73 of the Indian Evidence act, which states that any person can be asked to give the fingerprint<br>or DNA examination even to the accused. Similarly, Section 53 of the criminal procedure code states that<br>a person accused of any crime can be asked to undergo a medical examination if the officers feel that the<br>examination can provide some evidence to the crime. Further Section 164A of the procedure allows the<br>medical examiner to examine the victim of the rape case within twenty-four-hours of the crime.</p> Ankit Gupta Vikas Gupta Amar Pal Singh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 67 71 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14273 Profile and Pattern of Women Seeking Medical Termination of Pregnancy in a Tertiary care Centre in National Capital Region <p>Background: Induced abortion whether safe or unsafe, legal or illegal is a reproductive health service that<br>is part of the lives of women, couples and communities all over the country. When faced with unintended<br>pregnancies, especially in contexts in which women lack access to effective family planning, induced<br>abortion is an important part of women’s reproductive health care. In this backdrop the present study was<br>undertaken with the objective to study socio-demographic profile, methods, various indications in Medical<br>Termination of Pregnancy cases performed in our institution.<br>Method: This study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine in collaboration with<br>Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, at SMSR, GautambudhNagar, India. Information was obtained<br>from the patient seeking abortion services, patient’s case record file in the hospital, Medical Termination<br>of Pregnancy (MTP) register and direct interview with concerned consultant in charge in the form of predesigned questionnaire..<br>Conclusion: The most common reason for MTP was unwanted pregnancy due to non use of contraceptives<br>by the women of reproductive age group. We recommend comprehensive contraceptive counseling can<br>help prevent unintended pregnancies that lead to abortions and should include information on when fertility<br>returns after a birth or abortion. Also dedicating a special cell to focus on a woman’s unmet needs of<br>contraception would go a long way in resolution of unintended pregnancies and abortions.</p> Ankita Kakkar Pooja Rastogi Anshul Saxena Sushil Kumar Alok Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-25 2021-03-25 15 2 72 77 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14274 Comparative Study of Magnesium Sulphate added to Bupivacaine and Ropivacaine Local Infiltration of Wound for Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Upper Abdominal Surgery: A Randomized Double Blind Study <p>Aim: To compare subcutaneous infiltration of Inj Bupivacaine with inj MgSO4and Inj Ropivacaine with<br>InjMgSO4 for postoperative analgesia undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Goal: To determine duration of<br>analgesia, doses of rescue analgesia, VAS at different time intervals.<br>Background: Post-operative pain is most neglected entity. We should use availableresources in<br>optimummanner for improving pain managementstrategies.<br>Methods: A Prospective, double-blinded, randomized studyof 50 patients undergoing upper abdominal<br>surgery divided into group B and R. Infiltration was done in the subcutaneous plane by surgeon before skin<br>closure. Group B: Inj. Bupivacaine 50mg (10ml of 0.5% Inj . Bupivacaine) with Inj.MgSO4 500mg (1ml of<br>Inj 50% MgSO4) diluted with NS 9 ml to make total volume of 20 ml whereas, Group R: Inj Ropivacaine<br>50 mg (6.7 ml of 0.75% Inj. Ropivacaine) with Inj MgSO4 500 mg diluted with NS (12.3 ml) making a total<br>volume of 20 ml. In postoperative period, parameters noted were vitals and Visual Analogue Score (VAS)<br>for 24 hours.<br>Results: In group R, moderate pain was seen in 40%of the patients at T12 whereas in group B 48% had<br>moderate pain. Total no. of rescue analgesic doses required in Group R is 2.1 +/- 0.5 and in Group B is 2.6<br>+/- 0.5 in 24 hrs and has significant differencestatistically.<br>Conclusion: Group R had better VAS scores at T24 and reduced no.of rescue analgesic doses.</p> Anuja Agrawal Sujay Thakkar Akhilesh Chhaya Malini Mehta Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 78 84 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14277 Effectiveness of Warm Water Foot Bath Therapy on Quality of Sleep among Elderly <p>Background: Insomnia is a subjective complaint of inadequate night-time sleep. It is the most prevalent<br>sleep disorder identified by older people.1<br>Depression, anxiety, and reduced cognitive function have been linked with severe lack of sleep. Poor sleep<br>quality in the elderly reduces the quality of life, but sadly the most elder people do not report sleep problems<br>unless expressly requested. Warm water foot bath provides a better sleep at night, as it calm downs and<br>relaxes the body and mind. This works by increasing the body temperature slightly and after 15 minutes this<br>starts to drop gradually. This may indirectly encourage sleep. Gradual decrease in body temperature makes<br>us feel drowsy and so we feel better prepared for sleep. A warm water foot bath also diverts some blood from<br>the head to lower parts of the body, decreases brain activity and mimics the state of pre-sleep.2 We wanted to<br>determine the effectiveness of warm water foot bath therapy on quality of sleep among elderly.<br>Methods: In this study the 60 older adults are selected based on inclusion criteria and were assigned to<br>experimental and control group alternatively. The experimental group composed of 30 elder people and<br>control group contained 30 elder people. The researcher developed rapport with older people receiving warm<br>footbath and explained the benefits of intervention. The day we began the data collection, the demographic<br>data and pretest took from elder people of experimental group and control group. On the next day, warm<br>footbath was given by the researcher with duration of 15 – 20 minutes for five consecutive days in older<br>people of experimental group. On the other hand, routine work is maintained in control group. Posttest was<br>done on sixth day for both experimental and control group to assess the sleep quality among elderly by using<br>Groningen Sleep Quality Scale.4<br>Results: Findings shows that 25 sample (83.33 %) had undisturbed sleep at night, 5 (16.67 %) had disturbed<br>sleep at night using warm water footbath therapy and none of them had poor sleep at night. The minimum<br>score was 2 and the maximum score was 7 and the mean score was 4.23 ± 1.30 with a mean percentage of<br>30.2 %. There significant association between qualities of sleeps and age group.<br>Conclusions: The significant difference between preexisting sleeping quality and effectiveness footbath<br>interpreting effective quality of sleep using warm water footbath therapy among elderly. Mean value of<br>preexisting sleeping quality is 8.93 and effectiveness of footbath therapy is 4.23 and standard deviation<br>value of preexisting sleeping quality is 0.828 and effectiveness of footbath is 1.305. The calculated t-value<br>is 14.75 and p-value is 0.000. Hence it is statistically interpreted that the effectiveness of footbath therapy<br>among elderly was effective</p> Arati Raut Gunjan Morade Dnyaneshwari More Sanjivani Mune Pratiksha Munjewar Mayuri Mute Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 85 87 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14278 Assess the Effectiveness of Information Booklet on the Knowledge of Wet Nursing among Women <p>Background: Breast milk is an ideal nutrition for infants. Breast milk contain a perfect combination of<br>vitamins, protein and fat which is required for the optimum growth of the baby. Wet-nursing is defined<br>as the act of providing breast milk someone else›s child. Objectives of the study: To assess the pretest<br>knowledge regarding wet nursing among women. To assess the post test knowledge regarding wet nursing<br>among women.To assess the effectiveness of information booklet on the knowledge of women regarding<br>wet nursing. Materials and Methods: 100 samples were selected by purposive sampling technique.pre<br>experimental research design one group pretest and post without control group design was used. Result:<br>In pre-test majority of women 58% of them had good knowledge regarding wet nursing among women.<br>mean percentage of knowledge score was (38.20 %) and in post test majority of antenatal mothers (40%<br>of them had excellent level of knowledge score regarding wet nursing among women.Mean percentage of<br>knowledge score was (67%). Education and area of residence found to be associated with knowledge of<br>wet nursing none of the other variable were found significantly related with the knowledge of women.,<br>Conclusion-All the women aware about wet nursing to prevent complication during postnatal periods,.</p> Archana S. Teltumbde Arti Fating, Bhavika Folane Shrushti Gawande Pranjali Gawande Kajal Gavale Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-25 2021-03-25 15 2 88 92 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14279 Effect of Grey Zone Samples Testing by Enzyme Immunoassay and Its Impact on Enhancing Blood Safety: Experience from Tertiary Care Hospital based Blood Bank in Central Gujarat <p>Background : Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a standard protocol adopted by majority of Blood<br>Banks for screening of blood units for transfusion transmissible infections. The grey zone testing of samples<br>increases sensitivity of ELISA tests which in turn enhances the safe blood transfusion practices. The present<br>study was thus designed to know the effect of repeat testing of Grey zone Blood Donor samples for<br>improving the sensitivity of ELISA Screening methods in blood banks.<br>Methods:- All Blood Donor Samples which were 10% below the cut- off value were marked as Grey zone<br>samples and were repeated for ELISA screening . Interpretation of Repeat tests was done as per NACO and<br>WHO guidelines and the samples which recorded their one or both O.D value above cut- off were labelled<br>as reactive and samples which recorded one or both O.D value in grey zone were marked as indeterminate.<br>Results and Conclusion: In present study, a total of 10,425 Blood Donors were screened for TTI’ s and<br>out of 10,425 (15) Blood donor samples were found in grey zone. The results of repeat testing showed that<br>9 (60%) Blood Donor samples were found to be confirm reactive for TTI. Grey zone sample testing should<br>be done routinely as a measure to enhance sensitivity of ELISA testing of Blood Donors in developing<br>countries.</p> Ashu Dogra Devanshi Gosai Jasmin Jasani Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 93 96 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14280 Multifaceted Physiotherapeutic approach in Snapping Hip Syndrome: A Case Report <p>Introduction: Snapping hip syndrome or “coxa saltans,” sometimes called as dancer’s hip, is seen in ballet<br>dancers. It is a condition caused by the movement of tendon or a muscle over a bony eminence in the hip in<br>which snapping sound is heard or snapping sensation is felt when a person walks, runs, swing leg around<br>or get up from a chair. Snapping Hip Syndrome is just associated with the snapping sound and no such<br>discomfort or pain is felt. Patients chief complaints were Low back pain radiating down her right leg and<br>sometimes a click sound heard in her right hip. Experts estimate that 5 to 10 percent of the population has<br>snapping hips with no symptoms or pain, and no treatment is necessary. On the other half some individuals<br>has irritating pain which requires treatment or surgery. Diagnosis of External Snapping Hip Syndrome was<br>confirmed when detail evaluation of patient was done using Special test - SLUMPS and Straight Leg Raise<br>(SLR) test, Faber’s test and Ober’s test and Harris Hip Score was also noted.<br>Conclusion: This case report provides a comprehensive rehabilitation plan that helped relieve pain, spasm,<br>increase strength and range of motion. Physiotherapy intervention includes stretching of the tighten muscle<br>and purposeful strengthening to decrease pain and disability of patient. Physiotherapy treatment is found<br>to be best to resolve patient’s chief complaints. Improving the disability and Social skill improvement was<br>checked by using Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Quality of Life (QOL).</p> Deepali S. Patil Shivani R. Uttamchandani Pratik Phansopkar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 97 102 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14281 Xerostomia – An Unknown Oral Manifestation in AAA Syndrome <p>Background: The triple A syndrome (AAAS), also termed Allgrove syndrome (AS), is a very rare chromosome<br>recessive disorder that was 1st identified in 1978 by Jeremy Allgrove and colleagues in 2 unrelated siblings.<br>In most cases, there is no associated family history. The syndrome comprises of Achalasia, Addisonianism<br>and Alacrimia. It has an estimated prevalence of 1 per 1,000,000 individuals. About 200 cases have been<br>reported worldwide as of date, showing a great variability in severity as well as in clinical manifestations.<br>Consistent oral findings could be noticed such as high arched palate, oral pigmentation, fissured or atrophic<br>tongue, and xerostomia<br>Case report: We report the case of a 25-year-old girl who presented with Triple A Syndrome with all<br>characteristic clinical features.<br>Conclusion: The aim of this case report is to highlight the dental involvement in Allgrove syndrome. In<br>addition, we aim to emphasize the need for the oral physician to accurately diagnose the condition, manage<br>the oral manifestations, and to collaborate with other dental specialists to provide optimum dental care to<br>these patients.</p> Deepali Agrawal Ravikiran Ongole Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-25 2021-03-25 15 2 103 107 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14282 Biomedical Waste Management in India-A Review <p>Biomedical waste is any kind of waste either solid or liquid containing infectious, potentially infectious<br>materials of medical, laboratory or research origin from activities such as diagnosis, prevention &amp; treatment<br>of diseases. Bio-medical waste has a higher potential of infection and injury to the healthcare worker, patient<br>and the surrounding community. It consists of human anatomical waste, animal waste, microbiology &amp;<br>biotechnology waste, waste sharps, discarded medicines &amp; cytotoxic drugs, soiled waste, liquid waste,<br>incineration ash &amp; chemical wastes. Common generators of biomedical waste include hospitals, clinics,<br>medical &amp; veterinary colleges, blood banks, mortuaries, autopsy centers, biotechnology institutions, research<br>laboratories, home health care &amp; funeral homes. Hazardous chemicals &amp; radioactive waste though noninfectious require proper disposal. World Health Organization states that 10% of hospital waste are infectious<br>&amp; 5% are non-infectious but hazardous waste. World Health Organisation has classified medical waste into<br>8 categories which include general, pathological, radioactive, chemical, infectious, sharps, pharmaceuticals<br>&amp; pressurized wastes. In India, Biomedical waste (Management &amp; Handling) Rules 1998 along with further<br>amendments regulate biomedical waste management. It consists of 6 schedules which includes Category<br>of Biomedical waste, Colour coding &amp; type of container, Label for Biomedical waste containers or bags<br>which should be non-washable &amp; prominently visible, Label for transport of Biomedical waste containers or<br>bags, Standard for treatment &amp; disposal, Schedule for waste treatment facilities like Incinerator, Autoclave,<br>Microwave System. Operating Standards like combustion efficiency &amp; Emission Standards are defined.<br>The present review article focused on basic issues as definition, categories, problems relating to biomedical<br>waste and procedure of handling and disposal method of Biomedical Waste Management.</p> Deepika Kanyal Lata Kanyal Butola Ranjit Ambad Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-25 2021-03-25 15 2 108 113 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14285 Utility of the Cell Block Preparation as an Additive Tool to the Conventional Cytological Smears <p>Background: For the detection of malignancy in the serous fluids of the body, cytological examination of<br>the fluid is very important. It is also of prime importance and seems difficult to differentiate the malignant<br>cells from reactive mesothelial cells during fluid cytology. The cell block preparation is a useful and additive<br>diagnostic tool when cellular features in cytology are inconclusive or suspicious. The aim of the study was<br>to assess the utilization of the cell technique as an additional tool along with the conventional smears that<br>we are using in routine practice.<br>Methods: 200 body (effusion) fluids were examined by the conventional cytological smears as well as by<br>the cell block technique.<br>Conclusion: The diagnostic yield increases when we use the cell block preparation method along with the<br>conventional smears because the architectural patterns and cell morphology are very well preserved in cell<br>block as compared to the smears.</p> Devanshi Gosai Kuntal Patel Ashu Dogra Jasmin Jasani Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-25 2021-03-25 15 2 114 119 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14286 Compare the Accuracy of IOL Power Calculations Using Ultrasound Biometry and Partial Coherence Laser Interferometry based Optical Biometry <p>Aims: To compare the accuracy of IOL power calculations using ultrasound biometry and partial coherence<br>laser interferometry based optical biometry<br>Material and Methods: All cases of cataract with no other pathology involved presenting to, ophthalmology<br>department at RNT Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur from august 2018 to December 2019.The patients<br>are divided into two group 1st group IOL power calculated by optical biometer and 2nd group IOL power<br>calculated by ultrasound biometry.<br>Results: Significant p-value (0.01) was observed between Group 1 and Group 2 among pre operative and<br>post-operative VS patients.<br>Conclusion: optical biometry with the AL scan (Nidek) proved to be slightly more accurate than ultrasound<br>biometry for IOL power calculation</p> Dhan Singh Meena Himani Sukhadia Sanjay Goyal Vaibhav Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-25 2021-03-25 15 2 120 126 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14288 Effectiveness of Nurse Led Intervention Regarding Management of Hypertension on Awareness, Treatment Compliance, Life Style and Quality of Life among Hypertensive Adults: A Systematic Review <p>Introduction: Hypertension is one of the most common conditions affecting the health worldwide and is<br>also the leading cause of death around the globe. There is a persistent need for effective nurse led intervention<br>for interrupting the further spreading roots of the hypertension in the community. There is also a great need<br>for creating awareness, ensuring the compliance with the treatment, modification of lifestyle and improving<br>the quality of life for the sufferers of this condition.<br>Methods: The study design was systematic review and it includes studies from databases of PUBMED,<br>MEDLINE, Cochrane library, SCOPUS, Science direct, and Google scholar (2008-2019). The included<br>studies were focusing on the management of hypertension among hypertensive adults in terms of awareness,<br>treatment compliance, life style and quality of life.<br>Result: The data was grouped and analyzed in terms of meta-analysis. Total 20 relevant articles were<br>undertaken. Abstracted information is related to study design, population characteristics, intervention and<br>outcomes.<br>Conclusion: The nurse led intervention in the management of hypertension is an effective strategy in<br>improving the health outcomes in terms of creating awareness, ensuring the compliance with the treatment,<br>modification of life style and improving the quality of life among hypertensive adults.</p> Eenu Poonam Sheoran Jyoti Sarin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-25 2021-03-25 15 2 127 131 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14289 Endurance and Respiratory Training, an Approach to Delay the Symptomatic Progression in Multiple Sclerosis - A Case Report <p>Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease which is inflammatory in nature and shows gliosis and<br>demyelination which lead to acute and chronic symptoms impairing the quality of life due to disability.<br>Presence of immune-mediated response in Central Nervous System leads to the above presentation. MS<br>is the most common condition of CNS which causes disability. Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis consists<br>of treating the exacerbations along with slowing the disease process and including symptomatic therapies.<br>The most invalidating symptom in people with MS is Fatigue. This case reports shows the effectiveness of<br>endurance and respiratory training towards the delaying the progression of symptoms in MS.</p> Divya Jethwani Mohd. Irshad Qureshi Ragini Dadgal Ashish W. Bele Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 132 135 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14290 Efficacy of Stretching vs Muscle Energy Technique in Postoperative Elbow Stiffness: A Research Protocol <p>Background: The elbow, intermediate joint of the upper limb, frequently undergoes pathological events and<br>is especially prone to stiffness. Patients lose his capacity to conduct the compensatory movements which<br>may result in intolerance. Fracture and dislocations are commonly seen in the individuals. Careful evaluation<br>is must before treatment. Physical therapy plays an important role in recovering functional activities.<br>Methods/Design: The study will be designed as a Randomized Control Trial. Total 20 participants will be<br>selected as per inclusion and exclusion criteria from AVBRH and RNPC OPD, Sawangi (Meghe). Duration<br>of the study will be 6 months. 20 subjects will be grouped into two out of which 1 group of participants<br>will receive Stretching (static stretching) and group 2 will receive Muscle energy technique (Post isometric<br>relaxation). Visual Analogue Scale for Pain and Assessment of Range of Motion using Universal Goniometer<br>will be the outcome measures for the patient.<br>Result: Outcome measures of the patient using muscle energy technique can have more effectiveness as<br>compared to stretching. It may help to regain muscle strength and the patient will be able to perform the<br>compensatory movement in adjacent joints.<br>Conclusion: Will be published after the results are analyzed..</p> Gunjan Shende Mitushi P. Deshmukh Deepak K. Jain Pratik Phansopkar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 136 138 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14291 Self Medication in Dentistry <p>Background: During mid 1980’s World Health Organization gave approval for some medical drugs from<br>prescription to reduce the burden of the medical professionals. Self-medication is one form of medication<br>which is practiced worldwide by many people with or without medical knowledge. In dentistry the most<br>common reason for taking the self-medication is phobia towards the dental procedures.<br>Aim and Objective: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge about self-medication practice<br>among common people and create awareness on its ill effects.<br>Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general population of age 18years<br>and above. As the study was conducted during the pandemic time, a web-based survey was conducted with<br>a set of 11 self-structured questions which was framed in English language and vetted with expert`s opinion.<br>The questions were circulated through links to the participants through various social media platforms.<br>Result: The 50 participants were grouped based on occupational status. chi-square test was performed and<br>it was seen that most of the questions were statistically significant (p &lt; 0.05). High significance was seen<br>when the participants were asked the commonest reason and drug that they would prefer for self-Medication<br>(p &lt;0.00001).<br>Conclusion: The common reason for using of self-medication in dental issue is pain, lack of time and<br>phobia. This has to be improved by conducting awareness programs and the patients have to overcome their<br>fear and volunteer themselves to treat the cause.</p> Harshada Ragunathan Krithika C Kiruthiga G Keerthana S Lakshmipriya S PS Gayathri Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 139 143 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14292 Awareness of Oral Health Care among Pregnant Women During Pregnancy <p>Background: Pregnancy is a unique phase of women’s life where it is associated with physiological changes.<br>Poor oral hygiene maintenance and inadequate care for oral health have an impact and noticeable postnatal<br>effects on the infants. There is only a minimal knowledge among pregnant women regarding oral health care<br>during pregnancy.<br>Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 74 pregnant women. As the study<br>was conducted during the pandemic time, a web-based questionnaire in Google forms was framed. The<br>questionnaire was sent through various social media platforms and answers were collected and sent for<br>statistical analysis.<br>Results: The responses were statistically analysed by SPSS software Version 18.0. Majority of the<br>participants lacked knowledge about the facts that pregnancy increases existing dental problems and selfmedications without physician’s prescription during pregnancy are not advisable.<br>Conclusion: Increased hormonal secretion and fetal growth induce several systemic, as well as local<br>physiologic and physical changes in a pregnant woman. During this period pregnant women should always<br>take good care of her oral and systemic health. This not only improves the mother’s overall health but also<br>prevents associated problems in the fetus. Adequate knowledge by creating awareness about oral health and<br>oral hygiene maintenance will prevent pregnant women from dental complications.</p> Harshada Ragunathan Krithika C Kowsalya. M Kreethika. S Krithika. L Manju J Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 144 149 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14293 Clinical Profile Management of Liver Abscess with Percutaneous Pigtail Cathater <p>Background: Management of liver abscess has advanced in this era with many patients wanting its nonsurgical treatment. Percutaneous drainage with Ultrasound guidance is one such minimal invasive procedure<br>for management of abscess with its own limitation and advantages. We have undertaken this study at our<br>institute to study clinical profile and management of liver abscess.<br>Methodology: All the patient enrolled after taking detailed history and Ultrasound was done. After giving<br>consent an ultrasound guided pigtail catheter was insertion was done under local anesthesia. Post procedure<br>all the parameters were observed and antibiotics was given and depending upon drainage of pus patients<br>were followed.<br>Results: Total 30 patient of liquefied and partially liquefied liver abscess were enrolled in this study. Under<br>local anesthesia ultrasound guided pigtail catheters of various sizes (14 F) were introduced in these patients<br>using the Seldinger technique. There were 25 male and 5 female patients in this study.Most common<br>affected age group was 31-40. Abdominal pain with fever was common presenting features. All the patients<br>recovered in this study.<br>Conclusion: Ultrasound guided percutaneouspigtail catheter drainage ofliver abscesses is cost effective and<br>minimal invasive procedure for liquefied and partially liquefied abscesses.</p> Honeypalsinh H. Maharaul Vimal Vora Ketul Shah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 150 154 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14294 Dissection of Learning Opportunities and Obstacles While Learning Through Video Conferencing Platform (VCP) - During Covid 19 Lockdown <p>Background- COVID 19 pandemic has influenced our lives in all the aspects, even the younger generations<br>are also not left untouched, specially their studies. Professional courses like nursing has integrated theory<br>with practical learning and due to the lock down situation both aspects of learning - theory as well as<br>the clinical learning are suffering. Though the teaching institutes have come up with the solutions like<br>online lectures, using the video conferencing platform (VCP). This has expanded the horizon of traditional<br>classroom. Though it is widely practiced in developed countries but in India it is still a new trend of learning.<br>Purpose - of this study was to assess learner’s satisfaction level while learning through video conferencing<br>platform and various opportunities and obstacles learner’s faced were explored. Methods – nursing students<br>were the participants and online self-reporting method was adopted for the data collection. Self-developed<br>questionnaire was completed by 138 participants and questionnaire had 36 items to respond on Video<br>Conferencing Platform related to learner’s satisfaction, also opportunities &amp; obstacles encountered while<br>learning through VCP.<br>Results – Majority (63%) of the participants were somewhat satisfied, learning through VCP and 26.1% were<br>highly satisfied. Observation of the opportunities were found to be better learning outcome – brainstorming<br>stimulation, self-motivated learning, able to ask and clear doubts and lecture was reported to be captivating.<br>Another opportunity reported was comfort while learning which included the learning in personal space,<br>no compulsion of physical presence at teaching institute and freedom to choose which lecture to attend.<br>Obstacles reported were related to the classroom environment where the chances avoiding questions and<br>fooling the instructor was reported by majority participants, technical challenges like slow internet disturbed<br>the lecture and made it difficult to articulate lecture and also missed part of lecture. Other obstacles reported<br>were decreased social interaction, participants found learning through VCP to be tiresome as compared to<br>traditional classroom, connectivity issues disturbance create due to the surroundings. Association between<br>the course of study with satisfaction level, opportunities and obstacles were found to be significant, whereas<br>the association between the time spend on VCP was found to be significant only with obstacles.</p> Jyoti Khina Sharma Jyoti Sarin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 155 162 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14295 Quality of Life Among Chronic Liver Disease Patients: An Exploratory Cross Sectional Survey <p>Background: QOL is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive<br>features of life. It observes life satisfaction, including everything from physical health, family, education,<br>employment, wealth, religious beliefs, finance and the environment.1 Quality of life has an important status<br>in patient management suffering from chronic liver disease.<br>Objectives: The present study was done to assess the quality of life among patients suffering from Chronic<br>Liver Diseases.<br>Material and Methods: A descriptive explorative cross-sectional research design was used. Data was<br>collected from 165 patients using purposive sampling technique. The quality of life Scale (QOLS) was used<br>to assess the quality of life among chronic liver diseases patient admitted at Institute of Liver and Biliary<br>Sciences. MELD and CTP score was used to assess the mortality and survival rate among chronic liver<br>diseases patient. The study participants and their care givers were informed that the study is harmless; all the<br>gathered data was treated confidentially and used for research purpose only.<br>Results: The results of the study revealed that 0.6 percent of the patients have poor, in 35.2 percent of the<br>people have moderate whereas 64.2 percent of the people have good quality of life. In terms of physical<br>wellbeing of patient 11.52 percent of the people have poor, 73.93 percent have moderate while only 14.55<br>percent have good quality of life. In relation with social wellbeing of the patient 0.61 percent of the people<br>have poor, 27.88 percent have moderate while only 17.51 percent have good quality of life. As per emotional<br>wellbeing of the patient 3.03 percent of the people have poor, 87.88 percent have moderate while only 9.09<br>percent have good quality of life. In terms of functional wellbeing of patient 3.03 percent of the people<br>have poor, 60 percent have moderate while only 36.97 percent have good quality of life. The quality of life<br>in terms of cost showed that 11.52 percent of the patient had poor, 73.93 percent had moderate, and 14.55<br>percent of the patient has good quality of life. The quality of life in terms of limitation due to signs and<br>symptoms showed that 1.21 percent of the patient have poor, 81.82 percent have moderate whereas 16.97<br>percent of the patient had good quality of life. The weak positive correlation (r=0.48) was found between<br>MELD and CTP score.<br>Conclusion: The study concluded that only 35.2 percent of the patient have moderate quality of life, more<br>than half (64.2%) of the patient have good quality of life. So, the effective steps need to be taken to improve<br>the quality of life among patients with Chronic Liver Diseases.</p> Jyoti Manisha Saklani Jyoti Sarin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 163 169 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14296 Attitude of Physiotherapists Towards Dealing Subjects with Mental Illness <p>INTRODUCTION: The concept of mental health receives negative opinions and are stigmatized in public<br>despite evidence of importance of mental health for social and human capital. It is important that there<br>should be a multidisciplinary approach when it comes to rehabilitation of patients with Mental Illness than<br>concentrating only in the psychiatry aspect. Patients with Mental Illness can also suffer from physical health<br>related co-morbidities in which physiotherapy can play a role in improving the lifestyle. OBJECTIVE:<br>The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of physiotherapists towards subjects with mental illness.<br>METHODS: A non-experimental study of convenient samples was carried out among 100 physiotherapists.<br>Data collection was performed using the questionnaire MICA-4(Mental Illness Clinicians Attitude Scale).<br>The questionnaire includes 16 items and has a 6- point Likert-type response format. Each item has its<br>own definite score. A higher score depicts negative attitude and a lesser score shows a positive attitude.<br>RESULTS: The data was analysed using SPSS statistics version 23. The results revealed that 73% of the<br>subjects had neutral attitude towards dealing individuals with any form of mental illness. CONCLUSION:<br>The neutral attitude recorded is indicative of lack of exposure of physiotherapists in the field of psychiatry.<br>Training at an early stage can be beneficial for future therapists to deal in a better way with mental illness<br>patient having physical health problems. It is important to promote this area of specialisation both for clinical<br>and research studies in order to implement strategies to avoid stigmatisation.</p> K Jothi Prasanna Ragini Kumari Vigneshwar.D Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 170 174 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14297 Prevalence of the Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Relation to Obese and Overweight Collegiate Students <p>INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea is described as monotonous collapse and reopening of upper<br>airway during sleep which affect the ventilation. This Obstructive sleep apnea is common among obese and<br>overweight individuals. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine prevalence of the risk<br>of obstructive sleep apnea in relation to obese and overweight collegiate students.<br>METHODOLOGY: It is a non- experimental study with sample size of 100 which include obese and<br>overweight. 50 subjects with obese and 50 subjects with overweight are included and assessed for risk of<br>sleep apnea. OUTCOME MEASURES: Berlin Questionnaire RESULTS: Percentage of low risk was<br>about 56, whereas the high risk Obstructive sleep apnea was 44% among overweight. Percentage of high<br>risk was 52 and low risk 48. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that the prevalence of Obstructive sleep<br>apnea had a higher risk among obese when compare to the overweight individuals.</p> K.Jothi Prasanna Shanmuga Vishnu. K Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 175 177 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14298 Influence of Index Plus and Index Minus Foot on Static and Dynamic Balance among Collegiate Girls <p>Background: Index plus foot is defined as the first metatarsus being lengthier than the second whereas<br>the Index minus foot is a condition where the second metatarsus is extended than the first metatarsal. The<br>prevalence of index minus foot is higher among females, a study on balance with index minus and index<br>plus foot on normal individual females are lacking. Objective: The objective of the study is to determine the<br>influence of index plus and index minus foot among collegiate girls Methodology: It is a non- experimental<br>study with sample size of 100 are taken and tested for both static and dynamic balance. Outcome Measures:<br>Flamingo balance test and Star Excursion Balance Test. Results: The mean and standard deviation of<br>flamingo balance test for index plus group is 9.24+2.77423 and the index minus is 15.04+1.6655. The mean<br>value of star excursion balance test for both groups resulted with less noticeable difference. Conclusion:<br>The study concludes that there is a difference in static balance, whereas there is no differences in dynamic<br>balance among collegiate girls.</p> K.Jothi Prasanna Z.Ayesha Farvin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 178 180 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14299 Study of Sperm Dna Fragmentation Index in Patients from Rural Areas of Wardha Region <p>Background: Sperm DNA fragmentation test is an advanced test for proper sperm function with respect<br>to semen analysis, as semen analysis is used for motility and morphology assessment, it cannot explain<br>sperm at molecular level and thus SDF test has been introduced to evaluate male fertility. The integrity of<br>genetic material in sperm is crucial for successful fertilization &amp; normal embryo development as this will<br>lead to proper transmission of genetic information. Patients having varicocele, recurrent failure of ART<br>tecniques and improper lifestyle (radiation, smoking, alcohol, BMI, ageing, etc) are considered for sperm<br>DNA fragmentation test. SDF test is useful in selecting patients for the ART procedures i.e. IVF/ICSI/IUI<br>and highest pregnancy and live birth outcomes.<br>Objectives:<br>· To predict male infertility with normal semen parameters &amp; its diagnostic values.<br>· To investigate the clinical factors related to sperm DNA fragmentation in male with infertility.<br>· To investigate the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation in male related to improper fertilization, embryo<br>development and recurrent pregnancy loss.<br>Methods: The participants (n=40) with male fertility problems will be included in randomised control trial.<br>All 40 participants will be randomly selected to evaluate their sperm DNA integrity from their respective<br>semen samples using sperm chromatin dispersion test.<br>Discussion: Efficiency of the Sperm DNA Fragmentation test is assessed by performing sperm chromatin<br>dispersion test on respective processed semen sample using Halosperm G2 test kit.</p> Kanchi S. Goenka Akash More Mehul Salve Deepti Shrivastava Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 181 187 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14300 Estimation of Chronological Age from Advanced Glycation End Products Level in Vitreous Fluid <p>Background: Chronological age estimation is an important process for corpse identification. Advanced<br>glycation end products (AGEs) are accumulated during lifetime and have been used for forensic identification.<br>The AGEs in vitreous humor still lack of information for age estimation. Objective: To investigate correlation<br>between the AGEs level contained in vitreous humor and chronological age in postmortem cases. Methods:<br>The vitreous humor samples were collected from the postmortem cases (n=142). The AGEs levels were<br>determined by spectrofluorometer and presented in microgram of quinidine hemisulfate equivalent (?g QE/<br>mL) and nanogram of pentosidine equivalent (ng PE/mL). Stepwise linear regression was used to generate<br>the equation. Results: The QE and PE showed mild positive correlation (r = 0.350 and 0.195; p &lt;0.001,<br>respectively) while the PE/QE ratio showed moderate negative correlation with age (r = -0.561, p &lt;0.001).<br>The predicted equation showed error value 12 years and gave accurate prediction in range 40-59 years old.<br>Conclusion: The AGEs contained in the vitreous humor correlated with chronological age in postmortem<br>cases. The other fluorescence molecules might be interfere during the AGEs measurement then the specific<br>methods should be developed for measuring the AGEs level to decrease the error value.</p> Kanicnan Intui Churdsak Jaikang Somlada Watcharakhom Yutti Amornlertwatana Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 188 194 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14301 Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Hospice and Palliative Care among Nursing Students <p>Context: Patient and family who are confronting the issues of life threatening diseases achieves personal<br>gratification through palliative care.<br>Aim: The primary goal of the investigation was to determine the adequacy of “structured teaching<br>programme” on hospice and palliative care amidst nursing students.<br>Setting: Quasi experimental study was conducted in Kular College of Nursing, Kishangarh.<br>Methods and material: “Non-probability-convenience sampling technique was utilized to select sample.<br>60 subjects were selected for the study. Self structured knowledge questionnaire was used for data collection.<br>Results: The outcomes indicated that pre test mean score” was 16.86 &amp; standard deviation was 3.1 while<br>“post-test mean score” was 23.46 &amp; standard deviation was 4.14.<br>Conclusion: “Structured Teaching programme” was efficacious in enhancing knowledge of nursing students.</p> Kanika Guleria Mandeep Kaur Amandeep Kaur Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 195 198 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14303 Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Hospice and Paliiative Care among Nursing Students <p>The use of computers has become universal. Computer technology plays an integral role in our personal,<br>professional and educational lives and neglecting the principles of ergonomics during computer utility raises<br>the risk of health problems. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), Visual symptoms and Insomnia are the<br>common health problems among desktop users. Aims and Objectives: To assess the knowledge regarding<br>computer ergonomics and incidence of musculoskeletal disorders Methodology: In this cross-sectional<br>research study 130 desktop users were recruited as study participants. The tool used i.e. selected variables<br>regarding study participants characteristics and Structured Knowledge questionnaire (35 items) Results:<br>More than 2/3rd of study participants (90%) were reported about discomfort related to eye strain, head and<br>neck, wrist and hand, elbow, upper back, lower back, hips and thighs and knees. Less than half of the study<br>participants were at average level of knowledge related to computer ergonomics and There was significant<br>association of selected variables (discomfort and severity of hand and wrist discomfort) was found with the<br>Knowledge of computer ergonomics. Conclusions: Findings of this study concluded that there was majority<br>of study participants reported discomfort related to the eye strain, head and neck, wrist and hand, elbow,<br>upper back, lower back, hips and thighs and knees and severity of hand and wrist discomfort which showed<br>that these organs get influence more by desktop based on body configuration.</p> Kanika Bindu Joseph Jimmy Dharwal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 199 201 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14304 Clinical Profile of Pediatric Patients with Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya <p>Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD) are classified as Acyanotic or Cyanotic CHD. Prevalence of CHD<br>according to various studies is 8-10 per 1000 live births worldwide, 10% of cases became infant mortality<br>in developing countries. This research aims to study the characteristics and clinical presentations in children<br>with acyanotic CHD in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital. A retrospective observational study from children with<br>acyanotic type of CHD from medical record outpatient clinic in the Division of Neonatology and Pediatric<br>Ward at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital from June to December 2016. Age, sex, heart defect, comorbid and<br>nutritional status were taken from the medical record. The most dominant clinical profile was female with<br>a mean age of 4 years. Atrial Septal Defect was the most common type of left-to-right shunt, followed by<br>Ventricular Septal Defect, and Patent Ductus Arteriosus. Pulmonary Stenosis was the most common type<br>of obstructive lesion, followed by Aortic Stenosis. Complications of acyanotic CHD were dominated by<br>recurrent respiratory tract infections followed by growth and developmental disorder, and heart failure. The<br>most common nutritional status was moderate malnutrition.</p> Kartika Hardiyani Taufiq Hidayat Alit Utamayasa Mahrus Abdur Rahman Teddy Ontoseno Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 202 206 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14306 NSAID-Induced Adverse Drug Reaction: Mechanism and Management <p>Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are drugs to reduce pain or swelling. The use of these drugs<br>in high doses or long-term can cause side effects or hypersensitivity problems, also known as Adverse Drug<br>Reaction (ADR). A literature review was carried out using the PubMed database by inserting the keywords<br>‘NSAID’, ‘adverse drug reaction’, and ‘hypersensitivity’. All studies related to NSAIDs and their adverse<br>drug reactions were included in this review, while genetic or pharmacogenomics studies and NSAIDs’<br>effectiveness were excluded. The results showed that gastrointestinal (GI) problems such as duodenal ulcers<br>or erosive gastritis are the most common diclofenac effects (2.05%). Cardiovascular issues, such as acute<br>myocardial infarction, were mostly caused by rofecoxib (2.12%). Hypersensitivity, both respiratory and<br>skin, is commonly caused by ibuprofen with prevalence 50% and 67%, respectively. The most frequent<br>kidney problem related to NSAIDs use is acute kidney injury. In comparison, the common hypersensitivity<br>problems are asthma, urticaria, and angioedema. Adverse drug reactions can be prevented or treated by<br>lowering the dose, reducing the duration of treatment, adding companion drugs, or changing the type of<br>NSAID. In conclusion, it can be seen that ibuprofen severely caused kidney problems and hypersensitivity.<br>On the other hand, diclofenac caused digestive issues, and rofecoxib caused cardiovascular problems.</p> Katherine A.Tjenggal Rano K. Sinuraya Cherry Rahayu Rizky Abdulah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 207 217 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14308 To Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching on Knowledge Regarding First Aid Measures for Selected Minor Injuries among Anganwadi Workers <p>Background: First aid is the temporary and immediate care given to the person who is injured or suddenly<br>become ill. First aid can save a victim’s life especially if the victim is bleeding heavily and has stopped<br>breathing it also prevents additional medical emergencies that can arise from an injury or illness. Anganwadi<br>worker have an important role to play in child protection. Their role can only be properly carried out,<br>if teachers are equipped with the relevant skills. Appropriate in servicers training in children protection<br>for teacher is of key importance is both emphasizing child protecting issues and in promoting these skills<br>in teachers. Method: Pre-experimental one group pre-test and post –test research design is used .Nonprobability convenience sampling is used . Sample size are 100 Anganwadi Workers. Tools are Structured<br>questionnaire for assessing the knowledge. Results: 8% of the Anganwadi workers in pretest had average<br>level of knowledge score, 51% in pre test had good, 38% in pre test and 13% in post test had very good and<br>3% in pre test and 87% in post test had excellent level of knowledge score. the planned teaching programme<br>on overall knowledge regarding first aid measures for selected minor injury among Anganwadi workers in<br>Anganwadi centre was effective Conclusion: Planned teaching significantly brought out their improvement<br>in the knowledge regarding first aid measure for selected minor injuries among Anganwadi workers. Analysis<br>of the data shows that there was significant difference between pre test and post test knowledge.</p> Kavita J. Gomase Chetana Dilpe Chanda Dobale Dipa Dofe Shraddha Gaidhane Snehal Gaikwad Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 218 221 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14309 A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Knowledge Regarding Management of Selected Minor Ailments of Preschool Children among Anganwadi Workers <p>Background: Child healthy development is an investment in the growth and prosperity of the country. As<br>an opportunity for the future, the value of maintaining child safety can not be overlooked. Most countries’<br>advances have yielded nothing because this dimension was over-looked. An active and successful population<br>cannot develop from unhealthy children chronically affected by recurrent minor ailments.Objectives:1.<br>To assess the knowledge regarding management of selected minor ailments of preschool children among<br>Anganwadi Workers.2. To assess the effectiveness of self instructional module on knowledge regarding<br>management of selected minor ailments of preschool children among Anganwadi Workers.3. To associate<br>the post test knowledge score with selected demographic variables. Materials and Method: This research<br>was based on the design of Pre experimental one-group pre-test post-test study. This research examined 100<br>anganwadi workers. This research has attempted at various centers in Anganwadi. The sampling technique<br>used in this study was a sampling technique intended for non probability. The data were obtained using<br>structured questionnaire. Results: In the post-test 1(1 percent) of the women had very good knowledge and<br>only 99(99 percent) of them had excellent knowledge score. The minimum score in the posttest was 20 and<br>the highest score was 25, the mean score for the posttest was 24.05±0.892 with an average percentage score<br>of 96.2 percent. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the post-test workers at Anganwadi had<br>excellent knowledge. The post-test score was significantly higher at 0.05 than the pre-test score. Thus it was<br>hypothesized that SIM as a teaching tool was found to be effective in addressing selected minor ailments.</p> Kavita J. Gomase Pradnya Sakle Pranali Bhoyar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 222 227 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14311 Potential Stem Cells of Oral Origin- A review on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology <p>Mesenchymal stem cells are isolated from multiple tissues, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood,<br>umbilical cord blood, adult connective tissue, dental tissues, placenta, and amniotic membrane. Oral<br>derived mesenchymal stem cells (OMSC’s) are multipotent cells, though differentiates into odontoblast,<br>cementoblast, osteoblast, chondrocyte, adipocyte, melanocyte, endothelial cell hepatocyte, myoblast and<br>neural cell but shows limited differentiating into only these specific types of cells or mesenchymal origin<br>cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC’s) are the potential stem cells induced through reprogramming<br>such somatic cells genetically by presenting with distinct or causative factors. Growth factors and signalling<br>molecules have the capacity to induce cellular proliferation and cellular differentiation. Addition of<br>transcription factors to a population of differentiated cells does not promise reprogramming of the potential<br>stem cells. Furthermore, ethical issues related with the development of embryonic stem cells (ESC’s) do not<br>apply to iPSCs, which offer a non-controversial strategy to create patient-specific stem cell lines. Hence the<br>present review article was aimed to briefly describe numerous oral mesenchymal stem cells (OMSC’s) and<br>role of Induced potential pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the regenerative medicine and dentistry with a<br>focus on various iPSCs reprogramming techniques in the current scenario.</p> Keerthi Narayan. V Vasumathi.D Pavithra.D NirmalFamilaBettie Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 228 233 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14312 Effectiveness of Gyro Based Handglove for Improving Activities of Daily Living among the Individuals Suffering with Hand Tremors <p>Objectives: Tremor patients can face many difficulties and challenges in performing their daily life<br>activities. The impact of tremor on patients’ lives has various dimensions, captured by questionnaires for<br>tremor severity, disability, handicap, and quality of life. Quality of life is substantially decreased mainly for<br>mental domains, indicating a major impact of psychosocial aspects. The purpose of this study is to reduce<br>hand tremors with the help of gyro based hand glove to improve the activities of daily living of the patient.<br>Methodology: 24 subjects (M:16; F:8) suffering from hand tremors were selected on the basis of inclusion<br>criteria. Name, age and gender of the individuals participating the research was documented. ADL and IADL<br>score of all the individuals was calculated both pre application of the glove and post application of glove.<br>The scale used for assessing the score of ADL and IADL was ‘Katz index of independence in activities of<br>daily living scale’ and ‘Lawton-Brody instrumental assisted activities of daily living scale’ respectively.<br>Result: From this study we get to know that there is increase in the score of ADL by 17.8%. that there is<br>increase in the score of ADL by 38.63%.<br>Conclusion: On the basis of the result of the study, it was concluded that subjects suffering with hand<br>tremors had significant increase in the score of the activities of daily living as well as the score of their<br>Instrumental activities of daily living.</p> Vaishnavi S Desai S. Anandh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 234 238 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14313 Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching on Knowledge Regarding the Ill Effects of Wearing High Heels among Adolescence Girls <p>Introduction: Fashion is like a circle; after some time it keeps changing and gets to the same position. Highheels are frequently worn by many women and form an important part of female gender identity, with high<br>heels, the center with gravity shifts against a person wearing high heels and the buttocks and spine are out<br>of balance.Long use of High Heels tends to increase buttock size. Aims: Assess the effectiveness of planned<br>teaching on knowledge regarding the ill effects of wearing high heels among adolescence girls. Materials<br>and methods : Present study is Pre experimental one group pretest ,post test design was used study has been<br>conducted among 60 adolescence girls in R.S. Mundle Dharampeth, Arts and Commerce college, Nagpur.<br>Structured questionnaires given to assess the existing knowledge and the planned teaching were given after<br>the pre test and assess the post test knowledge to see the effectiveness of planned teaching. Results: The<br>levels of knowledge were seen into 4 categories, poor, average, good and excellent of antenatal mothers,<br>frequency and percentage wise distribution of antenatal mothers according to post test level of knowledge<br>regarding ill effects of wearing high heels. The Mean score of knowledge in post test was 16.10 ± 0.70 and<br>of excellent knowledge score in post-test was 94.70 ± 4.15.Conclusion- Present study identify the existing<br>knowledge of adolescence girls structure teaching It was found that adolescence girls having a good level<br>of knowledge regarding ill effects of wearing high heels in pre test and which were significantly more<br>improvement after attending structured teaching and they have been more gained knowledge about the ill<br>effects of high heels with scientific rationale. So planned teaching was effective in enhancing the knowledge<br>of ill effects of wearing high heels.</p> Khushbu Meshram Arundhati Borkar Sneha Chaudhari Suvidha Bhujade Akanksha Chavhan Tejashri Chandekar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 239 244 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14314 Socio-Epidemiological Variables and Medicolegal Considerations in Freshwater Drowning Deaths: A Decadal Autopsy Study (2006-2015) <p>Drowning is significant public health problem commonly affecting the most productive age groups. The<br>decadal retrospective study presents detailed analysis of socio-epidemiological characteristics of 120 victims<br>of drowning death and stresses upon prevention of such deaths. It also undertakes medicolegal analysis of<br>drowning deaths with regard to identity, manner and time since death.<br>Drowning deaths comprised nearly 30% of violent asphyxial deaths, following hanging (50.37%). Overall,<br>the most affected ages were third and fourth decade of life accounting for 46.7% cases. Young adults in their<br>second decade of life were commonest victims of accidental drowning. Suicidal deaths were more frequent<br>among females. Canal water was the most common source of fatal drowning in 62% cases, followed by<br>ponds, river and drains.<br>Significantly 28.3% victims of drowning were unidentified and in about 2/3rd of these cases time since<br>death exceeded 3 days. Among 82 victims with known manner of death, accidental deaths accounted for<br>79.3% cases; suicides for 18.3% cases and 2.4% were homicidal cases. Minor injuries were observed in<br>16.6% cases, none contributing to the cause of death.</p> Kuldip Kumar Manoj Kumar Sharma Jasbir Singh Ashok Chanana Jaspinder Pratap Singh Deep Rattan Mittal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 245 251 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14317 Prevalence of Microscopic Calcium Oxalate crystalluria in Biochemically Normal Urine Samples <p>Background: Calcium oxalate is the major cause of human kidney stones in all over the globe. These are<br>colorless, refractile, and envelope-shaped. Sometimes dumbbell-shaped or peanut-like forms are seen. They<br>are soluble in dilute Acids. Consumption of some types of foods like tomatoes, spinach, cabbage, asparagus,<br>etc. causes upsurge in its number. A large number are seen in ethylene glycol poisoning.<br>Method : This present research was aimed at investigating the prevalence of calcium oxalate crystalluria in<br>biochemically normal urine samples came to Clinical pathology section of Central Diagnostic Laboratory,<br>Dhiraj General Hospital for the period of two months from 1st December 2019 to 31st January 2020. The<br>urine samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min. The supernatant were decanted and the sediments<br>were viewed under microscope using high power objective lens with 40x magnification. Total 400 urine<br>samples with normal urine protein and normal urine sugar were analyzed microscopically using an Olympus<br>microscope 4000x. Results showed that calcium oxalate crystals had the prevalence rate of 13.26 %.<br>Conclusion: The study showed that this much of prevalence of COC was associated with food intake and<br>the social life style.</p> Kuntal Devesh Patel Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 252 255 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14318 Exfoliative Cellular Study of Pathological Body Fluids – 1 year Retrospective Study <p>Background: Body fluids are straightforwardly gained by tapping. For fluid routine and microscopic<br>examination, laboratory receives pleural, peritoneal, CSF, Urine and Synovial fluids. The cytological<br>evaluation and biochemical study of these received fluids can be fruitful as assistance to the diagnosis.<br>Present study is an attempt to analyze all the samples referred for cytological evaluation.<br>Method: The study is cross-sectional descriptive, analytical and retrospective kind of study carried out in<br>Central Laboratory of Dhiraj Hospital, over a period of one year from June2019 to May2020. Fluids such<br>as peritoneal, pleural, CSF, synovial, etc. were received were examined under light microscope and found<br>pathologies are classified in malignant and non-malignant entities. A total of 506 body fluids were received<br>in the one year period. Majority of the cases were Peritoneal fluid comprised of 242 (47.8 %) followed by<br>pleural fluid with 162 cases (32.0 %). Majority cases were categorized under Non-malignant group. Slight<br>male dominance was observed with the mean age of 46.2 years.<br>Conclusion: Thorough analysis and appropriate clinical correlation will aid in improving patient treatment<br>and care. Cytology of the fluid is a rapid and simple diagnostic technique for diagnosis of pathological<br>conditions in malignant and non-malignant cases.</p> Kuntal Devesh Patel Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 256 260 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14319 A retrospective study on seroprevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in blood donors at Dhiraj Hospital, Vadodara <p>Background: Transfusion of blood and its components help in saving lives but it can also be a life-threatening<br>hazard. Prevention of transmission of infectious diseases through blood transfusion in developing countries<br>is difficult, since the resources available are limited.<br>Methods and Material: A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of TTI<br>among the blood donors who donated blood to Dhiraj Hospital Blood Bank between January 2015 and<br>December 2019.The TTI reports of the donors was obtained from the blood donor data records.<br>Each blood unit was tested by ELISA method for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus. Syphilis was tested<br>by Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) card test. Malaria was tested by antigen rapid diagnostic test.<br>As is the practice in the Blood Bank, all positive samples were subject to repeat test for confirmation, before<br>the seropositive blood unit is discarded<br>The information extracted from the Dhiraj Hospital blood bank database also included donor Id, Age, Sex,<br>Residential address, donation type, donation frequency.<br>Results: The data analysed in the study consisted of a total 20,711 blood donations, of which 2728 (13.1%)<br>were voluntary and 18,288 (86.9%) were replacement donation.<br>The seroprevalence rate of HIV was 0.1, that of HBV was 1.4, HCV 0.1, syphilis was 0.5 and Malaria was<br>0.3 among all the blood donors. The TTIs were more frequently found in replacement donors in comparison<br>to volunteer donors.<br>Conclusions:<br>Ø The prevalence of TTI is higher in replacement blood donors than voluntary blood donors, hence<br>collection of blood from replacement donors should be at least reduced, if not totally eliminated.<br>Ø Stringent criteria need to be used for selection of blood donors.<br>Ø Potential Voluntary blood donors need to be identified and motivated to donate blood regularly.</p> Kuntal Patel Raxitkumar Suthar Gunjan Rathod Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 261 266 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14320 In Silico Prediction of Potential Compounds of Nigella sativa as Aromatase Agonists and Ability to Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier for treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease <p>Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is a chronic neurodegenerative disease which condition is<br>characterized by a decline in memory, thinking skills, and the ability to perform basic activities of daily<br>living. Study showed that postmenopausal women with AD had a lower aromatase activity (p450 aromatase)<br>in the brain compared to menopausal women without AD. To improve cognitive function in AD patients,<br>Nigella sativa (NS) was found to have a protective effect on memory, and cognitive function. This study<br>therefore, aimed to investigate in silico prediction of potential compounds of Nigella sativa as aromatase<br>agonists and ability to cross the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) for treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Methods:<br>The data sets used in this study were collected from databases KnapSack Kanaya, PubChem, and PASS<br>server Way2Drug. HitPick and Autodock Vina was performed. Additionally, the systematic analysis<br>involved ADMET, LMMD, and SWISS ADME. Results and Discussions: In silico test results revealed the<br>most promising constituents in 36 active NS compounds that may have potential to reduce the severity of<br>the AD, owing to its anti-inflammatory, cytochrome p450 stimulants, free radical scavengers, antioxidants,<br>and immunomodulators. The ability of NS to cross the BBB was proven by admetSAR LMMD with an<br>analysis average value of 0.91 (from the highest value of 1). Further, NS can trigger cytochrome P450<br>aromatase activity via Quercetin 3-(6’’ ‘’-feruloylglucosyl)-(1-&gt;2)-galactosyl-(1-&gt;2)-glucoside which has a<br>better binding affinity value than its control (androstenedione). NS through oleic acid compounds may bind<br>to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPRAG), similar to Rosiglitazone which may affect<br>transcription and activation regulation of PPARG. Conclusion: To be concluded, Nigella sativa could be<br>used as a potential medicinal plant for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.</p> Kusuma Andriana Nurdiana Wisnu Barlianto I Wayan Arsana Wiayasa Masruroh Rahayu Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 267 275 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14321 Glycated Haemoglobin- Recent Developments and Review on Non-Glycemic Variables <p>Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is the current tool for monitoring glycemic control once a diagnosis of<br>diabetes is established. Its role in the diagnosis of diabetes has only recently come to attention. In the past,<br>many international organizations have discussed the role of HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes and rejected<br>this application as appropriately DCCT-aligned assays were not used or available globally. Considering<br>the high biological variability, the dynamics of glucose, as well as the limitations of blood glucose<br>monitoring technology, at that time, the possibility of obtaining an integrated average glycemia value by<br>the measurement of a single biomarker elicited immense interest and provided a powerful tool in both<br>diabetes research and clinical management. HbA1c testing was soon facilitated by the development of a new<br>analytical methodology that was suitable for use in clinical laboratories. However, a consensus statement in<br>2007 on assays used to report HbA1c has now further strengthened the case for a change in the diagnosis<br>of diabetes. Using HbA1c as a screening or diagnostic tool has some logistical advantages over traditional<br>glucose testing (either oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT] or fasting plasma glucose [FPG]). Patients can<br>present for a relatively quick test in a non-fasted state at any point of the day, allowing more scope for<br>opportunistic screening. HbA1c assay readings are less prone to recent influences of physical or emotional<br>stress and provide an indication of longer term glycemic control spanning the last 2–3 months. Owing to<br>such logistical advantages there are calls for HbA1c to become the preferred diagnostic tool over glucose<br>tests. Performing the HbA1c test regularly allows the assessment of glycemic control and verification of the<br>efficacy of medication treatment and of education for self-care. It is estimated that 33% to 49% of people<br>with DM2 cannot achieve adequate goals for glucose, blood pressure, or lipid profile control and only 14%<br>reach normal parameters in these measurements.</p> Lata Kanyal Butola Ranjit Ambad Deepika Kanyal Anjali Vagga Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 276 282 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14322 Role of Omega 3 Fatty acids, Vitamin D, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6 and Folate in Mental wellbeing- A Short review of Literature <p>Neuropsychiatric conditions have been linked to around 14 percent of the global disease burden, mainly<br>due to the chronically debilitating nature of depression and other widespread mental disorders, alcohol and<br>drug use disorders, and psychosis. The science and lay press have confirmed that vitamin D is an important<br>factor that can have major health benefits in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. Most<br>people have inadequate vitamin D levels in this country. This is also relevant for people with depression and<br>other mental illnesses as well. Inadequate food consumption, lifestyle or other factors are a major causes of<br>Vitamin D deficiency. Successful diagnosis and treatment of insufficient levels of vitamin D in people with<br>depression and other mental illnesses could be a simple and cost-effective therapy that could enhance the<br>long-term health outcomes and quality of life of patients. It is now well known that omega-3 fatty acids are<br>important for physical health, and there is growing evidence that omega-3 fatty acids may also be important<br>for mental health. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two major omega-3<br>fatty acids in fish oil, have essential biological roles within the CNS. DHA is a major structural component<br>of neuronal membranes, and modifying the neuronal membrane fatty acid composition contributes to<br>functional changes in the behaviour of phospholipid membrane-embedded receptors and other proteins.<br>EPA has major physiological roles that can influence the behaviour of neurons. For innumerable aspects<br>of brain functioning, adequate nutrition is needed. A modifiable risk factor for depression may be the poor<br>quality of diet. The goal was to evaluate and synthesize the existing understanding of the role of nutrition<br>in mental well-being. The risk of depression is increased by low omega-3 fatty acid status. Both fish oil and<br>folic acid supplements have been successfully used to treat depression. The response to antidepressants is<br>decreased by folate deficiency. Deficiencies in folate, vitamin B12, Vitamin D, Omega 3 fatty acids, Vitamin<br>B6 tend to be more prevalent in depressed individuals than in nondepressed individuals. In this short review<br>of Literature we have focused on role of Omega 3 Fatty acids, Vitamin D, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6 and<br>Folate in Mental wellbeing.</p> Lata Kanyal Butola Deepika Kanyal Ranjit Ambad Rakesh Kumar Jha Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 283 288 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14323 Clinical Indicators for Quality Improvements-A Mini Review of Literature <p>The quality of health care is on the agenda in most health care systems. Much of this interest in quality of<br>care has developed in response to recent dramatic transformations of health care systems, accompanied by<br>new organizational structures and reimbursement strategies that may affect quality of care. Assessing the<br>quality of care has become increasingly important to providers, regulators, and purchasers of care. Indicators<br>for performance and outcome measurement allow the quality of care and services to be measured. This<br>assessment can be done by creating quality indicators that describe the performance that should occur for<br>a particular type of patient or the related health outcomes, and then evaluating whether patients’ care is<br>consistent with the indicators based on evidence-based standards of care. Quality of care can be defined<br>as ‘the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired<br>health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge’, and can be divided into different<br>dimensions according to the aspects of care being assessed. This paper will focus define clinical indicators<br>in a standard way for a global audience, and to review a few classifications of clinical indicators that may be<br>useful to those who wish to measure quality of care and describe the performance of health care and related<br>outcomes.</p> Deepika Kanyal Lata Kanyal Butola Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 289 294 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14324 Leukotrienes and Inflammation –A Review <p>Leukotrienes, together with the prostaglandins and other related compounds, are derived from 20 carbon<br>(eicosa) fatty acids that contain double bonds (enoic). Hence this group of substances is called the<br>eicosanoids. The name leukotriene derives from the original discovery of these substances in white blood<br>cells (polymorphonuclear leucocytes) and the fact that they all have in common 4 double bonds (hence the<br>4 subscript), 3 of which are in a conjugated triene structure. Leukotrienes do not exist preformed in cells.<br>They are formed from the breakdown of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated 20 carbon fatty acid. In its<br>esterified form, arachidonic acid is bound to the phospholipids of the cell membranes. Both immunological<br>and non-immunological stimuli can release arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids by activating<br>phospholipase A2. The glucocorticosteroid drugs can inhibit phospholipase A2 and thereby decrease the<br>production of all the leukotrienes and hence leukotriene-mediated responses. Generally, inflammation leads<br>to vasodilation, vascular hyperpermeability, increased blood flow and recruitment of leukocytes to inflamed<br>sites. These events cause enhanced production of cytokines, chemokines, chemical mediators and lipid<br>mediators such as LTs and prostaglandins. Acute inflammation occurs over a short time (seconds, minutes<br>and hours). In contrast, chronic inflammation is a long-lasting inflammatory and immune response that<br>occurs over months to years and results in diverse diseases including asthma, allergies, atherosclerosis,<br>arthritis, obesity, cancer and other age-related diseases such as AMD. In this review article we aimed to<br>highlight the evidence that implicates LTs in physiological function and also in disease processes.</p> Lata Kanyal Butola Archana Dhok Ranjit Ambad Deepika Kanyal Roshan Kumar Jha Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 295 301 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14325 Recent Updates in Female Infertility: A Short Review of Literature <p>Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. It has been estimated<br>that 93% of healthy couples practicing unprotected intercourse should except to conceive within 1 year.<br>Females presenting after this time should therefore be regarded as possibly infertile and should be evaluated.<br>Although infertility is considered by some as primarily a woman’s problem, men often contribute to and are<br>also affected. Infertility problem often arise as a result of hormonal dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis. Human infertility is a complex problem, which has numerous consequences depending on the<br>society and cultural background, age, hormone problems, environmental problem, gender, lifestyle, sexual<br>history, of the people it affects. Infertility is a global public health concern this is partly due to its complexity<br>in etiology as well as difficulty in preventing, diagnosing and treating it.</p> Lata Kanyal Butola Ranjit Ambad Anjali Vagga Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 302 311 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14326 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Carrier Status among Indian Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis <p>Infection with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to quality care in the hospital.<br>Asymptomatic colonization of MRSA escalates the burden of infection. The rate of MRSA colonization<br>among healthcare workers (HCW) is not homogenous across the globe. Even though there are individual<br>study reports on MRSA colonization, no pooled data is available in India. Therefore, it is important to<br>evaluate the problem of MRSA colonization to develop a policy on preventive measures. We performed<br>a systematic review and meta-analysis of MRSA carrier status among Indian HCWs using five databases<br>(Scopus, PubMed-Medline, IndMed, CINAHL and Google-Scholar) from the articles published from 2008<br>to 2017 (10 years). STATA 13.0 with metaprop package in STATA was used to find the rate of colonization.<br>Among 2,349 HCWs, the pooled prevalence of MRSA colonization in throat, nose, axilla, palm, fingertips<br>and web-spaces was nine percent (CI 6% - 13%; p=0.001, I2<br>91.68%). Further, the forest plot of MRSA<br>colonization in nasal cavity alone was performed, and the prevalence of nasal colonization of MRSA among<br>1,251 Indian HCWs was found to be 11% (CI 5-17%, p=0.001, I2 93.3%). The colonization rate is not very<br>high nor negligible. Therefore, the hospital administrator along with the hospital infection control committee<br>needs to formulate a policy on periodic screening and decolonization of HCWs in high-risk areas.</p> Latha T Saraswathi Hebbar Baby S Nayak Ravishanker N Anil K Bhat Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 312 321 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14327 Effect of Early Pre-Ambulatory Training on Functional Mobility Skill and Quality of Life In Low Paraplegia: A Research Protocol <p>Background: Paraplegia defined as near total dysfunction of the entire or part of the trunk and both lower<br>limbs, caused by lesions of the thoracic or lumbar spinal cord or cauda equina. 43% of SCI results in<br>paraplegia for thoracic, lumbar, or sacral lesion. The purpose of physical therapy management is to make<br>the patient relaxed and to achieve pre-ambulatory preparations, pre-ambulatory activities and ambulation<br>activities.<br>Methods/Design: The study will be designed as experimental study. Total 60 participants will be selected<br>as per inclusion and exclusion criteria from AVBRH, Sawangi Meghe for the study. The duration of study<br>will 6 months with intervention. Physiotherapy intervention includes respiratory care, skin protection,<br>range of motions and early reinforcement, early mobility activity, bed mobility skills, transfer activities<br>and wheelchair skills. ASIA Impairment Scale, Functional Independent Measure, Wheelchair Skill Test,<br>WHOQOL-BREF will be major outcome measure for the patient.<br>Discussion: The study protocol details, in people with SCI the intervention strategy selected is largely based<br>on the amount of preserved motor function. Independence in functional skills in patients with complete<br>motor SCI (ASIA A and B) is largely achieved through compensatory mechanisms and interventions are<br>developed accordingly. Expected outcome from the study will be the effects of early pre-ambulatory training<br>on functional mobility skills and quality of life in low paraplegia.</p> Madhumita Yadav Moh’d Irshad Qureshi Shivani. R. Uttamchandani Pratik Phansopkar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 322 327 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14328 Assess the Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Respiratory Problems among Petrol Pump Workers <p>Introduction: Occupational health is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical,<br>mental and social well-being of employees in all professions through the avoidance of health departures, the<br>management of risks and the adaptation of work to people and their jobs. As the petrol pump workers work<br>constantly for more than 8 hours per day for 6 days a week and thus being constantly exposed to petrol/diesel<br>fumes, are at a high risk of developing respiratory problems.<br>Objectives:1)To assess the knowledge of petrol pump workers regarding respiratoryproblems. 2) To assess<br>the attitude towards respiratory problems among petrol pumpworkers. 3)To find out the association between<br>knowledge score with selected demographic variables 4)To find out the association between attitude towards<br>respiratory problems with selected demographicvariables.<br>Hypothesis:H1-there will be a significant association between petrol pump workers and selected demographic<br>variables. H2- there will be no significant association between knowledge of respiratory problems and<br>selected demographicvariables.<br>Methods and Materials:A descriptive study was conducted in Wardha district to assess the knowledge<br>of petrol pump workers regarding respiratoryproblems. Total 100 petrol pump workers were selected by<br>probability simple random sampling technique.Modified structured questionnaire and Likert scale was used<br>to assess knowledge and attitude of petrol pump workers respectively.Descriptive statistics like frequencies<br>and percentages were used for representing the analyzed data.<br>Result:Findings shows that 3% of the petrol pump workers were having poor level of knowledge score, 13%<br>had average, 49% had good and 35% of them had excellent level of knowledge score.87% of petrol pump<br>workers had positive attitude. There was positive correlation was established between knowledge score and<br>attitude score of petrol pump workers(r=0.283, p=0.0001)<br>Conclusion:Findings suggest that petrol pump workers were aware about the respiratory problems due to<br>occupational hazards and somewhat their attitude was positive towards their health.</p> Madhuri Shambharkar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 328 335 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14329 A Cross Sectional Study “Impact of Corona Virus Pandemic on Nursing Education: A Paradigm Shifting or Sustaining the Roots? <p>Background:COVID 19 outbreak miens critical concern to global education system across the world.<br>The closure of universities has left billions of students behind. Nursing educators and students relied on<br>technology to continue learning online during the pandemic. However, online education is hampered by the<br>lack of networks, power, infrastructure such as inaccessible and lack of digital skills.<br>Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID 19 outbreak on nursing education.<br>Objectives:<br>1. To assess the perception regarding impact of corona pandemic on nursing education, limitations of<br>E-learning and required modifications among nursing educators.<br>2. To find out the association between perception of nursing educators with their socio-demographic<br>variables.<br>Material and Methods: Quantitative Cross sectional research design was adopted with Non probability<br>technique(Convenient sampling) .Data were collected through a Google form consisting of selfstructured Likert scale on perceptions of nursing educators. The Subdomains of the perception were impact<br>of COVID-19 outbreak on Nursing education, Limitations of e-learning and essential modifications required.<br>Result: of the study revealed that the corona pandemic outbreak has adversely impacted nursing education<br>and urgent need to implement effective e-learning teaching learning strategies of nursing educators to<br>understand their perception and issues they are facing during e- classes to foster teaching-learning.The<br>mean and SD of (7.9 + 3.9) shows negative impact of COVID pandemic on nursing education and are of<br>limitations in E-learning methods with a mean and SD score of (6.2 + 2.4).<br>Conclusion: The process of imparting education has seen a sea change during the threat of the COVID<br>pandemic. Besides, technology is affecting every side of society and changing it regularly. Challenges in<br>the E-learning context shows the requirement for up-gradation in institutional technology infrastructure and<br>teacher’s capacity building training to improve technological expertise.</p> Mahendra Kumar Saini Shelly Binal Joshi Ankita Singh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 336 346 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14330 COVID-19 Lockdown & Online Education: Impact of WorldWide Pandemic on Nursing Education in India <p>Background : The technology has taken over all most all aspects of our life including our education system.<br>The present pandemic COVID 19 has affected the education of nursing students. So many institutions have<br>adopted online teaching so that students can learn and improve their self-confidence.<br>Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the nursing student’s attitude towards online education and<br>factors affecting online education.<br>Methods: A total of 780 participants from different nursing institutions of Odisha completed a questionnairebased survey on the impact of pandemic on education of nursing students. A self-structured questionnaire<br>was used to collect data. Participants were selected by convenient sampling method. The demographic<br>characteristics were represented by frequencies and percentage. Descriptive statistics for all categories<br>calculated based on the responses.<br>Results: Among the participants (n=780), all most all participants 87.9% were females, most participants<br>79.4% of participants were between 18 to 28 years. Among all participants 56.8% are doing Basic Bsc.<br>nursing, 10.1% are continuing Msc Nursing, 29% are in GNM course, and 4.1% are continuing post basic<br>nursing. Maximum of 48.8% are in 1st year. All most all 98.5% of institution conducting online education.<br>39.3% of students have positive attitude and 28.4% of students have negative attitude towards online<br>teaching. 72% students have poor internet connection, 52% students have lack of knowledge regarding<br>using the software, 67% students feel audio was not clear, 56% students feel letters are small to read, 47%<br>participants feel time is not sufficient, 68% participants feel there was interruption during class.<br>Conclusion: The online education has not developed overnight. This system of education adopted by many<br>higher educations and in many institutions. Online teaching</p> Manisha Praharaj Kshirabdhi Tanaya Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 347 353 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14331 Knowledge of Students Regarding COVID-19 Amid its Hasty Expansion <p>Background: The pandemic of COVID-19 has been spreading around the world very rapidly and has took a<br>terrible shape. The one of the better ways to deal with this terrible pandemic is to have thorough knowledge<br>about it and act consequently.<br>Objectives: The present study aim at assessing and comparing the knowledge of Students about COVID 19<br>and its hasty expansion.<br>Material and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional research design was adopted for the study. Data using<br>online structured knowledge questionnaire was collected from 316 participants which was selected using<br>convenient sampling technique from selected University of Ambala. The data was collected from students<br>of Nursing, Physiotherapy and IT department.<br>Results: The mean age of participants among Nursing was 21.75 + 1.77, 23.43 + 2.62 among physiotherapy<br>whereas 23.22+ 2.28 among IT department. In relations to Gender it was found that most (76 %) of the<br>participants were female and only 24 percent were male among Nursing, 66 percent’s participants were<br>female, and 34 percent were male among physiotherapy while 56 percent were female and 44 percent<br>were male in the IT department. 47 percent participants from the Nursing, 40 percent participants from<br>physiotherapy and 20 percent participants form IT were having good knowledge. The knowledge score<br>among Nursing Participants ranged from 17 to 46, 15 to 47 among Physiotherapy whereas it was 17 to 47<br>among IT participants. The mean knowledge score of the Nursing participants was 33.84 + 5. 48, 32.91+6.67<br>among physiotherapy and it was 31.63+5.98 among IT. Repeated measure ANOVA was calculated which<br>shows a statically significant difference (F=1.07, p=0.00) among three groups<br>Conclusion: The study concluded that continuing teaching experience is required to the students regarding<br>preventive measures as well as change in the treatment regimen</p> Manisha Saklani Parvinder Kaur Jyoti Sarin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 354 359 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14332 Parenting Knowledge and Anxiety among Primiparus Couple in Odisha, India: A Cross Sectional Study <p>Background: Turning into the parent bring difficulties, challenges and series of changes such as emotional<br>adjustment, couple relationship issues and trouble overseeing regular newborn child practices. Preparing<br>for the progress to parenthood brings changes in life roles and finding a way to oversee such changes. New<br>parents can get ready for parenthood by training of skills, child rearing tasks and assets that can help with<br>turning into a parent.<br>Objective: To evaluate the level of knowledge of primigravida mother and father regarding parenthood. To<br>determine the level of anxiety between couples. To find out the association between level of knowledge with<br>selected demographic variable.<br>Methods: The present study is a cross sectional non experimental descriptive survey. The total samples<br>for this study are 380 primi couples. A self-structured questionnaire was prepared to assess the level of<br>knowledge of primiparus couples and standardize anxiety tool to assess anxiety between parents. Data was<br>collected by interviewing the study samples. Pilot study was conducted with 30 samples from different<br>settings to check the reliability &amp; feasibility of the study.<br>Results: The finding of this study is (29%) of couple has good knowledge and (37%) couple has poor<br>knowledge regarding preparedness of parenthood. Mean and SD of knowledge score of father and mother is<br>17.06±3.60 and 18.36±3.99 respectively. More than half i.e. 41.31% couple has mild to moderate anxiety and<br>only 42.89% couple has minimum anxiety. There is no significant association between level of knowledge<br>and age, occupation, level of education and monthly income of couple as it is less than P value 0.05.</p> Manisha Praharaj Kshirabdhi Tanaya Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 360 365 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14333 Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and Carbon Monoxide Level among Smokers, Tobacco Chewers and Control Group <p>Aim: To assess salivary flow rate and carbon monoxide level among smokers, tobacco chewers and control<br>group.<br>Methodology: The study has total of 45 subjects, which were divided into 3 groups and 15 subjects in each.<br>Group A- smokers’ group, Group B- chewers’ group, Group C-control group. Unstimulated whole saliva<br>was measured by performing modified Schirmer tear strip test(MST). Smokerlyzer used for measuring CO<br>levels from exhaled breath.<br>Result: On analysing the data of SFR between smokers, chewer’s and control group, there was statistically<br>significant result at p value of 0.05 between all groups. On evaluating the co level in smoking group 53.3%<br>presented with higher CO level and 60% chewers presented with lower CO level. In control group 100%<br>were under no risk.<br>Conclusion: The salivary flow rate is reduced in tobacco users in either form. Since smoking group is at<br>higher risk monitoring of carbon monoxide level can be used as the important tool in motivating the tobacco<br>users to quit the habit.<br>Aim: To assess salivary flow rate and carbon monoxide level among smokers, tobacco chewers and control<br>group.</p> Manju J Krithika C Karthikeyan G Karishma Chowdary M.V Karthika R Mugesh Raj S Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 366 373 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14336 Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Forensic Odontology among Undergraduate Dental Students <p>Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the level of knowledge, awareness and practice of forensic odontology<br>among undergraduate dental students.<br>Methodology: The data was collected through a questionnaire which contained 15 close-ended questions<br>shared through online platform. And circulated amongst undergraduate dental students through online<br>platform, all data were completely filled and statistical analysis was done.<br>Result: The results of this study show that Interns were the group with the most Knowledge about Forensic<br>Odontology (p=0.0004). 75% of the Interns scored &gt;90 and contrastingly, around 30% of the IV, III, II and<br>I years scored &gt;90.<br>Conclusion: This study divulges that there was adequate knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology<br>amongst the Interns and very few of other group students (I, II, III and IVyear) have adequate knowledge<br>and awareness regarding forensic odontology. Although the significance of maintenance of dental records<br>are established, it has not been practiced among the students</p> Manju J Krithika C Anusha S Arputha Madhalan C Anu Priya B Swathi R Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 374 380 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14337 Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Recent Diagnostic Aids for Oral Cancer among Dental Students <p>Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of recent diagnostic<br>aids for oral cancer among dental students.<br>Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 100 students using a 15-item self-administered<br>questionnaire during COVID-19 pandemic period involving both undergraduates and postgraduate dental<br>students.It was formatted on google forms and shared through social media. The data collected was analysed<br>statistically.<br>Results: A total of 100 dental studentsparticipated in the survey. The total knowledge, attitude, and practice<br>about recent diagnostic aids for oral cancer (based on summing all the positive responses -- for all the<br>relevant questions -- and calculating the percentage) was 90% for post-graduates (highest), 88% for interns<br>group, 84% for final years and 80% for third years (least) respectively.The results of this study show that<br>postgraduates had good knowledge about recent diagnostic aids for oral cancer when compared to other<br>groups.<br>Conclusion: These findings concerning dental students suggests that they have sufficient knowledge in the<br>recent diagnostic methods of oral canceras they are the ones who have higher chances of diagnosing oral<br>cancer at earlier stages as they routinely examine oral cavity.</p> Manju J Krithika C Sharmila. S Siva Kumar. S Soniya. H Sri Hamsika. N Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 381 386 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14339 The Effect Allium sativum (Garlic Extract) as Prebiotic Substance on the Activity of Probiotic Bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus Against Some Locally Isolates of Pathogenic Bacteria <p>The aim of this study was to improve the growth and inhibitory activity of the selected Lactobacillus isolate.<br>A total of twenty samples of dairy products (fresh yogurt) were collected. Seven isolates of Lactobacillus<br>species . were obtained, and identified as three Lactobacillus fermentum, three Lactobacillus acidophilus and<br>one of Lactobacillus brevis. The growth of lactobacillus acidophilus was counted , also inhibitory activity of<br>Lactobacillus acidophilus against some pathogenic bacteria was tested) for two different incubation periods<br>before the addition of Allium sativum(garlic extract) as prebiotic substances. three different concentrations<br>of it were used by addition of it to<br>De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS) medium as prebiotic substances , and two incubation periods<br>(24, 48) hour. The effect of Allium sativum on the growth of probiotic bacteria was evaluated, measurement<br>of Lactobacillus acidophilus growth curve was done after and before adding garlic extract. For analyzing<br>inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus with the Allium ,results showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus<br>propagated in MRS fortified with 20% and 30% v/v garlic extract with incubation period 24 hr by giving the<br>highest inhibition zone.<br>It was concluded that Lactobacillus.acidophilus isolate can grow well and exhibit good effect against Gramnegative bacteria in a medium containing garlic extract (that is added as a substrate supporting probiotic<br>growth and activity). also it was clear that filtrate of Lactobacillus .acidophilus isolate that propagating<br>in spesific broth fortified with 20% garlic extract at 48 hr incubation period produce antibacterial effect<br>better than 10% , it was concluded that prebiotic treatment enhance the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus<br>especially at 24 hr. this may due to fructooligosaccharide content in garlic , also when propagated in MRS<br>without prebiotic treatment, and which may due to highly decrease in pH which cause inhibition the growth<br>of Lactobacillus acidophillus.</p> Marwa A. Kubba Sahar M. Hussein Omar S. Al-Zaidi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 387 394 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14340 Knowledge and Attitudes amongst Medical Students on Health Research and Scientific Publications <p>Introduction: Most of the medical colleges, in general, have been suffering from lack of health research<br>and scientific publications among the students in particulars and faculties in general. Health research and<br>scientific publications are important medical students’ activity for healthy and prosperous medical education.<br>Objective: This study assesses the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding health research and scientific<br>publications among medical students. Methodology: It is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted<br>among 100 medical students and were randomly picked up at Assam Medical College and Hospital in the<br>year 2019. A prefix pretested proforma was used to determine the knowledge and attitudes of the students.<br>Informed consent was taken. The data thus obtained was analyzed using MS Excel. Results: A total of<br>25(25%) students feel confident in interpreting and writing a research paper, while 39(39%) says they can<br>do it with seniors’ support.<br>In comparison, 20(20%) says no it saying their incapabilities of doing it. Majority 70(70%) students say<br>that they have not participated in a research project (apart from mandatory academic projects) and 90(90%)<br>says that they were never written any scientific paper. A good number of 80(80%) students feel that lack of<br>a mentor is the cause of no publication while 60(60%) students believe that undergraduate students can plan<br>and conduct a research project and write a scientific paper. Lack of facilities for doing research is accepted<br>by 50(50%) of students to be another cause of no research and publication while 40(40%) receive lack of<br>funding to be the root cause of no study. Conclusion: With the limited resources of this study, our findings<br>have highlighted a low to moderate level of knowledge of undergraduate medical students in research<br>methodology principles and the critical impact of research methodology workshops. These findings can be<br>utilized for future health research planning to improve the situation in India’s field of medical education.</p> Mahanta Putul Mahanta Kinkar Kalim Ullah Deka Subha Jyoti Dutta Bhaskar Jyoti Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 395 399 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14341 Prevalence of Hypertension in Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases with and without Type-II Diabetes Mellitus <p>Background: - Hypertension is one of the major public health issue and also have an important area of<br>research. Its high prevalence and being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and other complications.<br>Hypertension accounts for the majority of hypertension in individuals with diabetes, particularly those with<br>Type-2 diabetes.<br>Objectives. To study association of hypertension with diabetes and also find out the prevalence of<br>hypertension in type-II diabetes, CAD patients with or without type-II diabetes mellitus.<br>Materials &amp; Methods: - It is a type of case control study among the rural population of kamothe, where<br>A total of 120 subjects were included in the study among which 90 were in study subjects and 30 were in<br>control groups and among the study subjects (i.e.-90) 30 were in CAD with diabetes, 30 were in CAD and<br>30 in Diabetes mellitus respectively. BMI was calculated by height and weight and BP was recorded. Blood<br>sugar were measured by enzymatic method on EM-200 analyzer<br>Results:-The mean level of BMI in the group –II that is in the coronary artery disease with diabetes is<br>24.22 ± 1.0, in only coronary artery diseases was 20.65 ± 2.0 and in only diabetes subjects was 24.39±1.0<br>of the study subjects in the comparison of control subjects i.e. 23.17 ± 1.78 and we have also found the<br>statistical significance (P-0.001) in all the study groups. In the aspects of Blood pressure distribution, we<br>have distributed it into different stage of hypertension and found that more number of patients from group<br>III i.e. only CAD and found 83% diastolic BP in pre hypertension stages and 60% were hypertensive and<br>in only DM, there were 56% SBP and 60% DBP in pre-hypertensive.<br>Conclusion: - Periodic evaluation of patient with pre hypertension and hypertension by applying life<br>style modifications and may favor the good outcome and also prompt the treatment of hypertension and<br>hyperglycemia.</p> Mishra Mritunjay DVSS Ramavataram Tejas Shah Trushna Shah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 400 405 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14342 Predisposing Risk Factors Associated with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI): A Review <p>Among non-communicable diseases, cardiovascular diseases are major contributors to the resulting morbidity<br>and mortality all over the world and India is no exception. Being one of the densely populated country and<br>categorized as developing country, the proportion of subjects who are being afflicted with this disease has<br>been progressively increasing. One of the leading causes for cardiovascular complications is myocardial<br>infarction. The incidence of Acute Myocardial infarction has been observed across all the populations and<br>from early adulthood to old age. Over the years there has been change in life style and dietary habits which<br>is further contributing to increased prevalence. A number of risk factors have been found to be causative<br>factors for development of the disease. Which include, genetic, environmental, life style modifications etc.<br>The risk factors can be categorized in modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Those factors which can<br>be controlled are categorized as modifiable and by changing them the risk level can be decreased whereas<br>non modifiable risk factors cannot be changed and by knowing them one can assess the amount of risk<br>involved. The present review is focused on various risk factors which are known to cause cardiovascular<br>diseases and the role of each risk factor in the development of Acute Myocardial Infarction.</p> Mishra Mritunjay DVSS Ramavataram Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 406 417 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14343 Efficacy of Innovative Table for Traction, Myofascial Release Along with Medicated Steam (Swedan) in Non-Specific Low Back Pain Patients: A Research Protocol <p>Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common condition associated with work absenteeism, disability<br>and large health care costs with an annual prevalence range from 22% to 65%.Chronic low back pain is the<br>condition where the back pain lasts for more than three months. Lumbar traction is the process of applying a<br>stretching force to the lumbar vertebrae through body weight, weights, and/or pulleys to distract individual<br>joints of the lumbar spine. Myofascial release (MFR) is a form of manual medicine which involves the<br>application of a low load, long duration stretch to the myofascial complex, intended to restore optimal<br>length, decrease pain, and improve function. Medicated steam therapy is a method of giving medicated<br>steam over the affected muscular area in order to provide local effect of pain relief. All the three methods<br>will be applied together to see the effect.<br>Methods/Design: The study will be designed as a pilot study. A total of 30 samples will be taken with<br>nonspecific low back pain. NPRS and Modified Oswestry Disability index was taken before treatment.<br>Intervention including traction, myofascial release therapy and medicated steam will be given. . Two sessions<br>will be given once a week for 3 weeks and outcome will be recorded.<br>Discussion: Various studies have been conducted over the effect of lumbar traction over low back pain.<br>Traction distracts the muscles and the joint helps in relieving the pain. One of the therapeutic options is<br>traction, which can be combined with other physical therapy modalities. Combining effect of traction with<br>hot fermentation has been effective study have shown. It has been claimed that traction therapy results in<br>lessening the muscle spasm</p> Neha Chitale Mitushi Deshmukh Pratik Phansopkar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 418 422 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14344 A Case Report of 57 Year Old Male Having Post Fracture Stiffness of Right Shoulder with Supraspinatous Tear Case Report <p>A case of lateral clavicle fracture associated with frozen shoulder is reported, which had reduced the<br>abduction and lateral rotation due to frozen shoulder due to pain patient’s fear of being unable to do any<br>shoulder impact operation. MRI ruled out supraspinatous tear. Medical examination of the frozen shoulder<br>confirms the diagnosis. He was successfully treated with the combination of physical therapy treatment<br>with the TENS, IFT, ultrasound and shoulder girdle mobilization electrotherapy modality. Scope of motion<br>comment per goniometer at 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks shoulder at. All the ranges are increased significantly.</p> Nikita Deshmukh Vaidehi kannao Waqar Naqv Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 423 426 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14345 Familiarity and Desire to Perceive Medical Education Courses among School Students in India- A Pilot Study <p>The number of dentist serving the rural areas is relatively low and the practice of seeking general physicians<br>for dental treatments can still be evident in areas where dental services are not accessible. But it is unclear<br>whether students from suburban regions prefer to pursue dentistry as their first choice of preference. Hence,<br>the present study was aimed to find the interest in dentistry among the aspiring school students, to evaluate if<br>the existing exams remain a challenge, from choosing a medical course, and also to assess if the emergence<br>of COVID-19 has actually increased the popularity of traditional medicines. A survey questionnaire with<br>16 questions was shared through online media to 200 school students both in urban and suburban regions<br>after validation for this pilot study. After consent to participate, the responses collected were tabulated and<br>statistically analyzed. It was observed that only 64% (urban) and 73% (suburban) were aware of dentistry<br>with a slight increase in student’s choice for traditional medicine courses over allopathic medicine (40%<br>urban, 48% suburban) post pandemic. Within the limitations of this study it is evident that school students<br>are less aware of various dentistry courses, and access to training for the exams can motivate the number of<br>students seeking admission to dentistry courses.</p> Nirmal Famila Bettie Keerthi Narayan.V Rathika Rai Mugesh Raj Karthikeyan Mohamed Azarutheen Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 427 433 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14346 Study of the Motives of Hanging Cases Brought for Medico Legal Autopsy in a Tertiary Care Medical College & Hospital of Assam <p>Death is inevitable for every living being however sudden demise of a human being which is unexpected due<br>to unnatural causes is an immense loss of valuable human resources causing irreparable loss for the family<br>and society at large. There are various modes of committing suicide but death by hanging is quite common<br>among the masses. The present study was conducted at Tezpur Medical College &amp; Hospital, Tezpur, Assam<br>to find out the various motives of hanging cases in medico legal autopsies during the period 1st January 2019<br>to 31st December 2019.</p> Nitu Kr. Gogoi Richa Pandey P.K. Thakuria Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 434 438 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14347 Perception about Dental Myths among General Public <p>Introduction: Myths are part of everyone’s life. Considering the outcomes of beliefs, one should be aware<br>about the myths about health care as it may result in outrageous complication. Certain culture and cultural<br>beliefs have a greater impact in health and sickness which represents different ideas shared by different<br>people in India.<br>Aim: This study was aimed to assess the knowledge about dental myths among general public, in Tamil<br>Nadu.<br>Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaire, through Google<br>forms, among 200 people from the age group of 17-54 years in Tamil Nadu, India. Statistics was done and<br>tabulated.<br>Results: Most of the participants were not having adequate awareness and knowledge about dental myths.<br>Conclusion: Thus, awareness and knowledge about dental myths among general public has to be improved<br>by community oral health programs.</p> P S Gayathri Krithika C R Hema Maheshwari Jasti Keerthi Jenisha Priyavadhani S Harshada Ragunathan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 439 444 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14348 Awareness and Attitude about Social, Ethical and Legal issues Related to Assisted Reproductive Techniques (A.R.T) amongst Medical Students and Interns in a Tertiary Care Hospital at Chennai <p>Infertility is an issue on the rise worldwide. Infertility treatment globally has undergone a gradual revolution<br>from the traditional treatment to the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). ART is presently the<br>most sought after technology that successfully treats millions of infertile couples over the world. However,<br>the utilization of ART still differs between various nations owing to varying socioeconomic, cultural and<br>religious reasons. The sudden increase of this technology has introduced numerous social, ethical, and legal<br>challenges. This paper assesses the awareness level and attitude amongst medical students and interns in<br>Chennai regarding some of the most vital and tricky topics in the field of ART and outlines the ethical,<br>legal and social challenges they bring in. This questionnaire-based study involved 427 participants who<br>encompassed medical students and interns from tertiary care hospital at Chennai. The responses were<br>collected, tabulated and statistically analysed. About 2/3rd of the participants were females. 94% of the<br>respondents declared that they are aware of ART (401), 63% answered that all the information was obtained<br>from the medical college. Over 2/3rd of the study population was aware of one of the ART methods. 70.8%<br>(302) amongst the participants felt that ART solved all problems of infertility.86.7% of the respondents<br>(370) knew that Spousal agreement to opt for A.R.T is a must. 90.6% (387) of the study population were of<br>the opinion that revealing the identity of the sperm donor would cause psychological, social and attitudinal<br>issues among the recipients &amp; the spouse. 29.6% of the participants felt that donation of the surplus embryos<br>for research purposes was the best option. The gaps in knowledge about newer methods and procedures<br>regarding ART were identified. Medical students must be agents of socio-medical information and this<br>makes them good ambassadors for healthy living and fertility awareness. The introduction of government<br>run ART centres and reduction in the cost of the services will go a long way in encouraging more persons<br>to use the services.</p> P Shruthi Sri Jayanth Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 445 450 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14349 Awareness about Consumer Protection Act amongst Patients Visiting a Private Medical College and Hospital at Chennai: A Descriptive Study <p>Objectives: To assess the knowledge regarding Consumer Protection Act amongst patients visiting a tertiary<br>care hospital at Chennai.<br>Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire based survey was carried out on 550 patients<br>visiting a private medical college and hospital at Chennai and the data was collected. The interview consisting<br>of closed ended questions on CPA. Statistical analysis was done using appropriate statistical tools in SPSS<br>software.<br>Observation and Results: Young male respondents were found to have more awareness in comparison<br>with females. Education and monthly income were found to have positive association with the level of<br>awareness.62% of the study participants have heard about CPA. In cases of medical negligence, 78%<br>participants would visit police station rather than a consumer redressal forum.80% of the participants were<br>unaware of the location of consumer court. Approximately half of the respondents (45%) felt that medical<br>services by doctors were liable for punishment under CPA in case of negligence.<br>Conclusion: Knowledge of what may influence patients is of utmost importance in cases of meeting their<br>expectations and demands. Although the Consumer protection Act empowers patients to demand quality<br>care, still complaints against medical professionals for errors, unfair access and poor satisfaction in<br>service rendered remains. Hence awareness of patients rights and legislations would pave a path towards<br>improvement in the quality of medical service rendered , thereby providing satisfaction to both patients and<br>health care provider.</p> P Shruthi Uma Maheshwari Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 451 456 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14350 Knowledge and Attitude Towards Euthanasia and Advance Directives amongst Medical Students in a Private Medical College and Hospital at a Metropolitan City of India <p>Background - Decision making about ‘End of life’ is value-laden with respect to the context of culture and<br>ethics. Advanced and improved medical technologies and well qualified health care professionals are always<br>trying to sustain life , sometimes even when there is no hope of recovery .This has led to a need for an end<br>of life decision making legislation more than ever.<br>Euthanasia (Painless or mercy killing) and advance directives are less popular concepts in Indian context as<br>against the many of the nations worldwide.<br>Objective- To study the knowledge and attitude of medical students toward euthanasia and advance<br>directives.<br>Methodology - 400 medical students were chosen randomly and a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire<br>based study was conducted administering a pre-tested, semi structured questionnaire to assess their<br>knowledge and attitude regarding euthanasia and advance directives in a private medical college and hospital<br>at Chennai. The data collected was statistically analysed using appropriate statistical tools in SPSS software.<br>Results- Female preponderance, 246 (61.5%) was noted in the study with female to male ratio being 1.6:1.<br>76% of them had heard about Euthanasia and 29% of them were aware of the concept of advance directives.<br>61% of them wanted active euthanasia to be legalised. 54% of them believed that this concept may easily<br>be misused and that was the reason against opting for euthanasia. 34% of them were aware that the mental<br>health act (MHCA) , 2017 promoted advance directive in India.Although none of them had helped any<br>patient write an advance directive, 77% of them felt that health care providers should always anticipate<br>discussion about end-of-life issues with the patient.<br>Conclusion- This study concludes that majority of the medical students in teaching medical colleges and<br>hospital had moderate to high level of knowledge of euthanasia and moderate to poor level of knowledge<br>regarding advance directives.</p> P Shruthi G Sudaakar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 457 461 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14351 Knowledge and Attitude Towards Antibiotic Prescription among Dental Students <p>Introduction: Antibiotics play a crucial role in dental practice for both prophylactic and therapeutic<br>purposes. Excessive consumption of antibiotics or using them unreasonably not only cause emergence of<br>resistant bacterial strains and hostile drug reactions but also create an economic liability on the overall health<br>system of a country.<br>Aim: The present study was aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude towards usage, antibiotic<br>prescription and various concerns associated with antibiotics among dental students.<br>Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using self-administrated questionnaire, through Google<br>forms using various social media platforms such as whatsapp, facebook among 202 dental students of third<br>year, final year, interns and postgraduates across dental colleges in Tamil Nadu, India during COVID-19<br>pandemic lockdown period. Statistics was done and tabulated.<br>Results: Our study results show that the majority of dental students are aware of antibiotic prescription, uses<br>of antibiotic and antibiotic resistance.<br>Conclusion: Though the knowledge and attitude about antibiotic prescription is high among dental students,<br>there are still few areas where they lack adequate knowledge; these deficits can be rectified by encouraging<br>them to attend cde programs, conferences related to antibiotic prescription.</p> P.S. Gayathri Krithika C V. Sandhya E.Sangeetha T.Santhoshika Priya Ramani Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 462 465 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14352 Factors Affecting Natural Illnesses during the Covid-19 Pandemic- Autopsy Findings in a Series of Cases <p>The Covid 19 pandemic brought about many changes. People were stressed, also they didn’t get treatment<br>on time. Because of this there was worsening of pre-existing disease. There was also increase in stress<br>related diseases like myocardial ischemia. Lockdown and sudden change of plans also affected the treatment<br>of cases. Some cases could also be due to undiagnosed Covid infection, since there is no test that is 100%<br>sensitive and specific to detection of the virus1 especially during the post-mortem period. Here we are<br>discussing some selected cases which we have come during the period and the autopsy findings thereof. This<br>article highlights the importance of negating fear and increase awareness. It also conveys the significance of<br>verbal autopsy as a tool to help certify death.</p> Padmini Hannah Noone Asma Kausar Dayananda R Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 467 470 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14354 Combined Effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation And Electrical Muscle Stimulation In Hemiplegic Stroke Patients To Enhance Upper Extremity Function: A Research Protocol <p>Background- : Stoke is characterized as rapid clinical signs of focal (or global) impairment of brain<br>function, with symptoms that last longer than one day or lead to death, with no other apparent cause than<br>vascular origin. Globally, Cerebrovascular(CVE)damage is the second-biggest root cause of death and the<br>third-largest cause of disability. This is 1 in 19 deaths. Stroke is a significant source of injury in the long<br>term and is more disabled than fatal. This protocol has been created that describes the design of experimental<br>study to evaluate the combined effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation(NMES) with Proprioceptive<br>Neuromuscular Facilitation(PNF) to enhance the upper- extremity functions in hemiplegic stroke patients.<br>Methods-The participants (n=26) will be recruited in the study suffering from stroke and meeting the<br>inclusion criteria. Two groups will be formed such that patients in group A will be treated with conventional<br>therapy and PNF group B will be treated with PNF and NMES in alongwith conventional therapy. The<br>protocol will cover 6 weeks of treatment. Regular assessment at 0,3rdand 6th week will be carried out.<br>In the rehabilitation period, we will evaluate upper extremity function, activities of daily living(ADLs),<br>mental status examination at regular interval during the rehab.Our outcome measures will be- Glasgow<br>coma scale (GCS), Mini-Mental Scale Examination (MMSE), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Modified<br>BarthelIndex(MBI) and Action Research Arm Test(ARAT).<br>Discussion-Efficacy of the intervention will be evaluated by analyzing the upper extremity function using<br>Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and level of disability by using Modified Barthel Index Scale. The result<br>of the study will significantly provide affirmation on using combination therapy of PNF with NMES in<br>stroke patients</p> Palak P. Darda Divya Jethwani Moh’d Irshad Qureshi Ragini Dadgal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 470 477 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14355 Sexual Dimorphism in Superadded Teeth - A Cross Sectional Study Conducted among Students of South Indian States <p>The present cross sectional study was conducted on students of south Indian states of SSIMSRC, Davangere.<br>A study casts of 200 was taken (104 males and 96 females) in the age group of {18-25} years. The Mesiodistal and Buccolingual diameters of first and second permanent molars of both maxillary and mandible<br>were measured on the study casts, using sliding verneir callipers.<br>The buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions measured, in both maxillary and mandibular molars, showed<br>higher values in males compared to that of females. Amongst the parameters studied, the buccolingual<br>dimensions of maxillary molars showed highest sexual dimorphism with an accuracy of 82.1% and the<br>mesiodistal dimension exhibited least sexual dimorphism. In present study showed that the maxillary molars<br>exhibited highest percentage of dimorphism, compared to the dimensions of mandibular molars, the existence<br>of statistically significant sexual dimorphism in maxillary molars especially the first maxillary molars.</p> Pavan Kumar G Dileep Kumar R Hemanth Raj M N Anand Patil Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 478 482 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14356 Bacteriological Profile of Health Care Associated Infection and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Isolates at Picu in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p>Background: Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in<br>Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). The aim was to determine bacteriological profile of HAI and to<br>establish an antibiogram of isolates in our PICU.<br>Materials and Method: This was a retrospective study conducted at the Department of Pediatrics (Pediatric<br>Intensive Care Unit) of AIIMS, Jodhpur. Data was collected over 2 years from January 2017 to December<br>2018. Among the114 culture positive isolates, 50% (57/114) were gram negative and 22.8% (26/114) were<br>gram positive organisms. Culture positivity for fungal growth was 14 % (17/114) and rest 12.2% (14/114)<br>were contaminants. The most common isolate in gram negative organism was Acinetobacter baumannii and<br>in gram positive organism most common isolates were Enterococcus. Most commonly detected HAI types<br>were ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) - 34% (20/59). All gram negative organisms were resistant to<br>carbepenems except Pseudomonas (100% sensitivity). Among gram positive organisms, methicillin resistant<br>staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 100% sensitive to gentamicin, amikacin, vancomycin and linezolid.<br>Conclusion: The retrospective study showed that both gram positive and negative bacteria as well as fungal<br>organisms are responsible for HAIs. Most of the strains were multi drug resistant.</p> Pawan Kumar Barolia Daisy Khera Bharat Choudhary Vibhor Tak Kuldeep Singh Vijay Laxmi Nag Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 483 491 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14357 A Comprehensive Study of Deaths from Corrosive Poisoning <p>Paracelsus, the father of toxicology, once wrote:”Everything is poison, there is poison in everything. Only<br>the dose makes a thing not a poison.” A corrosive is a substance which has surface-destructive effect on<br>contact. Corrosive poisoning results from ingestion, topical exposure or inhalation of compounds, that<br>causes tissue injury by chemical reaction. An average home contains a dozen different cleaning products.<br>These products are used in many industries. These are responsible for a large number of accidental and<br>intentional poisoning. This study “A Comprehensive Study Of Deaths from Corrosive Poisoning” is taken<br>up Over 47 corrosive poisoning fatalities autopsied at the Department of Medicine and Department of<br>Forensic Medicine, Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad to make an attempt to ascertain the frequency<br>of poisoning fatalities and to suggest suitable remedial measures to reduce the morbidity and mortality due<br>to corrosive poisoning. Incidence in males (66.91%) is more than in females (33.09%).The most frequently<br>involved victims belong to the age groups 21 to 30 years, than 11 to 20 years and 31 to 40 years. In majority<br>of the cases, the poisoning was suicidal (93.62%) and then they were accidental (6.38%).</p> Pondurthi Srinivasa Rao V. Jayasurya Prasad Babu B. Naga Mohan Jakkam Surendar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 492 496 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14358 Predicting 10-year Cardiovascular Risk Using WHO/ISH Risk Prediction Chart among Rural Population in Haryana, India <p>Background: CVD are leading cause of premature Deaths worldwide. Coronary vascular disease (CVD)<br>risk estimation tools are a simple means of early identifying those at high risk in a community. It seems to be<br>a cost-effective strategy for CVD prevention in developing countries. The WHO /ISH risk prediction charts<br>estimates risk of people having CVD’s for next ten years, who do not develop coronary heart disease or<br>stroke. Methods: A total of 100 subjects between 40 to 70 years of age were included in this cross sectional<br>study. Total 100 families were visited and subjects were selected randomly. CVD risk was calculated by<br>asking information from the subjects regarding Age, gender, smoking status, measuring their blood pressure,<br>history of diabetes. The chart classifies an individual into different risk of having CVD’S that categorized<br>into low (&lt;10%), moderate (10% to &lt;20%), high (20% to &lt;30%), and very high (&gt;30%) risk groups. Results:<br>Less than two-third (62%) of population has less than 10% CVD risk, followed by less than one-third (31%)<br>of the population had CVD risk of between 10- to &lt;20% for the next 10 years. Only 6 subjects had 20-&lt;30%<br>of risk followed by 1% CVD risk between 30-&lt;40%.Age, More SBP, Abdominal obesity, smoking, diabetes<br>mellitus and More BMI (p&lt;0.0001) were significantly associated with higher CVD risk. Conclusions:<br>WHO/ISH Chart should be used by peripheral health workers for early identification of people with a high<br>risk for CVD and provide timely services in reducing the complications and premature deaths related to<br>CVD in India.</p> Pooja Jaswal Pabalpreet Kaur Jyoti Sarin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 497 503 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14359 Observational Study to Compare Transdermal Nitroglycerin and Placebo Patch in Enhancing the Post-Operative analgesic Effect of Intrathecal Clonidine with Bupivacaine in Abdominal Hysterectomies <p>Background: Hyperbaric Bupivacaine 0.5% is the most commonly used for spinal anaesthesia.To improve the<br>quality &amp; duration of analgesia many adjuvants have been used.Intrathecal clonidine binds with postsynaptic<br>alpha-2 receptors at the dorsal horn of the spinal cord,resulting in anti-nociceptive action.Transdermal<br>nitroglycerin (tNTG) has been found to be converting nitroglycerin to Nitric Oxide(NO),which results in<br>pain modulation in the central and peripheral nervous system by cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate(cGMP)<br>through which the post-operative analgesia effect enhances.<br>Method: Sixty patients Of ASA I/II aged between 20to60 years posted for hysterectomy under spinal<br>anaesthesia were selected.Patients were randomly allotted into 2 equal groups.<br>Group A received:Hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (17.5 mg)+clonidine(50 mcg) + placebo patch<br>Group B received:hyperbaric bupivacaine0.5% (17.5 mg) + clonidine (50 mcg) + nitroglycerin (tntg)<br>patch(nitroglycerin 25 mg/patch)<br>We have observed onset and duration of sensory.and motor block,two segment regression time, duration of<br>analgesia, hemodynamic changes and complication if any.<br>Results: There was no statistically significant difference in demographic data and onset and duration of<br>motor and sensory block. Duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in clonidine with tNTG group<br>as compared to clonidine group with placebo group.<br>Conclusion: Transdermal Nitroglycerin patch with intrathecal clonidine prolonged duration of analgesia<br>without any changes in onset and duration of sensory and motor block.</p> Pooja Shah Kandarp Vyas Dinesh K. Chauhan Jigisha Mehta Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 504 512 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14360 Development of Simulated Educational Joint Mobilization Module Using Leap Motion Controller <p>Background: Joint mobilization is a complicated task in terms of learning as well as teaching and is<br>characterized by great inter subject variability. With reference to the acquisition of skills such as joint<br>mobilisation, only a few studies have investigated the effectiveness of the provision of real-time visual<br>feedback on a computer screen in terms of students’ ability to establish optimal force and demonstrate<br>adequate performance. There is lack of training in theory and practical skills in mobilization given to the<br>Physiotherapy students. Thus, an effort has been made in to practice it virtually using Leap Motion Controller.<br>Method: Total 138 participants will be recruited as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A brief<br>explanation about the study will be given. Participants will be given exposure to the software and modality<br>being used along with demonstration. Followed by, a questionnaire to evaluate the effective learning using<br>the System Usability Scale.<br>Conclusion: The results from the study will significantly provide efficacy of the simulative device and<br>evidence on the use of LMC for learning joint mobilization using the System Usability Scale.</p> Pooja Shah Waqar M. Naqvi Sakshi P. Arora Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 513 517 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14361 Perception of Nursing Students Regarding Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision (CLES) <p>Background: In nursing education, clinical placement is a vital part of nursing students’ education. The<br>clinical learning environment is considered as first place of professional practice for nurses and student’s<br>opinion contributes to its improvement. Theaim of the current study was to assess the perception of nursing<br>students regarding clinical learning environment supervision in obstetric and gynecological department.<br>Method: A quantitative research approach with descriptive survey research design was used to collect data<br>from 222 nursing students using total enumerative sampling technique from September 2017 to April 2018.<br>Clinical Learning Environment and supervision scale (CLES) was used to assess the perception of nursing<br>students with their clinical learning environments. Results: The study results showed that the sub domain<br>of supervisory relationship (90.62%) was having highest mean percentage and relationship between student,<br>staff and teacher sub domain has lowest mean percentage (84.38%). The nursing students evaluated the sub<br>domain of relationship between student, staff and teacher (22.07%) as ‘need to improve’ andintegration<br>of theory and practice (67.57%) as ‘good.’There is significant positive co-relation between all domains of<br>clinical learning and supervision.<br>Conclusion: It was found that the student valued supervision, pedagogical and learning environment.<br>Majority of nursing students experienced the content of supervisory relationship was the most important<br>dimension in CLES. This means that nursing students were oriented tounit settings/ wards by clinical<br>instructor/teacher, they felt that they receive individualized supervision and continuous feedback and<br>suggestions of improvement from clinical instructors/teacher and there were frequent bed side rounds.</p> Poonam Sheoran Simarjeet Kaur Neha Patyal Neetu Hemlata Jyoti Sarin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 518 526 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14362 Evaluation of Halitosis and Sialometry in Emirati Diabetic Patients before and after Periodontal Treatment <p>Halitosis is an important social complaint which affects both healthy and periodontally diseased individuals.<br>Oral malodor is mainly caused by a microbial degradation of both sulfur-containing and nonsulfur-containing<br>amino acids into volatile, bad-smelling gases. Anaerobic gram-negative bacteria, the same species that have<br>been linked to periodontal diseases, are especially involved in this process, explaining the link between oral<br>malodor with periodontitis. The following study was done to investigate the parameters of halitosis and<br>sialometry of Emirati diabetic patients in correlation with oral concentration of volatile sulfur compounds<br>(VSC), salivary flow rate before and after non-surgical periodontal treatment (scaling &amp; root planning) for<br>patients having moderate Generalized and/localized chronic periodontitis.<br>Subjects and Methods: Eighty-one (81) Emirati subjects volunteers were recruited from the dental hospital,<br>with average age 38-49 years. They have been divided into in three groups: Group I (negative control),<br>Group II, and Group III and Group IIIa. Halitosis measurements for all volunteers had been recorded using<br>Gas Chromatography. For group III samples were collected before periodontal treatment, and subsequently<br>at two- &amp; four-weeks following start of non-surgical periodontal treatment (Scaling &amp; root planning).<br>Results: There were 54 patients participated in this study. Of the 54, 27 were control and the remaining<br>were controlled DM. The mean and SD of all variables before and after the intervention showed that the<br>values of all variables reducing after the intervention. All the difference observed was statistically significant<br>(P&lt;0.001). This study observed that the mean value of unstimulated salivary flow rate and stimulated salivary<br>flow rate was less in the controlled DM group compared to control group, but for probing picker depth, CAL<br>and average bone loss was more in controlled DM group compared to control group.<br>Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be stated that diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis, and<br>the risk of periodontal disease increases if glycemic control is poor; it was also proved beyond doubt that<br>people with poorly controlled diabetes are at an increased risk of periodontal disease and loss of alveolar<br>bone. Controlling diabetes by successfully improving glycemic control will reduce the risk and severity of<br>periodontal diseases.</p> Hossam Abdelatty Eid Abdelmagyd Prabhu Manickam Natarajan Walid Shaaban Moustafa Elsayed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 527 534 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14363 Case Report: 25-year-old Female at Term Labour and Normal Delivery <p>Labor has been defined as that of the initiation of periodic painful contractions of progressive deletion as<br>well as dilation of a cervix, followed by a decent part going to lead to the expulsion of its fetus &amp; placenta<br>from the uterus of mother. Post - natal treatment was its individualized treatment provided that meet the<br>needs of the baby and mother after delivery/childbirth.<br>Case Report –Mrs. Nikita Matram 25-year-old female was admitted in AVBR Hospital with the complaint<br>of pain in abdomen and increased the fetal movement on date 4/01/2020 and she delivered female baby on<br>date 6/01/2020 and the baby weight was 2.8 kg at 1:40 am now her complaint was pain on suture side and<br>weakness. But the patient has a previous history of abortion after marriage of four month two and half month<br>of baby was abort. That time dilatation and curettage was done.<br>Discussion – Patient delivered female baby throughout the vaginal delivery and baby and mother was<br>normal after delivery baby was kept with mother on same bed and initiate breastfeeding within one hour<br>after delivery.<br>Conclusion – Case report conclude that after normal delivery and post-natal care mother and baby was<br>normal.</p> Pradnya Gavhale Vaishali Taksande Shalini Moon Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 535 538 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14365 To Assess the Effectiveness of Information Booklet on Knowledge of Mothers Regarding Home Management of Common Illness among Children Aged 2 Months to 5 Years in the Group <p>Background: Care for children is often the responsibility of mothers. Mothers’ awareness of child care<br>therefore determines the type and standard of care had given to the children. Many studies had shown<br>the level of education of mothers had a positive effect on their own experience and how they deal with<br>health issues of children. Objectives: 1. To assess the pre-test knowledge of the mothers regarding home<br>management of select common illness of children aged between 2 months and 5 years. 2. To evaluate the<br>information of booklet on knowledge regarding home management of selected common illness of children<br>aged between 2 months and 5 years. 3. To associate the post test knowledge score of mothers regarding<br>home management of the common childhood illness among children aged between 2 months and 5 years<br>with selected demographic variables. Methodology: One group pre-test and post-test design was used.<br>Participants were consisted of 50 mothers of children aged between 2 months and 5 years. Result: Overall<br>mean knowledge score in pre-test and post-test which reveals the post-test knowledge score was higher i.e.<br>18.16 with the SD of ± 1.68 when the compared to pre-test knowledge score which was 9.24 with the SD<br>of ± 2.90. The statistical paired ‘t’ test implies the difference in the pre-test and post-test knowledge score<br>found to be 21.06 statistically significant at the level 0.05%.<br>Conclusion: It was statistically interpreted as had been accurate information booklet for the knowledge of<br>mothers of home management for the chronic illness of children age between 2 months and 5 years.</p> Pradnya Sakle Himanshu Dhande Pushpanjali Dorkhande Ruchika Dudhbade Vaishnavi Dudure Rushikesh Durge Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 539 544 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14366 Evaluation of Lip Prints and Its Association with Sex Determination and Blood Group in Adults <p>Introduction: Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Since the inception of the technique, the techniques<br>is being used to evaluate the individual identity and its association with sex determination. As the blood<br>stains may also be present at a crime scene, further studies have also been done to evaluate the association<br>of common blood group pattern with lip prints.<br>Aims and Objectives: To study the patterns of lip print and its association with blood group and gender in<br>adults.<br>Methods: In this prospective observational study, data were collected from 150 subjects (75 males and 75<br>females). All the subjects fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were in the age group of 18-30 years.<br>In this study lip print pattern samples were collected by paper fold method and blood group samples were<br>collected and both were analysed according to Tsuchihashi classification and Landsteiner’s classification<br>respectively.<br>Results: A The predominant lip print pattern found in males, females and both the gender together was Type<br>1- complete vertical in both upper and lower lips. Predominant blood group found in this study was B+ve.<br>Most frequent lip print pattern found in all blood group types was Type 1- complete vertical.<br>Conclusions: Our study revealed an association between distribution of lip print pattern and gender. There<br>was no correlation found in between blood group types and the cheiloscopic patterns. Further studies in<br>different populations with large sample size are required to obtain a more definitive picture and statistical<br>significance of this correlation.</p> Pragya Tripathi Mansi Singh Mansi Kharbanda Rattan Singh Sanjoy Das Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 545 551 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14367 Estimation of Sexual Dimorphism by Mesiodistal Dimension of Permanent Maxillary Incisors and Canines <p>Introduction. Sexual dimorphism is the condition where whether the specific body part or the whole body<br>of two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics except for the differences in primary<br>sexual organs. Teeth are helpful in determining the sex, stature, race, age etc. same as bony tissues when<br>identification is not possible from rest of the body. Most of the studies conducted earlier are on mandibular<br>dental tissue and literature is sparse on evaluation of maxillary area. We decided to conduct the study on<br>maxillary teeth.<br>Aims and Objectives. To find the correlation between mesiodistal dimension of permanent maxillary<br>incisors and canines with the gender.<br>Methods. The study was conducted in Forensic Medicine and Toxicology department, Himalayan Institute<br>of Medical Sciences, SRHU. The objective of the study was For the study sample of 100 individuals were<br>taken out of which 50 were male and 50 female, all in the age group of 17-25 years of age. For measuring<br>the dimension of teeth there comes mesiodistal, Buccolingual, labiolingual, crown heights, diagonal length<br>etc. dimensions, but for our study we selected mesiodistal dimension. Subjects were taken according to the<br>inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results were statistically analysed and compared with other studies.<br>Results. The study revealed about the definite association between mesiodistal dimensions of anterior<br>maxillary permanent teeth and gender.<br>Conclusions: The results showed a positive correlation between the width and sexual dimorphism in<br>maxillary canines, incisors and other teeth. Male teeth were greater in width as compared to female teeth<br>in Indian population. More studies with larger number of subjects would be required to establish a proper<br>correlation between maxillary dentition and gender.</p> Pragya Tripathi Hardik Singhal Rattan Singh Sanjoy Das Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 552 558 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14369 Knowledge of Pregnant Women in Regards to Oral Health of the Expected Child <p>Background: Maternal oral health literacy, positive attitude and behavior in regards to infant’s oral health<br>dramatically reduce the chances of early childhood caries. The aim of the study is to assess oral health<br>knowledge among pregnant women and to report their beliefs regarding dental care for their expected child.<br>The study also evaluates the contribution of health care providers in regards to the oral health of the expected<br>child.<br>Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 pregnant women, who attended an antenatal<br>clinic at a tertiary health-care facility in Lucknow.<br>Closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect the data. The validity and reliability of questionnaire was<br>tested. Frequency, distribution tables and descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables. MannWhitney U test and Kruskal Wallis H tests were applied to check for any significant difference between<br>socio-demographic characteristics and general knowledge about oral health care as well as practices. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was done.<br>Result : 40.8% pregnant women had poor knowledge, 56% had poor oral hygiene practices and 46.8%<br>had poor knowledge regarding dental care of their expected child. Education was the only factor to be<br>significantly associated with both variables- knowledge, and practice (p- value&lt;0.01).<br>Conclusion and Recommendation: The present study highlights the need for improved communication<br>and coordination between prenatal health care professionals, dentist, and pregnant women to facilitate<br>optimal care of their child’s oral health.</p> PragyaPandey Aseem Prakash Tikku Ramesh Bharti Prachi Jha Diksha Singh S Kudva Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 559 566 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14370 Incidence of Distant Metastasis in Head and Neck Cancer: A Hospital based Study <p>Aims and Objectives: To study the incidence of distant metastasis to bone and soft tissues from head and<br>neck cancers and to assess the primary site of head and neck cancer, its clinical staging and its correlation<br>with the site of distant metastasis.<br>Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients admitted for management of head and neck cancers<br>in Medical and Radiation Oncology for a period of 6 years, were assessed for primary site of the tumour,<br>staging, histopathological diagnosis and the site of distant metastasis.<br>Results: Out of 125 patient records evaluated, the incidence of distant metastasis was 15.2%. Majority of<br>the patients (60%) presented at Stage III and IV of the disease. Thyroid and tongue malignancies showed the<br>highest incidence of distant metastasis and this incidence was most common in the 5th and 6th decades of life.<br>The most common sites of distant metastasis were to the bones (31.6%) and lungs (15.8%).<br>Conclusion: Cancers of the head and neck is typically loco-regional in nature, with metastasis to cervical<br>nodes. Distant metastasis, though uncommon, may adversely impact the survival and quality of life of the<br>patient. Understanding the risk factors and incidence for metastatic head and neck cancers may be useful in<br>treatment planning and follow-up protocols for newly diagnosed patients.</p> Prakriti Dayal Ravikiran Ongole Junaid Ahmed Ceena Denny E Deepali Agrawal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 567 573 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14371 Surgical Management of Intestinal Obstruction <p>Background : Intestinal obstruction is one of the common abdominal emergencies and if not treated and<br>delayed it may lead to bowel ischemia. Hence diagnosis and management of the patient with intestinal<br>obstruction is one of the most important and challenging step to decrease its morbidity and mortality. This<br>mortality due to acute intestinal obstruction can be decreased with better understanding of pathophysiology,<br>improvement in diagnostic techniques, fluid and electrolyte correction, much potent antimicrobial hence our<br>study focuses on early diagnosis of obstruction, skill full operative management, proper technique during<br>surgery and intensive postoperative treatment and carries grateful results.<br>Aim and Objectives :<br>1. To study the various causes of intestinalobstruction.<br>2. To study the symptomatology of intestinalobstruction.<br>3. To study the various Modalities of treatment(surgical) and also the role of imaging studies in determining<br>the etiology and intervention in intestinal obstruction.<br>Conclusion : Through our study we came to the conclusion that men are more commonly involved than<br>females . Plain X-ray abdomen and ultrasonography were important for diagnosing out of which Plain X-ray<br>erect abdomen was almost conclusive in all cases. Where diagnosis was inconclusive an ultrasonography<br>was carried out. Amongst the causes, Postoperative adhesions are the common cause to produce intestinal<br>obstruction. Intestinal obstruction with tuberculosis intestine are more likely to develop postoperative<br>complications, proper anti-tubercular management is necessary to prevent mortality and morbidity. Early<br>operations depending upon the etiology of obstruction are mandatory to avoid perforation, the development<br>of peritonitis and systemic sepsis associated with multisystem organ failure. Through our study, Adhesiolysis<br>followed by resection and anastomosis were the two procedures which were commonly performed. In<br>Postoperative period, few patients had wound infection followed by would dehiscence, chest infection,<br>septicemia and fecal fistula. Morbidity increased in old age patients and those whose presentation was late</p> Prateek Shaparia Chiraag Hiran S Vijoy Singh Honeypalsinh H Maharaul Mohammad Farooque Dudhwala Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 574 582 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14372 Nursing Management for Covid 19 Pandemics <p>Nurses represent the backbone of any health care system. Today in the fight against Covid-19, several nurses<br>find themselves on the frontline. This report is a clear reminder of their important position and a wake-up<br>call to ensure that they receive the help they need to keep the planet safe. 1 Nurses play a very important<br>function, locally as well as internationally. They are on the front lines, day in and day out, taking care of<br>these patients. “They are able to see what is working, as well as things that can be done differently to provide<br>more effective and efficient care, and offer suggestions for improvement.” 2020 is recognized by the World<br>Health Organization as the Year of the Nurse and Midwife – On the function of nurses in the preparation<br>and reaction to disasters. (World Health Organization) Globally, the way the world views nurses and health<br>care professionals already changes. Because not everyone knows what is happening in a health care facility,<br>the COVID-19 pandemic is high The COVID-19 pandemic has brought nurses to the forefront of people’s<br>minds and there is a daily capture of the media attention and public gratitude to health care professionals.2<br>This short communication concludes with the key role of nurses for effective management during covid-19<br>pandemics.</p> Prerana Sakharwade Khushbu Meshram Sonali Kolhekar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 583 586 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14373 A Protocol on Effect of Cryotherapy and Myofascial release Technique in Calf Muscle Spasticity of Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy Children <p>Background: Cerebral Palsy is been one of the developmental disorders affecting the infants brain. The<br>most common form of Cerebral Paralysis being Spastic Cerebral Palsy affects children functionally and<br>prevents their social functioning. Most of the physiotherapy interventions to treat spasticity are Cryotherapy,<br>Myofascial Release technique. Cryotherapy is effective in reducing Spasticity and some suggest Myofascial<br>Release Technique is also effective in reducing spasticity. Aim: To find out the effect of Cryotherapy and<br>Myofascial Release Technique in calf muscle of Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy Children. Methods: 30<br>Participants with Spastic Diplegia will be selected on the basis of inclusion as well as exclusion criteria. The<br>patients will be evaluated using Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Tardieu Scale for calf muscle prior<br>to the treatment. The 30 participants will be divided into 3 groups. All the groups will receive Cryotherapy,<br>MFR technique and combined effect of both the techniques separately. The patients will be again evaluated<br>after the treatment by using MSA and MTS. Conclusion: This Study Concluded that there may be significant<br>reduction in calf muscle spasticity in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy children by using combine effect of both<br>Cryotherapy and Myofascial Release technique ore one of the method.</p> Priya J. Tikhile Ashish W. Bele Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 587 591 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14374 Successful Biological Treatment of Cutaneous wound Healing with Comparation of Aqueous Humour Fluid and Fat Graft; Cattle as Model <p>Aqueous humour fluid and fat graft effect on wound healing by containing growth factors. Aim of this study<br>to evaluate the benfit effect of aqueous humour fluid and fat graft in wound healing in cattle. Twenty seven<br>adult female local breed randomly divided into 3 equal groups. G1 have been treated by aqueous fluid, G2<br>treated with fat graft, while the last group ( control group ) leaft without treatment. In conclusion fat graft<br>treated group appear better healing during study period compare with other groups.</p> Qayes Taref Ali Muslem Fahim Diwan Amir I. Towfik Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 592 597 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14375 Sensitivity and Specificity of Several Malnutrition Screening Tools for Chronic Kidney Disease Patient: A Narrative Review <p>Introduction: Malnutrition remains a critical risk factor for morbidity and mortality among CKD patients.<br>However, malnutrition is preventable and treatable. Thus, early malnutrition screening of CKD patients is<br>crucial. The present paper is a narrative review of the several studies related the use, sensitivity and specificity of<br>developed malnutrition screening tools for CKD patients.<br>Material and Method: Articles were searched from five electronic databases i.e., PubMed, PMC, Semanticscholar, Science-direct, and Google scholar. Several keywords used for literature searching including<br>“malnutrition screening tools CKD”; “malnutrition CKD”; “malnutrition screening CKD”. Inclusion criteria<br>of this narrative review was the subject of intervention should be an aged 1 – 64 years old with experimental<br>randomized control trial (RCT) or non-RCT study design. The exclusion criteria for this literature study<br>were research published before 1990, literature studies, meta-analysis, comments, short communication, and<br>editorial letters. Data then narratively described.<br>Result and Conclusion: Twelve publication were narratively described in final analysis. Development of<br>malnutrition screening tools for CKD patient had been done since 1992 and still counting until 2020. At least<br>thirteen screening tools had been tested for its use, sensitivity and specificity. Among 13 tools we analyzed,<br>Simple Nutrition Screening Tool (SNST) and The Renal Nutrition Screening Tool (R-NST) revealed the<br>highest sensitivity and specificity value which suitable to be used in adult population, while in children,<br>only Pediatric Digital Scaled MAlnutrition Risk Screening Tool (PeDiSMART) showed a good sensitivity<br>and specificity. Further study should be focusing to look for sensitivity and specificity in other specific<br>population to ensure the right use of malnutrition screening tool.</p> Qonita Rachmah Dominikus Raditya Atmaka Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 598 602 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14376 Neonatal Transport - Review Article <p>Various factors lead to neonatal mortality, in which transport of neonates play an important role in mortality<br>and morbidity of neonates. In India neonatal transport has not developed well. Many sick neonates<br>succumb during transport or become very serious during transport. Transport duration, type of transport,<br>treatment given during transport , if pretransport treatment received, maintenance of hemodynamic stability,<br>maintenance of temperature and blood sugars during transport is essential for reducing the mortality of the<br>baby. Regionalizing neonatal care, will help in deciding the transport of neonates from one centre to an<br>higher level of care. Hence a well-organized transport system should be in place for the transport of the sick<br>neonates. This review article discusses about the neonatal transport and its implications.</p> R. Abhilasha Singh Panwar Sachin Damke Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 603 607 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14377 Atrial Myxomas: A Case Report on Rare Benign Cardiac Tumour and its Histopathological Diagnosis <p>Cardiac tumours are a very rare entity of tumours which comprises of both malignant and benign group.<br>The atrial myxomas are benign cardiac tumour which occurs most commonly. This case report illustrates a<br>diagnosis of rare atrial myxoma through its characteristic signs, symptoms, most common site of occurrence<br>and histopathological examination assisted by radiological examination.<br>The diagnosis is made by classical clinical presentation, histopathological examination along with 2D<br>echocardiography to rule out the malignant activity. The clinical signs and symptoms vary with the location<br>and size of tumour, which usually present as pulpy non-specific mass.<br>The histopathological study corresponded with classical pattern. Since the tumour may present as an<br>emergency in the form of symptoms mimicking sudden cardiac death and other complications like<br>embolization, prompt resection of tumour is the mainstay treatment associated with low mortality. However,<br>the most common complication is recurrences hence the patient should be kept in regular follow up.</p> R.K. Tandon Charu Kiran Agrawal Niti Adhwaryu Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 608 612 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14378 A Rare Case Report of Giant Cervical Angiomatous Polyp <p>Cervical polyps which are giant are less commonly seen in day to day patient examination. It is called<br>giant when it is of more than 4 cm. It can mimic cervical cancer also. This case which we are presenting<br>here is about the cervical angiomatous giant polyp in a woman who was presented with pain in abdomen<br>and increased flow of menses since 1 month. Tissue section was studied and diagnosed as giant cervical<br>angiomatous type polyp which is seen very very less commonly</p> R.K.Tandon Nidhi Patel Shivani Vora Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 613 614 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14379 Toxicological Assessment of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Kalanchoe pinnata in Rats <p>Kalanchoe pinnata is a perennial plant that is widely used in the folklore treatment of kidney and gall<br>stones and urinary insufficiency. The present study aims to evaluate the potential toxicity of the leaf extract<br>of this plant upon acute and sub-acute (28 day) exposure in Wistar rats when administered orally. In acute<br>oral toxicity(n=3) female Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of 2000mg/kg b.wt and observed for<br>14 days and sub-acute toxicity(n=6) male and female Wistar rats were treated with the dose of 500 and<br>1000mg/kg b.wt of leaf extract for 28 days consecutively. No mortality, morbidity or adverse clinical signs<br>of toxicity were observed during the experimental period. No significant changes in the body weight was<br>observed. Gross necropsy did not indicate any treatment-related pathological changes in any of the animals<br>in the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies. Histopathology of the liver, heart and kidney did not show any<br>remarkable lesions that could be related to the administration of the leaf extract. Ethanolic leaf extract of<br>Kalanchoe pinnata is relatively safe with an LD50 value greater than 2000 mg/kg. From the sub-acute study,<br>the no-observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of the extract can be derived as 1000 mg/kg b.wt in male<br>and female Wistar rats.</p> V. Saravanan S.S. Murugan K.R. Navaneetha Krishnan N. Mohana K. Sakthivel T. N. Sathya Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 615 622 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14380 Analysis of Risk Management Cycle on Capitation Mechanism at First Level Healthcare Facilities in East Java <p>The implementation of risk management is an essential function in an organization to control risk. Based<br>on the preliminary research that has been carried out, only 4.2% of FLHF in East Java implemented the<br>complete risk management process, starting from establishing context to evaluating risks. Modifications<br>of risk management cycle implementation are made by reviewing the opinion of Carroll (2001) and ISO<br>31000:2009. This research aims to analyze the influence between the stages of implementing modified risk<br>management based at 95 FLHF in East Java. The results show that each stage of the capitation mechanism<br>risk management has a strong significant influence on each other. The results provide recommendation that<br>FLHF should improve the understanding and awareness of the risks and expected to be able to apply risk<br>management cycle as a whole.</p> Rachmad Suhanda Usman Hadi Widodo J. Pudjirahardjo Djazuly Chalidyanto Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 623 628 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14381 Effectiveness of Cervical and Upper Shoulder Stabilization Exercises in Subjects With Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Associated with Neck Pain <p>Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is an immunological mediated, chronic inflammatory multisystem disease<br>which involves inflammation of the peripheral joint. Ra affects about 24.5 million people as of 2015 and the<br>incidence rate is more dominated amongst female. Historically the involvement of the cervical spine in later<br>stages of rheumatoid arthritis isn’t uncommon. Specifically, C1 and C2 are involved as they are the only<br>vertebrae without intervertebral disc and synovial lining and hence they are very susceptible to inflammation<br>due to autoimmune reaction. The alteration in the range of motion is quite significant at the cervical spine.<br>The biomechanics of the cervical spine and shoulder joint are interlinked with each other. The protocol of<br>specific cervical and upper shoulder stabilization exercises with electrical modalities like hot-moist pack<br>and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and short wave diathermy therapy was conducted to find<br>out the effectiveness of scheduled, designed physiotherapy protocol of specific stabilization exercises along<br>with electrotherapy for cervical spine and upper shoulder stabilization exercises to see the improvement in<br>cervical and shoulder range of motion and pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis<br>Methodology: An observational study was conducted in 25 patients at Karad with a study duration of 6<br>months. The inclusion criteria were the patient with rheumatoid arthritis any age and gender willingly to<br>participate. The outcome measures were universal goniometer for assessing cervical and shoulder range of<br>motion, the visual analogue scale for pain assessment.<br>Conclusion: The study concluded that there was a significant reduction in the range of motion in both the<br>cervical spine and shoulder joint. The visual analogue scale suggests there was significant pain present in<br>the shoulder joint and cervical spine. Post-treatment assessment suggests the improvement in the range of<br>motion and pain that leads to improvement in the quality of life.</p> Raj Mhatre Smita Pati Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 629 637 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14382 Changes in Intra Ocular Pressure after Cataract Surgery <p>Background: Rise in Intraocular Pressure (IOP) is the major contributing factor to the pathology of glaucoma.<br>Along with cataract, it is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness all over the world. Cataract surgery<br>can help reduce the IOP and our study helps confirm the same.<br>Methods: Our study included 150 eyes of 150 patients undergoing cataract surgery by phacoemulsification by<br>a single surgeon. Complete ocular examination was performed on all the patients which included uncorrected distance<br>visual acuity (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) by Snellen’s chart, anterior segment by slit-lamp,<br>IOP by Goldmann’s Applanation Tonometry (AT), gonioscopy by 4 mirror gonioscope, Anterior Chamber Depth<br>(ACD) and Axial Length (AL) by A-scan. IOP measurements were taken between 9am and 10am.<br>Conclusion: Our study divided the patients into 3 groups based on IOP i.e., &lt;15, 15-19, and 19-23 mmHg of IOP.<br>All the 3 groups showed a lesser IOP post cataract surgery. There was a significant decrease in IOP when<br>baseline was compared with post op week 1, week 4 and week 12. Therefore our study confirms that cataract surgery<br>with PCIOL causes reduction in IOP which remains sustained for months.</p> Rajni Sethia Nirathya Anisha Pothuri Aditya Desai R.N. Kothari Aarushi Shah Jeet Patel Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 638 646 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14384 Trends of Fatal Poisoning in Jhalawar Region of Rajasthan: A 5 - Year Retrospective Study <p>India is predominantly an agriculture based economy. Problem of poisoning is one of the important<br>causes of mortality and morbidity in India and other agriculture based developing countries due to easy<br>availability, low cost and no restriction on sale and supply of insecticidal compounds. The aim of this study<br>is to find out the association of episodes of fatal poisoning with various factors like age, gender, area of<br>residence, religion, occupation type of poison and manner of death. This retrospective study was carried<br>out on total poisoning cases brought to mortuary of Jhalawar Medical College and associated group of<br>hospitals, Jhalawar (Rajasthan) in 5 year duration from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2018. In this<br>study maximum cases of poisoning were of age group 21 - 30 year, incidence were more among males<br>belonged to rural population who were involved in agricultural work. Majority of poisoning cases were due<br>to Organophosphorus compounds.</p> Ramakant Verma Khushpal Singh Rathore Bhavesh Bohra Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 647 652 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14385 A-b Ridge Count and Its Correlation with Epilepsy <p>The study of ridges of skin is called dermatoglyphics. It is recognized as a valuable method for medicolegal<br>and anthropological studies. The permanency of the finger patterns, the extreme variability from one<br>individual to the other and easy analysis are some of the reasons for its wide applications in a variety<br>of conditions. Dermatoglyphic patterns are determined by genetic factors. It has been proved that genetic<br>factors are responsible for idiopathic epilepsy. Hence there is a scope for the study of relationship between<br>epilepsy and dermatoglyphic patterns.<br>Objectives : • To study the A-b ridge count in generalized tonic clonic seizure patients.<br>• To compare this dermatoglyphic configuration of cases with the normal population.<br>Methods : The ink method was followed to take finger and palm prints. The palmar prints of 50 epileptic<br>patients and 50 normal individuals of both sexes were collected for the study.<br>Conclusion: There is no significant association found between a-b ridge count and epilepsy patients when<br>compared to normal.</p> Rashmi C Goshi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 653 659 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14386 Oral Health Status of 12-15 Years Old School Going Children in Lucknow City <p>Aim: To evaluate oral health status of 12-15 years old school going children in Lucknow.<br>Material and Method: The study was carried out during January 2019 to August 2019. Total 1200 school<br>going children of age 12 to 15 years were taken in this study. Schools were selected by multistage random<br>sampling technique. There were total 814 schools in the Lucknow, out of which 24 schools were taken in<br>the study area in which 11 were government schools and remaining 13 were private schools. Closed-ended<br>questionnaire consisting of demographic data, three questions of oral hygiene practices and four indices<br>were used. Dental examination was done to assess the dental caries status, oral hygiene status, presence of<br>malocclusion and gingival status. Data was analysed by using SPSS software version 21.<br>Results: Toothpaste and toothpowder were used as material by 73.2% and 25.3% of the subjects respectively.<br>The maximum DMFT scores was seen among 12 years, then 15 years, then 14 years and least in 13 years.<br>Maximum 13 years old students reported fair oral hygiene index. The comparison of study participants with<br>regard to age of the student was not found to be significant.<br>Conclusion: To conclude, the results of the present study confirmed that there is increased prevalence of<br>malocclusion among children in the 12 to 15 year age group. Among all the age group, oral hygiene status<br>was observed to be fair.</p> Rashmi Lata Shitanshu Malhotra Madhusudan Krishna Manu Narayan Om Veer Singh Neeraj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 660 667 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14387 Nanotechnology: A New Strategy to Treat Dental Hypersensitivity <p>Dental Hypersensitivity is the most commonly encountered dental problems associated with short, sharp pain<br>rising from exposed dentine in response to stimuli such as tactile, osmotic and chemical. Hypersensitivity<br>may present on several teeth, in one area of the mouth, or on one specific tooth. DHS should be differentiated<br>from another tooth sensitivity which may elicit from other clinical conditions such as dental caries,<br>microleakage, cracked tooth or fractured restorations. Several treatment strategies such as desensitization<br>of nerve endings, masking of dentin tubules, occlusion of dentin tubules, and iontophoresis, are prevalent<br>in clinical practices. Stannous ions, most commonly used in toothpastes as stannous fluoride, have been<br>demonstrated to occlude dentine tubules in vitro. SnF2 toothpaste formulations have been used for several<br>decades and are widely accepted as an effective DH treatment. Recently advanced nanotechnology has taken<br>a wide leap in improving the various measures in the treatment of hypersensitivity by its nano particles.<br>Nano structures have superior hardness, elasticity and flexural strength leading to its better application.<br>Biomimetic particles desensitizing effect of nanocrystals which is caused by the progressive closure of the<br>tubular openings of the dentine with plugs. These advancements have progressed the growth in the treatment<br>of Dental Hypersensitivity and have evoked a great amount of attention for improving disease prevention.</p> Rini Behera Naomi Ranjan Singh Satabdi Pattnaik Siba Prasad Jena Priyanka Paul Madhu Vinitha Annavarjula Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 668 675 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14388 Correlation of Lipid Profile with Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Pregnant Females <p>Introduction: Pregnancy is a state which requires more metabolic fuels. Changes in the hormonal levels<br>in pregnancy alter lipid profile also in pregnant women. Thyroid hormone abnormality without any history<br>of thyroid disease may lead to alteration of triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol, and various<br>lipoproteins levels in pregnancy which increases the risk for CVS disease.<br>Aim: The aim of the study is to find out the association among TSH and lipid profile in pregnant females.<br>Materials and Methods: The observational study was conducted at Biochemistry Department, SBKS<br>Medical Institute &amp; Research Center, Piparia, Vadodara, Gujarat, India. 100 antenatal cases from were<br>enrolled after taking an informed consent. 50 pregnant women were in 2nd trimester and 50 pregnant women<br>were in 3rd trimester. Blood samples were drawn to estimate lipid profile and TSH. Interpretation of data was<br>done using Medcalc software.<br>Results: The mean level of TSH was 1.71(1.26) in 2nd trimester pregnant females and 2.68(0.72) in 3rd<br>trimester pregnant females, difference between them was statistically significant. Significant negative<br>correlation was found between TSH and total cholesterol in 3rd trimester pregnancy. There was a significant<br>positive correlation was seen between TSH and triglyceride and between TSH and VLDL in 3rd trimester.<br>Conclusion: Significant increase in TSH level is found in 3rd trimester pregnant females compare to 2nd<br>trimester pregnant females. Significant correlation is also found between TSH and lipid profile in 3rd<br>trimester. Regular checkups of Thyroid hormones are required in later stages of pregnancy to prevent further<br>complications.</p> Roshni G. Sadaria Tejas J. Shah Smita N. Vasava Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 676 680 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14389 Thyroid Profile and Its Correlation with Serum Creatinine in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital <p>Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as abnormalities in kidney structure or function<br>present for &gt; 3 months and have other health implications. Thyroid hormones are important for electrolyte<br>homeostasis and also for the growth and development of the kidney. Study shows that hypothyroidism is<br>commonly seen in later stages of CKD. This study was conducted to investigate thyroid hormone profile and<br>its correlation with creatinine in CKD patients.<br>Materials and Methods: The present case control study was conducted at Dhiraj General Hospital, Piparia,<br>Vadodara, Gujarat, India in which 100 subjects were enrolled, out of which 50 were cases of CKD patients<br>and 50 were controls. The age group for the study was 18 to 70 years. Blood samples were drawn to measure<br>blood urea, serum creatinine, thyroid profile. Interpretation of data was done using Medcalc software.<br>Conclusion: Serum TSH levels were high in cases compared to controls but results were not significant.<br>Significant negative correlation was found between free thyroid hormones and serum creatinine. Correlation<br>of creatinine with T3, T4 and TSH were not significant. Subclinical hypothyroidism is found in our population<br>with undialyzed CKD. More studies involving large population size are required to ascertain these findings.</p> Roshni G. Sadaria Smita N. Vasava Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 681 685 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14390 Association of BMI with Serum Homocysteine in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Women <p>Background: Women of reproductive age group are prone for Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Recent<br>studies have shown that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Prevalence of<br>cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular morbidities in women with PCOS are increased nowadays. The<br>purpose of the study is to assess correlation of BMI with serum homocysteine in PCOS females.<br>Materials and Methods: This is done on 50 PCOS patients and 50 voluntary age matched healthy women<br>with no menstrual abnormalities as controls. The age group for the cases and controls is 18-35 years. The<br>study was conducted at Biochemistry Department, SBKS MI &amp; RC, Piparia, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.<br>Measurements of BMI and waist circumference were taken. Fasting blood samples were collected for<br>estimation of FBS, Lipid profile and homocysteine. Medcalc software was used for all statistical analysis. A<br>p-value less than 0.05 (p&lt; 0.05) is considered as statistically significant.<br>Conclusion: Our study has shown significant higher levels of homocysteine in obese PCOS cases when<br>compared with non-obese PCOS cases. Also, significant higher level of homocysteine and triglyceride are<br>seen in PCOS cases compared to controls. Regular follow up for lipid profile and homocysteine is required<br>for PCOS patients to prevent CVS complications.</p> Roshni G. Sadaria Smita N. Vasava Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 686 690 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14391 Refugees in the COVID-19 <p>COVID-19 brought about most unprecedented public health and socio-economic crisis in our lifetime. It<br>affects us all, especially the vulnerable populations, which refugees and migrants often find themselves in.<br>COVID-19 could have even more dire consequences in refugees camps than in general populations.Refugees<br>and migrants are potentially at increased risk of contracting diseases, including COVID-19, because they<br>typically live in overcrowded conditions without access to basic sanitation. The ability to access health-care<br>services in humanitarian settings is usually compromised and exacerbated by shortages of medicines and<br>lack of health-care facilities. Moreover, refugees typically face administrative, financial, legal and language<br>barriers to access the health system.<br>Forced migration is at record highs in 2020, with around 70.8 million people around the world being forcibly<br>displaced. The risk of communicating the novel covid 19 increases in case of the refugees because they<br>come from the diverse regions of the world which might be facing a higher risk to lives due to the pandemic.<br>Therefore, the health professionals need to be more vigilant.<br>As the COVID-19 situation around the world changes, CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)<br>is monitoring COVID-19 risk in each destination and making travel recommendations. Travel Health<br>Notices inform travelers and clinicians about current health issues that impact travelers’ health, like disease<br>outbreaks, special events or gatherings, and natural disasters, in destinations around the world.<br>The sudden outbreak of the pandemic has posed a serious ultimatum to the world of providing proper<br>shelter, asylum and healthcare facilities to the refugees. However, public health professionals, community<br>organizations as World Health Organization (WHO) and UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR),<br>resettlement agencies, and healthcare providers can assist refugees arriving in the United States by providing<br>them with information they need to protect themselves from COVID-19.</p> Rubina Grewal R.L.Koul Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 691 696 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14392 Psychosocial Impact of Lockdown Due to Novel Corona Virus Covid 19 among Medical Undergraduate Students <p>Background: The outbreak of Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) which started in the late 2019,<br>in Wuhan in Hubei province of China because of its high infectivity and fatality rate, has caused universal<br>psychosocial impact on people Mass fear of COVID-19, termed as “Coronaphobia”, has generated a plethora<br>of psychiatric manifestations across the different strata of the society. So, this study has been undertaken to<br>define psychosocial impact of COVID-19 on Medical graduants with an objective to assess the reasons for<br>breaking the lockdown and the level of psychosocial impact of lockdown on a Medical graduants during<br>the COVID-19 lockdown period. A cross sectional prospective study was done on 285 students of First to<br>final year MBBS Validated Psychosocial Impact Scale was used for data collection. The results showed<br>the intensity of negative impact of lockdown on the students studying in medical college. 18.60% students<br>showed normal response to the lockdown situation in this COVID 19 pandemic. 47.72% students showed<br>borderline negative impact of lockdown. 29.12 students had mild negative impact, 4.56 % students had<br>moderate negative impact and no student found to be in range of severe negative impact of lockdown.</p> Rupali Sarode Shashank Gotarkar Prakash Mohite Sourya Acharya Samarth Shukla Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 697 702 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14393 Ajan Vruksha/ Khandu Chakka (Ehretia Laevis Roxb). Plant Leaves as A Effective Healer in Chronic Varicose Vein Ulcer. – A Case Report <p>Introduction— Varicose vein ulcer is caused by abnormal function of veins due to chronic vein insufficiency,<br>vein damage, ageing, obesity, congestive heart failure. Ehretia Laevis Roxb. plant is traditionally used for<br>wounds(1) . Also its efficacy is tested in various wounds except chronic varicose ulcer.(2)<br>The main symptoms of the patient and the important clinical findings:- Patient having swelling, redness<br>at right foot, yellowish pus discharge, blackness of skin and presence of ulcer since three years with severe<br>pain and inability to perform his regular duties<br>The main diagnoses, therapeutics interventions, and outcomes:- Patient having chronic varicose<br>vein ulcer at right leg since three years. Ehretia Laevis Roxb. leaves paste was prepared under all aseptic<br>precaution and daily dressing of Ehretia Laevis Roxb. paste done on wound. Severe pain was reduced within<br>48 hrs after application of paste, which was significant finding. Wound was healed within 40 days without<br>any complication and use of antibiotics and pain killer<br>Conclusion— Patient was very happy as he got immediate relief from pain and his wound was healed<br>without any invasive procedures by application of Ehretia Laevis Roxb. leaves paste.</p> Rushikesh Thakre Preeti Sujit Borkar Ketaki Harne Pradip Tekade Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 703 707 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14394 Internal Use of Ajan Vruksha/ Khandu Chakka (Ehretia Laevis Roxb). Plant Leaves Powder in Shoulder Pain Management. – Case Report <p>Introduction— Shoulder pain and stiffness are common features among working women. It is affecting<br>their day to day life style.<br>The main symptoms of the patient and the important clinical findings:- Patient was suffering from<br>severe pain in right shoulder with restricted movement of right shoulder from 8 days. Patient was assessed<br>by ( SPADI) Shoulder Pain &amp; Disability Index.<br>The main diagnoses, therapeutics interventions, and outcomes:- Ehretia Laevis Roxb. leaves powder<br>capsules was made up of 250 mg. Patient was advised to take two capsules in morning and two capsules at<br>night after food. Daily 1 gm powder was administered internally for 7 days<br>On the day zero pain score was 80%, on third day of treatment pain score was 54% and on seventh day pain<br>score was 0. On the day zero disability score was 95%, on third day disability score was 55% and on seventh<br>day score was 0.<br>Conclusion—. Patient cured from pain and shoulder disability by internal use of Ehretia Laevis Roxb.<br>leaves powder within seven days</p> Rushikesh Thakre Abhyuday Meghe Ketaki Thakre Pradip Tekade Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 708 712 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14395 Evaluation of Ehretia Laevis Roxb. (Khandu Chakka/Ajan Vruksha) in the Wound Healing Adjudged by Histological Examination of the Tissue <p>Many herbal plants are mentioned in Ayurveda for wound healing. Folklore medicine for various ailments<br>including wound healing is being practiced in India. Ehretia Laevis Roxb. contains many such chemical<br>compounds useful for promotion of healing &amp; repair. Tissue renewal goes hand in hand with inflammation<br>influenced by multiple processes. Ehretia Laevis Roxb. called Khandu Chakka &amp; Ajan Vruksha and<br>traditionally being used for wound healing, body pain &amp; minor fractures in the form of local application by<br>folklore in the state of Maharashtra India. Objectives of the present study is to know the effect of Ehretia<br>Laevis Roxb. in the wound healing on the histological parameters in animal model. Phenytoin ointment<br>as a control was used. The present study has found put that leaf extract paste of Ehretia Laevis Roxb.<br>has enhanced the process of wound healing ascertained on histological parameters as compared to topical<br>phenytoin application. Ehretia Laevis Roxb. paste is found to be immensely useful at wound healing as<br>compared to Phenytoin. Ehretia Laevis Roxb. is concluded to promote the healing significantly as observed<br>by feature of granulation, collagenisation &amp; re epithelisation of the wounds suggesting early healing by<br>primary intension</p> Rushikesh Thakre Arvinda Bhake Pradip Tekade Ketaki Harne Preeti Sujit Borkar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 713 721 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14397 A Study of Cheiloscopic Pattern in Relation to Gender and Blood Groups in a Tertiary Care Hospital at Chennai <p>Personal identification is of vital importance in forensic odontology for ethical, humanitarian and criminal<br>enquiries. The applicability of Cheiloscopy ( study of pattern of lip print), one of the easiest tools available<br>in individual and medicolegal identification, is an area of extensive research in recent years. With the<br>objective to investigate the uniqueness of lip patterns in relation to gender and blood groups, this study was<br>conducted on 100 subjects, which included 50 males and 50 females. The lip prints obtained were studied<br>by applying Suzuki and Tsuchihashi’s classification.Type 2 (37%) was the most common lip print type in<br>males and Type 3 (38.5%) was the most common lip print type in females. The Lower lip print can help<br>in gender determination. No significant statistical correlation was found between the lip print patterns and<br>blood group. Along with the traditional methods of identification like fingerprint analysis,Cheiloscopy can<br>also be helpful in the identification of a person.However, the utility of the same in forensic medicine still<br>remains largely untapped and unacknowledged. Similar studies with larger sample sizes are required to<br>obtain statistically significant reports thereby allowing a more impactful emergence of lip print patterns<br>usage in forensic analysis.</p> S Surya P Shruthi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 722 727 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14398 A Practical Perspective of Forensic Odontology in Age Estimation: 2 Medico Legal Case Studies <p>Forensic odontology is the branch of forensics that deals with human identification based on dental features.<br>We discussed in this paper the medico-legal importance of different ages and the method of age estimation for<br>legal obligations along with case studies. Dental structures along with the skeletal age and secondary sexual<br>characteristics as a method of assessing age in different age groups is increasingly used in both criminal<br>and civil proceedings, which falls within the purview of forensic odontology. Hence, a good knowledge for<br>every dentist is necessary about various forensic methods like chronology of primary and permanent teeth,<br>DNA studies, Cheiloscopy, Palatal rugae assessments etc for identification of an individual to assess factors<br>like age, sex, and so can able to play vital role in practice of Forensic Odontology</p> S.Lavanya L.Anand Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 728 732 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14399 Sex Determination using the Ischiopubic Index in South Indian Population <p>The aim of this study was to use the Ischiopubic index to explore the sex differences in the pelvis between<br>the male and female bones. The pelvis is characterized by sexually dimorphic features and thus it can be<br>used for sex determination while establishing the biological profile in unknown skeletal remains. In this<br>study we have assessed the sex prediction potential of the Ischiopubic index using 72 dry innominate hip<br>bones (38 male and 34 female) belonging to South Indian population. The lengths of the pubis and ischium<br>were measured in these bones and the Ischiopubic index was calculated as per Washburn’s formula. The<br>Ischiopubic index was calculated to be 85.46 ± 3.63 mm. in males (Range 74.15 - 95.28 mm.) and 97.75 ±<br>4.10 mm. in females (Range 89.56 - 116.37 mm.). Application of the Student’s t test showed that there was<br>a statistically significant difference in the Ischiopubic index between the male and female pelvic bones with<br>a p &lt;0.001.</p> S. K. Nawaz Ahmed M. Sreenivasan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 733 739 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14400 Estimation of Stature from Living Adult Females belonging to Tamil Population using Percutaneous Tibial Length <p>Establishment of the identity of an individual from dismembered remains or skeletal remains is a common<br>problem encountered by the Forensic Pathologist and can be a challenging task. In addition to age and sex,<br>stature is an anthropological parameter that is indispensable in establishing the identity of an individual.<br>In the present study, we have analyzed the relationship between stature and percutaneous Tibial lengths<br>(PCTL) and derived a regression equation for a specific population. The parameters namely, the stature<br>and percutaneous Tibial lengths (PCTL) of both lower limbs were measured in 115 females belonging to<br>Tamil population and recorded. The subjects were in the age group of 21-30 years. Analysis of the results<br>involved the use of the Pearson’s correlation to derive the relationship between the parameters and establish<br>the dependence of the stature on the length of the left and right Tibia respectively in the study subjects. The<br>results from this present study attest to the utility of the percutaneous Tibial lengths (PCTL) in determination<br>of the stature in females belonging to the Tamil population.</p> S. K. Nawaz Ahmed M. Sreenivasan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 740 746 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14401 Retrospective Study of Profile of Deaths Due to Fatal Electrocution Injuries in the Jammu Region of Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir <p>Background: Electrocution injury is due to passage of a substantial electrical current through the tissue,<br>which can cause skin lesions, organ damage, and death. Due to scarcity of typical autopsy findings in<br>electrocution and unclear circumstances of death, many a times cause of death remains undiagnosed. Present<br>study was retrospective, autopsy-oriented study, aimed to study profile of deaths due to fatal electrocution<br>injuries in the Jammu region of union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. During study period 40 cases<br>of electrocution were autopsied at our center. During study period, 1.23% incidence was noted for fatal<br>electrocution deaths. In present study majority of the victims were men (78 %), with a male: female ratio<br>of 3.5:1. Most common age group was 21–30 years (43 %)&amp; upper limbs (58 %) were most common body<br>parts involved. 53 % cases had both entry &amp; exit marks while in 15 % cases no entry or exit marks were<br>noted. Most of the electrocution deaths were accidental, common in males, in the rainy season &amp; most<br>of the deaths were either instantaneous or immediate. Most of the electrocution deaths are preventable in<br>nature and they can be prevented by implementing proper education programs, widespread usage of safety<br>appliances and insulators, keeping electric appliances in child proof cabinets.</p> Sandhya Arora Vinka Maini Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 747 752 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14402 A Protocol on Effect of Gaze Exercises and Balance Regimen on Quality of Life of Patients with Peripheral-Vertigo <p>Background: As vertigo is been one of the most common condition affecting the individual functionally,<br>physically and emotionally and result in some form of disability. Most of physiotherapy intervention<br>proves to be effective in vestibular rehabilitation of patients with vestibular disorders. Gaze stabilization<br>exercises are effective and some suggest balance training is also effective in vestibular rehabilitation. But<br>there is minimal literature on combination of both exercise protocol. Aim: To find out the effect of Gaze<br>stabilization Exercises and balance training on quality of life of patients with Peripheral Vertigo. Methods:<br>30 participants with vertigo due to peripheral pathology will be selected on the basis of inclusion, exclusion<br>and head impulse test. The patient will be evaluating using Visual analogue scale, Dizziness Handicap<br>Inventory, Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index Scale. The participants will be distributed into two<br>categories. Group- A will receive gaze stabilization exercise and Group- B will receive balance training<br>along with gaze stabilization exercise. Participants will be evaluating post-treatment. Conclusion: This<br>study concluded that there may be significant reduction in vertigo symptoms and improved Quality of Life<br>in peripheral vertigo by using combine effect of Gaze Exercise with Balance Training</p> Sapna B. Dhote Ashish W. Bele Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 753 756 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14404 Mobile Phone Utility and Its Effects on Health among Medical Students in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh <p>Background: Mobile phone has become important in everyday life and internet utility have increased<br>especially among the student community. Overuse of mobile phone has been associated with many health<br>issues. Objective was to know the mobile phone usage pattern and its health effects among medical students.<br>Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among medical students of GSL Medical College,<br>Rajahmundry including 287 students from first to third MBBS. Data was collected using a pre-tested<br>questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic parameters, pattern of mobile phone usage like mode of use,<br>time of maximum use etc. and the health effect variables like headache, fatigue, neck pain, painful fingers<br>etc. Statistical analysis was done using MS-Excel 2007 and SPSS v 22, chi-square test was applied and<br>p&lt;0.05 was considered significant.<br>Results: 95% were using smart phone and 83% were having single phone. Maximum were using for 4-6<br>years (55%). Internet was used for academic purpose in 90%. Majority of them experienced eyes symptoms<br>(55.23%) followed by sleep deprivation (46.21%) and headache (42.60%).<br>Conclusions: Mobile phone are having positive role in our daily lives but its overuse has bad impact on<br>health of students.</p> Saptarishi Bose Sushant Kumar Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 757 765 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14405 Stability of Palatal Rugae after Rapid Maxillary Expansion <p>Introduction: Palatal rugae or plicae palatine are uneven ridges made of connective tissue situated<br>beneath the incisive papilla. DNA analysis, finger prints analysis, are the most common techniques used<br>for establishing person’s identity but in situation where using these techniques are difficult palatal rugae<br>can be used as a second source of identification. However, some habits like prolonged thumb sucking and<br>orthodontic treatment for long duration could affect the rugae pattern. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the<br>changes in transverse dimensions of palatal rugae in subjects treated with rapid maxillary expansion<br>Material and Methods: The palatal rugae patterns were measured and compared to evaluate the morphometric<br>changes between pre-treatment cast (30 Pre-RME) and its post-treatment (30 Post-RME) counterpart. All<br>pre-and post-expansion dental casts were traced and the intermedial and interlateral dimensions of first,<br>second and third rugae were measured. The statistical analysis was done using paired t test.<br>Conclusion: The medial aspect of first primary rugae can be considered as a stable reference landmark<br>while the lateral and medial aspects of the 2nd and 3rd rugae are liable to changes in transverse dimension.<br>Hence, for forensic identification the stability of palatal rugae in patients who had undergone rapid maxillary<br>expansion still remains questionable</p> Sarika K Parvathy Ghosh Sapna Varma Ajith V.V Krishna Sruthy Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 766 773 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14406 Effectiveness of Pictorial Health Warnings on Tobacco Products in Creating Awareness among 15-17 Years Old School Children in Lucknow <p>Aim: The present study was planned to assess the effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco<br>products in creating awareness among 15-17 years old school children in Lucknow.<br>Materials and method: The present cross sectional study was conducted among 360 students studying<br>in rural schools of Lucknow. Information about schools was obtained from DEO’s. Sampling was done<br>using multistage sampling technique. A specially designed questionnaire was administered to assess the<br>effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco products in creating awareness given on the reverse<br>panel of smoked and smokeless tobacco. Statistical analysis was done using chi square and test.<br>Results: The mean knowledge score among male and female was 6.37±1.56 and 6.50±1.73 respectively<br>with statistically insignificant difference. Average and poor impact was reported among 21.11%, 1.94% and<br>14.17%, 0.28% of the boys and girls respectively. When different attitude grading was compared statistically<br>among boys and girls, it was found to be statistically significant.<br>Conclusion: The present study threw light on some of the aspects of the young students towards the Pictorial<br>Health Warnings on tobacco packs. The finding also highlights to improve the quality of the Pictorial<br>Warnings and make them more robust and impactful</p> Sarvesh Bansal Shitanshu Malhotra Madhusudan Krishna Shikha Chaudhary Gunjan Agarwal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 774 780 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14407 Effects of Body Position on the Outcome of Pulmonary Function Tests in Non-Mechanically Ventilated Adults: A Brief Review <p>Background: The most important focus of pulmonary physical therapy has been to improve pulmonary<br>function. Studies have indicated that body position affects pulmonary function. Pulmonary Function Tests<br>are a group of tests that are routinely performed to objectively assess lung volumes and capacities and are<br>commonly performed in sitting position. However, positions other than sitting have to be considered in<br>certain disease conditions when the patient may not be able to attain sitting posture. The result may provide<br>objective data regarding positions suitable for pulmonary function measurements.<br>Methodology: A search to identify articles from the last five years from the period January 2015-January<br>2020 was conducted using free access search engines Medline, Pubmed and Google Scholar. Search was<br>undertaken using both, key words and MeSH words for maximal retrieval of literature. Some older articles<br>relevant to the topic were also included in this study.<br>Conclusion: The effect of sitting and lying positions on pulmonary function tests vary across study<br>populations which makes it difficult to establish an optimal position for performing pulmonary function<br>tests. However, supine lying position may be considered in those disease conditions where adopting a sitting<br>position may not be possible for the subject.</p> Saumi Sinha Rakesh Kumar Sinha Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 781 785 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14408 Heat treatment of Sodium Hypochlorite : A Comprehensive Review <p>Introduction - The primary objective of root canal therapy is reduction of the bacteria in the root canal. The<br>effective debridement depends on thorough cleaning and shaping of the complex root canal system. Chemical<br>débridements can be optimally achieved using various irrigants and intracanal medicaments. The primary<br>irrigant of choice is Sodium Hypochlorite. It has excellent tissue dissolving ability along with antibacterial<br>property. The purpose of this review is to discuss the need to heat Sodium Hypochlorite, techniques to heat<br>Sodium Hypochlorite, effect of Sodium Hypochlorite on tissue dissolution, antibacterial efficacy, penetration<br>into dentinal tubules, viscosity, and effect on Ni-Ti alloy and temperature rise on external surface of root.<br>Method- An electronic search was carried out using the certain keywords: “sodium hypochlorite”, “heated<br>sodium hypochlorite”, “prewarmed sodium hypochlorite”, “intracanal heating of sodium hypochlorite”, to<br>collect literature available on Heat treatment of Sodium hypochlorite.<br>Result- Fourty One articles published between 1936-2020 were selected. Four main categories of data were<br>highlighted: Sodium Hypochlorite and Heat, the need to heat Sodium Hypochlorite, different techniques to<br>Heat Sodium Hypochlorite, effect of Sodium Hypochlorite on various parameters.<br>Conclusion- The efficacy of lower concentration of sodium hypochlorite can be effectively enhanced by<br>increasing its temperature. It enhance the pulp dissolution, antibacterial efficacy and flow without any<br>adverse effect on periodontal ligament or outer surface of the root.</p> Saurabh Rathi Pradnya Nikhade Manoj Chandak Anuja Ikhar Nidhi Motwani Meghana Deshpande Madhulika Chandak Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 786 792 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14410 Addressing Mental Health Issues During COVID -19 Pandemic <p>Objectives: analyzing psychological issues due to covid 19 and emphasizing psychological coping<br>mechanisms.<br>Method: International journals found in two electronic databases were used to identify studies with large<br>circulation: Scopus and Embase.<br>Findings: The present epidemic in Wuhan (China) triggered by the pandemic COVID-19, corona virus<br>infection on human sites around the world, has a major impact on global health and mental health. In<br>addition, given all instruments used to battle virus spread, additional strategies for addressing the mental<br>health balance in India are needed. The general issues of mental health are growing, COVID-19 patients<br>tainted, near contacts, older citizens, kids and health staff. Most health professionals who work in isolation<br>units and hospitals are not trained on mental health. The consequence of mass quarantine seems more likely<br>to be fear.</p> Savita Pohekar Arti Raut Vaishali Tembhare Sheetal Sakharkar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 793 800 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14411 To Assess the Effectiveness of Video-Assisted Teaching on Knowledge Regarding Lifestyle Modifications and Drug Regimen in Postoperative Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Patients Attending OPD <p>Background:In patients suffering from coronary heart disease ( CHD) after coronary artery bypass grafting<br>(CABG), non-adherence to dietary guidelines, exercise, and prescription medication regimens is a major<br>health care concern worldwide. Aim of the Study:To assess the effectiveness of video-assisted teaching<br>on adherence to lifestyle modifications and drug regimen among postoperative coronary artery bypass<br>graft (CABG) patients attending the outpatient department. Objectives:1. Assess the knowledge regarding<br>lifestyle modifications and drugregimen among post-operative CABG patients attending OPD.2. Evaluate<br>the effectiveness of video-assisted teaching on knowledge regarding lifestyle modifications and drugregimen<br>among post-operative CABG patients attending cardiac and medicine OPD.3. Associate post-test knowledge<br>score with selected demographic variables of CABG patients. Material and Methods: A hospital-based<br>interventional study was used one group pre-test and post-test study design with a Quantitative research<br>approach. This study was conducted among 100postoperative CABGattending outpatient departments of<br>the age group from 55 years to 70 and above in Wardha city of Maharashtra state. The demographic data<br>such asage, sex, educational status, monthly income, dietary pattern and duration after CABGalong with<br>30 knowledge questionnaire regarding lifestyle modifications and drugregimen in postoperativecoronary<br>artery bypass graftwas obtained using a structured pre-tested questionnaire.Data collected were entered<br>into the Microsoft Excel sheet. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Frequencies and<br>percentages were presented for categorical variables. Result: The pre-test findings show that 0-20%had a<br>poor level of knowledge,21-40%had average knowledge,41-60% had good knowledge,61-80 % had very<br>good knowledge. Aftervideo-assistedteaching the post-test scorewas26-50%had average knowledge,51-75%<br>had good knowledgeand76-100 %had very good knowledge, thus it shows that after post-test the knowledge<br>score was increased, applied to find the efficacy of video-assisted teaching’t’ test was applied and’t’ value<br>was calculated, The post-test score was considerably higher at 0.05 level than that of pretest score. Hence it<br>indicates that video-assistedefficient teaching.<br>Conclusion:In general, knowledge of lifestyle changes and drug regimen in post-operative patients<br>(CABG) has been average in the pretest and after video-assisted knowledge of adherence to drug regimen<br>and regulation of lifestyle factors like high fat, high cholesterol diet, obesity, smoking and lack of regular<br>exercise has been increased and understanding of the disease dimension has therefore been generated.</p> Savita Pohekar Seema Singh Samruddhi Gujar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 801 808 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14412 The Effectiveness of Breathing Exercises on the Physiological and Psychological Variables of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis <p>A study to evaluate the effectiveness of breathing exercises on physiological and psychological variables of patients<br>with pulmonary tuberculosis in selected hospital at Ambala, Haryana.<br>TB is a 7th killer disease in the world and one of the top 10 causes of death. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an<br>infection, which causes widespread pulmonary fibrosis and cavitation, and often leaves the patient with a chronic<br>respiratory deficit as a result.<br>Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of breathing exercises on physiological<br>and psychological variables of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.<br>Material and Methods: A quasi experimental design using non-equivalent control group pretest- posttest design<br>was conducted on 110 pulmonary tuberculosis patients (55 in comparison group and 55 in experimental group) in<br>DOTS center of UPHC RavidasMajriInderpuri colonyAmbala city, UPHC Baldev NagarAmbala city, UPHC Durga<br>Nagar Ambala city and CHC Mullana. The dependent variables were physiological variables (dyspnea, spo2, heart<br>rate, respiratory rate) and psychological variables (anxiety, quality of life). Pretest was taken in UPHC Durga Nagar<br>Ambala city and CHC Mullana on day 1 and posttest was taken inUPHC RavidasMajriInderpuri colonyAmbala city<br>and UPHC Baldev NagarAmbala cityon day 30. In experimental group, breathing exercises were administered by the<br>researcher two times a week. Each session was of 30 minutes including 4 breathing exercises (pursed lip breathing<br>exercise, diaphragmatic breathing exercise, deep breathing exercise and segmental breathing exercise) and each<br>exercise was performed for 6-8 times. Other days patients were estimated to perform breathing exercises themselves<br>at home and on day 30, posttest was taken.<br>Results: Both the groups were homogenous with respect to physiological and psychological variables before the<br>administration of breathing exercises. On day 30, the mean dyspnea score and anxiety score of experimental group<br>was significantly lower than comparison group (p&lt;0.05). The quality of life of patients in experimental group was<br>significantly better than comparison group at day 30.<br>Conclusion:Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that breathing exercises are effective in reducing<br>the dyspnea, anxiety, HR and RR. Breathing exercises are effective in improving theO2saturation, blood pressure and<br>quality of life among pulmonary tuberculosis patients.</p> Shakuntala Jaspreet Kaur Monisha.K.Masih Jyoti Sarin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 809 815 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14413 Dermatoglyphic Patterns of the Medical Students and their Parents in Jammu Region of North India <p>Background and Aims: Fingerprints have a general flow to the ridges that translates into three major pattern types;<br>a whorl, loop, or arch. Pattern types are considered to be genetically inherited, but the individual details that make<br>fingerprint unique are not. This descriptive study was conducted to differentiate the fingerprint patterns of MBBS<br>students to their parents and to look for the uniqueness of fingerprint patterns in these medical graduates.<br>Methods: To do this study, all ten fingerprints were examined from hundred first-year MBBS students of Acharya<br>Shri Chander College Of Medical Sciences in the Jammu region of north India over 6 months from September 2019<br>to February 2020 along with their two biological parents. Rolled fingerprints were obtained by carbon ink in all 300<br>subjects divided into three groups(fathers, mothers, and students). Fingerprint patterns were examined by magnifying<br>glass under the supervision of a forensic expert of our institute and classified as loops, whorls, or arches.<br>Results: The most frequent fingerprint pattern in all 3000 fingers examined is the loop pattern, which represents<br>64.8%, followed by whorl pattern 30.8% and the least frequent pattern is arch(4.3%).these results were almost similar<br>in medical graduates fingerprints patterns(loops 63.7%,whorls32.5% and arches 3.8%)indicating no difference from<br>other groups. Students show similar fingerprint patterns with those of their father’s fingers in 659 fingers, 468 as<br>matching loop patterns, 187 as a whorl, and 4 arch pattern types and the percent of similarity was 65.9% with<br>higher similarity in the RL 76% and LL72% fingers. Students show similar fingerprint patterns as that of their<br>mother in 685 fingers, 500 as matching loop patterns, 183 as a whorl, and 2 arch pattern types and the percent of<br>similarity was 68.5% with higher similarity in the RT78% and RL finger 78%. Fathers and mothers groups unrelated<br>genetically when observed among themselves for similarity in fingerprint pattern showed similarity in 584 fingers,<br>455 as matching loop patterns, 125 as a whorl, and 4 arch pattern types and the percent of similarity was 58.4% with<br>higher similarity in the LL77% and RL73% fingers.<br>The statistical analysis for similarity correlation between students’ and fathers’ fingerprints shows a non-significant<br>p-value found in the right index, left index, left middle, and left little fingers while other fingers show a significant<br>p-value. Similarity correlation between students and mother shows a non-significant p-value found in the right<br>middle, left thumb, left index, left middle, and left little fingers while other fingers show a significant p-value.<br>Similarity correlation between father and mother showed no significant correlation in all fingers except in the LL<br>finger, and negative correlation in RT, RM, and LM fingers.<br>Conclusions: We concluded that the most common fingerprint pattern is the loop followed by whorl then arch<br>in MBBS graduates of our institute along with their parents. Moreover, the present study showed that fingerprint<br>patterns do not 100% match one of the parents; nevertheless, there is a similarity between offspring and their parents.</p> Shalika Sharma Koushal Kumar Vanita Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 816 823 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14414 A Descriptive Study to Assess the Self-care Attitude and Practice among Nurses from Selected Hospitals of Pune City <p>Introduction: To learn Healthy coping strategy should be a part of self-care development for the nursing<br>staff and the student nurses. It will encourage health and is also a fundamental value for the scope<br>and standard of practice. The attitude of all the nursing different some are favorable and some are not<br>favorable towards the positive attitude for the self-care. Some also denote that the attitude should be<br>positive or negative. Attitude is one the essential part for nursing education7,5,3. Objectives of the Study:<br>1.To assess the self-care attitude among nurses from selected hospitals of Pune City.2. To assess the self-care<br>practice among nurses from selected hospitals of Pune City. Methodology: Quantitative research approach<br>was adopted for this study to accomplish the objectives of the study. Result: The analysis of the study<br>suggests that nurses have positive attitude about their self-care in regards to spiritual wellness, Mental<br>wellness, Emotional wellness, Nutritional wellness, Social wellness, Intellectual wellness,Physical wellness<br>.But the practice regarding the self-care is very poor among nurses .which an important point to note and<br>the researcher suggest that there should be proper awareness and practice regrading self-care among nurses.</p> Sharadha Ramesh Poonam Yadav Shruti Dhabhade Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 824 830 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14415 A Exploratory Study to Assess the Food Choices among College Students of Pune City <p>Introduction: Students studying in college make poor dietary choices which causes significant health<br>problems to their health. Various students have their meals in the dining facilities of college were they<br>have limited healthy food options.1,2,3 If the students will not gain the adequate nutritional on daily basis<br>this will be effect there academic and physical performance. The purpose of this study was to identify the<br>food choices opted by the college students. Objectives of the Study: To assess the food choices among<br>college students of Pune City.2. To associate the selected demographic variables with the food choices<br>among college students of Pune City. Methodology: Quantitative research approach was adopted for this<br>study to accomplish the objectives of the study. In this study, Non-experimental Descriptive survey design<br>was used. The investigator conducted the study in urban area of Pune City. In the present study, the college<br>students of Pune City. Who fulfilled the inclusive criteria were the samples. The sample size was 221.<br>Result: The result of the above study reveals that the college students have and habit of consuming fast<br>food during their lunch meal. During breakfast most of them take beverages and do not prefer fast food and<br>majority of them almost take the full meal .It can be identified that they eat only one health meal during<br>their dinner which is not enough for the students to fulfill their nutritional requirement of the day. Many<br>students eat fast food and also there consumption of fast food was also very high and most of them eat this<br>fast food during their lunch meal which is not good for their health. Future research and awareness should<br>be created among college students to make them aware about the healthy eating habits and food which can<br>be implemented in their diet in daily meals</p> Sharadha Ramesh Poonam Yadav Shruti Dabhade Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 831 840 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14416 Molecular Identification of epsA and ompA genes for Acintobacter baumannii Isolated from Burn Wounds <p>This study was designed to molecular detection of epsA and ompA genes for Acinetobacter baumannii<br>Isolates that isolated from clinical. Burn wounds samples from a total of 80 clinical different Wounds,<br>samples were collected from Ghazi Al Hariri Hospital and Baghdad hospital in Baghdad / Iraq. The results<br>of the current study showed that seventy (87.5%) were clinical wounds positive samples, while the rest (10)<br>were negative wounds samples (12.5 %). From 70 samples inoculated on the Chromagar Acinetobacter, 10<br>isolate were grown on the medium, A. baumannii isolates on the Chromagar appeared as bright red colonies<br>after 24h and incubation at 37 C . The results of epsA and ompA genes detection clarify that 8 isolate<br>(80%) of A. baumannii isolates gave a positive result and carrying epsA and ompA genes while 2 (20%) of<br>Acintobacter baumannii isolates were lack the gene and no cross reactivity could be observed with any of<br>the AS-3 and AS-9 isolates. The identification of A. baumannii isolates were depended on culturing these<br>isolates on CHROM agar Acinetobacter, MacConkey, blood, nutrient agar, biochemical tests and API NE 20<br>test VITEK 2 . Compact were carried out the confirms. Results showed the amplification of epsA and ompA<br>genes for eight. A. baumannii isolates were AS-1, AS-2, AS-4, AS-5, AS-6, AS-7, AS-8 and AS-10. PCR<br>product 531 bp of ompA gene and 451 bp of epsA gene.</p> Shaymaa Mohsin Shareef Mohsan Hashim Risan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 841 848 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14418 Assess the Effectiveness of Self-Instruction Module on Knowledge Regarding Nipah Virus Infection and Its Prevention among General Population <p>Introduction: NipahVirus infection is a newly appear animal disease that develop a serious disease in both<br>animal group and human being. NiV is a contagious agent which develops the serious illnesses by the Nipah<br>(genus Henipavirus). NiV may be spread from animal (e.g. bats or pigs) or infected foodstuffs to man and<br>may also be spread directly from mans to mans. Case mortality levels are reported at 40% to 75%, based on<br>epidemiological monitoring and clinical intervention. This incidence can vary by epidemic. A self-instruction<br>module on knowledge regarding Nipah virus infection and its prevention among general population helps to<br>improve and update the knowledge regarding Nipah virus infection. Hence the investigator felt the need to<br>develop a self instruction module for preventing Nipah virus infection.<br>Aim: To determine the effectiveness of self instruction module on knowledge regarding Nipah virus infection<br>and its prevention among general population.<br>Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental research design was used to conduct this study. Non<br>probability convenient sampling technique used to collect data from general population on the basis of<br>structured knowledge questioner. After collecting pretest data, self-instructional module was given for<br>intervention on knowledge regarding Nipah virus infection and its prevention among general population.<br>Seven days were given to the samples for utilizing self instructional module which was organized for 45-<br>50 minutes. Post-test information was gathered after seven days from the day of intervention. The sample<br>characteristics were described by frequency, percentage and t-test was used to describe the difference<br>between pre-test and post-test knowledge score. Chi-square test was also used to find out the association<br>between knowledge of general population regarding Nipah virus infection and its prevention with selected<br>demographic variables.<br>Result: The findings showed that in pretest 112 (93.33 %) general population had average knowledge,<br>08(6.67%) general population had good knowledge, whereas post test 7(5.8 %) had good knowledge, 113<br>(94.17%) had excellent knowledge.<br>Conclusion: Nipah Virus is a newly emerging animal disease that leads to a serious disease in both animals<br>and humans. Nipah virus may be transmitted to mans from animals (e.g. bats or pigs) or infected foods, and<br>may also be transmitted directly from mans to mans so as this intervention will helpful to aware the general<br>population to prevent Nipah virus infection and its complication.</p> Sheetal Sakharkar Samrudhi Gujar Ruchira Ankar Ranjana Sharma Savita Pohekar Arati Raut Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 849 855 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14419 Malpractice as a Leading Cause to Maternal Mortality in Egypt: A Postmortem Statistical Study <p>Background: Maternal deaths are quite common tragic event in developing countries where the main source<br>of information on the causes of maternal death is clinical records and autopsies. Knowledge about the causes<br>of these deaths are scarce in Egypt. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality in Egypt are mostly not driven by<br>evidence. This autopsy study was performed to assess the cause of maternal mortality including malpractice,<br>thus providing information which plays an important role in improving clinical practice in Egypt.<br>Methods: A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Egyptian Forensic Authority (EFMA) in<br>a 5-years perios between January 2008 and December 2012 to investigate maternal mortality cases alleged<br>to be due to malpractice.<br>Results:. The total number of maternal deaths was 114 cases. The majority of cases (n=90, 79.0%) were<br>negative concerning malpractice. Twenty-four deaths (21%) can be attributed to malpractice; 16 due to<br>surgeon faults and 8 anesthesia-related deaths. The main cause of death was obstetric hemorrhage (n=46)<br>followed by respiratory failure (n=30). Out of the 24 cases, 19 were proved to be due to negligence in<br>the form of late intervention, improper preparation, unmanaged complication and unauthorized place of<br>management.<br>Conclusion: Malpractice causes nearly one-fifth of alleged maternal deaths; the most frequenct type of<br>which is negligence. Surgeon errors were double anesthesia related deaths. Hemorrhage was the most<br>common cause of death in malpractice as well as incidental deaths. Quality of obstetric care in Egypt needs<br>further improvement in the aspects of health facilities and care providers.</p> Sherine S.Ghaleb Magdy A. Kharoshah Hisham N.Barakat Hebat Allah A.Amin Fadwa A. Elroby Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 856 864 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14420 Current Trends in Sudden Natural Deaths in South-Western Maharashtra: A Six Year Retrospective Study <p>Background: Sudden and unexpected nature of death is intriguing to the medical practitioner until a definite<br>cause is found. Often a conclusive evidence of a natural cause is missing even after a thorough and elaborate<br>autopsy. Material and methods: A six-year retrospective study of post mortem examinations conducted at<br>a tertiary health care center to analyze the current trends in sudden deaths of natural cause. Results: Out of<br>1465 autopsies conducted ,40.60% cases were of sudden natural deaths with a male predominance (75.45%).<br>Maximum number of natural deaths were found in the age group of 51 – 60 (19.28%) and least between<br>21 – 30 Years (1.98%). The most common system involved in these cases was Cardiovascular followed by<br>Respiratory system. Conclusion: Analysis of causes of sudden natural deaths in various age groups garners<br>epidemiological data and helps in prevention of hereditary, infective and metabolic disorders which form a<br>majority of these deaths.</p> Thippesh Kumar Sarala M Shiva Kumar Abhishek Rathee K V Radhakrishna Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 865 870 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14421 Correlation of BMI with Dynamic balance using Y-Balance Test in Young Adults with Flexible Flat Foot: A Pilot study <p>Introduction: - Increase in body mass index suggests an increase in adiposity, Excess body fat deposition<br>leads to change in the Center of Pressure which leads to altered biomechanics of the body. Different systems<br>work together to maintain balance. The present study finds a relationship between BMI and dynamic balance<br>in young adults with flexible flat foot.<br>Method: - In this study, 30 participants were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the<br>30 participants; 10 were of normal weight, 10 were overweight and 10 were obese. Y balance test was<br>performed.<br>Discussion: - The study showed that dynamic balance significantly changes with an increase in weight in<br>young adults with flat feet. It is more significant in overweight and obese subjects. Any changes in ankle<br>and foot complex leads to changes in weight-bearing, muscle imbalance static as well as dynamic balance<br>in ambulation.</p> Shobha M. Bhave Umanjali S. Damke Neha V. Chitale Waqar M. Naqvi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 871 874 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14422 Correlation of body mass index with dynamic balance using Y-Balance Test in adults with the Flexible Flat Foot: An Analytical Correlation Research Protocol <p>Background: Balance is one of the primary requirements for both static and dynamic activities. Body Mass<br>Index (BMI) is measurement for estimating excess body fat. The Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBTLQ) is a screening instrument that measures single-leg balance in different directions. Flexible flatfoot is<br>the postural aspect with depressed medial longitudinal arch, pronated subtalar joint and valgus position of<br>calcaneus, evident only in weight-bearing position.<br>Methods: An analytical correlation study with 255 participants (Purposive sampling) will be taken as per<br>inclusion and exclusion criteria with study duration of 3 years. The BMI, sit to stand Navicular Drop Test<br>(SSNDT), limb length and medial longitudinal arch angle (MLAA) will be measured and compared. The<br>mean score of the Y Balance Test in different categories of BMI will be compared by performing one way<br>ANOVA test. The mean score of the Y Balance Test between two groups in each category of BMI will be<br>compared by Bonferroni t-test.<br>Conclusion: The study aims the correlation of BMI with the dynamic balance on Y-balanced test in adults<br>with flexible flat foot. The expected outcome of study will concentrate on the significant correlation of Y<br>Balance Test in different categories of BMI.</p> Shobha M. Bhave Waqar M. Naqvi Arti I. Sahu Sakshi P. Arora Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 875 881 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14423 Estimation of Stature from Hand Dimensions <p>Background: The objective of this study was to estimate stature from hand dimensions in the South Indian<br>population. It is a very useful tool in forensic anthropology where only incomplete skeletal remains or<br>mutilated limbs are present.<br>Method: The study was done using standard measuring apparatus such as stadiometer to measure stature,<br>and vernier callipers to measure hand length, palm length, hand breadth, and maximum hand breadth,<br>and included both males and females. Regression formula and correlation was derived between hand<br>measurements and stature.<br>Results: In this study, regression formula is derived with eight variables generalized for both males and females, S=<br>63.686+7.466RHL-2.298LHL-4.698RPL+3.697LPL+6.160RHB-9.622LHB+2.810RMHB+1.708LMHB<br>± 6.55977. Linear Regression equation for males and females have been derived separately with each of<br>the hand parameters.<br>Conclusion: In conclusion, hand measurements can be an effective tool in estimating stature for individuals<br>above 18 years of age.</p> Shreeya R Magendran Chandran Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 882 887 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14424 TNCS in the Context of Environment and Toxicology: A Critical Study <p>The research topic concerning environment and toxicology has its unique importance. Toxicology as a subject<br>earlier seems confined to practice of diagnosing toxins and toxicants and treatment thereto. In its expanded<br>horizon it started studying the industrial toxins and their emission into the environment. With the industrial<br>growth and emergence of ‘Transnational Corporations’(TNC’s) countries across the globe are facing new<br>challenges on environmental front. Accordingly, toxicology became interested in studying adverse effects of<br>chemicals on living organisms with eco-system as carrier. The toxins released from industries and E-waste<br>are cause of Toxic Jaundice, Toxic Cough, Toxic Paralysis, Toxic Shock Syndrome, besides Toxicosis and<br>other diseases. International Conventions have been arranged to protect environment. Indian Constitution<br>imposes duty on State towards improving public health, prevention of hazards, besides duty on citizens to<br>improve environment. Responsibility on TNC’s as visualised by leak of poisonous Methyl isocyanate from<br>Union Carbide is a pointer towards this.The deliberations under the Research topic being relation between<br>Industry, Environment, Health Hazard and Toxicology and areas of appropriate Management thereto.</p> Shreya Sarkar J. K. Mittal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 888 891 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14425 A Review of India’s Preparedness to Tackle the Covid19 Crises? <p>The novel Coronavirus, first appeared in Wuhan province of China in late December 2019, and gripped<br>the whole world in 2020, growing to be a full-blown pandemic and changed every individual’s life completely.<br>India recorded its first Novel Coronavirus case on 30th January 2020 in Kerala, a student from Wuhan,<br>China. In this article, the question about whether India is ready to tackle the crisis, i.e., Covid-19, was<br>answered. Three mathematical models were reviewed and then compared to the number of beds available<br>in the country. The third mathematical model seemed to model the country’s curve much closer than the<br>second one. The first one’s prediction actually came out to be true. Furthermore, the paper discusses the<br>health infrastructure in the country and the strategies adopted by states to prevent the spread. It talks about<br>two specific states Kerala and Maharashtra and how the country needs to deal with the crisis. It is important<br>to note that according to the models and numbers currently, India is geared, However, if precautions are not<br>taken the situation can get much worse. This paper also discusses the fatality rates currently in India and<br>where we stand for treatment. Currently, the treatment protocols keep changing from time to time.</p> Shreyasvi Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 892 901 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14426 Sociodemographic Profile and Pattern of Injuries Due to Fall From Height in a Tertiary Hospital of South India- A 2 Year Retrospective Study <p>Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health peril and are among the foremost causes<br>of serious and fatal injuries sustained to a victim. Falls are the second leading cause of accidental or<br>unintentional injury deaths worldwide. This retrospective study consisting of 182 cases was undertaken<br>to study the sociodemographic profile and injury pattern in victims of fall from height for a period of 2<br>years . Males outnumbered the females (3.04:1). Most of the victims were construction workers (43.40%)<br>by occupation . Most of incidents 117 (64.28%) took place in semi urban area and 45 (24.72%) victims<br>occurred in the Urban locality. 49.45% of the cases (90) occurred in the summer season.37.91% of the events<br>were seen between 12 Noon to 6 PM. In majority of cases, side of the body was the primary site of impact<br>(25.27%) followed by head injury (21.43). 12.08% of the cases turned fatal. Implementation of adequate<br>safety measures would effectively reduce the incidence of mortality and morbidity associated with fall from<br>height .</p> P Shruthi U.S Tanuja Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 902 907 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14427 A Cross Sectional Study to Assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Voluntary Blood Donation amongst Undergraduate Students of a Medical College in North India <p>Background: The youth of the country especially college students can serve as a readily available pool of<br>voluntary blood donors and help tide away some of the scarcity of blood and blood products. This study was<br>conducted to determine the Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding Voluntary Blood Donation<br>among medical undergraduate studentsand to assess the factors which can lead to a subsequent increase in<br>the same.<br>Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted amongst 500 undergraduate medical students<br>studying at Government Medical College, Patiala, Punjab using a structured, self-administered questionnaire<br>regarding KAP.<br>Results: The mean age of the 500 participating students was 20.46 years with a standard deviation of<br>1.5 of which 55.2% were females.71.2% and 61.4% students had correct knowledge regarding interval<br>between blood donation for males and females respectively but the knowledge regarding common causes<br>of deferral was less. Posters and pamphlets were the most common sources of information regarding blood<br>donation.92.6% students had a good attitude towards blood donation. 127 (25.4%) students had donated<br>blood previously and 17 (3.4%) of them had donated blood more than once in a year.<br>Conclusion: The students had a fair knowledge about VBD and the majority had a favourable attitude<br>towards it. Steps should be taken to increase the awareness regarding VBD since early sensitisation towards<br>its importance can motivate students to become voluntary blood donors, making them major contributors<br>to the blood donor pool throughout their adulthood and help in overcoming blood shortage in the country.</p> Shruti Verma Ramneek Locham Yajur Verma Anupriti Singh Vivek Vardhan Gupta Neha Chitkara Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 908 917 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14428 Evaluation of Stress Levels in Patients Suffering from COVID 19 Infection Admitted in Isolation Ward of a Tertiary Hospital at Hapur as Assessed by Perceived Stress Scale <p>The present study aimed to evaluate the stress levels in patients suffering from COVID 19. 100 COVID<br>19 patients with age &gt;15 years of both genders were included in the study after taking written informed<br>consent. All the subjects were administered Perceived Stress Scale questionnaire to fill and scores were<br>calculated. 82% of the subjects were suffering from high stress while 16% were in moderate category and<br>only 2% reported low perceived stress. As far as age wise distribution of subjects was considered, 36% were<br>&lt; 40 years of age, 32% were between 40 – 60 years and 32% were more 60 years of age. Out of the females<br>43% had high stress, 3% had moderate and none were in low stress category. While in males 39% had high<br>stress, 13% had moderate and 2% reported low stress. There was a significant increase in the perceived stress<br>score in females as compared to males (33.08 + 4.29 vs 30.57 + 5.27; p &lt;0.01). So, there is a need to assess<br>the stress in all COVID 19 patients and regular counselling and psychotherapy should be done specially in<br>female patients.</p> Siddharth Kumar Sumit Garg Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 918 921 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14429 Efficacy of Static Stabilization Exercises along with Progressive Resistive Exercises on Balance and Quality of Life in Elderly Population: A Study Protocol <p>Background: Balance impairment is one of the most prevalent concern with increasing age. Globally, One<br>in five older adult experiences balance problem. Prevalence of fall has been estimated at 14-53 %in India.<br>Various intervention has already been use to prevent fall and improve quality of life. Static Stabilization<br>Exercises and Progressive Strength training have proven to be effective as a single intervention however<br>minimal literature is available on combined effect of both. The main objective of study is to find out efficacy<br>of combined Static Stabilization Exercises and Progressive Resistive Exercises on balance and quality of life<br>of elderly population and also establishment of dose response relationship of balance training.<br>Methods/Design: The study will be designed as experimental study. 100 participants will be selected as<br>per inclusion and exclusion criteria and will be allocated in two groups, Combined Intervention Group (A)<br>and Traditional Balance Intervention group (B). Both intervention include 30-45 min session which will be<br>carried out 3-5 times in week for duration of 8 weeks structured into different components. Outcome will be<br>Balance and Quality of Life and outcome measures will be evaluated at baseline, at midway (4th week) and<br>at the end (8th week) of intervention period. Statistical Analysis will be done using SPSS24. Oversion and<br>p&lt;0.005 will be considered as level of significance.<br>Discussion: The study protocol details two Physiotherapy Interventions to improve balance and quality<br>of life in elderly population. In current literatures there are minimal evidence on combined effect of Static<br>Stabilization Exercises and Progressive Resistive Exercises on balance and quality of life. Successful<br>Completion of trial will provide evidence for best strategy targeting balance and quality of life and<br>relationship of dose response and balance training.</p> Simran Mishra Moh’d Irshad Qureshi Divya Jethwani Ragini Dadgal Neha Chitale Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 922 928 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14432 Comparative Study on Effectiveness of Peppermint Oil and Hot Fomentation For Joint Pain among Sickle Cell Anemia Patients <p>Introduction: Sickle cell anemia may cause pain such as stiffness of the joint, bone pain,<br>muscle weakness, chest or abdominal pain. It is often not recommended to use over - thecounter painkillers (such as ibuprofen, mortin, advil, or aleve) because they can adversely<br>affect the function of the kidney and/or liver. Try to use hot compresses for about 15 minutes up to 2-3 times<br>per day to treat pain spontaneously. Beyond healing irritated skin, increasing endurance and encouraging<br>relaxing, herbs Are always an effective way to manage pain. It is possible to apply peppermint<br>essential oil on the skin to decrease muscles sore or joint pain1.<br>Objectives:-<br>1. To assess the level of joint pain among sickle cell anemia patients.<br>2. To assess the effectiveness of peppermint oil for joint pain among sickle cell anemia patients.<br>3. To assess the effectiveness of hot fomentation for joint pain among sickle cell anemia patients.<br>4. To compare the effectiveness of peppermint oil and hot fomentation for joint pain among sickle cell<br>anemia patients.<br>5. To associate the effectiveness of peppermint oil for joint pain among sickle cell anemia patients with<br>their selected demographic variables.<br>6. To associate the effectiveness of hot fomentation for joint pain among sickle cell anemia patients with<br>their selected demographic variables.<br>Material and Methods: For this research, true experimental pre-test post-test research design has been<br>adopted. The study was conducted in selected area of Wardha district. Simple random sampling technique<br>was used to select 60 participants and 30 were recruited for each group. To evaluate joint pain, the tool<br>used for data collection was a scale of (0-10 scale of pain severity) pain scale. Both each groups were given<br>peppermint oil and hot fomentation for seven days for three times a day.<br>Result:- The after intervention mean score of hot fomentation 2.90±0.71was higher than that of peppermint<br>oil 1.53 ±0.68 and the calculated ‘ t’ value 7.59 was significant at p&lt;0.0001.<br>Conclusion:- The study proved that peppermint oil was effective than the hot fomentation for reduction of<br>joint pain among sickle cell anemia patients</p> Sneha Tadulwar Ranjana Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 929 934 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14433 Effects of Ballistic Six Exercises and Theraband Exercises on Physical Performance in Badminton Players: A Randomized Controlled Trial <p>Background – Badminton is one of the most active recreational sport played in India. Different training<br>programs have become common to boost the athletic performance and advantages. Some of them are<br>plyometric workouts, gyms, free body weight exercises and resistance exercises. Ballistic Six training is<br>given to strengthen the muscles of the rotator cuff with overhead throwing activity to prevent injury to the<br>shoulder whereas therabands with a combination of physical strength and warm-up movements are done for<br>medical issues<br>Objective – To compare the effects of Ballistic Six exercises and thera-band exercises on strength, agility,<br>speed and function in badminton players.<br>Method - 40 participants aged between 18 – 25 years, playing on regular basis will be targeted in this study.<br>Players will be split randomly into groups A (plyometric group) and B (thera-band group). All the training<br>sessions will be initiated after a 10 minutes of warm up session. Protocol given will be twice a week for 8<br>weeks. Main outcomes will be Seated Medicine Ball Throw for shoulder strength, Closed Kinetic Chain<br>Upper Extremity Stability Test for agility, Plate Tapping Test for speed and Kerlan – Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic<br>Shoulder &amp; Elbow Score questionnaire will be used to assess the shoulder function. All assessments will be<br>done at baseline and at the end of 8 - weeks training session. Follow – up will be taken at end of 6 – month.<br>Results – This study aims to compare effectiveness of two strengthening protocols, that is, Ballistic Six<br>exercise and Thera-band exercises, in young badminton players. Results of this study will depend on<br>outcome measures that are shoulder strength, agility, speed and function.<br>Conclusion – To conclude, this research may help badminton players to enhance their performance through<br>the better exercise protocol.</p> Simran Narang Deepali Patil Kiran Kumar Pratik Phansopkar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 935 941 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14434 Epidemiological Study Evaluating Type of Labial Frenum, Attachment Level and Gingival Biotypes in Chennai Population <p>Background: Periodontal diseases are multifactorial and while formulating a diagnosis multiple factors<br>must be taken into account and considered which may cause the disease or alter the treatment plan and<br>prognosis. Some of the factors affecting surgical prognosis include the gingival biotype and labial frenal<br>level, type, morphology and attachment. The frenal attachment and level may causes additional pull and<br>force on gingiva affecting healing, gingival biotype affects the kind of flap to be raised or flapless technique,<br>time taken for healing and also the amount of tissue required while procuring connective tissue and free<br>gingival grafts. The present study was undertaken to get a better understanding of the relation between<br>Gingival Biotype and Labial Frenal attachment by conducting an Epidemiological survey in a Chennai<br>population. Methodology: A total of one hundred and fifty systemically healthy patients were screened<br>at random from the outpatients of a dental college and hospital between age groups 22 to 60 years. Each<br>patient was screened by a single clinician, where the patients demographic data, type of frenal attachment,<br>the medial maxillary labial frenal classification based on morphology, morphology of labial frenum, level of<br>frenal attachment, Miller`s grade of gingival recession, gingival biotypes, visibility of the periodontal probe<br>through the gingival sulcus and gingival thickness measured using an endodontic reamer. Conclusion:<br>Among all the patients who had Simple single frenum with no nodule and elongated parallel margins with<br>gingival recession, two thirds of them had a Thin gingival biotype.</p> Siddharth Narayan Kaarthikeyan G Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 942 948 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14435 A clinical Study of Obstructive Jaundice Due to Biliary Calculi And Its Management <p>Introduction: Jaundice can be classified into prehepatic, hepatic or post hepatic. Out of these, the post<br>hepatic jaundice caused by obstruction to the outflow of bile, also known as obstructive or surgical jaundice<br>is the most relevant to surgeons. Materials and methods: it is a prospective study done over 100 cases<br>of obstructive jaundice. Results: Highest frequencies (33%) were observed in the age group of 31-40<br>years with male and female ratio 1: 3.7. Serum bilirubin level in calculous obstructive jaundice cases &lt;<br>4(mg%) was observed in 60% of the cases. USG detected stone in 90 patients out of a total of 100(90%).<br>Cholecystectomy with Choledocholithotomy and T-tube Drainage was done in 47% cases. Conclusion: For<br>proper management clinical evaluation of obstructive jaundice due to biliary calculi in adults is essential.</p> Pulin Chandra Kumar Ahmed Abu Lais Mostak Dutta Bhaskar Jyoti Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 949 956 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14436 Evaluation of Sociodemographic Characteristics of Pregnant Women without Any Medico-Legal Issues <p>Background and Objectives: In light of the pregnancy, identifying sociodemographic issues is crucial for<br>optimising antenatal care. The period of pregnancy is very critical, as each of the women expects a usual<br>outcome. Any inconvenience caused to both mother and unborn fetus arising out of the mismanagement may<br>invite litigation as prescribed by the land rule. Therefore, we aimed to analyse different sociodemographic<br>factors associated with pregnancy without medico-legal issues (MLI).<br>Materials and Methods: It is a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out on 325 participants of pregnancy<br>without any MLI. All the participant were observed and interviewed to know the inconvenience faced during<br>their antenatal period if any. The medical record was physically verified, and sociodemographic data were<br>recorded for analysis. Descriptive statistical methods were computed, and the statistical significance was<br>tested by chi-square test and student’s t-test. eth<br>Results:Majority of patients, i.e. 48% were within the age group of 21 to 25 years. The number of nulliparous<br>women was the highest being 143 (44%). Majority of the cases belonged to the middle socioeconomic class.<br>189 (58%) cases came from a rural background while 136 patients (42%) came from urban areas, and 65.5%<br>of cases were the booked cases. Majority of 197 (60.6%) cases comprises Hindu.<br>Conclusion: The pregnancy cases without any medico-legal complication show average sociodemographic<br>findings. Such findings are useful for targeted health policies aimed at attaining healthy pre-pregnancy care.</p> Saikia Dayananda Konwar Ranjumoni Dutta Bhaskar Jyoti Mahanta Putul Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 957 962 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14437 Oral Health Awareness Among Parents of Differently Abled Children : A study in North Indian Population <p>Introduction Good oral health is of paramount importance not only for chewing but also plays a major role<br>in overall healthy development of a child. Differently abled children may not be able to look after their oral<br>health and hygiene themselves. Every child has the equal right for healthy development and opportunities in<br>various fields of life. As most of the differently-abled children perform their regular activities with the help<br>of or under the supervision of a family member or caregiver, it is important for the parents or caregivers to<br>have sufficient knowledge about oral hygiene measures in order to guide the child efficiently.<br>Materials and Method: A structured modified oral health awareness questionnaire having two componentssociodemographic data and questionnaire- related to oral hygiene habits, sugar exposure, and oral health<br>seeking behaviour was constructed. The parents and guardians of 200 institutionalized physically/mentally<br>challenged students were asked to fill up the questionnaires and were then educated regarding proper oral<br>hygiene measures with the help of posters and audio-visual aids.<br>Conclusion: Differently children, due to limited ability and inadequate guidance on oral hygiene maintenance,<br>are prone to poor oral health. There is lack of knowledge of importance of oral health in parents of differently<br>abled children. It is the duty of oral health care workers to educate the parents of differently abled children<br>about significance of oral health and how they can train their child for maintenance of proper oral health and<br>hygiene for their overall healthy development.</p> Poonam Agrawal Kanak Priya Dinesh Kumar Bagga Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 963 969 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14438 COVID…19 is it an agent for Bioterrorism? <p>Biological weapons are referred to as a weapon of mass destruction including chemical, nuclear and<br>radiological Weapons as well.COVID-19 are an infectious disease caused by corona virus, which has recently<br>been discovered. Before the epidemic started in Wuhan, China, in December2019, this sort of new virus<br>and disease was unknown. Chemical and radiation terrorist attacks are early signs of a bioterrorism threat.<br>They have lodged a petition against China before the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)<br>for suspected crimes against humanity by unleashing COVID-19 on the world, the London International<br>Council of Jurists and all the Indian Bar Association. The complaint lodged against the People’s Republic of<br>China, the people’s Liberation Army and the Virology Institute in Wuhan charged the novel COVID-19. The<br>health crisis in Covid-19 reminds us that, unlike nuclear or chemical weapons</p> Sonali Kolhekar Prerana Sawkharwade Khushbo Meshram Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 970 972 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14439 Effect of Non-Computerized Cognitive Remediation and Risperidone to Improve Disability Function in Schizophrenia <p>The aim of the study was to find out the effect of non-computerized cognitive remediation and risperidone<br>therapy to improve cognitive function and disability condition in schizophrenia patients. This study was an<br>experimental research design, with fourteen participants divided into two group as the experimental group<br>and the control group. The experimental and control groups both received Risperidone. In addition, the<br>experimental group was given the non-computerized cognitive remediation (CR). The non-computerized<br>cognitive remediation will be carried out in 12 sessions (3 sessions per week) using mainly paper and<br>pencil tasks and is based on cognitive strategy instruction. Moreover, all samples will be measured for<br>PANSS (Positive and Negative Symptom Scale), WHODAS 2.0 (World Health Organization Disability<br>Assessment Schedule), and SCoRS Vi (Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scales Indonesian Version) scores.<br>As the results, both experimental and control group showed a significant decrease in the SCoRS Vi and<br>WHODAS 2.0 score (p=0.001). However, the experimental group showed greater improvement compared<br>to the control group. Synergistic effect of Non-computerized Cognitive Remediation and Risperidone can<br>improve disability condition in schizophrenia patients.</p> Sonny T. Lisal Saidah Syamsuddin Anisa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 973 979 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14441 Role of TE in MR Spectroscopy for the Evaluation of Brain Tumour with Reference to Choline and Creatinine <p>Background: The brain tumour is the most typical neurological disease in the human. The brain tumour<br>causes partial paraplegia, memory loss and various kinds of neurological disorder which causes changes<br>of metabolic process in the brain, integrity of neurons, cells proliferation and detoriation. For accuracy in<br>detection, patient will undergo MR Spectroscopy (MRS) based on MR imaging will enhance more widely<br>used clinical applications and is capable to gives details information about metabolite properties in the<br>brain of normal and abnormal tissue morphology. MRS is the non-invasive procedure may provide details<br>and accuracy about the metabolites in the brain tumour. This study aims to detect efficacy of short and<br>intermediate TE in evaluation of brain tumour with reference to choline and creatinine using multivoxel<br>MRS technique.<br>Method: The total participants (n = 75) with the brain tumour will be included randomized scan under the<br>MRI with a customised protocol. We will be applying two various types of multivoxel MR sequence with<br>a short TE and intermediate TE. Both sequence applying on each participant of brain tumour with cover<br>proper saturation band and after the post processing we will evaluate choline and creatinine metabolite and<br>measured the exact variation between given values.<br>Expected Results: MR Spectroscopy may allow the noninvasive separation of high-grade tumour from the<br>low-grade tumour. Choline and Creatinine ratios may show the steady results in concluding the grade of<br>tumour. The Intermediate TE may show more accuracy, sensitivity and specificity as compared with short<br>TE.</p> Suhas Pruthviraj Tivaskar Bhushan N. Lakhkar Rajasbala P. Dhande Gaurav V. Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 980 985 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14442 Xenografts in Periodontal Regeneration: A Viable Alternative <p>Periodontal disease is categorized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Over the years, there have been<br>several clinical techniques and material options that have been investigated for periodontal defect repair or<br>regeneration. The development of improved biomaterials for periodontal tissue engineering has significantly<br>upgraded the available treatment options and their clinical results. Bone replacement graft materials, barrier<br>membranes, various growth factors and combination of these have been used. Autografts have been used as<br>the bone graft material of choice since many years. But this type of grafts has many limitations to its use.<br>In order to overcome its drawbacks, xenografts may be used as a viable alternative. Xenografts also known<br>as heterologous graft tissues, is obtained from different species, and has been used in various different<br>periodontal procedures. The characteristic properties of xenografts and the benefits of using it has made this<br>type of graft to emerge as an appropriate choice for periodontal regeneration. The objective of this article<br>is to a review xenograft as a bone replacement graft material to be used in periodontal therapy. The source,<br>mode of bone regeneration and the respective advantages and disadvantages of xenogenic materials have<br>been discussed in detail.</p> Suhina Mitra Deepa G Kamath Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 986 994 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14443 A Comparative Study of Corneal Complications in Small Incision Cataract Surgery and Phacoemulsification <p>Methods: The present study was done among 80 patients from them 40 patients underwent SICS (group-1)<br>and 40 underwent phacoemulsification(group-2) ,both with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.<br>Post-operative corneal complication were reviewed with slit lamp examination on the 1st, 7thand 30th postoperative day.<br>Results: In our study 80 eyes from 80 patient included from which 40 eyes in group-1 and 40 eyes for<br>group-2. Mean age of patients was 58 years. Among 80 eyes 34 eyes developed corneal complication after<br>cataract surgery. Total corneal complication rate after cataract surgery (SICS+ Phacoemulsification) was<br>42.5%.out of them 17.5% and 25% corneal complication occur in SICS and phacoemulsification respectively.<br>22% ,7%,3%,3% rate of mild striate keratopathy, moderate striate keratopathy, edema, descemet’s<br>membrane detachment respectively in group-1(SICS). 20%,15%,10%,5% rate of mild striate keratopathy,<br>moderate striate keratopathy, micro cystic edema, descemet’s membrane detachment respectively in group2(phacoemulsification).<br>There was statistically significant difference of corneal complication between manual small incision cataract<br>surgery and phacoemulsification surgery at 1st postoperative day. After 1month follow-up there was no<br>statistically difference of corneal complication in both groups.<br>Conclusion: Corneal complication on follow-up were almost similar in both phacoemulsification and small<br>incision cataract surgery</p> Sujata Charel Robin Jain Janki Brahmbhatt Niklank Mehta Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 995 1000 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14444 Effectiveness of Kaltenborn Posterior Glide and Coracohumeral Ligament Positional Stretching on External Rotation Range of Motion in Patients with Adhesive Capsulitis <p>Background:Adhesive capsulitis is a common and debilitating medical condition which is treated by various<br>surgical and non-surgical treatments but there is no significant method universally. Physical therapists use<br>various shoulder mobilization techniques to improve the ROM. Radiographic and surgical evidence presents<br>tightened CHL to be a prime contributor to inadequate shoulder external rotation in individuals diagnosed<br>with adhesive capsulitis.<br>Objective: To determine the combined effectiveness of Kaltenborn posterior glide and coracohumeral<br>ligament (CHL) positional stretching on external rotation in patients with adhesive capsulitis.<br>Methods and Measures:A number of 30 subjects, both Male and Female with a primary diagnosis of<br>shoulder adhesive capsulitis by the physician were recruited. 15 subjects each were randomly assigned<br>to Group-A(Experimental) and Group-B(control). All subjects received 6 therapy sessions consisting of<br>moist heat, shoulder pendular and ROM exercises, Kaltenborn posterior glide and Coracohumeral ligament<br>positional stretching in Group-A. Moist heat, shoulder pendular and ROM exercises in Group-B. Pre-test<br>and post-test were carried out for both the groups and analysed using paired and independent t tests in an<br>SPSS software.<br>Results: The experimental group(Group-A) mean VAS score had decreased from 6.27 to 3.73, SPADI mean<br>score decreased from 0.534 to 0.380 and also Goniometer (Shoulder external ROM) showed an improvement<br>from 29.2 to 35.33 but when intergroup analysis was done, it resulted in significance only for SPADI where<br>p &lt; 0.05. Through this measure, we can state that the treatment protocol for group A had a significant<br>improvement in disability but not much on pain and ROM in patients with adhesive capsulitis.<br>Conclusion: All the interventions has brought about some improvement in each group post-treatment based<br>on the mean score but its significance vary. So, this study can be concluded that, the treatment protocol,<br>Kaltenborn posterior glide and CHL positional stretching could bring a significant difference with regard to<br>disabilty but not much of difference in pain and ROM in patients with adhesive capsulitis.</p> Sungjemmongla Walling Abhijit Kalita Abhijit Dutta Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1001 1009 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14445 Analysis of Defence Injuries in Homicide Cases Categorised in Accordance to Homicide Injury Scale <p>Introduction: The instinct of self-preservation drives a person to defend themselves from any violent attack<br>which in itself may produce injuries on the body. These are termed as defence injuries. This study aims to<br>analyse defence injuries in homicide cases which are categorised based on its severity as determined by<br>Homicide Injury Scale (HIS).<br>Methods: This is a retrospective study which included all homicide cases which were autopsied during a<br>twelve year period in a tertiary care hospital. Each of these cases were categorised according to the HIS. The<br>presence, type and distribution of defence injuries were then tabulated and analysed.<br>Results: A total of 85 homicide cases were autopsied during the specified study period. Out of these 85<br>cases, 53 cases showed defence injuries (62%) and majority of these cases fell under higher categories of<br>HIS. Cases categorised under HIS 2,3 and 4 had defence wounds which were more blunt force in nature<br>while cases under HIS 5 and 6 had more sharp force defence injuries. Passive defence injuries were found<br>uniformly across all categories of HIS, however active defence injuries were found more in higher categories<br>of HIS than in lower ones.<br>Conclusion: This is rare study where the pattern and distribution of defence injuries was analysed based on<br>a standardised scale. Active defence injuries were more commonly seen in homicide cases placed on higher<br>scales of HIS.</p> Sunil Subramanyam Joshima Janardhanan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1010 1015 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14448 Haplotype Profiling of Y-STRs among Northern Population in Thailand <p>Background: The investigation of Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) has been widely performed in forensic<br>caseworks. Due to variation between populations, understanding of genetic information within individual a<br>population could provide the database and scientifically reliable results. This study was to investigate allele<br>and haplotype frequencies of Y-STRs among localized people who lived in northern Thailand.<br>Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted by gathering medical reports of Y-STRs typing.<br>The allele frequency and gene diversity as well as haplotype frequency and diversity were calculated.<br>Pairwise genetic distance (Rst) was also calculated based on haplotype pattern by using AMOVA and<br>Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) tools.<br>Results: The result showed that DYS389II, DYS439, and DYS392 represented the highest number of allele<br>patterns. The highest and lowest allele frequency was found to be allele 14 of DYS437 and allele 13 of<br>DYS437, respectively. The highest and lowest gene diversity was observed in DYS389II and DYS437,<br>respectively. One-hundred and sixty different haplotypes were defined where 144 carried a unique haplotype<br>and 16 carried a replicate haplotype. A significant Rst value was obtained between the studied population and<br>central Thai population.<br>Conclusion: This study provided genetic database of Y-STRs among localized population in northern region<br>of Thailand. The genetic structure of our subjects also represented the significant close relationship with<br>some other populations in Southeast Asia.</p> Supakit Khacha-ananda Phatcharin Mahawong Thida Kaewkod Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1016 1023 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14450 Effectiveness of Pippalyadi Ointment in Management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids) <p>Arsha is a common anorectal disease so associated with bleeding per anum . It can be compared to<br>Haemorrhoids accoding to modern science. Haemorrhoids are dilated veins in the anal canal. Through all<br>the modern modalities of treatment in haemorrhoids are universally accepted but all have some or other<br>limitations. In Ayurveda various measures have been mentioned for the management of Abhyantar Arsha ,<br>among which lepa karma is one of them . Various study have been done on the application of various lepa<br>so prepared have been conducted depending upon the sign and symptoms. Objective- This study was carried<br>out to find the effectiveness of Pippalyadi ointment in Ptients of Arsha .Materials and Methods- Here the<br>patient of Arsha were selected as per criteria and Pipplyadi ointment was advised for 15 days twice a day<br>as local application.</p> Suraj P Rathod Kiran Khandare Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1024 1027 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14451 Ayurvedic Protocol on Effectiveness of Pippalyadi and Suranadi Ointment in Management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids) <p>Background- Ano-rectal disorders are progressively increasing in the society. Out of many of the causes, some<br>important are sedentary lifestyle, irregular and inappropriate diet, prolonged sitting or standing and certain<br>psychological disturbances too. Arsha is one among the ano rectal diseases which occurs in Gudapradesha,<br>which is a sadhyopranaharaMarma[1]. In Arsha bleeding per anum is the principal symptoms .Arsha is a<br>gift of modern diets and busy lifestyles and many people are suffering from some sort of Anorectal disorder,<br>it may be simple constipation to complex carcinoma, in which prominent disorder is Arsha. It is manifested<br>due to multifold factors viz. disturbed lifestyle or daily routines, improper or irregular diet intake, prolonged<br>standing or sitting, faulty habits of defecation etc. which results in derangement of Jatharagni leading to<br>vitiation of Tridosha, mainly VataDosha.</p> Suraj Rathod Kiran Khandare Alok Kumar Diwedi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1028 1031 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14452 Risk Factors of Suicides: A Retrospective Study <p>Introduction: “Suicide” is a fatal act that represents the person’s wish to die. The “psychological autopsy”<br>is a “procedure for investigating a person’s death by reconstructing what the person thought, felt and did<br>preceding his or her death. The present study aimed to find out the profile of those completing suicide with<br>regard to various factors to know the circumstances leading to suicide. Materials and method: Retrospective<br>diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were made by questions on 120 deceased cases of suicides, over the ages<br>of 15 years, both urban and rural, which were sent for medical autopsy. All these data was collected by<br>interviewing the close relatives and friends of the patient. Results: Most of people involved in suicide were<br>males belonging to age group 16-30 years while very few of them were above 60 years. Most of them were<br>illiterates, working as daily labourers or self employed. Among women most of them were housewives.<br>They were from low economic background, from the rural areas and married. The most common cause of<br>suicides was financial loss, stress and illness. Conclusion: Proper counselling and monitoring the intended<br>victims may help to reduce the number of deaths. Also the families need to be counselled regarding the<br>importance of family values and integrity among the family members.</p> Suresh Kumar Karthikean Kancharla Suresh Reddy T. Sudharson Veena Raja Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1032 1037 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14453 Awareness about Acts and Amendments in Bills Related to Sexual Offences amongst Medical Students and Interns In A Private Medical College and Hospital at Chennai <p>Women and Children constitute one of the vulnerable sections of our society. Proactive scheduling and<br>stipulation of services to them is an asset for the future of our country. Their care and protection has emerged<br>as a precedence for the Government .The objective of the study was to assess and analyze the awareness<br>about the amendments in acts and introduction of new bills related to sexual offences amongst Medical<br>students and Interns in teaching medical colleges,hospitals at Chennai. 300 participants took part in this<br>cross sectional study which revealed that almost one fifth of them (20%) felt that only children below 16<br>years came under the POCSO Act 2012. Nearly 55% of the participants were unaware of the exact features<br>of the POCSO Act 2012. Only one fourth were aware that as per the new amendment in the proposed MTP<br>bill regarding requirement of only a single RMP’s opinion for termination of pregnancy up to 20 weeks,<br>while 56% of the participants were unaware of the minimum punishment for the rape of a girl under 16<br>years.<br>The study result implies the need to have more educational sessions for the students regarding the amendments<br>in the acts.</p> Sushanth Satish P Shruthi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1038 1041 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14454 A Study on the Histopathological Changes in Cases of Pesticide Poisoning and Proposed Diagnostic Algorithm <p>Pesticide poisoning in developing world is a global public health problem. Incidences of poisoning are<br>increasing with socio-economic hurdles. Often reporting and chemical examination of samples collected<br>from viscera are difficult to precisely diagnose cases and therefore extensive studies on histopathological<br>corroborations of vital organs such as stomach, liver and kidney is necessary along with socio-demographic<br>data. The common autopsy findings were cyanosis in the lips, in the fingertips and nose. Histological<br>findings in stomach revealed congestion, erosion of muscularis mucosa, submucosal petechial haemorrhages<br>and necrosis. Liver shows congestion, sinusoidal dilution, degeneration of hepatocytes and haemorrhages.<br>Kidney shows tubular necrosis and glomerular congestion. However, history of poisoning along with<br>autopsy and histological findings are considered as strong evidence for acute organophosphorous poisoning</p> Swapan K. Adhikari Soumeek Chowdhuri Parthapratim Mukhopadhyay Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1042 1049 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14457 The Effectiveness of Computational Thinking Based Learning (CTBL) and Problem Based Learning (PBL) Learning Models on Learning Achievements Reviewed From Brain Dominance <p>This study aimed to determine: (1) which one is more effective between Computational Thinking Based<br>Learning (CTBL) and Problem Based Learning (PBL) on learning achievement, (2) which one is better,<br>students with left brain dominance or students with right brain dominance, (3) for each brain dominance,<br>which one is better between CTBL and PBL. This study used a quasi-experimental research method with<br>a 2x2 factorial design. The population in this study were all students of class VIII SMPN 1 Bendo in the<br>Academic Year 2020/2021, totaling 9 classes. The research sample included 45 students (two classes) who<br>were taken using cluster random sampling. The instrument used was a questionnaire on the students’ brain<br>dominance and a mathematics learning outcome test. From the results of this analysis, it can be concluded<br>that CTBL was more effective to implement compared to PBL in odd semester class eight students at SMP<br>1 Bendo Magetan in the Academic Year 2020/2021. There were differences in the results of mathematics<br>learning achievement in students who were given CTBL and PBL in terms of the brain dominance of odd<br>semester class eight students at SMPN 1 Bendo Magetan in the Academic Year 2020/2021.</p> Swasti Maharani Toto Nusantara Abdur Rahman As’ari Abd.Qohar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1050 1057 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14458 Investigating the Causes of Maternal Mortality in Abadan School of Medical Sciences During 2012 - 2017 <p>Introduction and Background: : Maternal mortality is one of endangering hazards of human life and is the<br>index of women health in society. The purpose of this study was investigating causes of maternal mortality<br>in Abadan School of Medical Sciences during 2012 - 2017.<br>Material and Methods: : This is a cross sectional study that all maternal death during 2012 – 2017 were<br>assessed by a questionnaire and information obtained from investigation files and autopsy report. data were<br>analyzed through SPSS software and descriptive statistics reports. Chi-Square and logistic regression were<br>employed.<br>Finding: the maternal mortality ratio was 27 per 100000 live births in 2012 to 2017. The most common<br>cause of maternal mortality was bleeding. In 70% of deaths, the way of childbirth was cesarean. Fifty percent<br>of dead mothers were illiterate or had primary study degrees and 58% were urbane residents. Seventy-two<br>percent of this mothers lacked cares before pregnancy and in 71% of deaths, prenatal care was low.<br>Conclusion: Increasing support and quality of cares before pregnancy, during pregnancy and after pregnancy<br>and optimizing the skills and knowledge of medical and midwifery staff in caring and optimal treatment of<br>mothers will be of the most important effective actions in reducing maternal mortality.</p> Tahery, Noorollah Khavayet, Fariba Hosini seyed abbas Pakseresht Maryam Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1058 1064 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14459 Hypolipidemic Effects of Rosa Damascena Mill. Extract in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats <p>Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic hyperglycemic condition with a lot of complication which can<br>lead to death. Vascular complication in diabetes commonly caused by dyslipidemia which characterized<br>by decreased HDL, elevated LDL, Cholesterol and Triglyceride. Rosa damascena- an ornamental plantthoughts to have anti-hyperglycemia and antioxidant effects because of its large amount of polyphenolic<br>components . This study analyzed hypolipidemic activity properties of an ethanol extract of Rosa damascena<br>by measuring the lipid profile using various doses. Methods: This research is experimental study with<br>randomized post-test only control group design. Twenty male Wistar rats divided into 5 groups; The groups<br>were Healthy Control Group (HCG), Diabetes Group (DG), and Extract Group: P1 (250 mg/kgBW), P2<br>(500 mg/kgBW), P3 (1000 mg/kgBW). All treatment groups were injected by single-dose streptozotocin<br>50 mg/kgBW to induce diabetes, and given the Rosa damascena ethanolic extract oral treatment for 2<br>weeks. Statistical results showed that Rosa damascena significantly decrease cholesterol (58.2±15.19), LDL<br>(11±2.44) optimally in dose 250 mg/KgBW and triglyceride (96.7±44.2) optimally in dose 500 mg/kgBW<br>after 14 days. Conclusion: Rosa damascena extract seems to be great candidate for anti-hyperlipidemic<br>drugs.</p> Tamam Jauhar Bilqis Inayatillah Maftuchah Rochmanti Achmad Basori Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1065 1070 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14461 Awareness and Attitude Towards Organ Donation Under Transplantation of Human Organ Act 1994 amongst Medical Students in Teaching Hospital at Chennai <p>Organ transplantation, a treatment procedure to save the lives of patients with end stage organ failure is a<br>grey zone about which the multitude is still unaware. The attitude of the Indian population towards organ<br>donation is very bleak accounting to a rate of 0.26 per ten lakh people. A cross-sectional study was conducted<br>among 300 medical students with a pre-tested, semi structured questionnaire to assess their knowledge and<br>attitude regarding organ donation. Data collected was statistically analysed using SPSS software. 96% of<br>the study participants were aware about organ donation and 98.5% believed that organ donation should be<br>promoted. 4.8% participants of this study had already signed up the organ donation form .Willingness for<br>organ donation was significantly associated with knowledge about organ donation. When compared to boys,<br>girls reported higher mean scores in knowledge (8.48±1.11) and attitude (7.38±0.85). Though most of the<br>students had adequate knowledge, gaps existed in their practices. By providing adequate knowledge and<br>orientation about the topic, all the Medical graduates can become the potential organ donors in the future<br>and also abide by the law of land by motivating the patients to donate their organs.</p> S. K .Tanissha P Shruthi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1071 1075 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14462 Superior Laryngeal Nerve Injury in Thyroidectomy Surgery <p>Introduction: The thyroid gland is one of the endocrine glands with the most frequent disorders or diseases<br>compared to other endocrine glands. Treatment of these disorders is generally performed by surgery or<br>called a thyroidectomy. Thyroidectomy surgery can pose a risk of complications, both early complications,<br>and late complications. Common complications are hemorrhage, hypoparathyroidism, recurrent laryngeal<br>nerve injury, and external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.<br>Purpose: To analyze the effect of the surgical method of superior thyroideal vasa ligation as distally as<br>possible on the prevention of injury to the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) in<br>thyroidectomy.<br>Methods: Clinical trial study with pre and post-test design in patients undergoing thyroidectomy surgery.<br>Patients were examined using a questionnaire of the injury-related voice of EBSLN (SKC-EBSLN), which<br>tested the validity and reliability of the previous test and measured 1-octave sound ability before and after<br>thyroidectomy surgery using the superior thyroidectomy vasa ligation method as distally as possible to see<br>its effect on EBLSN function and tone ability function.<br>Results: There were differences in the scores of the SKC-EBSLN questionnaire before and after<br>thyroidectomy surgery using the method of superior thyroideal vasa ligation as distally as possible (p<br>&lt;0.05). Further analysis showed that clinical diagnosis, surgery, tumor size, and AP outcome did not have<br>a statistically significant effect on the postoperative SKC-EBSLN score (p&gt; 0.05). In this study, the SKCEBSLN score had a significant effect on the 1-octave tone ability (p &lt;0.05).<br>Conclusion: As many as 51.9% of patients had a normal voice condition with few complaints and were<br>able to sing 1-octave tone after surgery using the method of superior thyroidal vasa ligation as distally as<br>possible. The SKC-EBSLN questionnaire is a valid and reliable questionnaire to evaluate the results of<br>thyroidectomy surgery.</p> Taufiq Urahman Sunarto Reksoprawiro Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1076 1084 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14463 Effect of Wobble Board Training with Mirror Feedback and Computer Based Balance Board Training on Static and Dynamic Balance and Quality of Life in Elderly Population <p>Background: The extent of the risk of falling rises with ageing, and the number of falls and accidents that<br />occur strongly contributes to admission to a nursing home. Fall is mostly caused due to lack of balance<br />and also affect the quality of life, so the various Physiotherapy approaches are available for prevention and<br />treatment of fall but very few studies utilized computerized balance board training program to improve the<br />balance, hence need for the study is to find out the efficacy of balance board training &amp; to enhancing balance<br />and gait as well as the significance of these training on static and dynamic stability and quality of life in the<br />geriatric population.<br />Method: Total n=96 elderly people will be targeted who are about 60 years of age or older. Participants will<br />be randomly separated into two groups (control or experimental group).The training session design for a 6<br />weeks and each session for a 20-30 minute. Outcome measures will be used to assess the static and dynamic<br />stability and quality of life in the elder population group.<br />Discussion: This clinical work seeks to equate the impact of traditional wobble board balance instruction<br />in the elderly community and computer-based balance board preparation. To conclude, this work will help<br />elderly people strengthen their static and dynamic equilibrium, and also increase their quality of life.</p> Tejaswini Fating Ashish W. Bele Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1085 1092 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14464 Stevens Johnson Syndrome in Babylon <p>SJS and TEN are emergency medical conditions, rare but with high mortality rate. They start as flu like illness<br>with high fever. They are mucocutaneous disorders Affect mainly the skin, eye, nose, mouth and genitalia,<br>with characteristics rash, blistering, peeling of the skin. Two accused as a cause: certain drugs, and infections<br>like Mycoplasma pneumonia. In order to overcome the lack of informative studies about these syndromes,<br>and to lower the high mortality rate associated, we followed the occurrence, diagnosis, management and<br>prognosis of these syndromes in one year field study in the province of Babylon, Iraq from the 1st of March<br>2018 to the 1st of March 2019. The data were taken from the medical records of 4 major hospital in the<br>center of AL Hilla city, Iraq (Al Hilla teaching hospital , Merjan teaching hospital Babil teaching hospital,<br>and Al Noor pediatric hospital). Five cases of this syndrome where reported, 3 males and 2 females with age<br>range 23-30 years. One female survived. Four patients died. Full typical autopsy with necessary laboratory<br>tests where achieved in the department of Forensic Medicine in Babylon. The occurrence of this syndrome<br>was 5 /2 million /year, the diagnosis was delayed and accordingly the management and lines of treatment<br>were delayed too, leading to bad prognosis (four deaths, one survival). The mortality rate was 80%. The<br>direct causes of death were pneumonia and encephalitis associated with Stevens Johnson Syndrome. This<br>syndrome should be kept in mind when prescribing a medication. Early management is leading to good<br>prognosis</p> Thamir M. Kadhim Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1093 1098 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14465 Impact of a Mental Health Gap (mhGAP) Module on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) and Caregiver Burden in a South Indian Community <p>Background: Non pharmacological interventions are the first line treatment recommended for behavioral<br>and psychological symptoms of dementia and mental health gap module is a non-pharmacological<br>interventions based program developed by Word Health Organization for dementia patients especially in<br>low and middle income countries. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of mental health gap<br>module on Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and caregiver burden in a south Indian rural<br>community.<br>Methods: A quasi experimental one group pretest posttest time series design study was conducted among<br>61 elderly with dementia in a south Indian rural community who were selected using purposive sampling.<br>Pre interventional assessment was done with Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire and Zarit Burden<br>Interview. A multifaceted mental health gap intervention was delivered to the patients through monthly home<br>visit by community health workers for one year and impact on behavioral and psychological symptoms and<br>caregiver burden was tested at six weeks, three months and 12 months.<br>Conclusion : There was a significant improvement in behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia<br>and caregiver burden during study period. This study proved that behavioral and psychological symptoms<br>of dementia and caregiver burden can be managed though home based non pharmacological interventions<br>using community health workers which is a beneficial and cost effective model for low and middle income<br>countries.</p> Thasleem SK Sharma R Shaji KS Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1099 1107 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14466 The Role of Doctors in Drug Administration and the Execution of Penal Death <p>Although until now Indonesia still applies capital punishment, efforts to limit its application are still being<br>made, including improving the procedures for its implementation. One way to ensure that the execution of<br>the death penalty is still carried out with respect for life is to involve doctors in treatment and the execution<br>of the death penalty. In addition, in the reform of Indonesian criminal law (Draft KUHP), a policy for<br>postponing death penalty has been formulated. Those sentenced to death are given the opportunity to improve<br>themselves for a certain time (10 years). If within the grace period the convict can show improvement in<br>himself, then the death penalty need not be carried out and replaced with deprivation of liberty.</p> Tongat Tongat Ratri Novita Erdianti Said Noor Prasetyo Nu’man Aunuh Yaris Adhial Fajrin Wafda Vivid Izziyana Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1108 1111 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14467 Identification of Giardia lamblia Genotypes among Children in Tikrit City by Using Nested PCR <p>The parasite Giardia lamblia is one of the most widespread intestinal protozoa that infects humans all<br>over the world, causing giardiasis. It was first diagnosed in the duodenum and ileum in human digestive<br>tract, where its effect is primarily on children. Giardia disease affects more than 280 million people every<br>year worldwide. It is also one of the most important parasitic infections in many countries in terms of<br>incidence and morbidity. 615 stool samples were collected from children attending Tikrit Teaching Hospital<br>and private laboratories during the study pehriod to investigate the spread of G. lamblia among children, and<br>the total infection rate was 14.30%. Where the rate of infecting children in the city was 11.54% of the total<br>of 50 samples. Through the molecular examination in this study, the parasite G. lamblia, the target gene TPI<br>triose phosphate isomerase was used to identify clusters of G. lamblia. All positive samples were positive<br>with group B and no infection was registered with group A.</p> Torkan Ahmad Hama Hasan Abdul Khaleq Alwan Muhaimid Ayhan Rashid Mahmood Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1112 1117 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14468 Stature Determination from 3D Foot Impression among Telugus in Malaysia <p>Personal identification is the primary aim of anyforensic investigations. Foot impressions, either 2D or 3D<br>are used for person identification. Foot impression found on soft surfaces is three dimension in nature (3D),<br>also namedfoot outline which shows the boundaries of the foot left by the offenders on soft surfaces. It is a<br>fact that 3D impressions can also be used to determine stature, body weight and gender. In the developing<br>countries, people are still walking barefooted. Earlier foot impression studies were conducted on mixed<br>population and currently researchers are insisting the importance of ethnicity consideration.Malaysian<br>Indians are an important ethnic group living in Malaysia, with minor sub-ethnicgroups such as Malayali,<br>Telugu, Sikh, Tamil, and others. Hence this study intends to examine the relationship between stature and 3D<br>foot lengths among Malaysian Telugus, mostly living in peninsular Malaysia. The stature and foot outlines<br>(3D) were collected from consented Telugu 140 subjects, comprising 73 males and 67 females, age ranging<br>from 18 to 60 years old. The data obtained were analysed statistically using SPSS software version 21.0.<br>There exists a strong positive correlation between stature and 3D foot impression lengths and the correlation<br>coefficient (R) values are found to be higher in unknown gender/pooled samplefollowed by males and<br>females. This study developed regression formulae to determine stature from foot outline (3D) lengths<br>among Malaysian Telugus for crime scene investigation. The equations are population specific and should<br>not be used for any other populations.</p> Nataraja Moorthy T Sangitha J Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1118 1124 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14469 Gender Determination from Toe Prints Among Kagay-Anons of Philippines for Forensic Application <p>Footprint is a physical evidence, often found at the crime scenes. Due to its ability to provide more<br>information than fingerprint, it has been considered as a valuable clue. Sometimes, partial footprints or toe<br>prints are found in crime scenes. Hence the present study used toe prints among Kagay-Anons of Philippines<br>population for gender determination. A total of 4000 toe prints were collected and analyzed by “Acree<br>method”, using 5mm x 5mm square area transparent film. The number of ridges within the square was<br>calculated as ridge density. The finding has shown that females havecomparatively higher ridge density than<br>malesin all five toes. The present study shows that partial foot print found at the crime scene can be still<br>collected and analyzed for identification</p> Nataraja Moorthy T DevinaKD Ariel Philip IP Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1125 1130 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14470 Sexual Dimorphism from Fingerprint Ridge Density among KagayAnons of Philippines for Forensic Application <p>Hand morphology and fingerprint patterns form a valuable tool for person identification. Sex identification<br>is a vital role in forensic and medico legal investigations. Determination of sex or gender of an individual is<br>important because it can help in the forensic investigators to identify the suspect if male or female based on<br>the ridge density of handprint or palm print. The present study used fingerprints collected fromKagay-anon<br>population for determination of gender through ridge density. A total of 4000fingerprints (200 males and<br>200 females) were collected and analyzed using the “Acree” method of ridge density counting within 5mm<br>x 5mm square area calculated the ridge density. The mean ridge density iscomparatively higher in females<br>(12.39-14.14) than males (11.06-11.87) in the fingerprints of the study population. The results are presented<br>in the form of tables and graphs.</p> Nataraja Moorthy T Aidil Nur Liyana M Ivan Nikkimor LD Ariel Philip IP Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1131 1137 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14471 Suicide Bombing in a Money Lending Shop – A Rare NonTerrorist Explosion Scene Report <p>Suicide is an intentional actof a person causing one’s own death. Suicide bombing is the choice of an<br>individual or organization member to embrace death for achievement. Suicide bombers are mostly from<br>terrorist organization. It is a crime scene report wherein a normal citizen, a lorry driver in India triggered<br>suicidal bombing in a money lending shop. Suicidal death with explosive by normal citizens is rare. The<br>author, then Government forensic crime scene investigator had investigated the suicidal bombing scene<br>wherein a lorry driver aged about 42 years committed suicide bombing in a money lending shop. It was<br>not a terrorist attack,from any terrorist organization. The author examined the blasting site and identified<br>the type of explosive used in this act. After the bombing, the bomber survived for a while and subsequently<br>collapsed within a shop, a rental house.The dead body found on the floor, within the shop with injuries on<br>abdomen with exposed viscera. The body was intact, nor blown to pieces as appeared in terrorist suicide<br>attack. An improvised devise found attached in abdomen region and the chemical substance used was low<br>power explosives, never used by the terrorists for the suicide attack.The author concluded with a finding that<br>the local lorry driver had committed suicide bombing under stress, because of his inability to pay the lorry<br>loan instalments for many months. It was an act of psychological stress rather than terrorist attack since the<br>moneylender was safe, even in his close range of the bomber</p> T. Nataraja Moorthy Baskaran, M Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1138 1141 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14474 Hanging Deaths at Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital <p>Background: Hanging signifies an asphyxiation form which, by a noose or another constricting band<br>tightened by body weight, is secondary to compression or restriction of the neck structures. All hangings are<br>suicidal. Accidental and homicidal hangings are rare and uncommon.<br>Objective: This research was performed on deaths attributed to neck strain related to hanging and<br>strangulation carried out for post-mortem analysis in the mortuary of Osmania General Hospital<br>Methods: Detailed information regarding the deceased and the circumstances of the death were collected<br>from the police and relatives by a questionnaire. For certain situations, the detail was matched by an on-site<br>observation or by photos of the incident location.<br>Results: Knot was present in the right side of the neck in 97(48.5%) cases, over the left side of the neck<br>in 62(31%) cases, and over the center of the occipital region in 41(20.5%) cases. In the present study, it is<br>observed that in 167(83.5%) cases, the level of ligature mark was above the thyroid cartilage, below the<br>thyroid cartilage in 11(5.5%) cases, and overriding the thyroid cartilage in 22(11%) cases. parchmentization<br>was present in 135(67.5%) cases and absent 65(32.5%) cases. The causes for these observations are the<br>ligature material type and the length of suspension which in the majority of cases are parchmentized. 169<br>cases (84.5%) did not show any changes around the ligature mark, but in 31 cases (15.5%). Fracture of hyoid<br>bone was seen in 3.5% of the cases and fracture of thyroid cartilage was seen in 4.5% of the cases<br>Conclusion: Our society has a great socio-economic burden due to the high incidence of suicidal hanging<br>among young adults particularly women. The private essence of hanging and convenient access to ligature<br>points and ligature supplies renders suicide avoidance challenging. Marital disappointment, organic disease<br>issues, and dowry abuse are the primary reasons behind suicide hanging.</p> Shaik Khaja Moinuddin V Chand Basha Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1142 1147 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14475 Toxicological Assessment of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Kalanchoe pinnata in Rats <p>Kalanchoe pinnata is a perennial plant that is widely used in the folklore treatment of kidney and gall<br>stones and urinary insufficiency. The present study aims to evaluate the potential toxicity of the leaf extract<br>of this plant upon acute and sub-acute (28 day) exposure in Wistar rats when administered orally. In Acute<br>oral toxicity(n=3) Female Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of 2000mg/kg b.wt and observed for<br>14 days and Sub-acute toxicity(n=6) Male and Female Wistar rats were treated with the dose of 500 and<br>1000mg/kg b.wt of leaf extract for 28 days consecutively. No mortality, morbidity or adverse clinical signs<br>of toxicity were observed during the experimental period. No significant changes in the body weight was<br>observed. Gross necropsy did not indicate any treatment-related pathological changes in any of the animals<br>in the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies. Histopathology of the Liver, Heart and Kidney did not show any<br>remarkable lesions that could be related to the administration of the leaf extract. Ethanolic leaf extract of<br>Kalanchoe pinnata is relatively safe with an LD50 value greater than 2000 mg/kg. From the sub-acute study,<br>the no-observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of the extract can be derived as 1000 mg/kg b.wt in male<br>and female Wistar rats.</p> V. Saravanan S.S. Murugan K.R. Navaneetha Krishnan N. Mohana K. Sakthivel T. N. Sathya Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1148 1155 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14476 The Dessert Dimension: Genes related to Sweet Taste Receptors, Sweet Taste Preferences, its Association with Alcohol Consumption and dental Caries Incidence – A Literature Synthesis and scoping Review <p>Sweet taste is considered to be the most desirable taste category. With recent advances and gene mapping<br>techniques, the genes associated with sweet taste were identified, namely, TAS1R family and the Sac<br>locus. In this review, we have tried to summarise the association of sweet taste and genetics, involving the<br>studies related to sweet taste receptors, sweet taste preferences and how sweet taste preference can become<br>a potential phenotype that influences alcohol intake and dental caries. The PubMed and Google Scholar<br>databases were searched for articles using keywords ‘sweet taste’, ‘genes’, ‘sweet taste preferences’, ‘sweet<br>taste and alcohol’, ‘dental caries’, etc. The process also involved hand searching using references.</p> Vaibhav Kumar Heer Shah Romi Jain Swarali Atre Mahendra Gaikwad Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1156 1161 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14477 Assess the Effects of Back Massage to Improve Sleeping Pattern of the Postoperative Cardiothoracic Patients among the Selected Hospitals <p>Background : During the recovery time after cardiac surgery, some patients find that they have disturbed sleep.<br>This is due to a combination of the effects of anesthesia, pain or discomfort in the area of the incisions, back,<br>shoulder, and neck pain from manipulation of body during surgical procedure and the post-operative changes<br>to daily routine and stress. Lack of sleep may cause fatigue; delay in recovery process and lead to prolonged<br>hospitalization Therapeutic back massage has gained support as an intervention that improves the overall<br>relaxation of the body. Patients experience back massage as a calming, stimulating and effective measure of<br>sleep-inducing influence. Objectives: To assess the sleeping pattern of post operative cardiothoracic patients<br>before giving back massage, To assess the sleeping pattern of post operative cardiothoracic patients after<br>giving back massage, To compare the difference between before and after massage effect on sleeping pattern<br>of post operative cardiothoracic patients, To correlate the effects of back massage with selected demographic<br>variables and to find out association between before and after back massage effects on sleeping pattern of<br>post operative cardiothoracic patients. Material and Methods: An experimental method research with a<br>configuration which is quasi experimental (non-randomized control group). This research was carried out<br>in selected hospitals of the Vidharbha Region on postoperative cardiothoracic patient. Result: Statistically<br>significant difference was found in sleeping pattern score of postoperative cardiothoracic patients, before<br>and after massage effect in experimental group. Conclusion: Massage evokes an aura of acceptance, bodyrespect and treatment. The intimate personal contact suggested in massage improves the bond between the<br>nurse and the patient and this in effect provides an environment for wellbeing and healing. The present study<br>concludes that back massage has an effect on improving the sleep pattern of postoperative cardiothoracic<br>patients in order to cope with the problem of postoperative sleep disruption that helps to recover early after<br>surgery.</p> Vaishali Tembhare Menaka S.P. Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1162 1168 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14478 A Study Protocol on Effect of Postural Deviation on Functional Capacity in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Disease <p>Background: According to WHO Chronic respiratory diseases are diseases of the airways and lung.<br>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , asthma, occupational lung diseases and pulmonary hypertension<br>are among the most severe. Chronic respiratory disease is generally divided among adults into obstructive<br>and restrictive conditions. Restrictive lung disorders are characterized by decreased volumes of the lung,<br>either due to a lung parenchyma change or due to pleura, chest wall or neuromuscular apparatus disease.<br>Unlike obstructive lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which exhibit<br>normal or elevated total lung capacity (TLC), restrictive diseases are correlated with a reduced (TLC). These<br>presenting symptoms of chronic respiratory disease results in the postural deviations. It mainly affect the<br>cervical and lumbar region of the spine which include forward head posture, upper thoracic kyphosis which<br>occurs due to continues use of accessory muscles of breathing.The functional capacity of the patients are<br>assessed by performing the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) it is fairly easy for evaluating the status of cardiac<br>and pulmonary diseases.<br>Methoud/Design: The study is designed as observational and correlation study. The participants will be<br>selected as per inclusion and exclusion criteria from AVBRH , sawangi Meghe for the study. The duration<br>of the study will be 6 months. Study include evaluation of the posture with the help of kinect azure and<br>evaluation of functional capacity using 6 MWT. Correlation of 6MWT,Vo2 peak with severity of the postural<br>deviation.<br>Discussion: This study details about effect of postural deviation on functional capacity in patients with<br>chronic respiratory disease. Many studies have been done on assessment of the postural deviation in COPD<br>patients but there is scarcity of literature which focus on the other respiratory conditions also. Kinect azure is<br>the objective measure for assessment and gives the detail evaluation of posture. Since deviated posture puts<br>extra load on musculoskeletal system which indirectly affects the functional capacity. So the this study aims<br>to observe degree of postural deviation and relate it to the functional capacity. The present study can provide<br>us the baseline idea data about the importance of maintaining good posture in chronic respiratory diseases<br>patients for improving functional capacity and also importance of good postural habit in exercise program.</p> Ruchita Rao Chilkapurwar Vaishnavi Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1169 1172 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14479 Assessment of Awareness and outlook of a Pathological Autopsy among Medical Students <p>Aim: This study assesses the awareness, outlook &amp; knowledge toward Pathological autopsy amongst<br>medical students at tertiary care teaching center.<br>Objectives: To assess medical student’s opinions, feelings and attitude towards autopsy and its importance<br>in medical education.<br>Material and Method: We conducted a study of 300 students studying 3rd and 5th semesters where they<br>taught about the subject. We used questionnaire containing questions relating to autopsy to assess the<br>awareness, outlook &amp; knowledge towardPathological Autopsy.<br>Results: Amongst the class of 300 students no statistically difference is observed in the views of male and<br>female students on any item in the present study.<br>Conclusion: The Forensic Medicine is important subject for medical profession. Teaching how to perform an<br>autopsy is relevant and plays a positive role in medical education, and autopsy training from both theoretical<br>and practical perspectives must be included in the forensic medicine curriculum. Medical institutes must<br>take responsibility to increase awareness about the effect of media on medical education.</p> Varsha Pande Bharat Umakant Patil Raju Wamanrao Gore Swapnil Patond Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1173 1178 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14480 Child Abuse and Neglect: Role and Obligation of Pediatric Dentist in India <p>Background: Child abuse is a form of behavior that involves treating someone (child, under the age of<br>18years) with cruelty or violence resulting in actual or potential harm to the child. It has no boundaries<br>and may occur in any geography, culture, or in any socioeconomic strata. Many studies reveal that there is<br>inadequate knowledge and awareness regarding child abuse recognition and reporting among health workers.<br>Method: Most of the studies reported that trauma to head and facial region occurs in approximately 50%<br>or more of physically abused children. Therefore Pediatric Dentist has major chance of witnessing the<br>physical abuse in clinical practice. On the same time they are not the authority to make diagnosis of child<br>abuse &amp; neglect, rather identify and report the suspected cases, so that a process for effective protection of<br>the victimized children can be initiated. It is the responsibility of the child protection agency/commission to<br>confirm the crime and do the needful. Hence, the role of pediatric dentist in the identification and reporting<br>of suspected child abuse is crucial. He is expected to practice 4R’s: Recognize, Refer (if any), Record and<br>Report<br>Conclusion: Understanding the peculiar role of Pediatric Dentist in recognizing and reporting child abuse<br>and neglect which ultimately contributes towards making better world for children.</p> Varsha Sharma Brahmananda Dutta Mukul Sharma Anandamoy Bagchi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1179 1188 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14481 Fracture of Implant Prosthesis at Abutment Neck- A Rare Phenomenon <p>Implant dentistry has become common treatment modality for total and partial edentulous arches.<br>Complications arising after placement and eventual functioning of implant prosthesis are also increasingly<br>encountered in routine clinical practice. This case report is about implant prosthesis where fracture of neck<br>of abutment occurred at internal hex level of implant after 5 years of optimal functioning in oral cavity.</p> Vasantha Vijayaraghavan Priya Lele Rupali Patil Darshana Mundhe Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1189 1192 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14482 Pharmacology and Toxicology Teaching Patterns for Undergraduate Students in Pharmacy and Medical College at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabi: A Survey <p>Background: Pharmacology and toxicology is the field of biomedical sciences that cares with the study of<br>medication and the drug action, where a drug can be defined as any chemical substance, that, when taken by<br>a living organism, produces a therapeutic effect and promote well-being.<br>Objective : The Aim of this study was to assess the students’ attitudes toward, perceptions of and feedback<br>surrounding pharmacology and toxicology teaching methods.<br>Method : This was a cross-sectional study involved a survey given to 3rd years and 4th years pharmacy<br>(Pharm D + B Pharm) students and medical students with a total number of (108) participants. The study<br>was administered through a pre-validated questionnaire containing questions based on the internationally<br>accepted “Likert Scale”.<br>Results : The study showed that students favored many changes in pharmacology and toxicology, including<br>the trend of teaching them to third year and fourth year students (48%), instruction on how to choose drugs<br>rationally in future practice (48%), distribution of handouts before lectures (43%), clinical pharmacology<br>(49%), teaching certain topics during pre-final or final year (35%), and a combination of multiple choice<br>questions (MCQs) and written and oral rating evaluation methods for examination (40%). Students were in<br>favour of that pharmacology should be integrated horizontally with other paraclinical subjects and emphasis<br>on problem solving exercises rather than on didactic (teaching) lectures.<br>Conclusion : It is evident that there is an imperative need to implement radical changes in the teaching of<br>pharmacology and toxicology, changes that would allow the pharmacist and/or doctor of tomorrow to render<br>better health services.</p> Yosra AL-Hindi1 Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1193 1198 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14483 Sexual Dimorphism from Foot Morphometry : A Study among Two Endogamous Groups of North India <p>Background: The present study aims to exhibit sexual dimorphism from foot morphometry and to find if it can be used as a tool for sex determination in forensic sciences among two endogamous groups (baniya, jats) of North Indian population. It is also aimed at providing anthropometric values for foot length and foot breadth and comparing them to existing data needed for the establishment of reference standard for the study groups on the basis of which various endogamous groups can be compared with one another and sexual differences established. Material and Methods: The present study was carried out at Department of Anatomy , MMIMSR Mullana –Ambala, on 400 subjects(100 males,100 females of each group) belonging to baniya and jats community of North India between 21-35 years of age. Foot morphometry was done with the help of osteometric board and results were statistically analysed. Results: The mean Foot length in males was 3 cm more than females with highly significant p value. The mean foot breadth of males was 1 cm higher than females with statistically significant p value. The mean foot length and foot breadth of jat group was more as compared to Baniya group with highly significant p value.The Mean Foot index ranges from 37(jats) – 36.9 (Baniya) males. In females,the range of mean foot index is between 37.73 (jats) -38.25 (baniya) . Conclusion: Males belonging to jat and baniya community had higher mean foot length,foot breadth than females. Among the study groups,jats males and females have longer and broader feet than baniya males and females.Foot index &lt;37 is suggestive of male foot and &gt;37 female foot and can be used as a reference point for sex determination among study groups.</p> Bhamini Sharma Reena Singla Vishal Verma Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1199 1205 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14484 Environmental Maintenance through the Application of Adat (Criminal) Sanctions on Baduy Communities <p>This article aims to describe the implementation of customary criminal sanctions used by the Baduy<br>community in maintaining and preserving their nature and the effectiveness of the use of customary<br>sanctions in preventing and overcoming actions that damage the environment of the Baduy community. It<br>is a qualitative research to produce descriptive data, where the approach used is socio-legal research using<br>secondary data as a normative or doctrinal approach, and uses a social approach to explore primary data in<br>the form of values and interpret the behavior of local communities in solving customary cases. The results<br>of this study indicate that the life of the Baduy community which is supported by agriculture and cultivation<br>is very dependent on natural preservation. The maintenance and preservation of the environment in the<br>Baduy community is highly respected. Various ways to preserve nature through avoidance of goods and<br>modern lifestyle are carried out from generation to generation so as not to change the order of nature and the<br>environment. In preserving nature, the Baduy community provides guidelines on certain actions that their<br>indigenous people should not take, such as burning forests, cutting trees in certain areas.</p> Umi Rozah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1206 1213 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14485 Concealment of Crime Revealing by Detailed Autopsy: A Study <p>Ancient literature suggests a link in between modus operandi of different crimes in different parts of<br>universe, but there is a wide variation in motive and execution of crime. However assailants are very keen to<br>conceal crime by different methods. Defacement of body, electrocution , throwing into river, burial , burning<br>the body , dismembering the body parts and throwing body on railway track are more common methods of<br>concealment of crime. Among various method of concealment of crime some of are discussing in this article<br>with other related factors.</p> Verma L.C Meena S.K Tatwal B Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1214 1219 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14486 A Survey to Assess Oral Hygiene Awareness, Difficulties Faced and Satisfaction Level During and after Orthodontic Treatment <p>Introduction: The foremost goal of orthodontic treatment is to improve dental occlusion and alignment<br>of teeth, which eventually results in a healthy functioning of dentition and facial aesthetics. The aim of the<br>present study was to assess the oral hygiene awareness, difficulties faced and satisfaction level among a<br>group of students undergoing orthodontic therapy during and after treatment.<br>Materials and Methods: A sample of 200 students from Melaka Manipal Medical College, who received<br>orthodontic treatment were included in the study. A cross - sectional study in the form of self-administered<br>questionnaire was carried out. The questions were based mainly to assess the difficulties faced, awareness<br>with regard to oral hygiene and satisfaction level of the participants during and after orthodontic treatment.<br>Results: The difficulties faced by orthodontics patients were in the range of 65 to 85%, which were trouble<br>sleeping, food lodgement and difficulty in maintaining oral hygiene. Study participants were not aware of<br>various cleaning modes though more than 50% used floss. In the post treatment phase, aesthetic appearance<br>was found to be better.<br>Conclusion: The present study showed that the participants who were undergoing orthodontic treatment did<br>not have sufficient knowledge about oral hygiene practices. The participants were satisfied with the aesthetic<br>appearance post treatment.</p> Vignesh Kamath Vinay Guggari Amol Sangewar Harsha Hegde Priya Mukherjee Swapna Bettanapalya Venkatesh Smitha Sammith Shetty Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1220 1226 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14490 Telemedicine : Guidelines in India and its Importance in COVID Pandemic <p>Social Distancing became the new norm in the COVID 19 pandemic. While at one side the world-wide<br>medical fraternity is finding ways to combat the viral infection, there were patients with existing illness who<br>needed follow-up care. The role of Telemedicine became important under such circumstances.<br>A study conducted by Earnst &amp; Young (EY) in association with Indian Pharmaceutical Alliance (IPA)<br>[Mar’20], estimated the Telemedicine market in India to reach $5.5 billion By 2025[3]. These telemedicine<br>companies offer services like teleconsultation, e-prescription, e-pharmacy and online ordering &amp; scheduling<br>of laboratory investigations.<br>Just after the start of statutory lockdown in India in view of COVID pandemic, on 25 March’2020, the<br>BOARD OF GOVERNORS in supersession of the Medical Council of India notified the “Telemedicine<br>Practice Guidelines” to enable R.M.P.s to provide healthcare using Telemedicine [7]. [This constitutes<br>Appendix 5 of the Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics Regulation, 2002]<br>Although the practice of Telemedicine was going on in some form or the other in the last two decades, but<br>there was a question with respect to its legitimacy and acceptance by the medical fraternity at large. The<br>notification of these guidelines has cleared the picture to a large extent and lays the foundation for this new<br>tool of medicine practice.<br>This article is a peak into the current guidelines of Telemedicine in India and its usefulness in the COVID<br>pandemic.</p> Vikas Gurbani Shagun Thakur Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1227 1231 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14492 Impact of Covid 19 Pandemic on Dentists: Psychological Evaluation using DASS 21 <p>Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the area of Wuhan, China, has<br>evolved rapidly into a public health crisis. Despite having high standards of knowledge and practices, dental<br>practitioners around the globe are in a state of anxiety or fear. Being on the list of high-risk professions,<br>dentists are very much expected to develop stress due to the current pandemic situation indicating a need to<br>evaluate the effect of COVID 19 on the psychological status of Indian dentists.<br>Methodology: The data was collected through well-structured Google form from 500 dentists working<br>in Delhi NCR. The entire form had two components. The first part of the form collected the information<br>regarding the demographic profile of the dentists whereas the second part of questionnaire consisted of<br>psychological evaluation using well established psychological scale DASS 21.<br>Result: The results showed that 8% of Indian dentist showed signs of severe depression and 17% had<br>moderate signs. 9% showed moderate and 13% showed mild anxiety. 8% showed severe stress and 24%<br>had moderate signs of stress. Significant correlation was found between depression and anxiety with stress.<br>Conclusion: Dentists are undergoing stress which in turn can have adverse effects on their physical and<br>mental well-being in a long run. There is a need to evolve with the current COVID 19 pandemic and<br>brainstorming the ways to encourage the safer practice and decrease the levels of depression, anxiety and<br>stress among dentist.</p> Vineet Golchha Pooja Sharma Bhuvan Deep Gupta Nancy Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1232 1240 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14493 A Study to Analyze the willingness of Smokers to Quit Smoking Following Dentist’s Advice <p>Aim: To analyze the patient’s perceptions about the role of dentists in smoking prevention, counseling and<br>cessation and to analyze the willingness of smokers to quit smoking following dentist’s advice.<br>Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among dental patients visiting Dental College<br>and Hospital in the month of November 2019 using a self administered questionnaire. Convenient sampling<br>was done. Among five hundred patients who participated in the study, 486 completed it with a response rate<br>of 97.2%. The descriptive statistics and chi square analysis was performed to analyze data.<br>Results: The patients had good knowledge about the effects of smoking on general and oral health. However<br>its effect on hair loss, ageing and wound healing can be reinforced. Non smokers had significantly higher<br>(p&lt;0.05) knowledge about the effects of smoking on ageing, bad breath, gum diseases and oral cancer<br>compared to smokers. Patients had positive perception about the role of dentist in smoking cessation<br>activities. Smokers exhibited willingness to quit if suggested by the dentist.<br>Conclusion: Patients perceive that dentists can play an important part in smoking cessation activities. Hence<br>dentists should not hesitate to give smoking advice to their patients and grasp this opportunity to improve the<br>general and oral health of the community.</p> Vishwas Mishra Shitanshu Malhotra Madhusudan Krishna Manu Narayan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1241 1246 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14494 The Clinical Effect of Super Oxidized Water Mouthwash on The Periodontal Parameters (Plaque Index, Gingival Index And Bleeding on Probing) for Patients with Dental Biofilm Induced Gingivitis <p>Background: One of the most predominant periodontal diseases is the dental biofilm induced gingivitis. : For<br>the past 20 years, super-oxidized solutions have been shown to be powerful antimicrobials and disinfectants<br>via oxidative damage. The taste is better than chlorhexidine and doesn’t stain the teeth. Microsafe®, a superoxidized solution for gingival care, offers a completely improved approach to treatment of gingivitis.<br>Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of super oxidized water mouthwash by improving gingival health in dental<br>biofilm induced gingivitis. .<br>Materials and Methods: 45 adult male patients with generalized dental biofilm induced gingivitis<br>participated in the double blinded randomized controlled parallel study divided into three groups, two<br>mouthwashes and distilled water( negative control) used during seven days periods as adjunctive to regular<br>mechanical oral hygiene(brushing and interdental aids cleaning), one group received super oxidized water<br>mouthwash (Microsafe®) three times daily and the second group received 0.12% alcohol-free chlorhexidine<br>mouthwash (Kin gingival®) twice daily and the third group received distilled water twice daily (negative<br>control).<br>Results: According to the plaque index, highly significant improvement of all treatment groups was observed<br>in the second visit one-week post treatment. Microsafe® (SOW) showed to have clinical outcomes closed<br>to the effect of CHX (the positive control) than the negative control group (D.W group). According to the<br>GI, there was a significant difference between the study groups in the2nd visit after treatment and CHX was<br>appeared to be most effective when compared to Microsafe®.<br>According to BOP , all the treatment groups showed reduced BOP one-week between the 1st visit and the 2nd<br>visit ; although, CHX showed better outcomes (the mean difference was 14.258 ) when compared to D.W<br>and Microsafe® groups( the mean differences were 10.838, 9.9 respectively).<br>Conclusion: There was a positive effect of topical application of Microsafe® mouthwash as adjunctive<br>to regular mechanical oral hygiene on gingival inflammation three times daily after one week. This was<br>improved by clinical periodontal parameters (PlI , GI and BOP).</p> Ali Jawad M. Ali Ali1, Maha Sh. Mahmood Saif S. Saliem Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1247 1252 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14495 Synthesis and Identification and Biological Studies of New Azo Dyes Derived from Imidazole and their Chelate Complexes <p>Anew azo ligand (E)-2-((4- fluoro phenyl)diazenyl)-4,5-bis(4-methoxy phenyl)-1H-imidazolehas been<br>synthesized from coupling 4,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazole with para-chloro-anline. The structures of<br>the new ligand and their transition metal complexes ware investigated and characterized using different<br>physicochemical studies as elemental analysis, IR spectra, 1<br>HNMR,, UV-Vis spectra, mass spectra, Molar<br>conductance ,and magnetic susceptibility .The complexes were found to have the general formula [ML2Cl2].<br>H2O where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) ,Mn(II),and Fe(II), [MLCl2].H2Owhere M=Zn(II),Cd(II),Hg(II), and<br>Pd(II). The IR results demonstrate that the co-ordination sites are the azomethine nitrogen of the imidazole<br>ring and azo nitrogen atom of the azo ligand. The electronic spectral and magnetic measurement data<br>indicate that the complexes exhibit octahedral geometry,except the Zn(II),Cd(II),andHg(II) complexes<br>suggest tetrahedral and Pd(II) a square planar geometry.The cytotoxicity of Pd(II) complex on human Lung<br>Cancer (SCLC) and normal cells.</p> Fatima J. Ali Layla A. M. AL-Ameri AbidAllah M. Ali Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1253 1260 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14496 The Effects of Mouth Bacterial Infection on Saliva Flow <p>Background: Mouth bacterial infections most probably due to dental cares are a prevalent disease. Salivary<br>flow rate is affected by many diseases but there is not enough published data about the effect of mouth<br>bacterial infection on the salivary flow rate. Objective: this study examines the relationship between salivary<br>flow rate and mouth bacterial infection in adult population. Methodology: cross sectional study. Result:<br>salivary flow rate is affected by mouth bacterial infection as it is founded to be very low flow rate in 17% and<br>low flow rate in 40% of the sample population. Conclusion Salivary flow rate is affected by oral bacterial<br>infections that need urgent medical intervention to improve the outcome of those patients.</p> Mohammed F. Jubaz Rawaa M. Mohammed Syoof Khoman Alwan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1261 1266 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14497 Histogenesis of Skin in Fetal Period of Rabbits <p>This study was conducted on skin samples from New Zealand white rabbits during the period E15 days<br>prenatal to E25. to investigate the histomorphological development of the skin, hair follicle, Sebaceous<br>glands.<br>Early in the fetal life (E15) the epidermis is in the form of simple squamous epithelium or stratified Nonkeratinized squamous epithelium of two or more layers, depending on the region studied, while the dermis<br>is in the form of loose connective tissue composed of mesenchymal cells in a loose and irregular shape.<br>(E20) prenatal, the epidermis is stratified squamous epithelium non-keratinized composed of more than<br>three layers including the periderm, the intermediate layer and the basal layer in all regions, except Fingered<br>hand and foot that appearance keratinized squamous. the cells of the mesoderm begin to condense under<br>the basal layer, indicating the beginning of the formation of hairs placodes. Stratification became evident<br>in(E25) of prenatal with a marked keratinized and extension of hair follicles in the dermis, accompanied by<br>the beginning of the development of sebaceous glands in the form of a group of cells. During our study of<br>the development of the skin of the New Zealand rabbit before birth, we could not notice any sweat glands<br>in the examined skin samples.</p> Hajar Kamel Ahmed Mahdi Salih Shallal Alheety Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1267 1273 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14498 Molecular detection of Escherichia coli Cause Urinary Tract Infections among Pregnant Women at Thi-Qar province, Iraq <p>The prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has increased sharply in recent years. Extendedspectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli has become especially<br>common. Although traditionally linked to risk factors such as prior hospitalization and antibiotic use, these<br>bacteria have become increasingly recognized in the community, especially as pathogens in urinary tract<br>infections (UTIs). In this study urine samples from 150pregnant women clinically diagnosed with UTIs<br>were used for Gram staining, culture, API 20 E and singleplex PCR. Singleplex PCR was performed with<br>primers targeted to chuA and yjaA genes and anonymous DNA fragment TspE4C2 of E. coli. The positive<br>singleplex PCR products were identified by presence of 279 bp, 211 bp and 152 bp amplicons of chuA and<br>yjaA genes and anonymous DNA fragment TspE4C2 for of E.coli. Conventional methods of Gram staining,<br>culture and API 20E test showed positive result for E. coli in 35 (40%) out of 150 pregnant clinically<br>diagnosed with urinary tract infection. PCR detected 24 (27.5%) out of the 35 (40%) samples that were<br>positive for E. coli. The majority of UTIs caused by spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae<br>include E. coli was acquired in the community, so rapid, specific and sensitive molecular are urgently needed<br>to better prevalence, prevent and treat these infections in Iraq</p> Doaa Sh. Al-Hashmay Shrouk A. Hassan Alibraheem Khwam R Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1274 1278 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14500 Molecular Identification of T. mentagrophytes and M. canis Isolated from Children Infected with Tinea Capitis in Basra Governorate by Using AP-PCR Technique <p>The current study included molecular identification of dermatophytes causing Tinea capitis in children in<br>Basrah governorate, including T. Mentagrophytes&amp;M. canis, using AP-PCR or RAPD –PCR polymerase<br>chain reaction technique. By using EZ-10 Spin Column Fungal Genomic DNA Mini –Preps Kit used to<br>extract DNA from dermatophytes fungi, where DNA was obtained from these two dermatophytes fungi.<br>The DNA bands appeared clearly after the electrophoresis of the DNA extract showed the results of DNA<br>amplification .<br>The efficiency of the primeres used in the diagnosis of these two types of dermatophytes, called: random<br>primeres OPAA11, OPAA17, OPU15, OPD18, was obtained by the positive results obtained when amplified<br>using these primeres.Used for both dermatophytes The results obtained by using OPAA17 showed success<br>in DNA amplification - obtained from M.canis and T. Mentagrophytes, with six bands for M.canis. As for<br>T. Mentagrophytes, the number of bands obtained was 13, and the amplification results obtained using<br>OPAA11 showed the efficiency of this primer.<br>Five bands were obtained when used to amplify the DNA of the dermatophytes. While seven bands belonged<br>to T. Mentagrophytes, The amplification results of OPU15 indicated that there were six bands for M.canis,<br>while only one bande for T. Mentagrophytes showed the results of amplification using OPD18 used in<br>diagnosis of dermatophytes to four bands for M.canis while the number of bands for T. Mentagrophytes has<br>ten bands. This method for identifecation is fast and has a high diagnostic efficiency of dermatophytes, as<br>the diagnosis based on genetic characteristics is more accurate than resulting on phenotypic characteristics .</p> Shrouk A. AL-Ibraheem Nasir A. AL-Mansour Kadhim k.AL-Rubaiee Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1279 1285 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14503 Isolation of Bacteria and Detection of Cephalosporin Antibiotics Effects among Patients with UTI in al-hilla City <p>90 urine samples were collected randomly from patients whose visit the Urology department in Murjan<br>Medical City in Al-Hilla in period between April to July 2020 , the patients included 35 males and 55<br>females and in age between 17-77 years old. The urine samples divided into two parts , the first part using for<br>general urine examination and the second part using for culture and sensitivity . The results of current study<br>appeared to 35 (39%) males among total patients infected with UTI while 55(61%) females among total<br>patients infected with UTI . In field of effects of age on infection the current results appeared in females the<br>infection of urinary tract increase in young age group (17-27 years) in percentage (33%) in comparison with<br>other age groups (20 %) in (27-37 years) , (16%) in (37-47 years) , (14%) in ( 47-57 years) , (10%) in (57-67<br>years) and (7%) in (67-77 years) and in males the results appeared increase the UTI with age , (67-77 years)<br>in percentage (32%) in comparison with other age groups, (3%) in (17-27 years) , (9%) in (27-37 years)<br>, (11%) in (37-47 years) , (20%) in ( 47-57 years) , (25%) in (57-67 years) . the results of API20 test that<br>using for identification of types of bacteria which cause UTI appeared to 34 isolates of E.coli , 15 isolates of<br>Enterobacter spp. , 18 isolates of Klebsiella spp. , 11 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. , 13 isolates of S.aureus<br>and 4 isolates of Acinetobacter spp. bacteria .In field of antibiotic sensitivity the results appeared the effects<br>of third and fourth generations of cephalosporin more than other generations .</p> Rawaa M. Mohammed Asma’a HM Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1286 1292 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14505 Iraqi Dentist Response to the Covid-19 Spreading <p>Introduction: These new generations of virus “COVID -19” now are not the chines nightmare only however<br>soon as speedy as feasible spread all over the world and grew to be the most existence threating health<br>disorder in the world.<br>Aim: This descriptive research aim to measure the commitment of Iraqi dentists to the Iraqi dental association<br>recommendations at the time of lockdowns during the corona virus infection.<br>Result: In this study the Iraqi dentists who had participated in it were 169 from all over the country, this<br>descriptive research shows great response of the Iraqi dentists to control infection and reduce the spread of<br>“COVID-19”.<br>Discussion: “COVID -19” is a pandemic disease lead to large changes all over the world, actually dentistry<br>were one of the careers affected by this disease, the dentist during the daily work with dental slow speed<br>handpiece or high speed turbine produce droplets and aerosols which probably are contaminated with the<br>virus “COVID -19”.<br>Conclusion: This study had been showed that the Iraqi dentists have a great commitment toward the society<br>during the period of curfew they had been attend to close their privets clinic in order to reduce the viral<br>spread and control the infection.</p> Marwah M. Adnan Bassam Alsheekhly Rehab Adil Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1293 1298 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14520 Bioremediation of Chlorpyrifos Insecticide by using Aeromonas Hydrophila Bacteria <p>Several bacteria species may have the ability to degrade and digest soundly the residuals of certain insecticide<br>with causing any deteriorated consequences. This work was designed to examine the ability of Aeromonas<br>hydrophila bacteria for biodegrading of chlorpyrifos insecticide from contaminated soil. However, soil<br>sample was collected from home garden at depth of 10 cm while the chlorpyrifos insecticide was obtained<br>from the local market. Meanwhile Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria were isolated from the garden soil. The<br>bacterial cultural media were prepared to consist of (NH4)2SO4 (1g), NaCl (6g ), K2HPO4 (0.5g), yeast<br>extract (1g ), MgSO4 (0.1g) and CMC (5g). This work has examined the efficiency of A. hydrophila bacteria<br>to remove insecticide from the soil under various growing conditions such as five different pH values,<br>five termperature degrees and four insecticide concentrations. The obtained results showed that the highest<br>bacterial efficiency (98.0 ± 7.8%) was recorded as pH value of 6 and it was 91.1 ± 6.0% at temperature of<br>40 ° C while it was 99.1 ± 6.8 % at insecticide concentration of 25 ppm.</p> Sufyan Mohammed Shartooh Mohammed Fadhil Abood Rasha Kifah Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1299 1304 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14523 Molecular Co-Localization of Human Epstein Barr Virus Infection Associated with the Expressed Protein of Cyclin D1 \Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4 in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Tissues <p>This retrospective case-control study to assess the impact of Cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression along with<br>EBV infection with Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL).80 lymph node included in this study; (40) formalin-fixed,<br>paraffin- embedded biopsies from Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), and (40) apparently healthy lymph nodes as<br>control group. EBV detection was done by CISH whereas IHC detection system was used to evaluate both<br>Cyclin D1 &amp; CDK4 gene expression.<br>The positive –EBERs CISH reactions detected in 16 / 40 (40 %) of Hodgkin lymphoma tissues while positive<br>- EBERs reactions detected in 3 out of 40 tissues (7.5%) in control lymph nodes tissues. Statistically was<br>found highly significant between study groups (P value = &lt; 0.05). Cyclin D1 &amp; CDK4 -IHC were detected<br>in 40% and 52.5% of HL, respectively. Statistically, significant differences noticed among negative, low and<br>moderate scoring of tissues (P&lt;0.05).<br>Significant EBV gene expressions along with higher percentage of tissues in which Cyclin D1 &amp; CDK4<br>genes being expressed may be indicator their possible role in the pathogenesis and / or the carcinogenesis of<br>a subset of our Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases.</p> Nouri Jaffar Alalsaidissa Zahraa Ali Abdullah Ausama Abed-AlkadumAlajeely Saad Hasan Mohammed Ali Shakir H Mohammed Al-Alwany Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1305 1311 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14524 Histological Features of the Vomeronasal Organ in New Born Lambs (Ovis aries) <p>Background: vomernasal organ is an auxiliary olfactory organ which located at the base of nasal septum<br>composed of olfactory epithelium and being enclosed by cartilaginous capsule. The current study was aimed<br>to investigate the histological structure of vomernasal organ in new born lamb.<br>Methods: six heads of new born lamb were used for this study. The nasal cavity including the hard palate<br>was sward up into four transvers sections. The sections were processed with paraffin embedding technique<br>and tissue sections were stained with H&amp;E stain.<br>Conclusions: The rostral and middle portions of vomeronasals duct had medial and lateral walls with crescent<br>shape lumen and enclosed completely by hyaline cartilage. The medial wall was lined with still diffentiating<br>neuro-epithelium, possessed many of intra epithelial capillaries and composed of supporting, bipolar neuron<br>&amp; basal cells. The lateral wall was lined with differentiating respiratory epithelium. The lamina propriasubmucosa beneath both neuro and respiratory epithelia composed of ruminant of embryonic mesenchymal<br>tissue contained newly formed glands, blood vessels and nerves. A significant (p&lt;0.05) difference was<br>recoded between the diameters of the rostral, middle portions and caudal portion of both gender and there<br>were no differences between genders. The epithelial height of the neuro epithelia of the middle portion in<br>both gender had significant value (p&lt;0.05) in compare with epithelia of other portions.</p> Dhyaa, Ab. Abood Safaa Madi Hohammed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1312 1319 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14525 Association between Genetic Polymorphism of ADH3 exon 8 and ADH2 exon 9 Genes and Specific Enzymes with Alcoholism <p>A retrospective cohort study of the relationship between ADH2- exon9 and ADH3 exon 8 genes polymorphisms<br>with specific enzymes SGOT, SGPT, and catalase among Iraqi individuals identified with alcohol abuse<br>was conducted during period from December 2018 to June 2019. Blood samples of the research subjects<br>have extracted DNA. The genetic polymorphisms analyses were conducted by Restriction Fragment Length<br>Polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) for ADH2- exon9 and ADH3 exon 8 genes. The current study shows that the<br>presence of a catalase was significantly associated with genotype of ADH2- exon9 (AA, AC, CC) among<br>cases at (p &lt; 0.05). Whereas the presence of an SGOT, SGPT and catalase were non significantly associated<br>with genotype of ADH3 exon 8 (AA, AG, GG) among cases at (p &lt; 0.05), while SGPT was significantly<br>among control at (p &lt; 0.05).</p> Anwar A. Abdulla Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1320 1326 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14526 Pharmacological Effects of Topical Dapsone Gel in Experimentally-Induced Thermal Injury in Rabbits <p>Burn injuries have been a global health issue due to their multiple widely present causes and the burden<br>of their consequences. There have been many chemical agents used topically to accelerate the burn wound<br>healing process and avoid developing infections but the desirable satisfactory level has not been reached.<br>Dapsone, a century-old antibiotic with anti-inflammatory effects has been investigated as a potential topical<br>treatment for burn wounds compared with standard silver sulfadiazine.<br>Forty-two apparently male rabbits were divided into four groups each of twelve animals except for the<br>negative control group which was 6 animals: intact healthy animals (HA), burn without treatment as a<br>positive control (BWT), dapsone 5% topical and silver sulfadiazine cream 1%, the latter three group’ animals<br>were treated twice daily for 24 days.<br>Burn wound contraction, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-a in skin tissue homogenates and<br>histopathological changes were assessed at days 8,16, and 24 in addition to in-vitro antimicrobial sensitivity<br>test.<br>Dapsone has shown a comparable antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria to SSD while showing<br>poorer activity against gram negative bacteria.<br>Dapsone has also shown an earlier and more significant burn size contraction compared to SSD since day8<br>and until the end of the study and significantly lower levels of TNF-a compared to SSD while showing lower<br>inflammatory and higher granulation, re-epithelization and fibrosis compared to SSD in histopathological<br>examination.<br>Our study demonstrates that dapsone is a promising candidate as a topical burn treatment due to its<br>antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing properties.</p> Mustafa A. Mohammed Mustafa A. Mohammed Fouad Kadhim Gatea Ahmed R. Abu-Raghif Muhammed Abdul-Gabar Hamoodi Aldabagh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1327 1335 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14527 The impact of Specific Exercises by Means of Assisting in Developing some Bio-Movement Abilities and Accuracy of Some Offensive Skills for Young Basketball Players <p>The current research aims to identify the following: Preparing specific exercises using assistant means .<br>Knowing the effect of specific exercises by using assistant means in developing some bio-movement abilities<br>and accuracy of some offensive skills in basketball for youth. The experimental design is used, also the search<br>community is identified by the young basketball players in the Mahawil Sports Club, which numbered (24)<br>players. Then, the offensive skills test was applied to them, as well as the appropriate statistical treatments<br>were used to reach the results, then the results were presented, analyzed and discussed, as it is reached the<br>following:<br>1. By using of the specific exercises has a positive effect in developing some bio-movement abilities and<br>offensive skills of young basketball players.<br>2. Using of the teaching means is better than the used method, which increased the effectiveness of learning<br>some offensive skills in the basketball game.<br>3. The qualitative exercises by using the educational methods had an effect in controlling the accuracy of<br>performance of skills with the correct way.<br>Based on the results of the research, the researchers have reached the most important recommendations:<br>1. Adopting a qualitative exercises approach by using educational methods in the process of learning youth<br>the basketball skills as well as the possibility of using them for students.<br>2. Relying on educational means as an essential part of the content of the educational curriculum for skills<br>in youth basketball.<br>3. Emphasizing on generalizing the contents of the qualitative exercises in learning basketball and benefiting<br>from the experiences it provides in the educational process.</p> Zainab Abdul Sadah Ali Marhoon Ayman Hani Abdul-Jabburi Mustafa Adil Alwan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1336 1343 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14528 The Impact of the Applied Demonstration Strategies on Learning Referee Signals for Female Basketball <p>Our research aims to: Preparing exercises for the applied demonstration strategies in learning referee signs<br>in female basketball. Knowing the effect of the applied demonstration strategies on learning referee signals<br>in female basketball. The researchers have used the experimental design with equal groups, as the research<br>community included the second stage students who are (24) female students for the academic year 2018-<br>2019, that they were randomly divided (lots) into two groups by (12) female students, after that, educational<br>units were prepared, using the application strategies as exercises were applied for 8 educational units. The<br>results were extracted and the appropriate statistical treatments were used to reach the results. In light of the<br>results, the researchers reached the following:<br>1- The applied demonstration strategies had an effective role in learning the referee signals basketball for<br>female students.<br>2- Using the strategies, save the effort and time for the teacher and the student in learning the referee signals<br>in the basketball for the students well, which it is suitable for teaching this category.<br>3- The use of the applied demonstration strategies has a positive impact on the interaction of female students<br>during the exercise and their attendance.</p> Zainab Abdul Sadah Ali Marhoon Ayman Hani Abdul-Jabburi Mustafa Adil Alwan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1344 1249 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14529 The Effect of the Kinetic Collections According to the Outcome of Movement Performance in Learning Some Skills in Basketball for Young Players <p>The Study Aimed to: The numbers of movement collection according to information about the result.<br>Knowing the effect of movement collection on the basis of information about the result in learning some<br>skills for basketball for young players. The design of the two equivalents groups was used, as the research<br>community is determined the players of Al Mahaweel Club in basketball for the youth category for the sports<br>season (2018-2019) by (20) players, that the research community is divided into two equal groups (control,<br>experimental) then items foe collection of movement is designed, so the total educational units reached (8)<br>units, in light of the results that the current research reached:<br>1. The trainer’s approach has a positive effect in learning some basketball skills.<br>2. The group which used the kinetic collections was better than the other group in learning some skills in<br>basketball.<br>In light of the results of the research and its conclusions, the current research has reached:<br>1. Adopting the kinetic collections to learn the basic skills of basketball as being successful and effective.<br>2. Work to take advantage of the results of the study to improve the level of skill performance in basketball<br>for other groups.</p> Zainab Abdul Sadah Ali Marhoon Ayman Hani Abdul-Jabburi Mustafa Adil Alwan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1350 1356 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14530 Building the Causal Attribution Scale of Winning and Losing for Basketball Coaches <p>Sports psychology is concerned with studying human behavior as a living being that seeks to adapt to the<br>stimulation and the sports coach is one of the samples to which this applies, as he has to follow a certain<br>behavior to deal with his players, which requires him to form his own philosophy and this philosophy<br>appears clearly through his training profession As the work in training aims to gain more respect and selfesteem and good social status.<br>All of this appears through the sporting competition that ends either with winning or losing, and here comes<br>to the coach’s mind the evaluation of many justifications and the reasons behind the gain or loss, including<br>personal and external or administrative reasons, and here the issue of causal attribution emerges, and there<br>is no study that has identified this topic and for this This study aimed to build a measure of the causal<br>attribution of victory and loss for basketball coaches.</p> Hawraa Mohammed Ali Hassan Aya Muayad Sadoon Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1357 1362 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14531 An analytical Study of the Reality of Legal Knowledge of Some Group Games among Physical Education Teachers in Babylon <p>The research objectives to identify the level of legal knowledge of physical education teachers in Babylon<br>governorate, as for the research methodology, the researcher used the descriptive approach in the style of<br>survey studies because it is the best and easiest curriculum to reach the achievement of the objectives to be<br>researched. The research community of physical education teachers in the Babylon education directorate<br>for the academic year 2020-2021 has been identified, their number (699) distributed into four departments<br>each: From (Al-Hilla Al-Markazi, Al-Mahawil District, Al-Hashemiya District, Al-Musayyib District),<br>as for the research sample, it was determined randomly by (223) teachers and schools, and it formed a<br>percentage of (31,90) of the research community. As for the most important conclusions, they were that the<br>current scale is able to reveal the level of legal knowledge of physical education teachers, as the scale shows<br>that there is a clear weakness in the legal knowledge of physical education teachers in some group games<br>resulting from not following up on the amendments to the law of these games. As for the most important<br>recommendations, they were as follows: Paying attention to the law for all games in a more serious manner<br>by physical education teachers, it is also necessary to give part of the lesson time in which the legal aspect is<br>addressed and to hold courses or training sessions to explain and interpret the articles of law for some group<br>games, and also directing teachers by their supervisors upon their visits to a simplified explanation of the<br>law during the implementation of the lesson plan, with the follow-up of sports activity through field visits to<br>find out the legal level of physical education teachers, especially (female teachers).</p> Saddam Fakhri Barto Husam Kadhim Jawad Hayder Jasim Shaalan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1363 1372 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14532 Study the Relation of Copeptin and Some Biochemical Parameters in with Obesity in Kirkuk City <p>In this Case-Control Study, One hundred thirty six adult subjects with obesity were separated to take part<br>in the current research. At the Kirkuk General Hospital in Kirkuk City- Iraq, Applying this study had done<br>for the duration of the 16th of February to the end of June 2020 Adult subjects with obesity outpatient<br>attended to Kirkuk General Hospital were enrolled in this research. Ages of adult persons were amid 18 to<br>62 years and they were from the center and periphery of Kirkuk City. Thirty one adult persons with obesity<br>were considered as a study group, thirty adult persons were measured as control, sixty-three adult persons<br>didn’t assembly the inclusion criteria and 20 adult persons refuse to participate in this study because of the<br>in agreement of their people. Blood sample were collected from each adult person for determination of<br>copepetin, lipid profile and blood sugar determination. The study revealed that the mean of copeptin was<br>higher in obese group as compared with healthy control group (166.4±81.8 vs. 35.01±12.3 pg/ml). The<br>study showed a significant difference between obese and the control group regarding fasting blood sugar<br>(FBS) (119.3±12.5 and 98.2±11.6 mg/dl) respectively. The study showed that, the mean serum triglyceride<br>was recorded to be higher in obese group (110.4±45.3 mg/dl) as compared with healthy control group (90.9<br>±29.1 mg/dl). The study showed that, the mean of serum cholesterol was higher in obese group (170.7±36.3<br>mg/dl) as compared with healthy control group (151.7 ±29.6 mg/dl). The study showed that, the lowest<br>mean of serum HDL was recorded in obese group (41.6±14.5 mg/dl) as compared with healthy control group<br>(61.44 ±7.63 mg/dl). The study showed that, the highest mean of serum LDL and VLDL was recorded in<br>obese group as compared with healthy control group. The study showed negative correlation between serum<br>copeptin and FBS in obese individuals. It was concluded that, Serum copeptin was significantly higher in<br>obese group as compared with healthy control group and there was a negative correlation between copeptin<br>and blood sugar levels</p> Iman Abbas Ghaeb Al-Bayati Salam Shihab Ahmed Hassan Ismail Sultan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1373 1379 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14533 Assessment of Type-2-Diabetics’ Patient Knowledge toward Diabetics’ Control Methods at Baghdad Teaching Hospital/ Medical City <p>The study aims to assess the level of type (2)diabetic patients’ knowledge toward diabetes control methods<br>and to find out the relationship between diabetic patients’ knowledge toward diabetes control methods and<br>their demographic characteristics that include (age, gender, and level of education). A quantitative descriptive<br>study design was carried out at medical wards in Baghdad teaching hospital, for the period of January, 20th<br>2019 to April 20th 2019, data was collected7th-30th March2019. The study sample is composed of (30)<br>patients who were treated in medical wards at Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The questionnaire consists of<br>two parts; first is concerned with the demographic and personal data for patients; and the second part is<br>concerned with patient knowledge toward diabetes control methods, that include diet, exercise and weight<br>loss. The data have been analyzed through the application of: descriptive analysis that include frequency,<br>percentages; mean of scores, and the inferential analysis that include: Analysis of variance and the researcher<br>used the SPSS version 20 to analysis of data. The study identified that more than half of the study sample<br>(53.3%) were male at age(45-64), in relation to level of education, most of the patients were illiterate. most<br>patients have regular follow up, always use self- blood glucose monitoring practice, (73.3%) were receiving<br>information about diabetes mellitus (DM). (83.3%) have information about diet. Polyuria and Hunger is<br>most specific signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia determined by patients, (66.7%)<br>don’t have physical exercise and walking is chosen exercise of patient for 30&lt; min in day. Most patient use<br>has diet adjustment especially in dinner meal. There is no significant difference between patient knowledge<br>and demographic characteristics.</p> Saad Abdul-Ridh Jissir Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1380 1389 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14534 Assessment the Role of Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q10) against Spermatotoxic Effect of Busulfan in Male Rats <p>Busulfan is a chemotherapy treatment for cancer patients, and in comparison with the coenzyme ubiquinone<br>is a coenzyme that works to enhance chemical reactions and protect the body from free radicals. It helps in<br>treating cancer and protecting patients undergoing chemotherapy. This study was aimed to investigate the<br>role of ubiquinone against the toxic effect of busulfan on sperm in adult white rats for a period of time, and<br>the experiment was carried out for eight weeks on 24 male adult rats were used, the study was conducted<br>in periods (day 28 ). Distributed in four groups randomly and equally in each group of 6 male rats. The<br>control group injected with distilled water intraperitoneally , second group were injected with busulfan<br>(chemotherapy) only one dose of 10 mg / kg. while animals of third group injected with single dose of<br>busulfan 10 mg / kg plus coenzyme ubiquinone COQ10) 10 mg / kg ) for 4 weeks, while animals in fourth<br>group were injected with the coenzyme ubiquitin coenzyme (COQ10) 10 mg / kg for 4 weeks. At the end<br>of experiment the blood was collected for measuring of blood parameters and hormones levels and sperm<br>analysis has benn done</p> Rafal Muhammed Hussein Saba Ibrahim Salih Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1390 1398 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14535 Effect of Litter Size Manipulation on the Reproductive Performance of BALB/C Mice <p>Many of previous studies on lactating animals with natural litters did not support the negative link between<br>litter size and pup mass; however, artificial manipulation of litters could be an option to support that. In<br>this study, we manipulated the litters of lactating BALB/C mice with having two groups. Enlarged litter SL<br>(LS=8; N=5) and reduced litters SS (LS=2; N=6) were used in this experiment and also 7 virgin female mice<br>were assigned for control group. Mother’s body mass and food intake were daily measured throughout the<br>experiment. Litter size, litter mass, pup mass, mortality rate of pups in the studied groups were also daily<br>measured throughout lactation. The lactating mice in both groups significantly ate more food intake compared<br>to non –reproducing mice. Mice with enlarged litters had significantly greater food intake compared to the<br>mice with reduced litters. Litter masses at weaning of SL mice were significantly higher compared to the<br>SS mice. However, pup mass at weaning was significantly lighter in SL mice compared to the pup mass in<br>the SS mice. Our present study concludes that the litter size of manipulated litters was negatively associated<br>with pup mass at weaning</p> Laith Mahdi Muhammad Aqeel Handil Al Jothery Hikmat Sahib Nassir Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1399 1407 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14536 Study the Prevalence and Symptoms of COVID-19 Patients in Kirkuk City <p>The study was conducted in the city of Kirkuk in July 2020 and included 100 people who visited hospitals<br>and health sectors in the city of Kirkuk, which is located in northern Iraq. As the study included ages that<br>ranged between 12 and 72 years and from both sexes, the study also included 100 people who did not suffer<br>from any symptoms or signs related to the Covid-19 virus. As the people who were included in the study<br>are from the people who reviewed, like what we said in hospitals and sectors, and they were suffering from<br>high temperatures, cough or both, fatigue and fatigue, and those who had direct contact with infected people<br>were taken from them and from a group of nasopharyngeal swabs for detection of Covid-19 virus by PCR.<br>The PCR tests were done by the PCR in the Public Health Laboratory and the Kirkuk General Hospital,<br>and special thanks to the staff. These checks were made for patients by protocols by the Iraqi Ministry<br>of Health and the World Health Organization to investigate the RNA of the virus. The study showed the<br>prevalence of Covid-19 was 66% in suspected patients and 10% in healthy persons. The study demonstrated<br>that, majority of patients with novel corona virus infection were from urban area. The study showed that,<br>majority of patients were aged from 22 to 41 years of old (P. value &lt;0.001). The study showed that 63.64%<br>of COVID-19 patients were males compared with 36.36% females (P&lt;0.05). The study showed that 51.52%<br>of COVID-19 patients were smokers (P&gt;0.05). The study demonstrated that, 45.45% of COVID-19<br>positive patients were with mild infection, 18.18% were with asymptomatic features, 16.67%<br>were with moderate infection and 4.55% were with severe infection while 80% of healthy person<br>who was +ve to Covid-19 were with asymptomatic infection</p> Muayad Khalaf Ibrahim Farmesk Ibrahim Ridha Ali Muhye Aldeen Rasheed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1408 1414 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14537 Effectiveness of an Educational Program on Nurses’ Practices toward Using of Personal Protective Equipment at Kidney Transplant Center in Baghdad City <p>The study aims to evaluate nurses’ practices toward using personal protective equipment, and to identify the<br>relationships between nurses’ demographics including (age, gender, education level, and years of experiences<br>in kidney transplantation units) and their practices toward aseptic techniques. A quasi-experimental study,<br>quantitative design (One-group Pretest - Posttest) was conducted on nurse’s practice toward aseptic<br>techniques in kidney transplant units. It was carried out in order to achieve the early stated objectives with<br>the application of pretest and posttest. A non-probability (purposive) sample of (30) nurses who are working<br>in kidney transplant unit, that’s selected based on the study criterion, and after obtaining oral consent from<br>them, those nurses were distributed in kidney transplant units at Medical City complex. The study Instrument<br>was composed of two Parts: The First Part is concerned with the socio-demographic characteristics, and the<br>second Part includes Nurses’ Practices. Content validity of the instrument was established through a penal<br>of (12) experts. Reliability of the instrument scales determined the internal consistency by using test-retest<br>approach through the computation of Pearson correlation coefficient of the scale which was r=0.83 for nurse’<br>practices. Results have been analyzed through the use of SPSS “Statistical Package for Social Sciences”<br>model 24.0 by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings of the present study revealed<br>that most of the samples were within the age of (40 - 49) years who were accounted (40%). It has been<br>presented that there were significant differences in the mean of the study sample between the pre and post test<br>procedures, revealing a significant improvement in nurses’ practices regarding using of personal protective<br>equipment. Moreover, a high significant difference was also presented among the whole study sample at pre<br>and post-test practices, t-test value (8.462) at p value (.000). The study recommended that nurses should<br>be committed to follow and apply standards of using the personal protective equipment, sharing in training<br>sessions, improve practices through self-learning and training, and establishing future studies to measure<br>nurses’ practices toward using personal protective equipment at all healthcare settings in Iraq.</p> Anmar Hadi Abbas Hussein Hadi Atiyah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1415 1419 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14538 Biocompatibility, Antibacterial Activity and Preparation of Ce doped ?-TCP by RF Sputtering Technique to Enhancing Some Properties <p>Two weight percents of ceria (40 and 80 wt%) were added to tricalcium phosphate to improve some<br>properties for Ce doped ?-TCP by RF sputtering method on stainless steel substrate as coating for biomedical<br>applications. The sputtering was done at 150 W and 150oC. The confirming of doping was achieved by some<br>techniques such as XRD, FESEM/EDS and EDS mapping, and indicated the occurring of incorporation<br>between cerium oxide and TCP as thin film. Biocompatibility and antibacterial test was improved after<br>adding cerium oxide to TCP which candidate the prepared thin film for bio implants. Microhardness also<br>examined for prepared composites to show the increasing microhardness of CeO2/TCP coatings compared<br>with conventional HA coating</p> Hiba A. Abdulaah Rana A. Anaee Ahmed M. Al-Ghaban Mustafa M. Kadhim Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1420 1424 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14539 The Effectiveness of the Form Model For the Two Hemispheres of the Brain in the Technical Performance of Some Female Badminton Skills <p>Through the presence of researchers in the field of teaching and training for most activities of racket games<br>in general, and playing badminton in a special way in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences<br>- University of Kerbala, they found that most female students in the second stage suffer from difficulty<br>in performing badminton skills, knowing that it is one of the subjects taught at this stage, and through<br>extensive study and investigation about finding solutions to this problem, the researchers decided to rely<br>on the application of a teaching model aimed at investing the energies of the brain and dealing with the<br>tendencies and desires of the learner, a research that the educational curriculum addresses all learners, this is<br>what motivated the researchers to prepare a new educational curriculum with all its contents according to the<br>characteristics of the two hemispheres of the brain using the format model to learn some basic skills for the<br>female students in badminton, and the objective of the research is to prepare an educational curriculum using<br>the (4MAT) model according to the two hemispheres of the brain to learn some skills of the badminton,<br>and to identify the effectiveness of the educational curriculum by using the (4MAT) model according to the<br>two hemispheres of the brain in learning some badminton skills for female students. The researchers used<br>the experimental approach by designing (one group with pre and post- test) in order to suit the nature of<br>the problem and achieve the research objectives. The most important conclusions were that the educational<br>curriculum, using the (4MAT) model according to the two hemispheres of the brain, contributed to learning<br>some basic skills for female students with badminton. The most important recommendations are the necessity<br>of adopting educational curricula according to the (4MAT) model in learning basic skills with badminton.</p> Akeel Yousef Nasser Mazen Kadhim Nassif Wissam Salah Abdul Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1425 1433 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14540 Effect of Dual-Chamber Pacemakers with Various Atrioventricular Intervals on Systolic Function, Diastolic Function, and Plasma Level of NT-pro BNP in a Sample of Iraqi Patients <p>Background: The use of dual-chambers (DDD) pacemakers is steadily increasing a year after year and one<br>of the programmable settings for these pacemakers is the duration of the atrioventricular interval (AVI).<br>AVI manipulation is justified for a variety of reasons including better hemodynamic stability and extending<br>the battery life of the pacemaker. Since plasma NT-proBNP level reflects the myocardial wall tension, we<br>hypothesized that different durations of AVI may have an effect on cardiomoycytes stretch and myocardial<br>wall tension and hence an effect on plasma NT-proBNP level. So we tried to use plasma NT-proBNP as a<br>marker for that strain, if present. Also, we tried to explore the effect of DDD pacemakers on both the systolic<br>and the diastolic functions of the heart using conventional echocardiographic parameters.<br>Methods: 52 patients with permanent dual-chambers pacemaker were recruited. We exclude those with<br>heart failure, renal impairment, and major valvular or coronary vessels disease. All patients had a thorough<br>medical history and examination, ECG, echocardiography (2-D, M-mode, and Doppler) as well as blood<br>sampling for NT-proBNP. Based on the shape of their E-A waves by pulsed-wave Doppler of transmitral<br>flow, they were grouped in 3 categories. Group-A included those with truncated A-wave, group-B comprised<br>those with separated E and A waves, and group-C involved those with fused E-A waves with or without<br>diastolic mitral regurgitation.<br>Results: there was statistically significant difference in the duration of AVI among the 3 groups (p &lt;0.001)<br>with patients having fused E-A waves recorded the longest AVIs. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were significantly<br>higher when E-A waves were fused (p &lt;0.001). The systolic parameters such as the cardiac output, the stroke<br>volume and the ejection fraction were higher when there was neither A-wave truncation nor E-A wave<br>fusion (p &lt;0.001). All patients showed evidences of diastolic dysfunction.<br>Conclusion: despite the fact that DDD pacemakers are more physiological mode of pacing, nevertheless<br>they induce some grade of diastolic heart failure. Manipulating the AVI into longer than the device`s default<br>values should be carefully judged since it is associated with higher levels of plasma NT-proBNP levels that<br>reflect cardiac wall tension and strain which in turn may progresses in future into another cardiac problems<br>such as atrial fibrillation.</p> Mudhaffar Sami Khaza`al Zahraa Abdulali Al-Mudhafar Ahmed Hussein Al-Mayali Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1434 1444 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14541 Awareness of Primary Schools Teachers towards Mumps in Basrah city <p>Objectives: Assessment of primary schools teachers’ Awareness towards mumps in Basra city<br>Methods: A descriptive study was conducted at (9) primary school at Al-Seraghi sectors in BASRA City,<br>from January 14th 2020 to March 12th 2020. A probability stratified random sample of (100) teachers who<br>teach science subject was selected, and had at employment in the teaching field. A questionnaire format<br>was used which was consisted of (2) parts. The overall number of the items included in the questionnaire<br>were (57) items. The first part was related to the demographic data of the teachers, the second part (five<br>sections) was concerned with teachers’ knowledge about health promotion. Data were analyzed through the<br>application of descriptive statistical analysis which included; frequency and percentage, and the application<br>of inferential statistical analysis which included; mean of score, and Chi-square test.<br>Results: The study revealed that teachers have acquired good level of knowledge about mumps disease ,<br>medium about method ,symptoms, and control diseases was poor knowledge<br>Conclusions: the relationship between teachers’ knowledge and their demographic characteristics, data<br>analysis has showed that there is significant association between teachers’ knowledge mumps except of<br>years experiences.<br>Recommendations: The study recommends that there is a need for -oriented education program which<br>can be designed, constructed and presented to primary school teachers with great emphasis on all aspects<br>of steps mumps diseases . Furthermore, teacher can be nominated and encouraged to actively participate in<br>education training sessions. Also, the importance of a collaborative work which can be initiated between the<br>health Directorate of Education health promotion and the Directorate of primary teaching to create facilities<br>for the implementation of health promotion oriented education program.</p> Adil Ali Hussein Sounds Baqer Dawood Hussein Fakher Kamel Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1445 1449 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14542 Coronavirus (Covid_19) and its Relationship to the Activation of the Healthy Preventive Programs and Health Counseling Social, Theoretical and Analytical Study: in Medical Sociology <p>Although the deterioration in the health situation inherited from the outbreak of the Coronavirus (Covid_19)<br>in general, the health, social and economic conditions, malnutrition, lack of cleanliness , lack of health<br>protection and health resources, particularly with regard to public health and disease, the importance of<br>health prevention and health counseling health advice has received a lot of attention by some to care for<br>and protect people. Against the risks of spreading chronic epidemics as well as general communicable or<br>non-communicable infectious diseases or potential physical, biological, organic, mental, psychological and<br>other diseases, The Corona virus (Covid_19) is one of the most important coronary viruses, and it is a virus<br>that was first discovered in (1960 AD), and this virus appeared on (December 31, 2019 AD) also in Wuhan<br>Province in Hubei, central China. Due to the development of the virus and its spread in many developed<br>and developing countries. The World Health Organization declared its international importance as a public<br>health crisis, as the country worked to stop all domestic and foreign flights to control the outbreak.</p> Saleh Rahman Abid Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1450 1456 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14543 The Level of Nesfatin -1, Calcium and Vitamin D in Women with Gestational Diabetes Versus Control <p>Objective:This study was designed to investigate serum level nesfatin-1 and determine the association of<br>nesfatin-1, calcium level and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH )D) level in women with gestational diabetes<br>mellitus (GDM) versus controls<br>Methods: A88 pregnant women at 24-28 weeks gestation were included in this study .Forty four women<br>diagnosed with gestational diabetes and 44 women without gestational diabetes both groups were matched<br>in age and body mass index . Then we classify each group depended on 25(OH) D status (sufficient,<br>insufficient and deficient). nesfatin-1 and vitamin D levels were analyzed using ELISA (enzyme link<br>immunosorbent assay) a cut off value for serum calcium were assessed using colorimetric method, cut<br>off value were used according to manufacture instruction and the a comparison was done between above<br>parameters. Furthermore, insufficient and deficient 25(OH)D gestational diabetes group had significantly<br>higher fasting blood sugar compared to matched control group .<br>Conclusion: Nesfatin-1 levels, 25(OH)D and calcium were not differ between the two groups statistically.</p> Hanan M Chiad Shatha M. J.AL-Khateeb Israa Hamid Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1457 1463 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14544 Comparison of Non-Fasting and Fasting Lipid Profile in Dyslipidemia Patients <p>Dyslipidemia, a metabolic syndrome characteristic, includes increased flux of free fatty acids, high density<br>lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. One of the main topics of screening and<br>management in adult and child populations has been dyslipidemia<br>The aim of this study was to evaluate non-fasting and fasting when measuring the lipid profile of patients<br>with dyslipidemia.<br>This study was performed 80 male of dyslipidemia patients, they were monitored and their lipid profile<br>levels measured during non- fasting were collected after 2 hours of meal, and varying hours of fasting<br>periods includes (4 hours, 6 hours, and 8 hours).<br>In this study we did not found any significant clinical difference between non-fasting and fasting levels of<br>total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein. Thus, we can use the non-fasting<br>blood samples to estimate lipid profile in follow-up the dyslipidemia patients. When comparing the fasting<br>hours, we observed mean triglyceride for all period of fasting were differences, as compared to the nonefforts fasting state significant differences P&lt; 0.001<br>Finally, there is no need to make fasting lipid profile mandatory. This study suggests that should be made to<br>simplify the sampling of blood by replacing the profile of fasting lipids with the profile of non-fasting lipids.</p> Fatimah Kadhim Ibrahim AL- Mahdawi Abed Sultan Hassan Wasan A.Wahab Alsiadi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1464 1469 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14545 Detection Levels of Cytokines (IL-6 and IL-18) and Microbial Parameters in Patients with Renal Failure in Diyala Province <p>Current study was conducted in Diyala province for kidney failure patients ( Ibn Sina Center ) for dialysis<br>in Baqubah teaching hospital and started from beginning August 2016 to end April 2017. A total 100 blood<br>sample had from kidney failure patients, has been the number males 61 and females 39 with age range (10<br>– 88) years and collected 50 of blood sample from oculary healthy individuals act as a control group , has<br>been the number males 25 and females 25 with age range 10 – 88 years . By (ELISA) technique detection<br>immunological parameters (IL-6 , IL-18) , and (SRID) for detection microbial parameters (HBV, CMV , T.<br>gondii, HCV) . Result of study expressed that the incidence of disease rate among males 61% more than<br>females 39% with no significant different (P&gt;0.05), also highest rate disease in both age groups (31-50, 51-<br>70) years , while lowest rate disease the age range (10-30 , &gt;70) years recorded with significance different)<br>P &lt;0.05(. So, high levels of ( IL-18) for patients than to control with significance different between study<br>groups (P &lt;0.05), while (IL-6) was raised in patients compared to control. Also, result showed positivity of<br>( HBV, CMV , T. gondii, HCV ) in patients was (8% , 13%, 10%, 25% ) respectively with high significant<br>different (P&lt;0.05). Conclusions of current study showed male more than female, age period &gt;70 and 51-17<br>year recorded highest percentage infection ,high levels of immunological (IL-6 and IL-18) in renal dialysis<br>patients, as well as to some microbial infected patients with kidney failure. The aim of study is detection<br>levels of cytokines (IL-6 and IL-18) and some microbial infection in patients with renal failure.</p> Wasan A. Wahab Alsiadi Alaa Mohammed Albayati Ban Talib Elhaboby Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1470 1475 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14546 Mathematical Engineering Model for Studying the Interrelated among Effective Factors in the Sugar Blood Estimation Test <p>It is a chronic metabolic disease, which is characterized by high blood sugar, as a result of a defect in the<br>pancreas weakens the production of insulin to the body, and spread type 2 diabetes in humans all over the<br>world, where there are more than a million and a half million people with diabetes. The most important<br>factors contributing to the spread of this disease is eating unhealthy, excessive obesity, lack of exercise,<br>psychological tension and genetic factor, so it is the responsibility of the state, as it must provide health<br>education to its population, and urge them to eat healthy food and reduce excess weight, and encourage them<br>on the practice of r Intifada activity, urging them to westernize the marriage, if any diabetes in the family.<br>Therefore, the independents and dependent variables are included using a statistical program to be analyzed<br>and to find the degree of correlation and impact of the variables among them and to analyze and discuss the<br>results.</p> Khalid G. Mohammed Hiba Mahdi Salih Sara Mahdi Salih Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1476 1484 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14547 Comparison of Oral Isotretinoin vs Azithromycin in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris <p>Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles, common in<br>adolescents, characterized by comedones, papules, pustules, cysts, nodules, and occasionally scars. This<br>study was designed to compare multi B vitamins, folic acid and homocysteine levels in patients with<br>moderate to severe acne vulgaris with those of the apparently healthy control group and to investigate the<br>effect of isotretinoin and azithromycin treatments on these biochemical parameters and comparison between<br>two drugs.<br>Methods: This study was conducted on sixty women patients with acne and thirty as a control group. The<br>patients were allocated into two groups, A and B, group A was given 500 mg of azithromycin taken on<br>alternative days for 3 months and group B was given 40mg/day isotretinoin for 3 months.<br>Results: The study showed significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in serum levels of vitamins B6, B7, B12 and<br>folic acid, while no significant difference in serum homocysteine in patient group when compared to control<br>group. The results showed significant positive correlation between serum vitamins and clinical score and<br>significant difference were detected in both group when compared between pre and post treatment.<br>Conclusions: The results indicate higher pre-treatment vitamin B12 levels, versus the control group and<br>positive correlation between clinical score and vitamin B12, support the assertion that vitamin B12 plays<br>a role in the etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Both azithromycin and isotretinoin were effective in acne<br>treatment but azithromycin has less side effects.</p> Alaa Sh. Abdulbari Noor M. Ali Ahmed R. Abu Raghif Nadheer A. Matloob Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1485 1489 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14548 The Association between Serum Nesfatin-1 level and BMI in Iraqi patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) <p>Objective: to evaluate the nesfatin-1 levels in addition to other metabolic components in polycystic ovary<br>syndrome PCOS in a state that to be associated with both functions of ovary and obesity.<br>Methods: A cross-section observational study was carried on total of forty-five (45) women in the<br>reproductive age with polycystic ovary syndrome (23 obese, 22 non-obese) attending Infertility unit and<br>outpatients clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics at AL-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, in addition to forty (40)<br>(30 obese, 10 non-obese) age matched healthy individuals. Serum nesfatin-1, TC, TG, HDL-C, FPG, FPI,<br>E2, TT, LH, FSH and Prol were measured, in addition to HOMA-IR, BMI and LDL-C was calculated.<br>Results: FPG (5.1±0.3 mmol/L), HOMA-IR (2.8±1.1) were significantly higher in PCOS group than their<br>results in the control group (4.8±0.2 mmol/L), (2.2±1.3) (P ? 0.05, 0.01) respectively. Nesfatin-1 level<br>(11.1±3.5 ng/ml), TT (1.7±0.3 pg/ml) and LH (6.5±2.8 mIU/ml) in PCOS group were significantly difference<br>(P ? 0.001, 0.05) respectively, when compared their concentration in the control group (6.3±3.0 ng/ml),<br>(0.9±o.1 pg/ml), (4.9±1.5 mIU/ml). Among the patients with PCOS, a strong positive correlation were found<br>between nesfatin-1 and WC (r=0.221 , P ? 0.05) , BMI ( r=0.267 , P ? 0.001), TT (r=0.218, P ?0.001), LH<br>(r=0.263 , P? 0.001), IR (r=0.453 , P ? 0.001), FBG (r=0.257 , P ? 0.01), LDL-C (r=0.228 , P ? 0.05) and<br>TG (r=0.223 , P ? 0.05). Besides that, a positive association were between HOMA-IR and BMI (r=0.460, P<br>? 0.01), WC (r=0.429, P ?0.001).<br>Conclusion: nesfatin-1 gives the impression to play an important action to regulate food intake and energy<br>homeostasis with a strong positive correlation with WC, BMI, IR, LDL-C and TG.</p> Eham Amer Ali Walaa Ahmed AL-Jedda Shatha M.J AL-Khateeb Abdilkarim Y. AL-Samarriae Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1490 1495 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14549 Detection of Sero-positive Anti- toxoplasmosis Anti-bodes IgG among Women in Baghdad Province <p>A total of 83 serum samples were randomly collected from different centers in Baghdad province, the results<br>recorded in this study which started in July 2018 until the end of November 2018, by using one technique,<br>method ELISA. The results were showed increased the percentage of seropositive anti- toxoplasmosis IgG<br>antibodies at age groups 20 – 29 years, which were 23.9% among women infected with toxoplasmosis<br>comparative with other age groups. Also showed increase the percentage of sero-positive anti- toxoplasmosis<br>IgG Abs in urban which were 42.9% comparative with rural, which were 8.0%. Also occur increased<br>significantly in percentage IgG Abs in serum of affected women with toxoplasmosis in first and second<br>month from abortion period, which were respectively 17.8% and 16.0%. So increase these antibodies<br>(Abs) in serum of infected women with this disease in 1st trimester period comparative with other months.<br>Therefore so it was necessary to use of early diagnosis for pregnant infected women with toxoplasmosis.</p> Abdullah Abbas Hamzah Qater Al-Nada Ali Kanaem ALIbady Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1496 1502 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14550 Study Some Kinetic Parameters for Purified Arginase from Two Different Sources: Red Blood Cells and Serum of( Healthy and TypeII Diabetic Patient) <p>Kinetics parameters for arginase that purified from RBCs, and serum (control, and diabetic patients)<br>revealed that the Km values are (200, 416, and 333mM), Vmax values are (47, 5.5, and 9 U/min),and<br>The values of catalytic constant Kcat are (174, 45.8, and 81.8 min-1). The effect of atrovastatin was also<br>studied on serum arginase, the arginase activity is decreasing by increasing statin concentration, wherein<br>at the lower concentration (0.112 mg/ml) the allosteric regulation percentage is 26% and it is ongoing until<br>reaching its maximum (85%) at the highest concentration (0.9mg/ml). In conclusion affinity of arginase to<br>the L-arginine, and its velocity is more in RBCs, and serum patients compared with serum controls, and<br>statin appears to be an allosteric regulator for arginase.</p> Fayhaa M. Khaleel Essam F.A.Al-Jumaili Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1503 1510 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14551 A Novel Design of Gas System and Develop Culture Medium for the Isolation and Sulfur Reducing Bacteria within Short Time <p>The current study has developed a proprietary system and a special device for the supply of oxygen-free<br>nitrogen gas with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 80:20% according to the laboratory conditions required for<br>the growth of sulfur-reducing bacteria. To find the best medium that fits the bacteria in those environments<br>with shortening incubation period, the new medium developed is available in the specification of planting<br>rich in energy sources, minerals and vitamins and high reduction ability promotes the early growth of sulfurreducing bacteria .</p> Adnan Neamah Albaidani Fouad Hussein Kamel Abeer Younis Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1511 1516 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14552 Determination the Gene Expression Levels of adhesins and Extracellular Enzymes Genes in Candida albicans biofilm producer by Quantitative Real Time PCR Technique (qRT-PCR) <p>In the present study, all C. albicans were biofilm producers with variable strength. Molecular study of<br>virulence genes correlated with biofilm C. albicans showed that HWP1, ALS1, ALS3, SAP5, PLB1 and LIP8<br>genes were detected in 100% of C. albicans from vaginal and oral infections. In addition to that quantitative<br>real time PCR technique show that ITS1 was used as the housekeeping gene and was shown to be stably<br>expressed throughout all biofilm conditions and HWP1, ALS1, ALS3, SAP5, PLB1 and LIP8 where 100%<br>expressed in all ten tested C. albicans. It was appeared that adhesins genes such as HWP1, ALS1 and ALS3<br>were highly expressed in HBF and less expressed in LBF, whereas in very low BF producers the fold upregulation were not particularly high, but they were over expressed in strong biofilm producers in both of<br>vaginal and oral isolates. The average of gene expression folding show that SAP5 and PLB1 were highly<br>expressed among vaginal isolates rather than oral ones, in contrast, ALS1, HWP1 and LIP8 were predominant<br>expressed among oral isolates, whereas ALS3 was higher in vaginal isolates than oral with little differences.<br>Gene expression levels by q RT-PCR show that SAP5 and PLB1 were up-regulated in both of HBF and<br>LBF producers, and they were highly expressed among the ten tested isolates. The over expressions of<br>SAP5 and PLB1 genes were observed in vaginal isolates with high biofilm. The current study found an<br>overexpression of adhesins such as HWP1, ALS1, ALS3, are responsible in strength of biofilm formation<br>in C. albicans isolated from oral and vaginal infection with different ages and different clinical states,<br>in addition to upregulated of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes genes belong to SAP, PLB and LIP was<br>important in biofilm formation.</p> Najwan Abbas Mohammed Hamzia Ali Ajah Nemat Jamel Abdulbaqi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1517 1527 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14553 International Responsibility for Hiding (COVID-19) Spread Information <p>In accordance with the rules of international law, countries that preceded others in exposure to the<br>(COVID-19) have an obligation to inform other countries and the World Health Organization of the outbreak<br>of the said virus as well as to exchange information on laboratory results, source and type of potential risk,<br>number of cases and deaths, the rapid spread of the virus and its medium of spreading between people or<br>through means of transportation such as airplanes, ships, etc., or through goods shipped from them and ways<br>to limit its spread. Then, countries that have suffered damage as a result of infection with the aforementioned<br>virus can claim the necessary compensation towards other countries that have breached their obligations<br>to exchange information on the spread of the virus on their territories in accordance with the principle of<br>international responsibility. Such compensations are to be determined through international arbitration or<br>justice or through consulting international and regional organizations or through referring to other peaceful<br>means that are agreed upon in accordance with Article 33 of the Charter of the United Nations.</p> Muhammad Jabbar Al-Abdali Amer Abdul Hussein Abbas Hussein Waheed Abbod ALisawy Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1528 1532 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14554 Psychological Suffering of Families, Children with Mental Retardation at Al- Raja Institute for Mental Retardation in Babylon City <p>Objectives: To assess psychological suffering of families of children with mental retardation<br>Methods: Descriptive study conducted among 60 caregivers, they are using self-reported questionnaire to<br>gathering data about the phenomena<br>Results: (50% &amp; 44%) of families had moderate and severe psychological suffering respectively. The grand<br>mean is (2.15) at moderate level of suffering.<br>Conclusion: the families have moderate to severe psychological suffering due to caring child with mental<br>retardation. They are need for psychosocial support.</p> Haidar Fadhil Abbas Zainab Neamat Jumaah Mansour Abdullah Falah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1533 1536 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14555 Assessment of Eating Habits of Adolescents Body Mass Index Percentile at Secondary School in Najaf Governorate <p>Objective: to assess and find out association between the eating habits and adolescents BMI percentile at<br>secondary school.<br>Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 537 adolescents (270 boys and 267 girls) aged<br>12-15 years selected by means of a multistage stratified random sampling technique.<br>Results: according to the body mass index; underweight was (6.7), normal weight was (61.5), overweight<br>was (9.5) and obesity was (22.3). (75%) of adolescents have a healthy eating habits while more than two<br>third of adolescents do not consumed fruits and vegetables.<br>Recommendation: Intervention programs focusing on promoting changes in lifestyles, food habits and<br>increasing physical activity need to be implemented at the earliest stage of children life.</p> Haidar Fadhil Abbas Zainab Neamat Jumaah Mansour Abdullah Falah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1537 1541 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14556 Psychological Confusion and Its Relationship to Some Psychological Features of Taekwondo Players <p>The importance of the research lies in the identification of psychological frequency and some psychological<br>features that players face in taekwondo competitions and to find the degree of correlation between them, and<br>the problem of the research was through the work of researchers in the field of the taekwondo game. One<br>of them has different psychological characteristics from the other, so the researchers decided to study this<br>problem by determining this frequency, determining the psychological characteristics, and then knowing the<br>relationship between them and whether there is an effect of one of them on the other to develop appropriate<br>solutions in the service of Taekwondo players, and the research objectives were to prepare the psychological<br>frequency scale, And the identification of psychological frequency and some psychological features of<br>advanced Taekwondo players, and knowledge of the relationship between psychological frequency and<br>some psychological features of advanced Taekwondo players, the researchers used the descriptive approach<br>on some Taekwondo players in the Najaf Sports Club for the sports season (2019-2020) of (30) A player<br>through the results of the results, the researchers reached the following conclusions. The players of the Iraqi<br>Premier League with Taekwondo appeared as having an amputation. A weak psychological and high selfconfidence trait, which increased their motivation for achievement in the competition, the players showed<br>high psychological energy optimal for advanced Taekwondo players, which reduced their psychological<br>reluctance to compete, and the presence of an inverse moral correlation between psychological hesitation<br>and some psychological features (self-confidence - psychological fluency ) For players of the Premier<br>League Taekwondo.</p> Diaa Fadel Abbas Zaid Sami yasir Hayder Naji Habash Alshawi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1542 1547 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14557 Health Personnel Practices Regarding Prevention of Sharp Injuries in the Delivery Room at the Middle Euphrates Teaching Hospitals <p>Literatures proved that prevention of sharp injuries are the most important and effective infection prevention<br>and control measures to prevent the spread of microorganisms causing hospital Acquired infections. Aim of<br>the study; This study conducted to assess personal protective equipment practices of health care personnel<br>in the delivery room at the Middle Euphrates Teaching Hospitals. Methods; A Descriptive research design<br>begin in 20th February to 26th May 2016, Current study sample involve all midwives and physicians in the<br>delivery room (Total coverage.). Questionnaire used for data collection by interview forms and observational<br>checklist was obtain from the extensive review of relevant literature and related studies Data analyzed through<br>utilize (SPSS) software version (16) where, included descriptive analysis and inferential data analysis. The<br>study conducted among 37 physicians and 97 midwives working in the delivery room are females.<br>Results: Overall scores of practices related to prevention of sharp injuries in the four studied hospitals<br>were was good at Karbala (2.77) and Al-Najaf (2.37), while fair at Babylon (1.79) and Diwaniah (2.26).<br>The present study has also indicated that there are a highly significant in health staff practices regarding<br>prevention of sharp injuries and the different studied governorates at p-value less than 0.01.<br>Conclusion: Based on the finding of present study health care personnel have good practices at Karbala and<br>Al-Najaf, while fair at Babylon and Diwaniah.<br>Recommendations: Updating practice of health care personnel through continuing in-service educational<br>programs. Regular inspection and follow-up from the Ministry of Health for assurances good practices<br>regarding prevention of sharp injuries, the important of exist motivation system and punishment system to<br>the neglected health care personnel.</p> Muntahaa Abdullah Rashaan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1548 1555 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14558 Health Personnel Practices Regarding Waste Management in the Delivery Room at the Middle Euphrates Teaching Hospitals <p>Literatures proved that waste management is the most important and effective infection prevention and<br>control measure to prevent the spread of microorganisms causing HAIs is considering a vital intervention to<br>promote optimum patient safety in delivery room. Aim of the study; This study conducted to assess waste<br>management practices of health care personnel in the delivery room at the middle Euphrates teaching<br>hospitals. Methods; A Descriptive research design begin in 20th February to 26th May 2016, Current study<br>sample involve all midwives and physicians in the delivery room (Total coverage.). Questionnaire used<br>for data collection by interview forms and observational checklist was obtain from the extensive review of<br>relevant literature and related studies Data analyzed through utilize (SPSS) software version (16) where,<br>included descriptive analysis and inferential data analysis. The study conducted among 37 physicians and<br>97 midwives working in the delivery room are females.<br>Results: The current study indicate that good overall evaluation for the health staff practices concerning<br>waste management at Karbala while fair overall evaluation at Babylon, Diwaniah and Al-Najaf with highly<br>significant in health staff practices regarding waste management and the different studied governorates<br>at p-value less than 0.01. Conclusion: based on the finding of present study majority of health care<br>personnel have fair applies related to waste management practices at different studied governorate hospitals.<br>Recommendations: Updating practice of health care personnel through continuing in-service educational<br>programs. Regular inspection and follow-up from the ministry of health for assurances good waste<br>management, the important of exist motivation system and punishment system to the neglected health care<br>personnel</p> Zanab Neamat Jumaah Muntahaa Abdullah Rashaan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1556 1564 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14559 Molecular Study of Virulence Factors (Cysteine Protease-1 and Amoebapore-C) for Entamoeba histolytica in Babylon Province <p>A molecular study was conducted for the period from December 2019 to May 2020, which included<br>examining (50) positive stool samples by using the direct smear method. that was revealed by the method of<br>polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the gene (18SrRNA), with a percentage of 82%, distributed 87.8%<br>for males and 70.6% for females. Then for determine the virulence factors ( Cysteine proteinase-1) and<br>(Amoebapores-C) by using primers, with (PCR)technique , and then electrophoresis on the agarose gel have<br>been done , the results were positive for Cysteine proteinase-1 (APC-1) at a wavelength (212 bp) and the<br>Amoebapore-C (Amo-C) at a wavelength (536 bp). Five random positive samples of the PCR product in the<br>current study were sent to Macrogen in South Korea for the purpose of determining the DNA sequence of<br>the amoebapore- C gene present in the Entamoeba histolytica, and it is the first study in Iraq and Babylon<br>province that is genetically determined by the NCBI These genotypes of the amoebic holes gene are recorded<br>in the gene bank. The results of the study showed that all the transmitted isolates are identical with NCBI<br>isolates with the USA samples registered with the gene bank with accession number AY956434.2, which<br>are the isolated samples belonging to the American samples and diagnosed with the number MS30-1043 of<br>the USA study by the researcher Bhattacharya et al. (2005) with the current study samples As it was 100%<br>identical. These samples were recorded in the genebank for the first time for this Amoebapore C gene under<br>Accession No. For samples (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) in sequences are MT951203, MT951204, MT951205, MT951206<br>and MT951207, respectively.</p> Entessar Hatif Abd Al-Kathem Al-Murshidi Ahmed Khudhair Al-Hamairy Hadi Meziel Khudhair Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1565 1574 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14560 Knowledge of Primary School’s Teachers about Epilepsy in AlBasra City Center <p>Background: Epilepsy is a common disorder that, even for those individuals who frequently work with<br>epileptics, is inefficiently understood. Low comprehension and understanding of the cause for the disorder<br>has been connected with negative attitudes and beliefs, and misconceptions of workplace and school<br>epileptics.<br>Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of epilepsy among primary school’s teachers. And to determine the<br>relationship between primary school teachers’ knowledge of epilepsy and their socio-demographic features<br>of age, gender, relative’s history, and family history.<br>Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study to evaluate the knowledge of epilepsy among 130 primary<br>school’s teachers in the center city of Basra, from February 2020 to July 2020. A probability Simple random<br>sample was done to choice the school’s teachers in the schools.<br>Results: A total of (130) participants gender is approximate; (n=111; 85.4%) for female, and (n=19; 14.6%)<br>for male, their age group less than half of them is within (40-49) years-old (n=42; 32.3%). The results<br>reveals that the majority of participant has a moderate knowledge regarding epilepsy (n=94; 72.3%).<br>Conclusion: According to results of the current study, the researchers conclude that most participants have<br>a mild understanding of epilepsy</p> Nuha S. Kadhim Doaa M. Bachi Alaa M. Tuama Mohammed Talib Abed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1575 1579 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14561 Assessment Risk Factors for Asthma among Children Attending Azadi Teaching Hospital and Pediatric Hospital in Kirkuk City <p>A descriptive study was conducted from September 2017 to the January 2018. This study was conducted on<br>children with “asthma” and aimed at assessing risk factors for asthma among children attending to Azadi<br>Teaching hospital and pediatric hospital in Kirkuk city. Data were analyzed by applying descriptive statistics<br>(frequencies, percentage). The result of the study showed that the majority of the sample 60 (75%) was<br>attended to pediatric hospital . while 20 (25%) of the sample attended to Azadi Teaching hospital. Also<br>the majority of the sample aged between (1-7) years, approximately 61.4%, most of the participants were<br>male and constituted 63.6%. With regard to the method of feeding, most of the samples were using artificial<br>feeding 52.3%. As for the gestational age, 72.7% were of full duration (9 months). The study explored that<br>the main factor affecting asthma disease was the parents (71.4%) smoke inside the home. The family history<br>50% was the second state of caution (a genetic predisposition to develop rhinitis and asthma), and as for the<br>recommendation, families should make sure from the child’s hereditary tendencies, and after confirming<br>that the child has asthma, parents should not smoke inside the home and during pregnancy, and care must be<br>taken to ensure that the child has sufficient sunlight inside the house</p> Idrees Hasan Mohammed Hewa Shareef Azeez Bahar Nasradeen Majeed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1580 1586 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14563 Determinat Factors The Effect Used Personal Protective Equipment Covid-19 For Health Workers in The Hospital <p>Purpose: to analyze the determinants of the use of Covid-19 PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) on health<br>workers at Salewangang Hospital, Maros Regency.<br>Methods: The type of research used is the analytical survey method of research conducted without<br>intervention to the research subject. Data collection regarding free and dependent variables was carried<br>out online using Google Form and the results of Google Form data collection were processed using SPSS<br>20, where a sample of 199 respondents was taken from health workers at Salewangang Maros Regional<br>Hospital in 2020. The analysis was used to explain the influence of the variables - independent variables to<br>the dependent variable partially using Logistic Regression Analysis.<br>Results: Based on the results shows that knowledge has a 12-fold effect on behavior The use of Covid 19<br>PPE and the attitude of health workers has a significant effect on the behavior of using the OR value of 16.6,<br>which means that attitudes have a 16.6-fold effect on the behavior of using Covid 19 PPE<br>Conclusion: Based on this study, it is concluded that the availability of PPE, knowledge and attitudes of<br>health workers have a significant effect on the behavior of using PPE Covid-19 with a significant value of<br>0.000?0.05.</p> Alfina Baharuddin Hasriwiani Habo Abbas Fetrawaty Mansyur Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1587 1593 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14564 Quantitative Helmint Assesment (QHA) On Nutritional Status of Children and Stunting Events For Elementary Students in the City Of Makassar <p>Objective: to analyze the relationship between the Quantitative Helmint Assessment with nutritional status<br>and the incidence of stunting in SD Bangkala III students in Makassar City<br>Method :This type of research is analytic observational using cross sectional design. Location This research<br>was conducted at SD Bangkala III, Bangkala Village, Manggala District, Makassar City. 63 samples were<br>taken using proportional stratified random sampling technique and simple random sampling. Quantitative<br>examination is needed to determine the intensity of infection or severity of disease by knowing the number<br>of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) in each type of worm.<br>Results: based on the measurement results of the helmint assessment for the mild category with the incidence<br>of stuting and not stunting kneeling as many as 8 (38.0%), 13 (62.0%), respectively. In the measurement<br>results, the moderate category with the incidence of stuting and non-stunting was 11 (38%), respectively. 13<br>(62%), while the results of QHA measurements for the severe category of knee stunting were 1 (25%), and 3<br>(75%), respectively. based on the measurement results of the helmint assessment for the light category with<br>nutritional status of thin, normal and obese knees as many as 5 (23.8%), 13 (62.0%) and 3 (14.2%).<br>Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between QRA and nutritional status in elementary school<br>students with p value (0.003), there is a significant relationship between QRA and the incidence of stunting<br>with p value (0.022).</p> Alfina Baharuddin A. Nurlinda Suharni A. Fachrin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1594 1600 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14565 Subjective Complaints of Respiratory Disorders Due to Silica Dust Exposure to Workers at PT Bumi Saran Beton Kalla Block <p>Purpose: The aims to analyze the effect of exposure to silica dust and individual characteristics on subjective<br>complaints of workers’<br>Methods: The study design used a cross sectional approach. This research was conducted at PT. Bumi<br>Sarana Beton Kalla Block, samples in this study were workers in the ballmill, mixing and packing as many<br>as 27 people using the total sampling method. Data analysis using chi-square test and multiple regression<br>test.<br>Results: the results showed that the effect of age on subjective complaints of respiratory disorders was p<br>0.904&gt; 0.05, the effect of smoking on subjective complaints of respiratory disorders p 0.485&gt; 0.05, the effect<br>of working tenure on subjective complaints of respiratory disorders p 0.728&gt; 0.05, the effect of The use of<br>respiratory protective equipment against subjective complaints of respiratory disorders p 0.820&gt; 0.05, the<br>effect of work history on subjective complaints of respiratory disorders p 0.647&gt; 0.05, the effect of exposure<br>to silica dust on subjective complaints of respiratory disorders p 0.529&gt; 0.05.<br>Conclusion: exposure to silica dust and individual characteristic factors such as age, smoking habits, years<br>of service, use of respiratory protective equipment, and work history are not significant to the subjective<br>complaints of respiratory</p> Alfina Baharuddin Suharni A. Fachrin Astrid Pratiwi Rufaedah Amir Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1601 1608 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14566 Effectiveness of Giving Secang Wood Extract (Caesalpinia Sappan L) Against IL-6 And IL-10 Levels in Balb / C Mice With Vulvovaginalis Candidiasis <p>The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of secang wood extract (Caesalpinia sappan L) on<br>IL-6 and IL-10 expression in Balb / c mice with vulvovaginalis candidiasis. This type of research is an<br>experimental laboratory, with a control group design using experimental animals as research objects. The<br>research subjects were BALB / c mice weighing 35-40 grams, aged 10-12 weeks, the number of experimental<br>animals needed in this study was 18 for 3 random groups, each group being 6. Analysis and data processing<br>using the excel program SPSS Repeated ANOVA Test was used to measure differences in cytokine levels.<br>IL-6 levels in group 1 (control) where the value of IL-6 expression after infection (H1) was 4309.40 pg /mL<br>(IQR value 3803.8-4963.5) after treatment (H7) in the control group increased by 5578.12 pq / mL (IQR<br>5330.3 - 6162.9). In group 2 that were given fluconazole and secang wood extract, IL-6 levels tended to<br>decrease by 3516.4 pq / mL (IQR: 3070.4-4061.6) Secang wood after infection decreased from 3417.34 pq<br>/ mL to 2782.97 pq / mL after treatment. In Group 2 that was given fluconazole and secang wood extract,<br>IL-10 levels increased by 1414.8 pq / ml (IQR: 1061.7- 3158) after infection, to 3268.35 pq / ml (IQR<br>value: 1789.9-3709.6) after treatment. given secang wood after infection increased from 2032.67 pq / ml to<br>3091.83 pq / mL after treatment. The p value is 0.008. Obtained the effect of secang wood extract in reducing<br>levels of Interleukin 6 and can increase the value of IL-10 levels after administration of secang wood extract<br>on candidiasis vulvovaginalis</p> Sri Wahyu Firdaus Hamid Mochammad Hatta Khairuddin Djawad Agussalim Bukhari Rosdiana Natzir Alfina Baharuddin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1609 1614 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14567 Expectant Management in Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy in ThiQar Province: Interventional Comparative Trial <p>Background: Ectopic pregnancy one of the life threatening condition, that can’t be prevented but can<br>managed safely. Rationale: rolling out of surgical intervention to medical management is hope of all, even<br>though surgeon. Aim of the study: to compare between the expectant and surgical management of tubal<br>ectopic pregnancy. Patients and Methods: Single blinded, controlled and interventional study conducted<br>in Bint Al-Huda teaching hospital in Thi-Qar-Iraq, extended all over the 2019 since January till last week<br>of December . Totally (74) patients enrolled in the study, all of them were complained from tubal ectopic<br>pregnancy, questionnaire, B-HCG, Trans- vaginal US were the main tools of follow up, Results: The target<br>patients for our study was 116, 34 of them were excluded, 16 was with positive fetal heart, 20 were had<br>hemoperitonium extend beyond the pelvis at the time of presentation and 8 patients were patients refuse<br>fallow up (expected management). Most of them(40%) were older than 34 years, followed by (32.5%) with<br>in age of 32.5%, while the youngest age group occupying minimal proportion (27%), According to ?-HCG<br>concentration most of them (58%) were with &lt;1500 mlU/ml concentration. Conclusion: Highly proportion<br>of tubal pregnancy managed by follow up without surgical intervention. ?-HCG titer and trans- vaginal US<br>are the golden keys of management</p> Alaa Hussain Ali Al-Nasir Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1615 1623 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14568 COVID 19 Patients /Southern of Iraq: Character and Dermatologic Manifestations <p>Background: the spread of coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China and then around the world where<br>the current study explores the link between skin manifestations and COVID-19. Methods: A cross sectional<br>study including all diagnosed cases of COVID-19 in Thi-Qar and Al-Muthana governorates, where started<br>by the diagnosis of the 1st case in Thi-Qar province, and ended with the 21th of April 2020, the cases were<br>distributed as 62 cases from Thi-Qar and 54 cases from Al-Muthana, information had been gathered from<br>COVID -19 isolation unites in the two main hospitals of isolation, Al-Husain teaching Hospital and AlMuthana teaching hospital. Results: The result showed that there are 116 cases of SARS-COV2 infection<br>was recorded in Thi-Qar and Al-Muthanna, the high percentage of infection was detects in the middle adult<br>80(69%) in the age group over 60 years old. The distribution of infection according to the gender revealed<br>significant differences where the males comprise (87.75%) of cases. The direct contact route of transmission<br>was predominant among patients 101 (87.1%). Also, the highest percentage was live 110(94.8%). According<br>to the results there was a negative relationship between the two variables was detected, there is no correlation.<br>So, there is no correlation in skin manifestations according to the system involvement among COVID-19<br>infected cases with the pearson correlation (0.327). The results show non-statistical significance in skin<br>manifestation according to biography among only who had dermatological lesions at p value (0.248). Also,<br>there are non-statistical significant in source of infection according to skin manifestation and no correlation<br>between skin manifestations and death with corona virus. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the current<br>study that there is no close correlation between skin manifestations and COVID-19 infection, a very weak<br>direct relationship because some patients may not show any symptoms and these are considered negative<br>signs, meanwhile the unique skin lesion are zinc like deficiency( acrodematitis enteropathica )not reported<br>in any other areas.</p> Ahmed Abdul Hussein Kawen Ali Abid Saadoon Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1624 1633 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14573 Retrograde Intra-Renal Surgery Versus Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Management of Renal Stone 10-20 Millimeters, A Comparative Clinical Study <p>Purpose: comparison the efficacy and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in treatment of renal stones. Patients and Methods: Records of patients who underwent<br>surgery for renal stone were retrospectively reviewed, for two years from the beginning of 2017 till the end<br>of 2019. Patients who had renal stones between 10 - 20 Millimeter and located in different renal calices<br>were included, patients who underwent percutaneous nephron-lithotomy PNL and retrograde intra-renal<br>surgery RIRS were defined as Group I and Group II, respectively. Patient criteria (age, sex, BMI); the stone<br>characteristics; time of procedure, fluoroscopy and hospitalization; stone-free and complications (bleeding,<br>pain, infection, visceral injury, conversion to open surgery, and need for blood transfusion) were evaluated<br>between the treatment groups. Result: There were no significant differences in terms of age, gender, BMI,<br>laterality, number of stones, Hounsfield units and surface area characteristics of the stone between the PNL<br>(n 25) and RIRS (n = 35) groups (P = .558, P = .278, P = .375, P = 0.051, P = .053, P = .064, P = .642, P =<br>.080, respectively). Stone free rate was 59.6% (n=28) in PNL, and 88.6% (n=31) in RIRS (P=.004). 1st or<br>2nd degree complications according to Modified Clavien Classification developed in 10 patients (21.3%) in<br>Group I and 1 patient (2.9%) in Group II (P = .015). The 3A or 3B complications were similar in groups (P<br>= .077). Time of procedure, fluoroscopy and hospitalization were significantly lower in Group II (P &lt; .001,<br>P &lt; .001 and P &lt; .001, respectively). Conclusion: RIRS is more effective and more reliable procedure than<br>PNL with higher stone-free and lower complication rates in treatment of single renal stone (10 t0 20 mm).</p> Ali Abdul Baqi Isamel Firas Abdullah Noori Al-Baghdadi Riyadh Adel Jaed AbdulAzez Muntadar Easa Mahdi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1634 1640 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14574 Radiographic Assessment of Post-Endodontic Pain <p>Aim:To radiographically assess and identify the factors that influence post-endodontic pain (PEP) in patients<br>received nonsurgical root canal treatment. Study Design: a longitudinal study. Place and Duration of<br>Study: the study performed on 375 patients (200 male, 175 female), aged 15–65 years randomly attend Dr.<br>Sameer Hatem private clinic in Karbala between 2014- 2019 Method. the complete history of patients was<br>taken, clinically examined and then radiographically examined by CSN x-ray machine and Xpod digital<br>sensor to identify the possible factors and assess the status of previously treated teeth, the patients divided<br>into groups according to the age, causative factors, and the onset of pain from patients’ chief complain.<br>Results:(Table.2) shows the differences in numbers and percentages of overall patients according to the<br>onset and the causative factors of pain after root canal treatment, the high percentage of the pain of 102/<br>(27.2%) of patients was due to overextension of filling material, (most of these patients were suffering from<br>spontaneous pain 47.05%). Followed by 78/(20.8%) which were due to failure of treatment due to underfilled root canal (most of them 34.61% have intermittent pain). Conclusion: Periapical x-ray radiography<br>is a valuable technique to identify the causative factors of post endodontic pain and evaluate the success of<br>RCT and the status of endo treated tooth and periapical tissues. All procedural errors can not be depicted on<br>radiographs.</p> Sameer Hatem Abdul Haleem Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1641 1647 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14575 Evaluation of Hinge Position on Corneal Sensation and dry Eye after Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) in Thi-Qar Governorate <p>Purpose: This investigation planned to assess the impacts of Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK)<br>with prevalent and nasal pivot areas on corneal sensation and dry eye condition. Planned randomized<br>similar investigation was completed from February 2018 to December 2019. The subsequent term were<br>preoperatively evaluated just as 1week and 1,3,6 months postoperatively. This examination included 600<br>eyes of 420 patients (180 guys and 240 females), all patients went through LASIK medical procedure for<br>rectification of nearsightedness as well as nearsighted astigmatism utilizing MEL 90 Excimer laser for stromal<br>removal , Moria M2, SBK microkeratomes were utilized to make a prevalent and nasal pivoted folds. At the<br>point when patients chose to have medical procedure, they were randomized to get nasal or predominant<br>pivot medical procedure based on the randomization succession. Focal Cochet-Hat esthesiometry, Schirmer<br>fundamental tear discharge test, tear film separation time (TBUT) were assessed preoperatively and at multi<br>week , 1, 3, and a half year postoperatively. After medical procedure, the corneal sensation diminished<br>essentially in both nasal-pivot and prevalent pivot folds at multi week however got back to gauge by half<br>year. The Schirmer essential emission test esteems were not altogether changed postoperatively in the nasal<br>pivoted and predominant pivoted eyes. TBUT diminished inconsequential at multi week and multi month<br>postoperatively and recouped by 3 months after medical procedure in the two gatherings. There were no<br>huge contrasts in all the abstract and target boundaries tried between nasal-pivoted and unrivaled pivoted<br>folds whenever point. There is no intraoperative and postoperative inconveniences in everyone’s eyes.<br>There was a huge decrease in corneal sensation following LASIK in nasal and predominant gatherings.<br>Sensation improved at untouched stretches and re-visitations of nearly, preoperative levels around a half<br>year postoperatively. Related with the corneal denervation is a prompt postoperative increment in dry-eye as<br>estimated by TBUT and schirmer test that improved utilizing oils and with ensuing visits.</p> Wajida Saad Bunyan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1648 1658 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14576 Phenotypic and Molecular Detection of Pyocin from Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Various Pathogenic <p>This study included collecting (114) pure isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, distributed over wounds<br>(39) isolates, burns (31) isolates, urinary tract infections (23) isolations, ear infections (12) isolations, and<br>respiratory infections (9) Isolates. The test for the sensitivity of the bacteria to (14) types of antibiotics<br>showed a clear variation in their resistance to antibiotics, as all isolates showed 100% resistance to<br>Ampicillin and Novabocin, Nalidixic acid by 93.8%, and Bacitracin by 87.7%, while they had low resistance<br>to Ciprofloxacin, 21%, Cefotaxime 19.2%, and Chloramphenicol 18.4%. While the results of the phenotypic<br>detection of pyocin showed the presence of (85 isolates, at a rate of 74.5%), producing Pyocin, while (29<br>isolates, at a rate of 25.4%), it showed its inability to produce Pyosin. As for the molecular detection of the<br>PrtN gene, which is one of the most important genes responsible for the production of Pyocin, It was shown<br>that (17 isolates, 77.2%) possess this gene, while (5 isolates, at a rate of 22.7%), they did not possess this<br>gene.</p> Ahmed Yas Saeed Dhyaa Fandi Ahmed Mahmood Khlaf Saleh Adnan F. Alazzawie Mostafa Qahtan Mostafa Fatima Mustafa Mahdii Nedaa Wasmi Shehab Omar A.Mohammed Al Hashimi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1659 1667 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14577 Evaluation of Lipocalin-2 and Visfatin, and Vitamin (D,C, and E) in Serum of Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis <p>Objective: The aim of the present study is to verify the hypothesis that salivary and serum lipocalin-2<br>and visfatin, and vitamin (D,C, and E) used as indicators for chronic periodontitis among DMT2 patients.<br>Subjects and methods: We enrolled 41 type 2 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis -18 males and 23<br>females, aged 60± 14 years and 49 controls- 26 males and 23 females, aged 61.8 ± 12.5 years. Blood samples<br>were collected after an overnight fast and routine biochemical parameters such as glucose, lipocalin-2 and<br>visfatin, and vitamin (D,C, and E)were determined in all samples. Data were considered significant at a level<br>of p &lt; 0.05.Periodontitis status was established using classic clinical parameters, Plaque index (PI), gingival<br>index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Results: 1) The mean serum of blood<br>glucose, Visfatin, and LCN2 were higher in patients group than in those with normal control group (P&lt;0.001<br>for all comparisons) ; 2) patients with had a lower Vitamin D,C, and E than those with a normal group (P &lt;<br>0.001 for all comparisons).Conclusions: The activity of lipocalin-2 and visfatin in saliva and serum can be<br>useful in diagnosis, monitorization and treatment of this disease. Further studies are needed to elucidate the<br>role of lipocalin-2 and visfatin in periodontitis and systemic disease interactions.</p> Anas Qahtan Hamdi Entedhar R. Sarhat Nagham Hasan Ali Thuraia Rifaat Sarhat Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1668 1674 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14578 In Vivo Treatment of Giardia lamblia by Plantago lanceolata L. extract and Investigation some Serological Parameters and Histopathological Changes <p>Giardia lamblia samples were taken from patients at Salah al-Din General Hospital /Tikrit, suffering from<br>Giardiasis from October 2018 until March 2019. cysts of G. lamblia was isolated and infected in laboratory<br>mices Balb/c and then therapeutic attempt was made with water extract of Plantago lanceolata in three<br>different concentrations .and some biochemical parameters have been studied through rate of changes in<br>Cholesterol, Triglycerids, Total protein and some of liver enzymes (AST) Alanine transaminase, (ALT)<br>Aspartate transaminase, and response of infected mice for treatment with water extracts.<br>A significant decrease was observed in concentration of lipids in general. The decrease was significant in<br>concentration of Cholesterol and Triglycerides and total protein in laboratory mice. The lowest concentration<br>was achieved when using extract with 0.5 ml, 121, 31, and 4.311 mg/dl Respectively, The highst concentration<br>when using extract was with 2 ml, 180, 36, and 5.220 mg/dl Respectively, compared to control group 184,<br>37 and 5.040 mg/dl Respectively, Significant changes were also observed.<br>As for concentration of both AST/ ALT, the results showed significant changes in their concentration in<br>infected mice. level of decrease was significant in their concentration. The lowest concentration of AST was<br>at 0.5 mL, 18 IU/L, and ALT 15 IU/L at 0.5 mL of extract, The highest concentration of AST was at 2 mL, 30<br>IU/L, and ALT 29 IU/L at 2 mL of extract compared to control group of 28 IU/L. Significant changes were<br>observed in concentration of AST and ALT after treatment with therapeutic extract Above.<br>The microscopic examination of tissue sections of infected mice showed presence of a detachment of some<br>lining cells of colon. presence of leukocyte infiltration at base of mucous glands was also observed. This<br>infiltration was extended to smooth muscle layer forming colon wall. colon cavity consisted of large masses<br>of mucus. In liver, there was an enlargement of hepatic cells and presence of degeneration of nuclei of these<br>cells, and found small concentrations of inflammatory cells between hepatocytes, some central veins in liver,<br>and observed lymphocytic infiltration.</p> Ashraf Jamal Mahmoud Zangana Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1675 1682 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14579 The Caries Experience in the Smoker and Non-Smoker among College Student <p>Dental caries is the scientific term for tooth decay or cavities. It is caused by specific types of bacteria. They<br>produce acid that destroys the tooth’s enamel and the layer under it, the dentin. The bacteria turn sugar and<br>carbohydrates (starches) in the foods we eat into acids. Smoking is also a global and national health problem<br>and is one of the most significant health risks that impact all age groups.<br>The Study Aims to investigate the effects of different tobacco smoking methods and their relation to dental<br>caries in comparison to non-smoker students.<br>Material and Method: A random sample of 336 students from Tikrit university aged 19-24 years, the sample<br>grouped to cigar, shisha, cigar and shisha together and non-smoker groups. Dental caries was recorded<br>according to WHO criteria (1987) were decayed, missing and filled with permanent teeth (DMFS). The data<br>were analyzed as a descriptive statistic includes frequency, percentage, mean, and for statistical analysis of<br>the data using T- test and one- way ANOVA test to detect the significance of the relation between various<br>variable.<br>Result: the result of this study showed that the severity of dental caries higher in smoking cigar and smoking<br>shisha than in the non-smoking group with statistically highly significant.<br>Conclusion Nicotine may be increasing the incidence and severity of dental caries. So that, nicotine might<br>be considered as a risk factor for inducing of dental caries.</p> Azhar A. Hussein Maha Issam Hatham Yunis Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1683 1688 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14580 Comparison of the Nutrition on Different Fats on Lipid Profile, and Some Biochemical Parameters and their Relationship with Liver and Kidney Function in Male Rats <p>This study was conducted on forty-nine healthy male albino males rats, from 1/11/2019 to 12/30/2019 for<br>two months in the animal house of the College of Veterinary Medicine - University of Tikrit, their ages<br>ranged from 3-4 months and weights of 250-350 g current study aimed to determine the effect of nutrition<br>on the different types of fat in the levels of blood lipids, kidney function, and liver enzymes. The results<br>showed a significant increase with a level of 0.05 (p?) in blood sugar concentration in the two groups of<br>animal fat and vegetable oil group with a concentration of 8% g / kg of diet, and the two olive oil groups<br>did not show significant differences compared to the control group. Levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, lowdensity lipoproteins, and very low-density lipoproteins in a group that was given fat animal by 8% g / kg of<br>diet and a significant decrease in the group of olive oil by 4% g / kg of diet, significant increase (p? 0.05) in<br>the concentration of high-density lipoproteins in the two groups that have been treated with Olives oil by:<br>4% and 8% g / kg, respectively. There were no significant differences in the rest of the other study treatments<br>compared to the control group, and a significant increase of (p?0.05) in the concentrations of urea, creatinine<br>and uric acid in the animal fat group by 8% g/kg of the diet, and a significant decrease in the group that was<br>treated with olive oil. As for the liver enzymes activity ALT, AST, and ALP there was a significant increase<br>(p? 0.05) in the group that was treated as animal fat by 4% g / kg of diet, while we did not observe significant<br>differences in the group that was treated with olive oil by 4% g / Kg of diet compared to a control group.</p> Batoul Khalaf Mohammed Al-Bayati Wahbi Abdul Qadir Salman Al-Hamdani Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1689 1696 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14581 A Prospective Study of HIV Positive Autopsies Conducted at Aniims, Port Blair, Andaman & Nicobar Islands <p>Medical and Medico Legal deaths claim a substantial number of lives in Andaman &amp; Nicobar Islands. During<br>the 3-year-period from January 2016 to December 2018, 6 antibody HIV positive cases were autopsied at the<br>Department of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology in ANIIMS, Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The<br>purposes of this study were to report the autopsy findings of anti-HIV positive individuals, and to identify<br>the prevalence of specific factors such as gender, age, postmortem findings, cause and manner of death.<br>The 61 anti-HIV positive individuals who died at G B Pant Hospital, Port Blair consisted of 35 males and<br>26 females. Here, 55 cases died from natural cause, 6 cases due to unnatural causes termed as medico legal<br>death, which included 2 cases of accidents and 4 cases of suicide. All Medico legal cases underwent full<br>autopsy with universal precautions.<br>The prevalence of anti-HIV positive underlined the importance of awareness of HIV transmission in forensic<br>casework. In conclusion, full autopsies should be performed regularly on HIV infected patients with due<br>protective measures not only for medical research, but also for forensic study</p> Siddesh Revpla Channabasappa Amit Banik Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1697 1701 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14582 Effect of Crataegus Azarolus Extracted in Treatment of Giardia Lamblia Infection <p>The infection of Giardia lamblia has a universal distribution and it is a major cause of diarrhea condition<br>in adults and children and is transmitted by route of fecal-oral through direct or indirect cysts ingestion. 20<br>adult male rats were used and distributed to the following groups (5 rats in each group); negative group: rats<br>received distill water, positive group: infected rats with G. lamblia at dose 103 cyst/ml. third group infected<br>with G. lamblia and treated by 150mg/kg of C. azarolus extract for six weeks. Fourth group: infected<br>with G. lamblia and treated by 250mg/kg of C. azarolus extract for six weeks. The results demonstrated<br>significant (P &lt; 0.05) increased in levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG and<br>IgM with significant (P &lt; 0.05) decreased in levels of glutathione (GSH) in an infected group compared<br>with control group. The findings of treated groups demonstrated non-significant (P &lt; 0.05) difference in all<br>studied parameters compare with control group when using C. azarolus extract. It was concluded that C.<br>azarolus extract has been role against the G. lamblia.</p> Intisar Ghanim Abdulwahhab Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1702 1705 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14583 Teledentistry: The Need of An Hour During Pandemic COVID-19 <p>The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originating in Wuhan, China, has become a major<br>public health challenge. According to WHO, “It is possible to halt the virus spread, by adopting measures<br>to detect disease early, isolate and treat the cases, tracing the people who came in contact with those who<br>are infected, wearing gloves and masks, limitation of people going outside their home and promote social<br>distancing measures.” Due to the characteristics of dental settings, the risk of cross infection can be high<br>between patients and dental practitioners and can spread from patient to patient.As part of its efforts to<br>mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 pandemicthe American Dental Association (ADA) provided essential<br>guidance on (i) emergency vs. nonemergency dental care and (ii) the use of teledentistry. In response to the<br>current health crisis, teledentistry is emerging as a viable care option in an effort to help “flatten the curve”<br>of the COVID-19 pandemic.During the COVID-19 outbreak, teledentistry is an effective way to triage<br>patients and conduct problem-focused evaluations in order to limit office visits to patients needing urgent or<br>emergency care. This article, based on relevant guidelines and research, introduces the essential knowledge<br>about COVID-19, and focuses on how teledentistry can be helpful in preventing dental emergencies by<br>providing effective dental care to patients during quarantine, and also educate and motivate people to opt<br>necessary dental hygiene measures.</p> Jyoti Prajapat, S Rajesh Prajapat Sowmya H K Sanjeev B Khanagar Prabhadevi C Maganur Satish Vishwanathaiah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1706 1708 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14584 Comparative Study in Surgical Management of the Pilonidal Sinus Disease <p>The objective: the current study conducted to assessment the recurrence rate of Pilonidal sinus.<br>Materials &amp; Methods: This retrospective study that shows all the cases of Pilonidal sinus treated in the<br>Khanaqin General Hospital and Jalawla General Hospital at period between April 2016 to September of<br>2019. The number of patients is 200, including 48 women and 152 men, with ages ranging from 19 to 50<br>years.<br>Results: 200 Pilonidal sinus patients were participated in this current study. The recurrence rate after<br>surgery reached 13(6.5%) from all patients. The patients who used in present study include male 152(76%)<br>and female 48(24%). According to Chronicity, the present results demonstrate 73 (36.5%) cases as acute<br>disease and 127 (63.5%) as chronic disease. 79 patients who suffering from acute disease were lay open and<br>collection drainage. On the other hand, 121 patients who were suffering from chronic disease treated with<br>sinus excisional procedures and primary midline closure.</p> Latif Mohammed Shinawa Mahmood Shakor Mughir Hazim Taha Ismael Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1709 1713 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14585 The Effectiveness of Zeolite in Treating Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Wastewater Discharged from General Sharqat Hospital <p>The current study where done to evaluation of sewage water and processing it in General Sharqat hospital<br>/ Salah El Din governorate –Tikrit –Iraq on 2018-2019. The study include analysis and measurement some<br>physical and chemical properties to processing with natural, cheap and have no side effect to reduced<br>harmful of water pollution of Tigris river .The results of present study showed conductivity and turbidity<br>of sewage water was decreases from (1596) µc/cm to (727) µc/cm from (343) to (19) Nut , (633) to (491)<br>ml/L respectively , and has risen concentration of dissolved oxygen (BOD5) (T.S.S) (T.D.S) and nitrates<br>preprocessing (104 , 0.53 , 966 and 25.2) which varied significantly with results post processing (52, 0.03 ,<br>361 and 12.0) respectively . The results showed efficient processing of sewage water in station when treated<br>with zeolite rocks powder. Sharqat hospital . discharged.</p> Mariam Adnan Ibrahim Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa Muofak Nhab Saleh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1714 1720 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14586 Effect of Sex and Age Differences on Premature Ventricular Ectopic Beats in Apparently Normal Hearts <p>Ventricular ectopic beat (VEB) is a common cause in clinical practice. sometimes this case is asymptomatic<br>but can cause uncomfortable symptoms in patients. There are some cases where the VEBs presence indicates<br>a risk factor towards severe arrhythmias, especially when associated with normal hart. Normal cases that<br>usually encounter episodes of ectopic beats were collected (58 individuals 23 were females and the rest (34)<br>were males) from the private consultative clinic or from the Sherqat general Hospital attendance in Salah<br>al-Din Governorate whose ages ranged between 38-66. These cases were followed up closely for two years<br>with a clinical examination every 3 months with electrocardiogram Heart, chest x-ray, echocardiography.<br>Regarding the management strategies (Table 2), 36 patients (19 males and 11 females) (49%) were satisfied<br>by B-Blocker 19 of them (33%) were less than 60 years and 9 were equal or above the 60. Thirteen of the<br>participants (23%) were given reassurance 3 of them (5%) were less than 60 years and 10 were equal or<br>above 60. Nine individuals (16%) cases responded to simple sedativezers) 5 of them (9%) were less than 60<br>years and 9 were equal or above 60. 7 (12%) were treated by a combination of sedative and prokinetics 6<br>of the cases (9%) were less than 60 years and 9 were equal or above 60. Electrocardiographic and Cardiac<br>Electrophysiological Properties of the study (Table 3) shows that 33 individuals (40%) were unifocal) were<br>unifocal premature Ventricular ectopic beats their age were under 60 for all of them. The rest (24) were<br>multifocal type. The QRS were significantly longer in male than in female and in the =60 more than that of<br>the &lt;60. In this regard, the result demonstrates that predominant S wave in 15 male participants versus 12<br>females. While there was 19 male having dominant R wave. Sex and age have a significant impact on cardiac<br>electrophysiological characteristics of Premature Ventricular ectopic beats.<br>The males are more affected with Premature Ventricular ectopic beats than females regarding this effect.</p> Miqdam M. Obaid Al-Jumaili Mohammed A. Ajeel Wijdan I.A. Abd-Alwahab Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1721 1726 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14587 Recent Advances of Therapeutic Strategies Based on the Molecular Signature in Non-Syndromic Congenital Neutropenia <p>Neutropenia has been defined to be classified into transient and chronic forms based upon duration and<br>acquired or congenital forms. Chronic neutropenia is considered as congenital, cyclic, autoimmune and<br>idiopathic categorizes, where congenital and cyclic categories are hereditary forms of neutropenia, but the<br>idiopathic and autoimmune are known as acquired neutropenia. In the present review, we focus highly on<br>the genetic subtypes of non-syndromic congenital neutropenia and therapeutic strategies regarding to recent<br>evidence. All aspects of molecular pathogenesis and biology have not been clarified so far; therefore, further<br>in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed to reveal roles of molecular mechanisms,<br>and pathways involved in the development of congenital neutropenia and to provide a basis for achieving<br>novel therapeutic strategies.</p> Mohammad Darvish Mohammadreza Nazer Hamzeh Shahali Ebrahim Karimi Alireza Dadashi Seyed Zia Hejripour Majid Noori Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1727 1735 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14588 Effect of Lead on Some Phenotypic Characteristics, Protein Changes and Productivity of Beta vulgaris var. cicle <p>This study was conducted at the College of Education for women, Tikrit University / department of biology,<br>and aims to find out the effect of lead in different concentrations (125, 250 and 500) mg / kg on the phenotypic,<br>physiological and genetic characteristics (amino acids) of chard Beta vulgaris var. cicle.<br>The results showed that soil pollution with lead leads to inhibition of vegetative growth through its effect on<br>the processes of division, cellular expansion and hormonal regulation, as well as negatively affects various<br>vital activities and different metabolic processes (photosynthesis, respiration, building of nucleic acids,<br>proteins, enzymatic activities, and other vital activities necessary for plant growth and reduces productivity).</p> Buthainah Jasim Yousif Muqdad Altae Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1736 1743 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14589 Computer-Aided Measurement of Total Occlusal Convergence of Teeth Preparations for All-Ceramic Crowns by Dental Students <p>Objective: This study was based on the evaluation the degree of total occlusal convergence of teeth prepared<br>for all-ceramic crowns which is the main factor that retention and resistance form of indirect restorations<br>depended on. Teeth preparation done by 3rd year dental students at Al-Esraa university collage, Iraq in 2019.<br>Materials and method: Eighty typodont teeth, maxillary central incisor(n=40) and first premolar teeth<br>(n=40) were prepared for all-ceramic crowns by preclinical dental students under examination condition.<br>The prepared teeth were scanned and digitized using the laser scanner 3Shape D710 (SculptCAD, Texas,<br>USA). The datasets were evaluated using inspection software (shaper 3D zrt. Hungary, 2020) that used for<br>the assessment of the total occlusal convergence. Each tooth was virtually sectioned by four vertical planes:<br>buccopalatal, mesiodistal, mesiobuccal–distopalatal and distobuccal– mesiopalatal and for each plane the<br>total occlusal convergence angle (degree) was measured by drawing lines along the two opposing axial<br>walls from the finish line extended coronally. The data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests using<br>analysis of variance (ANOVA) and unpaired t-tests. Differences between groups were tested for significance<br>at 95% confidence interval.<br>Results: The results revealed that the students prepared the central incisor teeth with average TOC values<br>of 11.46° ± 6.81°, 9.91° ± 4.92°, 10.54° ± 7.05° and 12.06° ± 6.71° respectively, from the buccopalatal,<br>mesiodistal, mesiobuccal–distopalatal and distobuccal– mesiopalatal planes. Concerning first premolar<br>teeth, students prepared them with average TOC values of 12.03° ± 6.63°,11.57° ± 6.34°, 14.3° ± 6.94° and<br>12.55° ± 6.6° respectively.<br>The findings revealed that the approximated average TOC values for all the measured planes were<br>greater than the optimal TOC range 4 to 6 ° but stayed within the TOC acceptable range 4 to 14 °.<br>Ordinary one-way ANOVA test showed no significant (P &gt;0.05) differences in the average TOC between<br>the different four planes within each tested group of teeth. The average value of overall total occlusal<br>convergence (TOCs) in the first premolar teeth= 12.61°± 6.63°was higher than for the central incisor teeth=<br>10.99°±6.4°. Unpaired t-test for the two tested groups revealed significant (p &lt; 0.05) differences.<br>Conclusions: The presented study found that about 85%, 65.83% respectively of upper central incisor<br>and first premolar teeth prepared for all-ceramic crowns by pre-clinical dental students with acceptable<br>recommended convergence angle range 4-14°.</p> Mays Y. Khamas Inas Al-Rawi Aseel A. Saleh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1744 1751 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14590 Using of Procalcitonin Level in Differentiation between Bacterial Vaginitis Due to Pathogenic Bacteria and Normal Flora <p>This study conducted to view the role of PCT level in initial finding of bacterial vaginitis in pregnant<br>women. A total of 150 deep vaginal swabs (100 pregnant women and 50 pregnant women as control<br>group) were collected from the beginning of February 2019 to the end of May 2019 from inpatients and<br>outpatients women attended to Al-Fallujah teaching hospital. Media were organized &amp; purified according to<br>producer’s guidance. The ready media were utilized for segregation , definition of the viable enumeration<br>, identifying &amp; sensibility workout these media were achieved in the wake of being solidified. Swabs was<br>inoculated bacteriological agars for isolation of causative bacterial types . Blood samples collected by vein<br>puncture for determination of PCT by using ELISA technique. The study showed that that 57% of pregnant<br>women have vaginal swab for culture as compared with 48 of the control group (non- pregnant women). The<br>results demonstrated that, 54.39% of pathogenic bacteria isolated from vagina of pregnant women was G-ve<br>bacteria and 45.61% was G+ve bacteria. S. aureus represented the highest rate of pathogenic isolates 45.61%<br>in cases (43.86%) while 29.17 of the control group were infected equally by E coli and K. pneumonia.The<br>highest rate of antibiotic sensitivity toward S. aureus isolates was occurred in levofloxacin (88.46%) while<br>it was completely resistant to ampicillin and lincomycin, 94.11% of E. coli isolates was sensitive to each of<br>levofloxacin and cefotaxime and 100% resistant to lincomycin, 92.85% of Klebsiella isolates was sensitive to<br>amoxicalve while it was 100% resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin and lincomycin. Procalcitonin level was<br>highly elevated among pregnant ones followed by healthy ones (26.79±9.4 v.s 9.236±0.6 pg/ml) at P value<br>&lt;0.01. The highest mean of Procalcitoninlevel is found among pregnant women with pathogenic bacteria<br>isolates of HVS culture (30.15±9.84 pg/ml) and the lowest mean is recorded among pregnant women with<br>normal flora isolates (23.72±7.25 pg/ml).Conclusions: Serum PCT was highly elevated in pregnant women<br>with vaginitis especially who diagnosed with pathogenic bacteria.</p> Eman Ghadhban Salih Mohammed Ismael Dawood Nihad Khalawe Tektook Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1752 1758 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14591 Assessing Patient Preoperatively and Role in Decreasing Risks on Patients and Preventing Post-Operative Complications for Cholecystectomy <p>Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has many difficulties which include port Insertion, Dissection<br>of the Calot’s Triangle , Grasping of the Gallbladder , Wall thickness, Adhesion and extraction of the<br>Gallbladder. Aim of the Study: To predict how difficult cholecystectomy will be from assessing the patient<br>preoperatively which, in turn, help in decreasing the risks on the patients and preventing post-operative<br>complications. Patients and Methods: A prospective study conducted in the department of General Surgery<br>at Al-Ramadi Teaching Hospital for the period of nine months from 15th of May 2018 till the 15th of February<br>2019. It included 60 patients, all of them were undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy for Gallstone. Patients<br>with common bile duct calculus, dilated common bile duct, current attack of acute cholecystitis, those with<br>absolute contraindications to laparoscopic cholecystectomy, The data were collected prospectively to predict<br>the significance of association with patients’ characteristics. The time of operation was calculated from the<br>first port site incision until the last port closure. All the intra operative events were recorded. Conversions<br>to open cholecystectomy were done by median or subcostal laparotomy according to the surgeon’s decision<br>and each patient’s condition. Results: In this study, the highest proportion of operations was categorized<br>as easy (58.3%), 28.3% of operations were considered difficult and 13.3% of them were very difficult. A<br>significant association (P &lt; 0.05) between operation difficulty and all of the following characteristics: Aging,<br>obesity, history of previous biliary hospitalization, thickened bladder wall, pericholecystic collection, and<br>large stones. Conclusions: The difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be predicted preoperatively<br>based on number of factors, like: obesity, previous biliary admission, gall bladder wall thickness, ultrasound<br>findings (stone size and pericholecystic fluid) and aging process, evaluating of such factors minimize the<br>complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and conversion to the open procedure.</p> Alaa Hussein Alwan Mohanned H Alwan Ihab Saeed Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1759 1767 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14592 Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in a Cohort of Iranian Patients: Olfactory Dysfunction as a Frequent Clinical Presentation <p>Background: Since its outbreak, the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with<br>coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The full spectrum of disease severity of COVID-19 is still unknown.<br>In this study which is the first report from Iran, we showed that olfactory dysfunction is a frequent clinical<br>manifestation among COVID-19 patients.<br>Methods: All patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to Arak hospitals in Iran. We<br>retrospectively collected and analyzed data on patients with either laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2<br>infection by real-time RT-PCR and/or chest CT<br>Results: Most patients in our cohort had mild COVID-19 (104 [60.4%] of 172) . Common symptoms at<br>the onset of disease included (subjective) fever (131 [76%] of 172 patients), cough (130 [75.5%]), myalgia<br>(107 [62%]) dyspnea (92 [53.5%]), chills (96 [55.8%]), and headache (94 [54.6%]). Olfactory dysfunction<br>(OD), including anosmia, hyposmia, hyperosmia, and dysosmia, were reported by 61 ([36.5%] of 167)<br>patients. The most common concurrent symptoms beside the olfactory dysfunctions, were fever (39 [69.6%]<br>of 56 patients) and chills (26 [46.4%]), respectively. For the most part, the patient’s condition worsened<br>after the notice of anosmia/dysgeusia (48 [85.7%] of 56 patients). The majority of anosmic patients were<br>recovered from COVID-19 (50 [89.3%] of 56 patients). The anosmia/dysgeusia was resolved in 42 [75%]<br>of 56 patients after two weeks.<br>Conclusion: Taken together, this study reports the disease spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of<br>172 Iranian adult patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report from Iran.</p> Alireza Kamali Mehrnoosh Ebadi Hassan Vahidnezhad Alireza Mohammadi Mohsen Dalvandi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1768 1770 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14594 A Retrospective Study of Pattern of Cranio-Cerebral Injuries Due to Road Traffic Accident in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p>Head injury is defined as sudden injury due to an external force that affects the functioning of brain. It may be<br>either caused by sudden blow or impact (closed head injury) or by an object penetrating the skull (Penetrating injury).<br>The common causes of head injury include road traffic accidents, fall from height and assault. The mortality from<br>head injury is reported to be between 1-2% of death from all the causes. Not only it is one of the major causes of<br>death in young adults but also may cause permanent disability in survivors. The importance of head injury as a public<br>health problem cannot be overstated. In the studies of Road Traffic accidents provide valuable data for implementing<br>effective emergency services to reduce the trauma related mortality and strengthening legal measures in peak hours<br>of fatal accidents. We aimed to study, pattern of injuries especially cranio- cerebral injuries occurring in vehicular<br>accidents. Patients case records with history of head injury and MLC records of victims of road traffic accident<br>reported to Saveetha hospital, Chennai from 1st Jan 2019 to 31st Dec 2019 period were analysed retrospectively.<br>Out of total 1846 Road Traffic Accidents cases reported to Emergency Medicine department, Saveetha<br>Medical college hospital, Chennai, 10.40% cases had history of head injury. The male/female ratio was<br>9:1. Commonest age group affected was between 21-40 years involving 126 (65.62%n=192) cases. Fatal<br>traumatic brain injuries were seen in 178 (92.70%, n=192) cases. Amongst 192 head injury cases, scalp<br>injury noted in 167 (86.97%) cases, most common bone fractured was temporal bone 94(48.95%), followed<br>by other bone parts. The commonest variety of intracranial haemorrhage was subdural haemorrhage 173<br>(n=192, 90.10%) followed by Subarachnoid haemorrhage and Extradural haemorrhage. In 26 (13.54%)<br>patients of head injury, craniotomy surgery was done. The timings between 3PM to 6PM showed the highest<br>number of cases accounting to 61.7% of the cases followed by 26.0% of cases between 6PM to 9PM. The<br>two-wheeler accidents accounted for 69.9% of the head injury cases followed by that due to other vehicles<br>(16.7%)</p> Vaidehi Singh Siddesh Revpla Channabasappa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1771 1777 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14595 Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude Towards Medical Ethics among Medical Students - A Questionnaire based Study <p>Introduction: Ethics is concerned with moral principles for the members of the medical profession in their<br>dealings with each other, their patients and the State. A physician must uphold dignity and honour of his<br>profession. He must render service to humanity and should maintain good medical practices. A physician<br>must provide highest quality assurance in patient care. Duties of physician towards sick include obligation<br>to sick, must be patient while treating them. Its an era of litigation against medical professionals. Awareness,<br>Knowledge of medical ethics during MBBS phase is need of the hour to prevent these.<br>Aims &amp; Objectives: • The study aims to assess Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude towards medical ethics<br>among medical students in a teaching hospital.<br>• To suggest and implement necessary changes in the medical curriculum like AETCOM module to train<br>them &amp; to focus on ethical practices.<br>Materials and Methods: A Prospective, cross sectional questionnaire-based study was carried out among<br>medical students of Saveetha Medical College hospital, Chennai. The Medical Students from Phase II &amp;<br>Phase III MBBS were approached and the questionnaires were sent to about 250 medical students, out of<br>which 216 responses were recorded &amp; included in the study. Received responses/results were tabulated and<br>statistically analysed, depicted in observations.<br>Conclusion: There are no potential risks in the study. Study helps to identify the amount of awareness of<br>medical ethics among medical students and also to stress on the need for awareness programs on medical<br>ethics. The medical students may not have sufficient knowledge towards medical ethics, need much training<br>among medical students through Value added courses on Ethics and AETCOM module of CBME curriculum<br>in future throughout the curriculum.</p> Shikha Shajil Siddesh Revpla Channabasappa V Dekal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1778 1782 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14596 A Study on Dactylographic Pattern in Relation to Abo - Blood Group and Iris Colour <p>Dactylography or Fingerprint is one of the oldest reliable biometric indicators. Dermatoglyphics (fingerprint/<br>dactylography) is derived from the Greek word “Derma = Skin, Glyphe = Carve.” Fingerprint patterns are<br>unique in each individual and the chance of two persons having identical fingerprints is about one in 64<br>thousand million. Fingerprints represent the impressions left by the friction ridges of our finger.<br>Out of many blood grouping systems available, ABO and Rh systems are the most important and are<br>considered for the present study. Due to the immense potential of fingerprints as an effective method of<br>identification an attempt has been made in the present work to analyse their correlation with blood group and<br>Iris colour of an individual. This study was carried out on 200 medical students (100 male and 100 female)<br>having different ABO blood groups and belonging to different age groups. All the 10 fingers fingerprints<br>were taken and divided into loops, whorls, arches and composite. Iris colour recorded by direct illumination<br>by Slit lamp examination. Results shown that loops pattern being most common followed by whorls, arches<br>and composite. Brown colored iris being more predominant in both the genders than green and blue colored<br>iris.<br>Loops are predominant in males whereas whorls and arches are seen more in females. Composites being<br>in same proportion in both sexes. Most of the subjects with loops pattern were belongs to O positive blood<br>group and having brown iris colour followed by B positive. Among loops ulnar loops were more predominant<br>than radial loop.<br>Among all subjects, green colored iris recorded in 5 subjects, out of 5, 4 had loop fingerprint patter &amp;<br>another one subject had arch pattern. Blue colored iris recorded in two subjects with loop pattern.</p> Vidula Ramesh Siddesh Revpla Channabasappa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1783 1788 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14597 Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Students Towards Medico Legal Autopsy- A Questionnaire Based Study <p>Introduction: Autopsy is a research tool which has been used for centuries. Autopsy is a scientific study<br>of a dead body and is categorized into clinical and medico-legal autopsies. A Medicolegal autopsy or postmortem examination is a scientific examination of dead body carried out under the law of the state mainly to<br>assist the identification and prosecution of the guilty in cases of unnatural deaths. This study is done to assess<br>the knowledge, Perception and Attitude of medical students towards medico legal autopsy.<br>Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among the students of Saveetha<br>medical college, questionnaires related to autopsy were distributed and students were asked to fill them.<br>According to the data obtained was analyzed to know the Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Students<br>Towards Medico Legal Autopsy<br>Results: Majority of the students (92.3%) thought that autopsy is necessary for all unnatural deaths. 84.6%<br>said that inquest report, requisition letter is needed for autopsies. 80.8% knew autopsy is done to know the<br>cause of death and reach the culprit of the crime and was a legal formality in unnatural deaths. 96.2% of<br>students have not felt performing autopsy is disrespectful to the body. 94.2% of participants had a opinion<br>that the autopsies they witnessed were not enough. 96.9% agreed that autopsy is necessary in medical<br>education. Almost half (49.9%) of the students felt uncomfortable while witnessing autopsy, 29.6% were<br>Comfortable and 20.5% of students have not witnessed autopsy yet. Only 67.3% were comfortable with<br>live autopsies, rest 32.7% preferred virtual autopsy. 96.2% knew that preserving viscera is necessary<br>during autopsy on suspected case of poisoning. Majority of students (98.1%) felt that medical students<br>should actively participate in autopsies. Most of them (98.1%) knew that both external and internal<br>examinations are done in autopsies and 98.5% felt that ED posting specifically for Forensic Medicine for<br>trauma, poisoning and other medico-legal cases is necessary during CRRI.<br>Conclusion: Overall this study shows that students have some knowledge of autopsies but think that the<br>autopsies that they have witnessed were not enough and encourages that medical students should witness<br>and actively participate in more autopsies. We also suggest to revise the Forensic Medicine curriculum by<br>increasing the number of teaching and practical hours thereby the students will be able to make observations<br>and come to conclusions in criminal matters or Medico-legal cases.</p> Vignesh S Siddesh Revpla Channabasappa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1789 1792 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14598 Assessment of Knowledge and Awareness about Consent among Medical Practitioners in a Tertiary Care Hospital – A Questionnaire based Study <p>Introduction: The medicine being a moral profession, the relationship of doctor and patient entails<br>the highest conceivable degree of trust and fidelity. Good bedside manner, technical competency and<br>communication skills are the physician’s behaviors most strongly associated with patient trust. The changing<br>medical practice of the 20th century has given place to patient’s autonomy and informed consent. Consent<br>is not mere submission of the patient to a particular treatment, but a process of communication requiring<br>the fulfilment of certain established elements like competence, sufficient disclosure, understanding and<br>volunteering. However, less attention has been paid to the implications of obtaining informed consent, from<br>the physicians’ perspective. Considering the above fact, the study was undertaken to assess the knowledge<br>and awareness about informed consent among medical practitioners in a tertiary care hospital.<br>Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was undertaken in 100<br>medical practitioners during May 2020 to July 2020.<br>Results: It was observed that most of the participants were aware and had sufficient knowledge about<br>informed consent, but the law related to consent and other inner details of informed consent in medical<br>practice were lacking.<br>Conclusion: We concluded that medical institutions, various medical associations and medico-legal bodies<br>must conduct regular medico legal training programmes, continuum medical education programmes,<br>seminars and workshops and must be made mandatory to participate actively for all medical practitioners to<br>update their knowledge related to consent in medical practice and law related to medical practice.</p> Yashwanth R Siddesh Revpla Channabasappa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1793 1798 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14599 A Retrospective Study of Socio-Demographic Profile and Pattern of Poisoning Cases at Tertiary Care Hospital <p>Death due to poisoning has been known since time immemorial. Poisoning is a major problem all over the<br>world, although its type and the associated morbidity and mortality vary from country to country. According<br>to the WHO, more than three million poisoning cases with 251,881 deaths occur worldwide annually, of<br>which 99% of fatal poisonings occur in developing countries, particularly among agricultural workers.<br>Pattern of poisoning in any region depends on availability of poisons, socio economic status of the population,<br>religious and cultural influences, occupation prevalent in the region and likewise. Organophosphorus<br>poisoning occurs very commonly in southern India, where farmers form a significant proportion of the<br>population who commonly use organophosphorus compounds like parathion as insecticides. A retrospective<br>analysis of all poisoning cases admitted to Saveetha Medical College Hospital, Chennai from Jan 2019<br>to Dec 2019 was done to study the pattern of poisoning reported. Acute poisoning is a common medical<br>emergency and one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries due to easy<br>availability of poisonous substances and its low cost. So, it was necessary to know the demo-graphic profile<br>&amp; pattern of poisoning cases at Saveetha Medical College Hospital, Chennai. Data was collected using a<br>pretested proforma from case records, MRD department &amp; Emergency Medicine department and the data<br>was analyzed and presented.</p> Vandana K Siddesh Revpla Channabasappa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1799 1805 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14600 Association Between CT Scan Findings and Mortality in Covid-19 Cases <p>Background: Covid-19 epidemia is a worldwide infectious viral disease initiating from December 2019<br>from Wuhan, China. Recognition of the prognostic role of imaging findings is important to improve the<br>outcomes in patients. Accordingly, regarding the lack of studies in this era among Iranian patients, this study<br>was done to determine the association between CT scan findings and mortality in Covid-19 cases.<br>Methods: In this prognostic prospective cohort study, 192 consecutive patients with established Covid-19<br>disease by clinical findings, and laboratory results in Besat Hospital, Tehran, Iran in March and April 2020<br>were enrolled. The findings in CT scan were involved zone and lobe, ground glass, consolidation, ground<br>glass with reticular, reverse hallo sign, microvascular dilation sign, fibrotic streaks, sub pleural line, air<br>bronchogram, Bronchus distortion, broncheiectasis, pleural thickening, pleural reaction, and pleural effusion.<br>According to involvement degree the points in CT scan were 0, 1, and 2 for lack of lung parenchyma<br>involvement, less than 50 percent involvement, and more than 50 percent involvement.<br>Results: The involved zones were significantly differed between survived and dead cases (P=0.001). As<br>shown in Table 4, the scores of CT scan for lung involvement and also number of involved lobes were<br>differed across the alive and dead cases (P=0.001) the mean hospital stay was 7.1 (5.6) and 5.7 (2.5) days that<br>was same across the groups (P=0.325). There were significant differences between groups for consolidation,<br>ground glass plus reticular pattern, fibrotic streaks, sub-pleural line, air bronchogram, bronchiectasis, pleural<br>thickening, pleural effusion, and pleural reaction (P &lt; 0.05).<br>Conclusion: Totally, according to the obtained results it may be concluded that CT scan is useful prognostic<br>modality to predict the mortality among patients with Covid-19 disease. Consolidation, ground glass plus<br>reticular pattern, fibrotic streaks, sub-pleural line, air bronchogram, bronchiectasis, pleural thickening,<br>pleural effusion, and pleural reaction are the man CT scan findings predicting higher mortality rate in these<br>patients.</p> Seyed Zia Hejripour Elyas Aslinezhad Mohammadreza Azimi Aval Hamid Moradi Mohammad Darvishi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1806 1812 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14601 Prevalence and Incidence of Dermatophytosis in Al-Diwaniya City, Iraq <p>The present study carried out in Al-Diwaniya city, 71clinical specimens were taken from the patients with<br>dermatophytosis. The age of patients were between (1-50) years, real positive cultural examinations were<br>49(69%), whereas negative cultural examinations were 22 (31 %) . The occurrence of dermatophyte fungi<br>were higher in females than males, depending on the gender, as for the age groups, the infection was higher<br>in the age group 31-40 and 41-50 years followed by the age group ? 11 years, whereas the lowest infection<br>was among the age group 21-30 and 12-20 years. Also, the result of this study showed that 37(52.11%)<br>patients were housewives, 20 (28.16%) students, 7(9.85%) office employees, 7(9.85%) hospital workers.<br>Out of 49 patients 25(51.0 %) cases were Tinea pedis, followed by Tinea cruris15(30.6%), Tinea capitis<br>5(10.2%), and 4(8.2%) Tinea unguium. The result of this study also showed that 31(63.3%) isolates were<br>T. rubrum, 11( 22.4%) T. mentagrophytes , E. floccosum and M. canis isolates were found 2(4.1%) and<br>5(10.2%) respectively</p> Abeer Mohammed Ali Al-garawyi Adnan H. Al-Hamadani Adnan waheed AL- Bederi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1813 1817 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14602 Evaluation of Mirror Image Biopsy Technique for the Detection of Field Change in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tongue <p>Background: Oral cancer is one of the most common type of head and neck cancer, with a 5 year survival<br>rate of &lt; 50%. One of the major problems of oral cancer include the late stage of disease at the time of<br>diagnosis. Mirror image biopsy is a new technique that can be used for detection of early changes in the<br>oral mucosa. Aim of the study: To histologically assess the reflect copy biopsy occupied from clinically<br>usual observing mucosa at consistent contralateral anatomical place to the main lesion in patients identified<br>with tongue squamous cell carcinoma to notice any indication of arena alteration in oral mucosa. Materials<br>and methods: Seven patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue underwent reflect<br>copy biopsy from clinically usual observing mucosa at consistent contralateral anatomical place to the main<br>lesion. The reflect copy biopsy example were exposed to histopathological check. Results: of the seven<br>patients included, four were male and three were female, with an age range from 45 years to 64 years<br>(median 54.5 years). One of the biopsies revealed severe dysplasia and six-revealed hyperplasia of the<br>epithelium. Conclusion: Mirror image biopsy is a useful tool to detect the early field changes in oral mucosa<br>in order to prevent further progression to oral cancer.</p> Nawres Bahaa Mohammed Samer Majeed Mohammed Hydar Munir Salih Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1818 1822 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14603 Interleukin-8 Concentration Correlation with the Size of Hydatid Cyst in Patients with Hydatidosis and Hepatitis C Mixed Infection (Case Control Study) <p>Background:Hydatid cyst is a disease that is transmitted from the lactating animals that come into contact<br>with a person, and its danger is to generate hydatid cysts that may put pressure on some vital organs in<br>the human body. Here comes the role of joint infection with other pathogens such as the hepatitis C virus,<br>especially in the same organs that are infected with the parasite, which may result from these mixed infections<br>serious disease complications<br>Aim of study: The present study aimed to examine the possibility of a relationship between interleukin-8<br>concentration level with the size of Hydatid cyst patients with mixed infection of hydatidosis and hepatitis<br>C virus.<br>Patients and Methods: The current research was run for the period January 2019 to January 2020. The<br>patients were referred to AL-Furat al-awsat Hospital , Al-Sadder medical city, Public Health Laboratory<br>and Al-Hakeem Hospital in Al- Najaf governorate, Iraq. Eighty samples were divided into two groups. This<br>first group was comprised of 40 patients with hydatidosis, the second group comprised of 40 patients with<br>hydatidosis and hepatitis c virus mixed infection. The patients were aged 10 to 60 years old.<br>Result: A higher interleukin-8 concentration was observed in patients with hydatidosis compared to the<br>healthy group, as the interleukin-8 concentration was (89.36) While the concentration of interleukin- 8<br>reached in the healthy group (30 .14) ,while A high concentration of interleukin 8 is observed in combined<br>infection of hydatidosis and hepatitis C virus compaer with healthy group , As the concentration of interleukin<br>8 in the combined infection of hydatidosis and hepatitis C virus (108.73) while in the healthy group (30.14 ).<br>Conclusion: The presence of a high level of interleukin-8 in mixed-infection patients is higher than in<br>single-infection patients, which may lead to exacerbation and complications of hydatidosis disease.</p> Eman Hasani AL-Salami Marwa Rahman Mohamed Alsaedi Nadia Habeeb Sarhan Sarhan Alshabanii Saif Jabbar Yasir Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1823 1828 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14604 Cephalometric Assessment of Iraqi Sample from Basrah City for Orthodontic and Surgical Treatment Planning <p>Objectives: The aims of the present study were to establish the cephalometric norms for Iraqi sample from<br>Basrah city and to study the sexual dimorphism.<br>Materials and Methods: Fifty dental students having normal occlusion were recruited and examined<br>clinically then digital true lateral cephalometric X-rays were taken and analyzed using Smile stream<br>software. Mean values and standard deviations were obtained and unpaired t-test was applied to assess the<br>genders difference.<br>Results: Most of the skeleto-dental measurements lie within the normal range with almost proclined<br>mandibular incisors and no significant gender differences.<br>Conclusions: Assessing the skeleto-dental relationships is far important to arrange accurate diagnosis and<br>treatment planning for orthodontic and orthognathic cases.</p> Riad Al-Taee Aqeel Ibrahim Lazim Al-Saedi Mohammed Nahidh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1829 1836 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14605 Pathological Evaluation of Canine Hepatic Cirrhosis and Necro-inflammatory Activity <p>Background: Hepatic fibrosis is a common pathological result of chronic liver diseases, which is a dynamic<br>process of liver decomposition mediated by cellular mediators in response to injury.<br>Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the histopathological features of dog-liver fibrosis and / or<br>cirrhosis.<br>Materials and Methods: 40 liver samples were collected; 12 liver fibrosis suspected animals were performed<br>the histopathology to determine the main features of canine liver fibrosis.<br>Results: The histopathology revealed chronic hepatitis with liver islands separated by strips of fibroblasts<br>and collagen, moderate numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Also in fibrosis between<br>chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis had a wide range of severity and inflammation was observed primarily around<br>fibrous tissue or was surrounded by fibrous tissue but extended to the liver parenchyma. The histochemical<br>study revealed to a deposition of collagen fibers in the portal, subscapular and interlobular regions.<br>Conclusion: The histopathology revealed a range of lesions vary from mild hepatic degenerative changes to<br>severe fibrotic features associated with canine hepatic fibrosis and early cirrhosis.</p> Shahad Saad Mahdi Jihad Abdulameer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1837 1842 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14606 Genotoxicity and Clastogenicity of Bisphenol A <p>Objectives: This review represents a critical and constructive analysis of literature in the content of<br>genotoxicity and clastogenicity of Bisphenol A. The review is generated through summary, classification,<br>analysis and comparison of already existing material and researches on field.<br>Methods: Databases as Scopus, PubMed, Medline and Web of Science were used to extract data for the<br>review. Search terms like “Bisphenol A”, “endocrine disruptors”,”clastogenicity” and “genotoxicity” were<br>inquired. Out of 350 research articles screened, 60 most relevant studies are included in this review.<br>Conclusion : This review highlights the endocrine disrupting potential of Bisphenol A, thus leading to<br>genotoxic and clastogenic events, especially impacting fragile categories like pregnant women, infants and<br>children. BPA induces oxidative stress, inflammatory response, DNA strand break, chromosome aberrations<br>and epigenetic changes, affecting neuroendocrine and reproductive system, metabolism, immunity, liver<br>function, and increases the incidence of thyroid, liver, breast, uterine and ovary cancer.<br>We can conclude that human exposure to BPA, as one of the leading environmental contaminants, represents<br>a major global issue. BPA by its genotoxic and clastogenic potential can be debilitating for human health.<br>Further research on field considering BPA distribution, varying exposure rates, racial disparities and interspecies differences, should be conducted. Avoiding exposure to BPA and finding safer alternatives to refine,<br>reduce or replace BPA in market should remain a priority.</p> Adelina Ismaili Flaka Pasha Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1843 1849 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14607 The Association between Teeth Loss and Oral Health Problems <p>Background: The teeth play various functional roles, from the most basic functions to more subtle functions.<br>One of the most tragic events that can happen to the teeth are loss it, as a result trauma or dental diseases.<br>Tooth loss has esthetic, functional, positional and psychological impacts on the life of individuals.<br>Objectives: To investigate the association between tooth loss and oral health problems among partially<br>and completely edentulous patients. Method: (Questionnaire and Clinical Examination). Self-administered<br>questionnaire was distributed to the patients to collect information relating to demography and cause of<br>tooth loss, in addition to mastication and speech state after tooth loss. Four clinical conditions including<br>supra-eruption, drifting teeth, temporomandibular disorders and bone resorption were used to recognize the<br>effects of missing teeth. Patients seeking dental treatment at General Hospital, Morzuk, Libya were recruited<br>for the study. Criteria included age of 16 years and above with one or more missing teeth except for third<br>molars. Results: altogether 58 participants, 31 (53.4 %) were males while 27 (46.6%) were females. The<br>participants were aged 16–&gt;45 years, among them, 44 patients (75.9%) are partially edentulous, and 14<br>patients (24.1%) were completely edentulous. The patients with complete teeth loss and the patients with<br>missing both the anterior and posterior teeth are most groups suffer problems among patients who involved<br>in the study. patients who loss posterior teeth are the lowest group had, suffer of health problems due to loss<br>of teeth among all of them.<br>The general relationship between tooth loss and the oral health problems was positive and strong. Conclusions:<br>there are statistically significant relationship between tooth loss and oral health problems, where the strong<br>value of this relationship (0.614) and significance within less than (0.05).</p> Aesa Alzaroug Jaber Alshame M.J.Alshame Khaled Owidat Abdalla Prabhu Manickam Natarajan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1850 1860 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14608 Antiretroviral Medicine Ethical Execution Policy for HIV / AIDS Survivors in Indonesia <p>Introduction: One of the health problems in Indonesia that has not been resolved is the HIV pandemic or<br>Human Immunodeficiency Virus or a virus that attacks/infects white blood cells which causes a decrease in<br>human immunity. To combat HIV/AIDS, treatment is performed through antiretroviral drugs. But in fact,<br>antiretroviral drugs are often scarce which causes a decrease in the welfare of people with HIV / AIDS in<br>Indonesia.<br>Research Objectives: This study aims to discover and analyze some policies on administering antiretroviral<br>drugs that are fair for people with HIV/AIDS in Indonesia.<br>Methods: This study uses a qualitative method with a normative juridical approach. The data used are<br>secondary data consisting of primary and secondary legal materials. The data was collected through a<br>literature study and analyzed qualitatively.<br>Conclusion: In making policies, the implementation of antiretroviral drugs must be centered on PLWHA<br>and use the PLWHA as policy actors. The policy of delivering ARV drugs that are centered on PLHIV<br>is expected to produce fair policy outputs and then have implications for the high welfare of PLWHA in<br>Indonesia, this is in line with the formation of a policy based on the study of responsive legal theory initiated<br>by Nonet and Selznick. Responsive legal theory requires that the law that has implications for PLWHA,<br>should always be sensitive to the needs of PLWHA, especially regarding the availability of ARV drugs.</p> Aga Natalis Sukimin Tri Mulyan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1861 1867 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14609 Forensic Examination of Torture and other Forms of ill-Treatment <p>Forensic documentation is crucial for documenting torture, and is generally treated as a central component<br>of any effort to prosecute torture. As a result, it is central to ending the impunity for torture which is key to<br>its perpetuation. Forensic evidences have been the centerpiece of the judgment by the court of cassation.<br>This shows the important of the quality, independence and impartiality of the forensic examination for any<br>strategy for the prevention of torture in Jordan.</p> Ahmad AL Taharwah Hamzeh Abu Issa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1868 1872 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14613 Cultural Misconceptions and Public Stigma about Mental Illness <p>Background: This study aims to identify the demographic and cultural correlates of mental illness stigma<br>towards patients and their family members from the perspectives of university students.<br>Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was employed. A total of 398 students from four universities<br>participated in the study. They completed the demographic data questionnaire, the scale of cultural<br>misconceptions about mental illness and the Discrimination–Devaluation Scale.<br>Results: Results of independent t-test and one-way ANOVA indicated no significant difference in the levels<br>of mental health stigma towards patients and their families based on students’ gender, faculty and place<br>of residency. Previous history of family mental illness was associated with stigma towards patients and<br>their families. Old age was associated with few mental stigmas towards patients’ families. Various cultural<br>misconceptions about the causes and the treatment of mental illness were significantly associated with<br>mental illness stigma.<br>Conclusion: Addressing cultural misconceptions is crucial in reducing mental illness stigma.</p> Ahmad B. Al-Rawashdeh Rafi M. Alnjadat Mohammad Bani Younis Ahmad Rayan Alaa Harb Heyam Al-Aaraj Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1873 1878 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14615 The Effect of Artemisia Dracunculus L. on Mitotic Index in Bone Marrow and Spleen Cells of Mice: In Vivo Study <p>Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon) is a rich source of herbal remedies with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory<br>properties. In the present study, the proliferation of bone marrow and spleen cells of mice was evaluated after<br>extraction of Artemisia dracunculus with 80% of ethanol. Two doses of the extract (500mg/kg body weight<br>and 1000mg/kg body weight) were given to the mice for seven successive days. On day eight, mice were<br>sacrificed and cells from bone marrow and spleen were collected; mitotic index was calculated and results<br>were compared with that of methotrexate at a dose 20mg/kg body weight ( positive control ) and distilled<br>water ( negative control). The results showed that the dose 500mg/kg body weight of Artemisia dracunculus<br>extract caused significant increase in mitotic index in both bone marrow and spleen cells of mice when<br>compared with negative control. While, the dose 1000mg/kg body weight of Artemisia dracunculus extract<br>caused significant decrease in mitotic index in both bone marrow and spleen cells of mice when compared<br>with negative control.</p> Ahmed Hamed Jwaid Ali Faris Hassan Ali Abdulhussain Kasim Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1879 1883 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14617 Anti-Cancer and Acute Toxicity Activity of Benzo[e]Indol-2- Ylidene)-3 -(4-Methoxyphenyl) Imino Propanal <p>Background: The new indole Schiff base compound benzo[e]indol-2-ylidene)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)<br>iminopropanal](2P)was investigated for antioxidant, toxicity and anti-tumor ability for A547 cell, PC3 cell<br>and WRL 68 cell.<br>Results: 2P has antioxidant ability for IC50 (75 µg/mL) compared with control ascorbic acid (27 µg/mL).<br>Antitumor ability to 2P for A547 cell and PC3 cell were decreased significantly after treated with 2P in dose<br>dependent manner at 24,48 and 72 hours, while no toxicity effect on the WRL 68 cell. The antitumor effect<br>was through accelerated apoptosis, the alteration in nuclear morphology. Increasing in the cells membrane<br>permeability, decreasing in the nucleus intensity with the increasing of concentration of 2P compound was<br>observed.<br>MMP is disturbed in the apoptosis by forming of permeability and the result was showed that 2P activated<br>release cytochrome c significant higher than control.2P break down the cell cycle progress in G1 phase (P<br>&lt;0.05) compared with control. Conclusion: this result was conducted the new 2P compound has antioxidant<br>and antitumor ability that may be used 2P a new anticancer drug.</p> Ahmed Jasim Mohammed Gawi Walaa Najm Abood Fadhil Lafta Faraj Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1884 1894 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14619 Detection of Proteus mirabilis in Healthy, sick and Diarrheal Dogs, Cats and Humans <p>The current work was conducted for isolation, identification and epidemiological frequency and distribution<br>of Proteus mirabilis from humans and Dogs, cats, scanning Vitek in addition (PCR) assay was confirm<br>detect isolates and Api 20E technique is also used in order diagnosis of P. mirabilis then determination<br>of antibiotics susceptibility pattern of recovered isolates. The human isolates showed that (89.47%) were<br>resistant Ampicillin, (42.10%) Ofloxacin, (57.14%) Cefoxitin, (57.14%) Gentamycin, (100%) Vancomycin,<br>(57.14%) Chloramphenicol, (89.47%) Trimethoprim, (100%) Amoxiclav, (57.89%) Streptomycin, (100%)<br>Tetracycline, (89.47%) Penicillin, (100%) Erythromycin. The dogs isolates showed resistance (64.28%) was<br>resistant Ampicillin, (35.71%) Ofloxacin, (46.1%) Cefoxitin, (53.8%) Gentamycin, (64.28%) Vancomycin,<br>(47.3%) Chloramphenicol, (64.28%) Trimethoprim, (64.28%) Amoxiclav, (42.85%) Streptomycin, (64.28%)<br>Tetracycline, (64.28%) Penicillin, (64.28%) Erythromycin, otherwise the cat’s isolates showed resistance<br>(35.71%) were Ampicillin -resistant, for Ofloxacin (35.71%), for Cefoxitin (35.71%), for Gentamycin<br>(35.71%), for Vancomycin (35.71%), for Chloramphenicol (35.71%), for Trimethoprim (35.71%), for<br>Amoxiclav (35.71%), for Streptomycin (35.71%), for Tetracycline (35.71%), for Penicillin (35.71%), for<br>Erythromycin (35.71%). The Proteus mirabilis was isolated from 33 out of 195 sample (16.92%) distributed<br>as 19 isolated from human and 14 from Dogs and Cats. The human isolates showed that (89.47%) were<br>resistant Ampicillin, (42.10%) Ofloxacin, (57.14%) Cefoxitin, (57.14%) Gentamycin, (100%) Vancomycin,<br>(57.14%) Chloramphenicol, (89.47%) Trimethoprim, (100%) Amoxiclav, (57.89%) Streptomycin, (100%)<br>Tetracycline, (89.47%) Penicillin, (100%) Erythromycin.</p> Alaa B. Mohammed Aseel M Hamzah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1895 1901 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14621 Cryopreservation of Dama. Dama (Fallow Deer) Semen using Tris Extender Treated with Soya Milk and Omega3 <p>The experiment was conducted in the Agricultural research’s station due to the College of Agriculture/<br>Al-Muthanna University in the south of Iraq, to study the effect of adding soybean milk and omega3 to<br>the tris extender on the quality of Dama.Dama (D.Dama) Gazelle semen under cryopreservation- thawing<br>conditions. The semen was collected from four adults males of D.Dama Gazelle using electric ejaculator<br>system .The experiment was contains four treatments :the control treatment using the traditional tris extender<br>only , T1.adding 5% soybeans to the tris extender , T2.adding 2% omega3 to the tris extender, T3. Adding<br>5% soybeans + 2% omega3 to the tris extender. It was observed highly significant effect(p? 0.01) of adding<br>5% soybean(T1) and adding 5% soybean+ 2% omega3(T3) to the tris extender on the sperm total motility%<br>and progressive motility % associated with highest viability percentage( explained by the percentage of live<br>sperms) and significant superiority in the results of the HOST test was noticed in this two treatments (T1<br>and T3).This results refers to better cryopreservation success of D. dama Gazelle spermatozoa in particular<br>it was associated with a very good results of acrosome integrity in all treatments, this is the first study in Iraq<br>deals with cryopreservation of D.Dama Gazelle semen, that helps to application of artificial insemination<br>and ( for the future) to conservation of the genetic resource for this endangered species.</p> Ali A.Z. Al-Saadoun Hadi Awaad Hesoon MSc. Haider F.M. Khashan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1902 1906 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14623 Impact Evaluation of Gender and Age on Percentage Distribution of Candidiasis and their Control by Medicinal Mushroom in Laboratory <p>Biological control represents an important approach for controlling many pathogenic fungi. Pleurotus<br>ostreatus is the most promising and effective bioagents against many pathogenic fungi. In this paper seventy<br>clinical specimens were collected from hospitalized patients, who were aged between (1 and 71) years old<br>for both genders. The results of this study showed that out of 70 specimens that collected from urine, Skin,<br>Vaginal and Oral specimens, (61) specimens (87.14%) were positive for fungal infections and (9) specimens<br>(12.86%) were negative. Out of (61) positive specimens, (50) specimens (82%) were positive for Candida<br>spp, (7) specimens (11%) were Trichophyton spp and (4) specimens (7%) were Microsporum spp. Out of<br>(50) positive specimens for candidal infections, Candida albicans was the more prevalence fungus (66%)<br>followed by the fungus Candida glabrata (14%). The maximum infection incidence has been recorded in<br>the age group of (21- 40) years and the women have been considerably more than the male in all tested<br>age groups. Pleurotus ostreatus culture filtrate affected the growth of Candida spp and the effect had been<br>increased with the increasing of the filtrate concentrations. The more sensitive species was C. tropicalis and<br>C. krusei than the other species.</p> Ali H. Hamoudi Ahmed K. Abdulrazzaq Kareem T. Shnawa Mohammed J. Hanawi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1907 1913 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14624 Sinus Tachycardia as a Predictor of Severe Carbonmonoxide Poisoning <p>Introduction: Carbonmonoxide (CO) poisoning is one of the most frequent intoxications in the world. The<br>heart is one vital organ affected in CO intoxication. In this study, we aimed to investigate characterstics and<br>electrocardiographic abnormalities of patients with CO poisoning.<br>Material and Methods: In a two-year period, we analyzed patient records admitted to our Emergency<br>Department (ED), retrospectively. Demographical characteristics (age, gender, monthly distribution, sources<br>of poisoning, etc), vital signs, laboratory findings, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and ECG findings<br>were investigated. Additionally, treatment method, source of exposure and length of stay (LOS) in the ED<br>were investigated. Then, patients were divided into 2 groups as to normobaric oxygen therapy (NBO) and<br>hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) groups according to the treatment methods. Two groups were compared<br>in terms of electrocardiographic abnormalities.<br>Results: Atotal of 75 patients were involved. The most common source of CO poisoning was stoves (n=71,<br>94.6%). The most common complaint was found to be nausea and vomiting (n=24, 32%). Mean GCS score<br>of the patients was 14. Mean carboxyhemoglobin levels were found to be 15%, mean saturation was 95.9%.<br>Five (6.6%) of the patients have undergone HBO in addition to NBO. The most common ECG finding was<br>found to be normal sinus rythm in 52 patients (69.3%), followed by sinus tachycardia in 10 patients (13.3%),<br>bradycardia in 4 patients (5.3%), ST depression in 2 patients (2.6%). Four of 5 patients who underwent HBO<br>had tachycardia on ECG.<br>Conclusion: Use of stoves for heating purposes increases the risk for poisoning particularly in winter<br>months. Although physicians must be aware of its ischemic effects of CO poisoning on cardiovascular<br>system, sinus tachycardia may be a predictor of CO poisoning severity.</p> Ali Kemal Erenler Tolga Do?an Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1914 1919 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14626 Evaluation of Diabetic-Medications Adherence among Diabetic Type 2 Patients <p>Background : Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide health illness with deleterious consequences both<br>medically and economically. When treated inappropriately, it can cause severe acute and chronic sequels.<br>The purpose of this study was to assess the adherence to diabetic medications type 2 diabetic patients.<br>Method : The study was cross-sectional performed to assess the adherence of diabetic type 2 patients<br>to diabetic medications. The study population was randomly enrolled from rural and urban regions. The<br>participants of the present study were known cases of diabetic patients attending community pharmacies<br>of the regions in which the study was conducted. After an explanation of the goal of the study, the patients<br>were invited to be enrolled in the study. After obtaining of the written consent, the Arabic version of Morisky<br>medication adherence scale was administered to patients to be reported by them but the exception for illiterate<br>diabetic patients who interviewed by community pharmacists who were trained on the questionnaire.<br>Results: The total number of participants was 200 patients with a mean age of (50.65±8.91) and approximately<br>half of participants (49.8%) have an age of greater than 50 years. More than 100 participants have primary<br>and secondary education and about (43%) has higher education. The female participants were less than the<br>third of the total number (29%) of the sample and the remaining was male. the majority of patients (75.5%)<br>have poor adherence to medications while (21.5%) of participants have medium adherence to diabetic<br>management and only (3%) have high adherence to medications.<br>Conclusion: In the present study, The adherence to diabetes medication was poor in 75.5% of participants<br>and the most common reason for non-adherence as reported by patients was forgetfulness.</p> Researcher Ali Shlash Ihsan S. Rabeea Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1920 1927 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14627 Breast Cancer Screening: Comparison of Screening Modalities in Taiwan <p>Background: Screening for breast cancer is an important method for reducing the death rate in the Western<br>world over the past 20-30 years. On this basis, since 2004 , the National Health Bureau of Taiwan has also<br>begun providing free screening service. The purpose of the current research is to compare the efficacy of the<br>three-mammography modalities for breast cancer identification.<br>Methods: Between July 2004 and December 2010, a total of 23,513 eligible women underwent screening<br>mammography. 6804 of these received screen-film mammography (SFM), 1610 received computedradiography (CR) mammography, and 15,099 received digital mammography (DM). The detection rate of<br>carcinoma-in-situ, early detection rate of cancer, and the overall cancer detection rate of each modality was<br>calculated. To determine the statistical significance of performance differences between these modalities<br>Chi-square test was used.<br>Results: SFM callback rate was 12.23%, cancer detection rate was 5.29%, Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)<br>detection rate was 1.76%. Computed radiography’s callback rate was 12.67%, with a cancer detection rate<br>of 6.21% and DCIS detection rate of 1.24%. DM has the highest callback rate of 16.2%, but also the highest<br>rate of cancer detection and DCIS detection rate of 9.21% and 3.58% respectively. DM was found to have<br>better cancer detection rate and DCIS detection rate as compared to SFM and CR, it is only statistically<br>significant when compared to SFM. Although DM has better cancer and DCIS detection rates, it is also<br>associated with higher callback rate.<br>Conclusions: In terms of image quality and greater contrast, optical mammography has many advantages<br>when opposed to screen-film and computed radiography mammography. In the Asian population, where<br>women have higher breast densities, this is particularly vital. The incidence of Taiwanese breast cancer is<br>steadily growing</p> Abdallah Ahmed Elbakkoush Anas Khaleel Lin Chia-Hsing Yazan S Batarseh Husni S Farah Talal Salem Al-Qaisi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1928 1935 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14629 The Influence of Knowledge, Lifestyle and Culture on the Incidence of Tuberculosis A Literature Review <p>Background: TB is a public health problem whose incidence is still high in Timor Leste. TB is an infectious<br>disease which is one of the leading causes of death in the world caused by an infectious agent Mycobacterium<br>tuberculosis. The purpose of this study was to review scientific articles focusing on the Influence of<br>Knowledge, Lifestyle and Culture on the Incidence of Tuberculosis. Method: The method used was a<br>literature review. Articles used as literature review materials came from SagePub, BMC Public Health,<br>Elsevier, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Proquest and others. The articles were selected based on the research<br>focus, which was the Influence of Knowledge, Lifestyle and Culture on the Incidence of Tuberculosis.<br>Results and Conclusions: Knowledge is very important in TB control efforts. Good knowledge needs to be<br>followed by a good perception. Such knowledge is not only for the TB patients but also for the families and<br>health workers. Lifestyles that are very risky to increase health vulnerability in TB patients are smoking,<br>drinking alcohol, using illegal drugs, inadequate consumption, living in a slum environment, lack of air<br>ventilation, lack of exercise, lack of sleep, urban life, lack of glycemic control, sugar consumption, and<br>living with TB patients. Cultural influences include inter-racial disparities, culture of seeking local treatment<br>or not going to health facilities, delay in initial screening, TB sputum examination, lack of PPE, poor local<br>TB surveillance, traditional medicine, stigma and culture carried by</p> Aloto Ximenes Belo Amaral Mateus Sakundarno Adi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1936 1943 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14630 A Rare Case of Cervical Epidural Abscess Post Posterior Cervical Laminotomy with Isolation of Neisseria Meningitides Bacteria <p>Spinal epidural abscess is a rare condition, although it requires an urgent surgery to decrease the pressure on<br>the epidural sac in addition to the other structures of the spinal cannel cord and nerve roots.<br>A 29 years old female entered the clinic with large neck swelling. She also had a history of headache with<br>neck pain, both arm paresthesia with mild fever. Her MRI showed an epidural collection at level of cervical<br>5 to cervical 7 compressing the dural sac narrowing the spinal cannel and extending to the paraspinal<br>intramuscular area in the neck.<br>She had undergone a surgery with a 2cm mid line incision above the swelling mass in order to suck out the<br>pus. In addition, the intermittent Valsalva maneuver was performed to enhance the epidural pus gat out.<br>The culture and sensitivity test to pus indicated a Neisseria meningitides bacterial growth. Penicillin G and<br>cefotaxime as antibiotics were prescribed. Improvement occurred within 2 weeks.<br>Although rare, the isolated Neisseria meningitides spinal epidural abscess requires an urgent treatment<br>through evacuating and decompressing. Spondylodiscitis or collapse may occur, therefore, a surgery for<br>spine correction may be needed, fellow up is recommended in all forms of epidural abscesses.</p> Ammar Najim Abood Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1944 1947 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14631 Hepatocellular and Immuno-toxicopathological Effects of Acrylonitrile in Albino Male Mice <p>This study to provide details on role of Acrylonitrile (AN) in blood profile and histopathological changes in<br>liver in male albino mice, the aims of current study were detected influence and toxication of AN in the male<br>mice, the present article was include (30 albino mice) divided into 3 groups, the age ranged from 8-9 week.<br>The dose of Acrylonitrile (25mg / kg of BW) and the period of this study 60 days.<br>The hematological examination showed increased in WBCs (9.32±1.11 / 11.802±0.75), Lymphocyte<br>(9.25±2.20 / 11.05±1.95), Neutrophile (5.55±0.88 / 7.03±1.50) and Monocyte (0.19±0.97 / 0.33±0.18) in<br>2nd and 3rd group respectively, while showed decreased in RBCs (6.40±1.11 / 5.82±0.70), PCV (38.65±1.20<br>/ 36.40±2.13), MCV (44.70±1.49 /41.95±0.49), MCH (14.85±1.44 / 10.00±1.84) and Hb (13.24±1.82 /<br>12.63±1.91) in 2nd and 3rd group respectively, The histopathological changes in liver showed extensive<br>necrosis, thickening and congestion of blood vessels, infiltration of inflammatory cells, mast cell aggregation<br>in hepatocytes, hepatocyte atrophy and extensive areas of abscess in 2nd group, while in 3rd group showed<br>perihyperplastic bile duct, large extensive granuloma, multiple giant cells, dystrophic calcified and hepatic<br>necrosis.</p> Anas A. Humadi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1948 1955 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14632 Risk Factor Analysis for Placenta Retention in Maternal Delivery at the Tenriawaru Regional Hospital in Bone Regency <p>Placenta retention issues have complications that can endanger mothers after delivery because of their<br>strong association with bleeding. This research aims to determine the risk factors for placental retention in<br>maternal. This research was an observational analytic study with a case-control design with a sample size of<br>68 mothers. The research was conducted at the Tenriawaru Hospital in 2020. Data collection was carried out<br>by interview using a questionnaire. Then it was analyzed using the chi-square test. The results of the research<br>for the Age variable (p-value = 0.027) show that there is a relationship between age and the incidence of<br>placental retention, with the OR value: 3.4 (CL: 1.26–9.41) and for the parity variable (p-value = 0.44) there<br>was no relationship between parity and the incidence of placental retention, with the OR value: 0.47 (CL:<br>0.12–1.82). It can be concluded that of the two factors the incidence of placental retention including age and<br>parity, only age is associated with the incidence of retained placenta.</p> Andi Misnawati Rosdiana Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1956 1960 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14633 Nanocurcumin Potential Effect of SOD Enzyme and Caspase-3 Expression in Lead-Acetate Induced Rats Ovarian Granulosa Cells <p>Aim: This study investigated the potential effect of nanocurcumin on the increase of SOD enzyme expression<br>and decrease of caspase-3 in lead acetate-induced rats ovarian granulosa cells.<br>Materials and Methods: Forty five female rats were divided into 5 groups, the negative control group (rats<br>receiving corn oil, one hour later receiving distilled water), positive control group (rats receiving corn oil,<br>one hour later receiving lead acetate of 40 mg/kg bw) and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 (rats receiving<br>nanocurcumin 50 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg/kg bw). One hour after administering the nanocurcumin, the<br>rats received 40 mg/kg of lead acetate. All groups received oral treatment once a day for 26 days. On<br>day 27 the rats were sacrificed and the expression of SOD and caspase-3 enzymes were measured using<br>immunohistochemical methods.<br>Results: This study found that lead acetate decreased SOD enzyme expression and increased caspase-3. In<br>contrast, nanocurcumin increased SOD enzyme and decreased caspase-3 expression in lead acetate-induced<br>rats ovarian granulosa cells.<br>Conclusion: Nanocurcumin has potential as a strong natural antioxidant by affecting the increase of SOD<br>and the decrease of caspase-3 cells in lead acetate-induced rats ovarian granulosa cells.</p> Anis Satus Syarifah Sri Agus Sudjarwo Hendy Hendarto Reny I’tishom Supriyanto Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1961 1969 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14650 Possible Pain Caused in Judicial Modes of Execution: A Physiological and Pathological Analysis <p>Undoubtedly, the application of Capital Punishment has attracted a torrent of worldwide criticism. Primarily<br>the cause behind this criticism is the excruciating pain caused by ancient outdated and uncivilised methods<br>like crucifixion, hanging, beheading, etc., unlike the cotemporary scientific processes and international<br>instruments. In opposition to the backdrop of enumerated counterattacks, most of the developed countries<br>devised/formulated and implemented some contemporary procedures like shooting, lethal injection, gas<br>chamber, etc. These contemporary procedures were alleged by the formulating nations to be swift and<br>causing minimum pain. In this research paper, each of these modern modes have been critically analysed<br>after reviewing the physiological and pathological aspect of pain associated with each of these methods. The<br>author finds out that these so called modern method do inflict agonizing pain on the convicted offenders.<br>In conclusion the author does suggest that medicalized process of execution may, to some extent, lead to<br>painless killings</p> Anjum Hassan Meenu Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1970 1975 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14653 Effectiveness of Instructional Program upon Pregnant Women’s Knowledge Suffering from Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Attending to Primary Health Care Centers in Al- Najaf City <p>Pregnancy induced hypertension is a common obstetric disorder. It is among the leading causes of maternal<br>and fetal mortality and morbidity. This research aims to assess pregnant women’s knowledge regarding<br>pregnancy induced hypertension, and to find out the relationship between pregnant women’s knowledge and<br>their demographic and clinical data . A quasi-experimental design is used to investigate the effectiveness<br>of instructional program upon women’s knowledge suffering from pregnancy induced hypertension , from<br>the 8th of January to 3th September2020, included 80 pregnant (40 women as study group), and (40 women<br>as a control group). The current study found that the knowledge of the majority of women about pregnancy<br>induced hypertension is poor in complication domain specialty before the implementation of instructional<br>program. However, 100% of them have had good knowledge after two weeks of implementation of the<br>instructional program. The women have developed and improved in their knowledge about pregnancy<br>induced hypertension. The study revealed that there were high significant in the study group knowledge<br>regarding the pregnancy induced hypertension in the pre-test and post-test measurements. The study has<br>concluded that the instructional program has a positive effect on the study sample blood pressure. The<br>instructional program has a positive effect on the study sample knowledge regarding the PIH. Levels of<br>education, monthly income, residential area, occupational status, and the type of family are affect the<br>pregnant’s knowledge regarding the PIH.</p> Anwar Hassan Hanoon Shukriyia Shadhan Al- Ogaili Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1976 1982 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14654 The Influence of Roleplay Simulation on the Moral Development of Children Aged 8-9 Years Old <p>Background : A lack of moral development might increase negative moral behavior. Drama, as a part of<br>role-play, can stimulate the moral development of children aged 8-9 years.<br>Objective : The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of role-play on the moral development of<br>children aged 8-9 years<br>Method : This research applied pre-experimental one-group pre-post test design. The population in this<br>study was children aged 8-9 years with a total of 47 children. A sample of 15 respondents was taken using<br>purposive sampling. The independent variable in this study is role-play stimulation, while the dependent<br>variable is the moral development of children aged 8-9 years. Data collection was done using observation<br>sheets, then analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance ? = 0.05.<br>Result: Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test shows that stimulation through role-play can influence the moral<br>development of children aged 8-9 years with p = 0.001.<br>Conclusion: The results of this study conclude that role-play stimulation can improve children’s moral<br>development.</p> Aris Kurniyanto Ahmad Yusuf Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1983 1989 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14655 Dental and Oral Care Treatment Needs in Children with Down Syndrome in Surabaya <p>Objective: Aims of this study was to observe dental and oral care treatment needs of Down Syndrome<br>children who are members of the Parents’ Association of Children with Down Syndrome (POTADS) in<br>Surabaya. Material and Methods: This study used secondary data from dental and oral examination<br>records of total sample 34 Down Syndrome children aged 5-17 years who attended community service<br>program “SPECIAL CHILDREN DENTAL VISIT -1” from August to October 2017. Results: Only few<br>samples showed good oral hygiene though most of them brushed their teeth twice a day which likely related<br>to physical and mental limitations. Most samples had cariogenic dietary habits with def-t/DMF-T score<br>were below 10. Malocclusion founded can be worsen by oral bad habits which has existed in most samples.<br>Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that the most indicative treatment for Down Syndrome<br>children are restorations and extractions.Good collaboration between parents and caregivers is needed to<br>prevent more severe oral health problems which need more complex dental treatment. Children with Down<br>Syndrome are entitled to the opportunity to develop and get special services, including in terms of oral<br>health. With good oral health, the quality of life of Down Syndrome children can improve.</p> Ardianti Maartrina Dewi Tania Saskianti Mega Moeharyono Puteri Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1990 1998 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14656 Toothbrushing And Dietary Behavior of Children Aged 3–6 Years with Early Childhood Caries in Impoverished Community of Semampir District, Surabaya <p>Objective: This research aimed to observe tooth brushing and dietary behavior of children aged 3–6<br>years with early childhood caries (ECC) in impoverished communities, Semampir District, Surabaya City.<br>Materials and Methods: This was descriptive observational with cross-sectional design study in 50 samples<br>of mother whom their children diagnosed with ECC. Research instrument using questionnaires based on<br>caries risk assessment (CRA) which modified. Results: Most samples showed good tooth brushing behavior,<br>which includes brushing frequency and duration, routines using toothpaste, had tooth brushing initiative and<br>independently brushing teeth. The majority of samples had poor dietary behavior which includes snacking<br>habit frequency, time management, fruit and milk consumption. Conclusion: Most children aged 3–6 years<br>in impoverished communities, Semampir District of Surabaya already had good brushing teeth behavior, but<br>they had poor diet which explain high prevalence of caries.</p> Ardianti Maartrina Dewi Satiti Kuntari Tania Saskianti Berliana Ayu Prawesti Permatasari Adinda Putri Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 1999 2008 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14657 Comparing Fracture Resistance of Provisional Restorations of 3-Unit Fixed Partial Dentures: An in Vitro Study of CAD/CAM versus Indirect Technique <p>Objective: To compare the indirect and CAD/CAM techniques and using acrylic and composites resins on<br>the fracture resistance of provisional 3-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs).<br>Materials and Methods: In in vitro setting, thirty samples were divided into three groups included 10<br>FPDs manufactured indirectly and made of composite based bis-acryl (Protemp 4) resin, 10 FPDs indirectly<br>milled with polymethyl methacrylate resin (PMMA) and 10 FPDs fabricated by CAD/CAM PMMA blocks.<br>Fracture resistance was measured using universal testing machine (UTM). The master model was made of<br>NiCr-alloy which designed using CAD/CAM technology.<br>Results: FPDs fabricated using CAD/CAM PMMA blocks showed the highest fracture resistance values<br>followed by Protemp 4 and then PMMA using indirect method. Statistically significant difference was<br>found between the three groups (P=0.001). Bonferroni test was applied for pair wise comparison, in which<br>the statistically significant difference was observed between FPDs fabricated by CAD/CAM which made<br>of PMMA blocks and Protemp 4 and between CAD/CAM PMMA blocks and indirect/PMMA FPDs and<br>between indirect/Protemp 4 FPDs and indirect/PMMA FPDs. Hence this suggested that PMMA significantly<br>has minimum value of fracture resistance when compared to both CAD/CAM and Protemp 4.<br>Conclusion: This study proved the superiority of CAD/CAM PMMA blocks for fabricating 3-unit FPDs<br>over Protemp 4 and PMMA using indirect method, and the superiority of Protemp 4 over PMMA in terms<br>of fracture resistance using indirect methods</p> Asadollah Ahmadzadeh Behnam Beheshti Mohamad Hossein Haghighizadeh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2009 2016 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14658 GPx1-rs1050450 Gene Polymorphism Association with End Stage Renal Disease in Type2 Diabetic Patients of Babylon Province/Iraq <p>Background: Glutathione Peroxidase-1 is an antioxidant enzyme, play an important role in defense against<br>oxidative stress. In Pro198Leu (C/T) polymorphism of Glutathione gene variation which result in lowering<br>enzyme activity increasing microvascular complications of diabetic patients. Aim: This study was aimed to<br>estimate the relationship between GPX1 gene variation and the risk of develop and progression of end stage<br>renal disease in type I diabetic nephropathy patients. In this study, it has been examined 140 type I diabetes<br>mellitus patients with nephropathy and 40 healthy control. Results: All samples have been genotyped by<br>using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques.<br>In diabetic nephropathy patients, there were a significant elevation in in the variation (TT) genotype and (T)<br>allele frequencies compared with control group.<br>Conclusions: Using major Iraqi diabetic patients of Babylon province we studied the transforming effect of<br>GPX1 gene polymorphism on the risk of development diabetic nephropathy, this study was found that the<br>(TT) genotype of GPX1 SNPs increases the risk of development diabetic nephropathy, while (CC) genotype<br>decreases the chance for developing disease. These results will gave the way for better perception of the<br>genetic influencing on the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy.</p> Asma’a H. Mohamed Ali H. Al-Saadi Haider K. Zaidan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2017 2021 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14660 Requirement Specification to Develop Digital Health Promotion Platform for Millenial and Post-Millenial Generations in Surabaya Indonesia <p>Background: Surabaya is facing various urban problems that are increasingly complex. Therefore,<br>innovative solutions are needed such as digital health promotion for millenial and post-millenial as the<br>largest segment of internet users. The aim of this study is to identify the requirement specification to develop<br>digital health promotion platform for millenial and post millenial generations in Surabaya.<br>Methods: This research used qualitative methods with case study approach. This study used purposeful<br>sampling on 24 informants, consists of several related parties who met the criteria. Data collection technique<br>was carried out through in-depth interview and documents review.<br>Results: The requirement specifications were classified into 4 domains (functional, technical, interface,<br>performance requirements). Functional requirements consist of procedures, menus, features, content, data,<br>information, control mechanism, and parties involved. Technical requirements include programs, networks,<br>size, and types of digital devices. Interface requirements consist of visual display related to user interface<br>and operating system. Performance requirements include several aspects such as speed, accuracy, efficiency,<br>effectiveness, security, etc.<br>Conclusion: Digital health promotion platform requirement specification must be tailored to the needs of<br>millenial and post-millenial generations. If these requirements can be met, the target will be easier to accept<br>and use digital health promotion platform.</p> Atik Qurrota A’Yunin Al-Isyrofi Sri Widati Rachmat Hargono Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2022 2031 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14661 Prevalence of Eimeria Species in Sheep and Goat in Tikrit City, Iraq <p>This study aimed to detect Eimeria sp. in sheep and goat, diagnose its species, and know its prevalence<br>in Tikrit city and its surroundings during the wet and dry months. The results showed that the total rate of<br>infection in sheep was 56.25%, while in goat was 69.05%, and it was also found that the highest rate of<br>infection was in dry months 72.08% in sheep and 76%in goat, while the rate of infection in wet months was<br>32.5% in sheep, and 50% in goat. Eleven species of Eimeria were diagnosed in sheep and twelve species<br>in goat, and the species E. sundarbanens was recorded for the first time in Iraq after made a survey among<br>studies conducted in various governorates of Iraq, and depending on the phenotypic characteristics which<br>were identical data in a specialized references . The mixed patterns of infection with different species of<br>Eimeria showed the highest in sheep and goat 57.75%, 51.79% respectively</p> Khansaa Ahmed Hasan Omaima Ibrahim Mahmood Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2032 2036 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14662 Pathophysiology of Sickle Cell Anemia : Review Article <p>About 5–7% of the world population have an unhealthy hemoglobin (Hb) gene . The most common form of<br>hemoglobinopathy globally is sickle cell disease. Sickle cell disorder (SCD) is the major predominant innate<br>clutter of Hb amalgamation stamped through a change within the ? globin gene, which result within the<br>substitution of glutamate corrosive with valine at the 6th codon and union of Hb S a which is a hemoglobin,<br>beneath hypoxic states, coming about within the abnormality of RBCs (Red Blood Corpuscles). The lysis of<br>erythrocytes result in raise in extracellular hemoglobin, hence hoisting liking and official to open nitric oxide<br>or antecedents of nitric oxide in this manner diminishing its levels and assist partaking to vasoconstriction .<br>Sickle ruddy blood cells since of their hardness to stream by means of the micro-circulation, results in visit<br>vaso-occlusive scenes, destitute micro-vascular blood stream, ischemic damage, and myocardial localized<br>necrosis . The clinical highlights of sickle cell anemia are constant hemolytic weakness, an elevated<br>vulnerability to diseases, repetitive difficult Vaso-Occlusive Emergency (VOC) and a brought down life<br>hope .</p> Ghusoon G Al- Janabi Ali A. Al-Fahham Ruqaya kareem Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2037 2043 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14663 Deleted <p>T</p> Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2044 2051 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14664 Physical self-perception and Personality Traits among Women with Psychoactive Substance Abuse Compared to Normal Individuals <p>Introduction: Regarding to the role of physical self-perception and personality traits in abuse of psychoactive<br>substance among women, this study aimed to compare the concept of physical self-perception and personality<br>traits among psychoactive substance abusers and normal individuals.<br>Materials and Methods: In this causal-comparative study, 60 women (30 psychoactive substance abusers,<br>30 normal cases) referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Mashhad city (the second big-city of Iran)<br>were selected in convenient sampling method. The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) and<br>NEO-Five Factor Test (Short Form) were performed. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis and<br>two independent means tests.<br>Results: Multivariate analysis revealed that women with psychoactive substance abuse have higher scores<br>in neuroticism and lower scores in agreeableness, accountability and extraversion than normal women. The<br>comparison of two independent means also showed that there is a significant difference between physical<br>self-perception in normal and abusers, so that normal women have better physical self-perception.<br>Conclusion: The results confirm that physical self-perception and personality traits play an important role<br>in involvement in substance abuse.</p> Azadeh Soltanifar Mansoureh Mirzadeh Maedeh Kamrani Atefeh Soltanifar Maryam Kashefi Esmailzadeh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2052 2057 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14665 The Potency of Kaffir Lime Leaf (Citrus Hystrix) Ethanol Extract Against Lead Acetate Toxicity on Spermatozoa Quality of Mice (Mus musculus) <p>Lead is a heavy metal which can affect male reproductive system. The accumulation of lead in the body<br>becomes a precursor to the formation of ROS, which is able to damage spermatozoa. The toxicity of lead<br>can be prevented by antioxidants. Kaffir lime leaves (Citrus hystrix) with their flavonoid content have the<br>potential to be the source of antioxidants. The purpose of this study is to analyze the antioxidant effect of<br>kaffir lime leaves on the quality of spermatozoa of the mice that have been exposed to lead acetate. Methods:<br>The literature study was conducted using narrative review technique by collecting related articles using<br>specified keywords. Result: It is found that kaffir lime leaves contain hesperetin, which is the dominant<br>flavonoid in Citrus group. The antioxidant activity of kaffir lime leaf is able to neutralize lead-induced ROS,<br>as well as to stimulate the formation of enzymatic antioxidants. Conclusions: Ethanol extract of kaffir lime<br>leaves can improve the quality of spermatozoa of the mice that have been exposed to lead acetate.</p> Azarine Ariqoh Arysanti Bahyshidqi Safira Nur Izzah Sofia Zahra Kamila Reny I’tishom Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2058 2064 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14667 Pattern of Injuries Sustained in Cases of Four Wheelers without wearing Seat Belt Infatal Road Traffic Accidents in Mangalore <p>Introduction: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have been the bane of the modern civilization accounting for considerable<br>loss to the nation. General callous attitude for safety measures, poor law enforcement and uncontrolled motorization<br>have caused significant increase in incidence of RTAs. World Health Organization (WHO) puts RTAs as the sixth<br>leading cause of deaths in India, with a greater share of hospitalizations, deaths, disabilities and socioeconomic losses<br>in young and middle aged population.<br>Aims and Objective: To study the pattern of injuries sustained in cases of four wheelers without wearing seat belt<br>in fatal road traffic accidents in Mangalore.<br>Materials and Method: All cases of road traffic accidents involving fatal head injuries among four wheelers without<br>seat belt which underwent autopsy at the Wenlock District Hospital and Justice K.S Hegde charitable Hospital,<br>Mangalore from January 2009 to December 2013 were included in the study. A proforma was prepared, the details<br>about the pattern of skull fractures and also about intracranial haemorrhages were obtained.<br>Results:Majority of the victims of four wheeler not using seat belt were in the age group of 30-39 Years and 40-49<br>Years (26.83% each). Majority of the victims were male (85.37%).Abrasion (46.34%) was the most common Injury<br>to face and head followed by laceration (29.27%) was observed.Rib fractures was the most common associated<br>injury (43.90%) while no associated injury was observed in 56.10%.Diffuse Extravasation of Blood from Scalp was<br>observed in 53.66% while from occipital are was seen in 26.83% victims. Linear Type of fracture in vault was seen<br>in 36.59% of victims. Occipital and frontal bone fracture was observed in 29.27% and 24.39% victims respectively.<br>While studying the Base of skull fractures it was seen that ACF was seen in 24.39% victims while PCF in 19.51%<br>and MCF in 14.63% victims. Most common intra cranial haemorrhage was Sub arachnoid haemorrhage (90.24%)<br>followed by sub dural haemorrhage (82.93%). Brain Oedema was seen in 73.17% victims while Contusion to brain<br>was seen in 26.83% victims. Frontal lobe of brain was injured in 46.34% victims while diffuse brain injury was seen<br>in 29.27% victims.<br>Conclusion:We conclude that the four wheeler accident among the non seat belt users was common in middle aged<br>males. Head injury and rib fracture was the most common type of injury observed. Liner fracture of skull with<br>occipital and frontal bone involvement was common. Most common intra cranial haemorrhage was Sub arachnoid<br>haemorrhage followed by sub dural haemorrhage. Brain Oedema and Contusion to brain were common brain injury.<br>Frontal lobe brain injuries were common followed by diffuse brain injury.</p> Azia Manzoor Bhat Wasim Manzoor Bhat Vinka Maini Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2065 2072 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14668 Hypertension in Indonesia in 2018: An Ecological Analysis <p>Hypertension is a degenerative disease that is often found in conjunction with other degenerative diseases.<br>The study was aimed at analyzing ecologically the factors related to the prevalence of hypertension in<br>Indonesia. The study was conducted using secondary data from the 2018 Indonesia Basic Health Survey.<br>All provinces were taken as samples. Apart from the prevalence of hypertension, 4 other variables analyzed<br>as independent variables were the prevalence of obesity, the percentage of the population with less physical<br>activity, the percentage of daily smokers, and the percentage of the population with salty food consumption<br>habits ? 1 per day. Data were analyzed using a scatter plot. The results of the study found that the higher<br>the prevalence of obesity in a province, the higher the prevalence of hypertension in that province. The<br>higher the percentage of the population with less physical activity in a province, the higher the prevalence<br>of hypertension in that province. The higher the percentage of daily smokers in a province, the higher the<br>prevalence of hypertension in that province. The higher the percentage of the population with salty food<br>consumption habits ? 1 per day, the higher the prevalence of hypertension in that province. It was concluded<br>that the four independent variables analyzed ecologically were positively related to the prevalence of<br>hypertension in Indonesia.</p> Azizah Andzar Ridwanah Hario Megatsari Agung Dwi Laksono Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2073 2079 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14669 The Effectiveness of Olive Oil to Combat Lice in Pregnant Women and Children <p>For the period from February 2019 until August 2019 it was checked 75 cases of pregnant women and<br>children included girls and boys, and 28 pregnant women, 42 girls and 5 males were found to be infected<br>. Head louse , as the study showed that the highest incidence of head louse was recorded among girls , it<br>reached 56% , followed by pregnant women with a percentage of infection 37.33% , while males recorded<br>less infection with head louse amounted to 6.66% , respectively , and olive oil was used to determine its<br>effectiveness to combat head louse as a natural substance , and it used Statistical analysis was used Dunkin<br>test .</p> Bafreen Mohamad Raza Haifaa Mohammed Amin Hanadi Abdul-Elah Abdul-Razzaq Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2080 2082 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14670 Profile of Determinant Factors on Drug Allergy Severity in Indonesian Children at Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia <p>Background: Drug allergy in children is a rare case that needs special attention. Identifying the factors<br>that affect the severity of drug allergy is important for the improvement of drug allergy management in<br>Indonesian children. Objective: to analyze the factors that influence drug allergy severity in Indonesian<br>children. Methods: This study used a retrospective design and consecutive sampling in 2014-2018. The data<br>collected included sex, types of allergy-causing drugs, previous allergy history, parental allergy history, and<br>clinical manifestations. The data were analyzed by using a logistic regression test where the statistical test<br>results were significant if p &lt;0.05. Results: The average age of the participants was 93.00 ± 50.54 months<br>with a median value of 84 (12 - 204) months. Drug allergy severity in children is influenced by several<br>things, such as the type of drug (? = 5.76; 95% CI 1.29 - 25.70; p = 0.022), sex (? = 1.27; 95% CI 0.30 - 5.36;<br>p = 0.743), previous allergy history (? = 2.44; 95% CI 0.10 - 58.67; p = 0.583), and a drug allergy history on<br>parents (? = 0.65; 95% CI 0.06 - 6.75; p = 0.719). Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between<br>drug allergy severity and the type of drug whereas sex, previous allergy history, and a history of allergy on<br>parents do not find a significant connection.</p> Bagas Triambodo Azwin Mengindra Putera Bambang Hermanto Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2083 2088 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14671 Early Surgical Management and Triple Antibiotic Regimen in the Management of Necrotizing Fasciitis of Scalp <p>Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare yet alarming condition faced by a maxillofacial surgeon. This article<br>would emphasize the importance of early aggressive surgical management with triple antibiotic regimen of<br>penicillinase-resistant penicillin, aminoglycoside and metronidazole in the successful management of NF.<br>We would also like the emphasize the importance of 1% hydrogen Peroxide + Saline + Betadine followed<br>by copius irrigation with Betadine+Saline + Metronidazole in NF along with a negative pressure drain to<br>manage NF effectively.</p> Baliga Mohan Baptist Joanna Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2089 2093 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14673 Relationship between Blood group and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia with the Role of the Oxidative Stress <p>Chronic myeloid leukemia characterized by the expansion of a clone of hematopoietic cells that carries<br>the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph). The aim of study are to find if there is an association between blood<br>groups and chronic myeloid leukemia, and to determine the role of the oxidative stress as risk factor. Ninety<br>persons included in the study (45 as patient and 45 as control group). Patients were suffering from CML,<br>the control are free from this disease. There are ranged from (21-60) years old where they are divided in<br>to four group according to blood group (A, B, AB, and O). The sera were collected from the 90 persons<br>and analyzed by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for MDA and GSH. The results of<br>the study show that blood group O (44%) predominates in CML patients group followed by blood group A<br>(22%), B (18 %) and AB (16%). The mean serum level MDA value shows highly significance at (P?0.001)<br>change in the patients group in comparison with control. Also show that the level of MDA in male (900. 99<br>± 603.89) is significantly higher than in female (582.28 ± 562.29). The mean serum level of GSH show that<br>significant decrease at (P?0.05) in patients group (40. 12 ± 27.33) than in control groups (55.20 ± 28.79). As<br>a conclusion from this study, the importance of MDA and GSH in CML patients can be used to detect the<br>complications related to the among these patients.</p> Baneen Saleem Salih Abdul-Samed Uleiwi Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2094 2098 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14674 Assessment of Psychological Wellbeing Among Elderly Residents at Nursing Homes in Middle Euphrates <p>As people get older, may show shifts in the main sources that contribute to their well-being, in response<br>to the changing circumstances and abilities inherent in aging. The relocation to care homes considered as<br>stressful event for the elderly people. A descriptive study is carried throughout the present study in order<br>to achieve the early stated objectives. The selection of the sample through a non - probability purposive<br>sample consist of 60 elderly persons that are selected from the total population of elderly residents at nursing<br>homes. The data is collected by means of Ryff scales of psychological well-being (shorten version) . The<br>data is collected by using structured interview technique with the elderly residents in nursing homes. The<br>analysis indicates that the highest percentage of the elderly’s group have moderate level of psychological<br>wellbeing (mean of score=3.29) (81.67%). The level of psychological well-being is affected by their gender.<br>The study recommends to focus on managing the problems existing among the elderly and monitoring their<br>psychological state.</p> Bashaer Mohsen Ali Ali Kareem Al-Juboori Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2099 2104 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14675 Assess Nurses Knowledge Regarding Extravasation NonCytotoxic Medication in Baghdad Teaching Hospital <p>Background: vesicant no cytotoxic drugs are used broadly in present medicine for therapy changes condition<br>in hospitals most of them are registered to be peripheral cannulation. According to the literature, one vital<br>complication caused by cannulation applied for intravenous fluid therapy is extravasation.<br>Objectives: to estimate knowledge about extravasation no cytotoxic drags.<br>Methodology: A non-experimental design was carried out to evaluate the registered nurse’s knowledge<br>regarding extravasation non- cytotoxic medication in Baghdad teaching hospital an indiscriminate sample<br>consisting of 100 nurses was selected, and a questionnaire was distributed to measure their knowledge of the<br>subject of the research. The statistical program version 23 Spss was used. The Results: were the majority<br>of females with 60% and the rest males. Most of the study participants (55%) were ages between 20 and<br>29 years old. Study participants’. (43%) of the were secondary nursing school. The majority of participants<br>(37%) experienced in hospital wards between 1-5years.<br>Conclusions: The current study concluded that most of the member’s nurse’s deficiency necessary knowledge<br>about extravasations of no cytotoxic medications. this study recommends that nurses have to participate in<br>more in-depth educational programs</p> Batool Kadham Hussin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2105 2113 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14676 The Indonesian Version of SF-36 Questionnaire: Validity and Reliability Testing in Indonesian Healthcare Workers Who Handle Infectious Diseases <p>Quality of life is a parameter to measure the position of life for high-risk people, including healthcare workers<br>who handle infectious disease. Quality of life affects productivity and performance. A lot of instruments<br>can be used to measure the quality of life, which one is the 36-item Short From Health Survey (SF-36). It<br>is an international standard questionnaire which measuring health-related quality of life, so a translation<br>process into Indonesian is necessary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of SF-36<br>questionnare on Indonesian version. This study was an observational analytic with a cross-sectional design.<br>This study divided into 2 stages, ie. translating questionnaire into Indonesian version, then testing it with<br>respondents. We evaluated 45 healthcare workers working in the COVID-19 isolation room. Data were<br>taken from September to October 2020. This study was analyzed by Pearson Correlation and Cronbach’<br>alpha with ?=5% and using SPSS v.23 software. Results showed that the overall cronbach’ alpha coefficient<br>was 0.883, while the five dimensions were &gt;0.70 (physical function, vitality, mental health, bodily pain,<br>and general health). But, the role physical, role emotional, and social function dimensions had cronbach’<br>alpha coefficient 0.6-0.7. The Indonesian version of SF-36 was valid and reliable, so it could be used as a<br>instruments for measuring health related quality of life among healthcare workers who handle infectious<br>diseases, especially in COVID-19.</p> Berliana Devianti Putri Nur Septia Handayani Sahra Zafhira Ekayafita Ajeng Dilla Lestari Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2114 2111 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14677 How do the Government and More than 1.3 Billion People Stand Against the COVID-19 Pandemic in the World’s Largest Democratic Country? A Comprehensive Reflection from India, in a Public Health Perspective <p>Background- Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by deadly novel corona virus has devastated<br>the world causing a morbidity rate of more than 64 million and mortality rate of 1.5 million. India, being a<br>Lower Middle-Income Country (LMIC) with a GNI per capita of nearly $2000, has proactively instituted<br>various containment strategies. India has witnessed the effectiveness of primary prevention strategies in<br>fighting various health problems in the years gone. The most worrying factor was about community spread<br>of the pandemic, which would cause the spread of illness uncontrollable. Economic analysts had forecasted<br>if appropriate strategy on containment of coronavirus is not initiated, the country would regress back to 20<br>years, in terms of economy and healthcare. This scoping review throws light into the efficacious preventive<br>strategies adopted by India to fight COVID-19 pandemic and attempting to reduce mortality and morbidity<br>rate, to flatten the illness curve.<br>Methods- We used a wide range of scientific database and news reports to conduct an extensive review on<br>India’s fight against COVID-19. Articles which has been published from January to November 2020 were<br>reviewed and pooled the data to write this review.<br>Conclusion- Containment strategies are the key for prevention of any contagious illness. COVID-19 being<br>highly contagious, and infecting millions of populations, is successfully being controlled in India to reduce<br>the cases. The Case Fatality Ratio (CFR) of COVID-19 is very low in India, compared to other countries.</p> Biju Soman Aswathi Raj L Ranjitha S Shetty Lena Ashok Jasna T Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2122 2132 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14678 Hypoglycemic Effects of Rosa damascena Mill. Ethanolic Extract on Blood Glucose Levels and Diameter of Langerhans Pancreatic Islets <p>Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder caused by elevated levels of high blood glucose<br>(hyperglycemia). This chronic hyperglycemia causes ROS to accumulate and oxidative stress to increase.<br>Rosa damascena is a plant that contains high levels of antioxidants and polyphenols, but this is not widely<br>known to the public. Purpose: The aim of this study is to understand the hypoglycemic effects from Rosa<br>damascena on blood glucose levels and diameter of Langerhans pancreatic islets. Method: Thirty Wistar<br>albino rats (200-225gr) were divided into 6 groups. Group 1 was a normal control (KN), group 2 was<br>hyperglycemic (KD), group 3 was metformin 250 mg/kg BW (KM), group 4 was treatment extract 250 mg/<br>kg BW (P1), group 5 was treatment extract 500 mg/kg BW (P2) group 6 was treatment extract 1000 mg/<br>kg BW (P3). All animals in the group were injected with STZ 50 mg/kg BW, except for group 1. Result:<br>Data were analyzed statistically using SPSS- 22 software with the Kruskall-Wallis test (p&lt;0.05). The result<br>showed that ethanolic extract of Rosa damascena has decreased blood glucose levels in days-14 (382<br>±21,97) with 250 mg/kg BW (P1) compare with another treatment group. In histological observed there are<br>no significant different between group (p&gt;0.05). This is showing that ethanolic extract of Rosa damascena<br>has inability to repaired the diameter of Langerhans pancreatic islets. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Rosa<br>damascena decreased blood glucose levels but did not repaired the diameter of Langerhans pancreatic islets.</p> Bilqis Inayatillah Tamam Jauhar Gondo Mastutik Alphania Rahniayu Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2133 2141 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14679 Study on the Factors for Reporting Nosocomial Infections in Hospitalized Patients <p>Reporting nosocomial infections (NI) is a goal of alert and awareness, and an essential link in the current<br>policy of controlling health risks.<br>From the health professionals and health authorities point of view, the reporting objectives are to set up an<br>alert system allowing the quick detection of unusual INs, and to verify, if necessary, that corrective mesures<br>are implemented<br>The present study did not fail to highlight a set of factors influencing the non-reporting of (NI) among the<br>caregivers at El Idrissi Hospital in Kenitra, namely : a) personal factor, b) organizational factors and, c)<br>institutional factors<br>The NI reporting plays an important role in the prevention of infectious risks, in the improvement of the<br>quality of care. Thus, it would be intersting to examine the factors related to the non-reporting of NI</p> Chaib Yassine Elanssari Anas Aouane Mahjoub Hamama Samir Chakhtoura Khalid Abdelmajid Soulaymani Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2142 2147 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14691 The Correlation of Congenital Anomalies of The Kidney and Urinary Tract with Renal Function in Children <p>Background: Congenital Anomalies Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT) are the leading cause of kidney<br>failure in children and cause of 30-40% end-stage renal disease with obstructive uropathy as the main cause.<br>CAKUT obstructive type are: vesico uretric junction obstruction (VUJO), pelvic uretric junction obstruction<br>(PUJO), posterior uretral valve (PUV) and non-obstructive type are reflux, neurogenic and hypoplasia. The<br>aim of this study is to describe the effect of CAKUT on renal function in child.<br>Methods: Retrospective study from medical records of children with CAKUT at Dr. Soetomo General<br>Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia from January 2013 - March 2018. The characteristic of sex, age range, type of<br>CAKUT and glomerulus filtration (GFR) value were recorded from medical record. Data processing using<br>descriptive analysis with SPSS.<br>Result: A total of 94 Children on CAKUT abnormalities, both boys and girl’s presentation equal 50%.<br>Median age 3.0 (minimum-maximum 1.0-15.0) year. The most common CAKUT type in male were VUJO<br>17 (36.2%) and in female neurogenic type 19 (40.4%). Median initial glomerular filtration rate 2.7 ml/<br>min/1.73 m2. Analysis of correlation between CAKUT and renal function p=0.072 (R2=0,03). From 94<br>children of CAKUT, only 12 (12.8%) patients have undergo surgical intervention.<br>Conclusion: CAKUT with dominant obstructive type was more common in male and non-obstructive type<br>in female pediatric patient. There was no significance correlation of GFR between obstructive and nonobstructive type.</p> Chairunnisa Ninik Asmaningsih Soemyarso Risky Vitria Prasetyo Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2148 2151 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14692 Stress among Nurses Working in the Provincial Hospital of Kenitra, Morocco: a Job Demand-Control-Support Survey <p>The nursing stress literature points to an overwhelming culture of accepting and expecting stress at work,<br>ironically linked to controlling the workplace to effectively and actively manage stress. According to the Karasek<br>Job Demand Control Support (JDCS) model, stress-causing factors have been extensively studied in nursing-related<br>workplaces, especially in critical and emergency situations. However, little is known about the impact of workplace<br>stress on the cognitive functions of caregivers.<br>Method: A survey was carried out using the JDCS model among 96 nurses working in different departments of<br>the provincial hospital in Kenitra (emergencies, surgical operating units, pediatrics…). Specific questions explored<br>variables such as gender, length of service in the system, level of qualification and work experience.<br>Results: A high level of job strain was highlighted with a gender effect. Women Nurses are more stressed than men.<br>According to the study, age over 40 was a key factor in high work stress, also for the work schedule; nurses adopting<br>the 12/36 system were located in the high stress quadrant. Both of these factors can be predictors of poor mental health.<br>Strategies to improve the personal and professional performance of nurses to cope with daily stressors in different<br>hospital departments are needed.</p> Chakhtoura Khalid Aboussaleh Youssef AZZAOUI Fatima Zahra Chaib Yassine Elanssari Anas Hamama Samir Ahami O.T. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2152 2160 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14693 The efficacy of fractional erbium:YAG laser (2940 nm) compared to Microneedling of topical amniotic membrane stem cell conditioned medium (AMSC-CM) for photoaging <p>Background: Photoaging is a complex biologic process that affects various layers of the skin. Amniotic<br>membrane stem cell conditioned medium (AMSC-CM) that contain growth factors and have capability to<br>improve clinical picture of photoaged skin. Microneedling and laser devices are transdermal drug delivery<br>methods which shows promising results to improve photoaging .<br>Objective: To investigate the efficacy of topical AMSC-CM after YAG erbium fractional laser compare to<br>microneedling in photoaging.<br>Method :A clinical study, 60 adult women with photoaging. Randomized into two groups A 30 women<br>received AMSC-CM after fractional erbium:YAG laser (2940nm) and group B 30 woman received AMSCCM after microneedling. Both groups received the treatment 3 times with 2 weeks interval. The improvement<br>of pore, wrinkle, and UV spot as was evaluate before, after and post treatment using computer-stimulated<br>photograph skin analyzer.<br>Result: The evaluation of pore and UV spot showed greater improvement in the group of AMSC-CM with<br>fractional erbium:YAG laser compare to AMSC-CM with microneedling group (pore p:0,00 and UV spot<br>p:0,00). There was no significant different (p 0.43) of wrinkle improvement between both groups.<br>Conclusion: The combination of AMSC-CM and fractional erbium:YAG laser have better efficacy in the<br>improvement in photoaged skins.</p> Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa Riyana Noor Oktaviyanti Wisnu Triadi Nugroho Febrina D Pratiwi Luh Mas Rusyati I G A A Praharsini I G A A Elis Indira Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2161 2167 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14694 The Effect of Amniotic Membrane Stem Cell Metabolite Product (AMSP-MP) Combine with Vitamin E after Microneedling in Photoaging Progress <p>Introduction: The photoaging is a cumulative process. Amniotic Membrane Stem Cell Metabolite Products<br>(AMSC-MP) that contain cytokines and growth factors that have a role in the skin’s rejuvenation process.<br>Vitamin E is an antioxidant that has a photoprotective effect. Topical combination of AMSC-MP and Vitamin<br>E are expected to have an effect on clinical photoaging improvement.<br>Objective: To evaluate the effect of topical combination of AMSC-MP with vitamin E after microneedling<br>compared with AMSC metabolite products after microneedling.<br>Methods: A total 60 photoaging women were included in this experimental analytic, controlled, matching<br>research. Each participant’s face was allocated to topical combination of AMSC-MP and vitamin E in<br>intervention group and AMSC-MP only in control group. Microneedling modality was use to enhance<br>epidermal penetration. Three treatment sessions were repeated at two weeks’ interval.<br>Results: From the comparison of the two groups showed there were significant different of mean value in<br>wrinkle, skin tone and UV spots with p-value &lt; 0,005 in the intervention grup. While pore and polarized spot<br>do not show significant differences between two groups.<br>Conclusion: The administration of a topical combination of MP-AMSC and vitamin E after microneedling<br>provides clinical improvement in photoaging.</p> Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa Agatha Anindhita Ayu Ardhaninggar Riyana Noor Oktaviyanti Irmadita Citrashanty Maylita Sari Menul Ayu Umborowati Dwi Murtiastutik Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2168 2173 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14695 The Impact Factors of Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy Which is Along with Hyperglycemia, Hypercholesterolemia, and Hyperaggregation <p>Objective: The prevalence of T2DM case in 2018 has increased by 10.9%. The majority of T2DM<br>patients often ignore some of the most important conditions to experience complications, which is<br>complications of PDN. This study aims to analyze the dominant factors in PDF patients with hyperglycemia,<br>hypercholesterolemia, and hyperaggregation. Material and methods: This research is a case control study<br>conducted from April to October 2020. The sample is 85 patients who have been confirmed to have PDN<br>by neurologists aged 40 - 65. Sampling was conducted at several hospitals in Surabaya with a purposive<br>sampling method. Data analysis was conducted in three stages, namely univariate analysis, bivariate<br>analysis and multivariate analysis. Results: 85 PDN patients who experienced hyperglycemia amounted<br>to 81%, hypercholesterolemia 81%, and hyperaggregation 67%. The dominant factor affecting the three<br>conditions (hyperglycemia, hypercholeterol, and hyperagregation) in this PDN patient was a history of<br>hypertension with a value of p = {(0.012); (0.007); (0.001)} and also a long period of suffering from T2DM<br>with p value = {(0.019); (0.025); (0.041)). Meanwhile, age, gender and regularity for treatment control were<br>not the dominant influencing factors. Conclusion: Suffered for a long time from T2DM and a history of<br>hypertension are the main determinants of peripheral diabetic neuropathy which is along by hyperglycemia,<br>hypercholesterolemia, and hyperaggregation.</p> Citra Amaniah Anhar Yetti Hernaningsih Puspa Wardhani, Soebagijo Adi Mohammad Saiful Ardhi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2174 2184 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14696 Ergonomic Workstation Design for Fish Smoking Workers in the Coastal Area of Surabaya <p>Introduction: Workstation design should be made adjusting the workers’ anthropometry to not put additional<br>burden on the worker’s body. Fish smoking workers in the coastal area of Surabaya work sitting on a chair<br>as high as their heels which cause them working with unnatural postures. This study aimed to determine<br>ergonomic workstation design for fish smoking workers in the coastal area of Surabaya.<br>Methods: Respondents were the total population consisting of 12 male and 18 female workers. The worker’s<br>body was measured in a sitting position using a measuring tape. Dimensions measured included the reach of<br>the thumb as measured from the back, elbow height when seated, calf height, hip width, buttock-popliteal<br>length, and sitting height. Each dimension was calculated on the 5th and 95th percentiles to determine the<br>size of the ergonomic workstation.<br>Result: Workstations were made with an adjustable concept. The size of the ergonomic workstation design<br>for male workers includes table width 71.93-77.57 cm, table height 51.81-55.86 cm, chair height 28.64-<br>32.03 cm, chair width 38.66-41.84 cm, chair length 43.24-50.10 cm, and chairback height 89.21-95.46 cm.<br>In addition, for female workers, the size of the ergonomic workstation design includes table width 60.55-<br>68.00 cm, table height 39.21-43.57 cm, chair height 23.64-27.47 cm, chair width 29.13-34.54 cm, chair<br>length 35.80-39.87 cm, and chairback height 74.28-79.72 cm.<br>Conclusion: It is necessary to make improvements to workstation of fish smoking workers in the coastal<br>area of Surabaya, as an attempt to make it ergonomic.</p> Dani Nasirul Haqi Putri Ayuni Alayyannur Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2185 2191 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14697 Severe Pneumonia: Etiology and Outcome in a Tertiary Hospital in Indonesia <p>Background: Severe pneumonia represents a subset of life-threatening pneumonia. The mortality rate of<br>patients with severe pneumonia is considerably high. This study aims to determine the etiology and outcome<br>of severe pneumonia.<br>Methods: An observational prospective study was conducted from September 2017 to September 2018 on<br>pneumonia patients in a tertiary hospital. Clinical and diagnostic evaluations were carried out to assess the<br>severity of the disease, etiology, comorbidities, and several other factors associated with outcomes.<br>Results: 140 pneumonia patients were evaluated and 41 patients met the severe pneumonia criteria. A<br>pathogen was found in 20 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and 13 hospital-acquired pneumonia<br>(HAP). The most frequently isolated pathogen from the sputum culture of patients with either severe CAP<br>or HAP was Acinetobacter baumannii. The mortality rate of severe HAP patients was higher than that<br>of severe CAP patients (84% vs. 65%), but the difference was nonsignificant. Most of the subjects had<br>comorbidities (CAP 75%, HAP 61.6%). Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in severe<br>CAP were higher than those in severe HAP (PCT 7.7 vs 6.0, p=0.658; CRP 163.1 vs 93.6, p=0.580), but the<br>differences were also nonsignificant.<br>Conclusion: The most frequently isolated pathogens from the sputum culture of patients with severe<br>pneumonia were Acinetobacter baumanii, which should be considered at the time of diagnosis and empirical<br>antibiotic therapy. Severe pneumonia was often accompanied by comorbidities, inflammation responses<br>increase in both severe CAP and HAP with a high mortality rate.</p> Daniel Maranatha, Mawardi Hamzah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2192 2200 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14698 The Effects of Turmeric Extract (Curcuma longa) Loaded Hidrogels in Accelerating Wound Closure <p>Background: Disruption to healing process results on longer healing duration from the timeline. Povidone<br>iodine and tulle are common management in wound care. The advance of industry in health sector and<br>the availability of natural ingredients in Indonesia provide opportunities for developing alternatives for<br>wound care. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) contains curcumin which is anti-inflammatory, antibacterial,<br>and antioxidant; it is good for wound healing. Hydrogel nanocomplexes of carboxymethyl chitosan can<br>maintain moisture in wound area and protect curcumin from hydrolysis. Objective: To analyze the potential<br>of turmeric extract loaded hidrogels in accelerating wound closur. Method: experimental research with<br>“post-test only control group design”. The sample consisted of 30 mice which were assigned into 5 groups.<br>Result: All experimental groups experienced a gradual decrease in wound length. The statistical test results<br>for groups II and III showed significant advantages compared to group IV (p&lt;0.05). Meanwhile, group I<br>did not have significant differences in wound closure compared to group IV on day 1 and 3 (p&gt;0.05), but it<br>had significant results (p&lt;0.05) on day 5. Conclusion: Turmeric extract loaded hidrogels can accelerate the<br>reduction of wound length.</p> David Setyo Budi Reny I`tishom Alphania Rahniayu Mohammad Fathul Qorib Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2201 2206 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14699 Dermatoscopy in Vitiligo: Diagnosis of the Stages <p>The aim of the Study is to identify the main dermatoscopic patterns of vitiligo and to establish their<br>relationship with the activity of the process.<br>Materials and Methods: The study involved 63 patients with an established diagnosis of vitiligo. There<br>were 34 patients with a progressive course, 11 with a stable and 18 in the repigmentation stage. All patients<br>underwent dermatoscopy using a Delta 20T dermatoscope. Statistical processing of research materials was<br>carried out using the SPSS Statistics software package.<br>Results. In the study, it was found that the most significant changes are manifested in the perifollicular<br>region. So, progressive vitiligo is characterized by perifollicular pigmentation (91.2%), an altered pigment<br>network (97.1%), a blurred spot border (94.1%), as well as specific structures - star-shaped formations and<br>“comet tail”. A stable vitiligo process is characterized by perifollicular depigmentation (81.8%), a sharp<br>spot border (72.7%). For the stage of repigmentation, marginal hyperpigmentation (100%), perifollicular<br>depigmentation (72.2%), blurred spot border (77.8%), “pigmentation islands” (77.8%).<br>Conclusion. For the first time, diagnostic dermatoscopic patterns of vitiligo have been developed, and their<br>value has been shown. Dermatoscopy is a promising auxiliary non-invasive tool for diagnosing vitiligo and<br>determining the stage of the disease.</p> Davletshina Alina Y Lomonosov Konstantin M Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2207 2213 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14700 The Relationship between Nutritional Status and Physical Fitness in Pilot International Standard School (RSBI) at the Level of Junior High School in Padang <p>The problem of this research is the low of level of physical fitness of students of Pilot International Standard<br>School (SMP level) in Padang. It happened because of lack of nutrional status and physical activity.<br>The purpose of this research is to reveal the correlation between nutrional status and physical activity,<br>individually and in group. This research is Quantitative Reaearch that used correlational technique continued<br>by counting the contribution of independent variables to dependent variables. The accessible population of<br>this research was all male students (448) of RSBI school in Padang, academic year 2011/2012. The sample<br>of this research was 67 students or 15% of accessible population by using proportional technique of random<br>sampling. The instrument of this research to measure physical fitness (Y) was Multistage Running Test<br>(Tes MRT) ; Nutrional Status (X1) with the measure of weight and age converted to Classification Table<br>of Society Nutritional Status, Directorate of Community Nutrition, Department of Health of Republic of<br>Indonesia 1999 ; and Psysical Activity (X2) with questionaire. The results of the research are: (1).There<br>is a significant relationship between nutrional status and physical fitness and contributed for 12.00% . (2).<br>There is a significant relationship between physical activity and physical fitness and contributed for 26.00%.<br>(3). There is a significant relationship between nutritional status and physical activity and contributed for<br>29.00%. Thus, it can be concluded that increasing the psysical fitness of RSBI students in Padang can be<br>done by increasing Nutrional Status and Psysical Activity individually and in group.</p> Deri Putra Nurlan Kusmaedi Amung Mamun Syafrudin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2214 2220 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14701 Comparison the Serum Level of Paraoxonase Activity in Frequent Relapse and Infrequent Relapse Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome <p>Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is distinguished by heavy proteinuria (urine protein:creatinine ratio ?2000 mg/g<br>or ?300 mg/dL, or 3+ protein on urine dipstick), hypoalbuminemia (?2.5 g/dL), and edema. Leakage of<br>massive amounts of serum proteins into the urine leads to a hypercoagulable state, a higher rate of infectious<br>disease, and the dysregulation of fluid balance. Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS)<br>is one of the most common renal problems in children encountered in day-to-day nephrology practices.<br>The present study was aimed to evaluate the oxidant/ antioxidant status by measuring paraoxonase (PON)<br>activities as well as total antioxidant capacity in steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome (frequent and infrequent<br>relapse) and compares it with healthy control children . Paraoxonase activity by spectrophotometer in three<br>groups consisted of age and sex matched (30) patients with Frequent relapse nephrotic syndrome FRNS ,<br>(30) patients with infrequent relapse nephrotic syndrome (IFRNS) and (30) healthy control children. The<br>serum level of paraoxonase activity in infrequent relapse group was 101.61±43.0 IU which far less than<br>frequent relapse group (160.44±44.22 IU) or controls (228.35±32.35 IU) with highly significant differences.<br>Of note, the difference between control group and frequent relapse group was highly significant.</p> Dhuha A. Hussain Sinan A. Ibrahim Raid J. Mohamed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2221 2228 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14702 Effect of Cyanide on the Liver Histological and Biochemical Status <p>The biochemical and histological response of the rats following dosed on the potassium cyanide was<br>examined in this study, about 36 rats were randomly divided into sex groups ; G0 which considers the control<br>group, G1 oral dosed with potassium cyanide concentration 500ppm (500U/L), G2 dosed with concentration<br>1000ppm (1g/L), waiting for a long time 21 days before anatomy the animal. G3, G4, and G5 dosed with<br>2000ppm, 2500ppm, and 3000ppm, respectively to study the effect of high dose concentration on the liver<br>histology, liver enzyme and lipid profile and determined LD50 (lethal dose), and LC50 (lethal concentration).<br>After anatomy, the animal experiment to study the liver histological and determine the effect of potassium<br>cyanide concentration on the liver enzymes such as HDL, triglyceride, and cholesterol, compared the result<br>with the control group and previous studies . The study indicated the presence of a significant increase (P?<br>0.05) in ALP in the G1 , a non-significant increase (P? 0.05) in the G2 , the G3 and G4 groups suffered from<br>a significant increase (P? 0.05) while the G5 group suffered from a non-significant decrease (P? 0.05) in<br>comparison with G0. The present study also showed that there was a significant increase (P ? 0.05) in GPT in<br>the G1 , G2 , G3 , G4 in comparison with G0. The study also indicated the presence of a significant increase<br>(P ? 0.05) in GOT In the G1 , G2 and G3 compared to the G0.</p> Dhurgam Jameel Mohamed Ghusoon G Al- Janabi Abbas Natroud Bashi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2229 2234 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14703 The Antioxidant Effect of Noni Fruits Extract on HDL and LDL Level of Wistar Rat Induced by High Fat Diet <p>Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFLD) disorders. Inflammatory conditions, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance,<br>as well as several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, are also risk factors for this disease. This study aims<br>to determine the effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia) extract on the improvement of dyslipidemia condition,<br>based on the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level. This research is a<br>laboratory experimental study with a post-test only control group design. Male Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus)<br>were divided into four groups: negative control group with no induction and treatment (K-), positive control<br>group given high-fat diet induction for 14 days (K+), noni extract treatment group given a high-fat diet and<br>a noni extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg BB per day for 7 days (P1), and noni extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg<br>BB per day for seven days (P2). Low Density Lipoprotein and High Density Lipoprotein serum levels were<br>measured using the ELISA method. The results showed that there was a significant increase in LDL and a<br>decrease in HDL in both treatment groups (P1 and P2) compared with K(+) group. Therefore, we conclude<br>that noni extract (Morinda citrifolia) played a role as an antioxidant which can increase LDL and decrease<br>HDL serum levels in rats induced by a high fat diet.</p> Diah Purwaningsari Sihning EJ Tehupuring Nita Pranitasari Suhailah Hayaza Lestari Dewi Dian Ardiana Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2235 2239 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14704 Effect of Photoprotective Cream of Mangosteen Pericarp Extract (Garcinia Mongostana L) Against 8-OHdG After UVB Exposure On Albino Mice <p>Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of the application of mangosteen pericarp extract cream<br>(Garcinia Mangostana L) on levels of 8-OHdG on the skin of mice after exposure to UVB.<br>Method: The study use a pure animal experimental research design with control group. The criteria for<br>inclution were species Swiss albino mice, aged 6 – 9 weeks, weight 20-30 g, female gender and healthy.. The<br>samples that met the criteria were divided into 5 groups : UVB, Base Cream plus UVB, 3 groups mangosteen<br>pericarp extract cream with different concentration UVB radiation in mice using a 311 nm narrowband UVB<br>(Dermalight 1000) with the power 450 mJ/cm three times a week for 4 week. Elisa examination was carried<br>out before and after the experiment.<br>Result: This study used 25 mice albino selected randomly and were divided into 5 treatment group<br>consisting of 5 group : UVB alone, UVB with base cream, UVB with mangosten pericarp extract cream with<br>concentration of 1 %, 3 % and 5 %. The Comperative test levels of 8-OhdG between each group with Post<br>Hoc test and found It was concluded that the decrease in OhdG was greatest in group 2 followed by groups<br>5, 4, 3, and 1 (control group), respectively.<br>Conclution: The ELISA levels of 8-OHdG was found that there are significant difference as between the<br>various treatment groups (p&gt;0,05). However, the increasing concentration of mangosten pericarp extract<br>cream showed decreased level of 8-OHdG.</p> Dian Amelia Abdi Nasrum Massi Khairuddin Djawad Sri Vitayani Nesyana Nurmadilla Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2240 2244 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14705 The Effect of Nitric Oxide Supplement Intake on the Value of Hematological Examination of Health Workers Exposed to Covid-19 <p>Objective: Examination of the diagnostic covid-19 gold standard with real time reverse polymerase chain<br>reaction (RT-PCR) is still limited, so that the initial hematological examination (leukocytes, lymphocytes,<br>neutrophils, platelets, hemoglobin, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) plays an important role in<br>monitoring the course of covid-19 disease Macrophages release nitric oxide (NO) to kill parasites NO<br>inhibits migration and adhesion of leucocytes to the endothelium. Metode: The research design used preexperimental with one group pre-post test, the total sample was 80 health workers who were exposed to<br>Covid-19, the independent variable was the provision of NO and the dependent variable was the result of<br>a hematological examination (leukocytes, lymposites, platelets, neutrophils, hemoglobin and NLR). The<br>intervention was given NO 500 mg mixed with warm water 250 cc, given 3 times a day for 5 days, data<br>analysis used the T-test with a significance value of a&lt;0.05. Results: There is a difference in the results<br>of the pre and post-test hematology giving NO to the results of the examination of leucocytes a=0.001,<br>lymphocytes a=0.000, platelets a=0.000, neutrophils a=0.000, hemoglobin a=0.031, and NLR a=0.000.<br>Conclusion: Giving NO to health workers exposed to Covid-19 can improve the hematology and immune<br>systems to fight the corona virus.</p> Didik Dwi Winarno Abdul Rohim Tualek Noeroel Widajati Juliana Jalaludin Nuh Huda Raden Khairiyatul Afiyah ,Firman Suryadi Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2245 2251 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14706 Immunotherapy Duration and Risk of Psychosocial Emotion and Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prevalence and Relation in Allergic Rhinitis Children <p>Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disease in children. Allergic symptoms<br>affect daily activities and increase risk of psychosocial emotion and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder<br>(ADHD). Immunotherapy has been proven in improving AR symptoms<br>Objective: To identify prevalence of the risk of psychosocial emotion disorder and ADHD and its relation<br>with immunotherapy duration in AR children.<br>Methods: A cross-sectional study was held in AR children aged 4-18 years at Allergy Immunology Outpatient<br>Clinic, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, during March 2017. Immunotherapy duration categorized into 0-6 months, 6<br>months-1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years. Psychosocial emotion disorder risk assessed using Pediatric Symptoms<br>Checklist 17 (PSC-17), scored into four different subscales: Internalizing, Externalizing, Attention, and<br>Total Score. ADHD risk was assessed using Abbreviated Conner’s Rating Scale (ACRS). Statistical analysis<br>using One-Way ANOVA and Eta test, with a value of p&lt; 0.05 considered as significant.<br>Results: Total of 37 children included. Based on immunotherapy duration 0-6 months, 6 months-1 year, 1-2<br>years, and 2-3 years, prevalence risk of ADHD are 20.6%, 15.4%, 12.5%, and 12.5%, and prevalence of<br>psychosocial emotion disorder risk are only in immunotherapy duration 6 months-1 year 12.5%. There were<br>no correlation between immunotherapy duration with risk of psychosocial emotion disorder (p = 0.945) and<br>significantly correlated to ADHD (p = 0.049, r = 0.326).<br>Conclusion: Prevalence risk of ADHD decrease as the immunotherapy duration increase and immunotherapy<br>duration weakly correlated with risk of ADHD.</p> Dinda Anes Tunjungsari Anang Endaryanto Ahmad Suryawan Ariyanto Harsono Zahrah Hikmah Azwin Mengindra Putera Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2252 2260 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14707 Ecological Analysis of Maternity Care in Indonesia in 2018 <p>Policies that encourage maternity care to health care facilities are an important effort to reduce maternal<br>mortality rates. This study aims to analyze the factors related to maternity care coverage in Indonesia. The<br>ecological analysis was conducted using secondary data from the Ministry of Health of the Republic of<br>Indonesia report in 2018. All provinces were taken as samples. In addition to coverage of childbirth in health<br>care facilities as the dependent variable, there were 6 independent variables analyzed in this study, namely<br>percentage of poor families, a ratio of primary health care/100,000 population, a ratio of hospital/100,000<br>population, a ratio of gynecologist/100,000 population, a ratio of midwife/100,000 population, and<br>coverage of health insurance ownership. Data were analyzed using cross-tabulation. The results show the<br>percentage of poor families tends to have a negative relationship with maternity care coverage. Besides,<br>four other variables were found to tend to have a positive relationship with maternity care coverage, namely<br>the ratio of primary health care/100,000 population, the ratio of hospital/100,000 population, the ratio of<br>gynecologist/100,000 population, and coverage of health insurance ownership. Meanwhile, the ratio of the<br>midwife/100,000 population was found to have no relationship with maternity care coverage in Indonesia. It<br>was concluded that 5 variables show the tendency of the relationship with maternity care coverage in health<br>care facilities in Indonesia.</p> Dinnya Yesica Tandy Hario Megatsari Agung Dwi Laksono Mursyidul Ibad Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2261 2267 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14708 Ketogenic Diet Slows Down Weight Gain in Juvenile Mus musculus with Benzopyrene as Cancer Inducer <p>Objective: This study aims to analyze the ketogenic diet that slows down weight gain in juvenile Mus<br>musculus induced with benzopyrene (BZP). Method: Thirty-six female mice (Mus musculus), 6-8 weeks old,<br>weighted 15-25 grams were divided into six groups randomly. K1 (negative control, standard diet) induced<br>with oleum olivarum, while K2 (positive control, standard diet), P1 (ketogenic diet 1), P2 (ketogenic diet 2),<br>P3 (ketogenic diet 3) and P4 (ketogenic diet 4) induced with BZP subcutaneously in the right breast at a dose<br>of 0.3mg/20gBB/day for 14 days. The ketogenic diet was given for the next 28 days. Data were analyzed<br>using the ANOVA and post hoc LSD test. Results: After 42 days, the ketogenic diet mice experienced<br>slower weight gain (p=0.000) because BZP induced neurotoxicity and the administration of the ketogenic<br>diet in juvenile mice induced neurohormonal changes. The ketogenic diet increased ketone plasma level<br>(p=0.000) and reduced blood glucose levels (p=0.002) due to nutritional ketosis state. Conclusions: The<br>ketogenic diet with fat:protein ratio 60:30 slows down weight gain, increased ketone levels and decreased<br>blood glucose levels in juvenile mice with BZP as cancer inducer.</p> Dita Mega Utami Lilik Herawati Reny I’tishom Mohammad Anam Al-Ari Muhammad Miftahussurur Purwo Sri Rejeki Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2268 2274 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14709 Molecular Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in Helix pomatia in Wasit Province Iraq <p>DNA of a total of 96 samples of (32) enteric, (32) gastric and (32) pod of Helix pomatia has been obtained<br>through the use of the Genomic DNA Extraction kit and tested by the use of the Real time PCR and specific<br>set of the primers and probe for the detection of the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene. Six enteric samples and only<br>2 gastric samples have been positive while the others have been negative, that result indicates the presence<br>of the T. gondii in that snail species, and based upon those results infection can either be acquired from the<br>contaminated environment or as a result of consuming the grass that has been contaminated with parasite<br>oocysts. The negative result of pod samples may be due to the failure of filtration the infectious stages of<br>parasites into the organs that close contacts with environment or inability of the parasites in surviving in<br>those organs.</p> Duaa Abdul Khaliq AL-Quraishy Altamemy A. K. Aakool Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2275 2280 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14710 New Insight in the Using of Core Needle Biopsy As First Line in Preoperative Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodule <p>Background: The diagnosis of thyroid nodule by core needle biopsy is different from post resection samples<br>because of difficulties in applying histological criteria for both samples due to limitation in core needle<br>biopsy sample .<br>Objective: To assess the utility of core needle biopsy in diagnosis of thyroid nodule.<br>Material and Method: We use core needle biopsy as first line method instead of fine needle aspiration<br>and to reach final diagnosis after resection sample . Core needle biopsy results were divided to six groups)<br>unsatisfactory, benign, indeterminate, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy and malignant)<br>according to The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology (1,2,3) .<br>Result : A total of 45 thyroid nodules taken from 45 patients (30 female and 15 male) . Malignant changes<br>were seen in 19 nodules after surgery and 26 after core needle biopsy. Benign nodules were diagnosed in 11<br>cases after surgery and in 12 cases after core needle biopsy . Final diagnoses were concluded for 34 nodules<br>(76%). Twenty one nodules were diagnosed as malignant nodules and 13 nodules were diagnosed as benign<br>nodules .<br>Conclusions: Core needle biopsy is reliable and valuable tool for the diagnosis of thyroid nodule and can<br>been used as an alternative to fine needle aspirate especially in patients with inconclusive results .</p> Eaman Suud Khalifa Ayser Hameed Latif Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2281 2288 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14711 Species Composition and Seasonal Activity of Phlebotominae Sand Flies in Kuhdasht City, Lorestan Province, Iran <p>Background: leishmaniasis causes ninth largest burden among infectious diseases and has been known for<br>several hundred years in Iran. Phlebotominae sand flies are proven vectors of leishmaniasis and some other<br>infectious diseases such as sand fly fever, summer meningitis, vesicular stomatitis, Carri ?on’s disease and<br>Chandipura virus encephalitis to human and animals.<br>Aim: To reveal the species diversity and distribution of leishmaniasis vectors, the present study was<br>conducted with the aim of investigating the fauna and monthly activity of sand flies of Kuhdasht.<br>Methodology: This cross-sectional descriptive study was done on sand flies distribution and seasonal<br>activity in Kuhdasht city. Using sticky traps and light traps sand flies were collected during activity season<br>from the end of March to mid-December, 2016.<br>Results: During 8 months of study, totally 4455 sand flies (4157 with sticky trap and 298 with light trap) were<br>collected. Sandflies include a collection of 7 species composed of Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi, P<br>(Paraphlebotomus) sergenti, P (Paraphlebotomus) alexandri, P (Adlerius) halpensis, P (Paraphlebotomus)<br>caucasicus, P (Phlebotomus) salehi and Sergentomyia (Sergentomia) antenata. Activity of sand flies started<br>in late May and continued until the end of November. Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti and P. alexandri<br>were three prevalent species in studied areas and two activity peaks were recorded in the end of June and in<br>early-September.<br>Conclusions: Regarding the presence of proven vectors of leishmaniasis in studied areas and neighboring<br>with important foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis, monitoring the status of vectors and epidemiology of the<br>disease in the city and suburb of the Kuhdasht is very important in the prevention of forming a new focus<br>of leishmaniasis.</p> Ebrahim Hosseini-Fard Aref Salehzadeh Amir Hossein Maghsood Behroz Davari Amir-Hossein Zahirnia Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2289 2296 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14712 Therapeutic Effect of Gum Arabic on some Biochemical Parameters in Nephrotoxic Albino rats <p>The aim of the current study is to evaluate some biochemical parameters in rats treated with gentamicin<br>to induce nephrotoxicity . The experimental study was conducted using 42 healthy adult male rat weighing<br>250-300 grams . The results showed a significant increase (P?0.05) in the levels of urea and creatinine in<br>the blood serum, an increase in the activity of liver enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and a significant decrease in<br>the concentration of albumin in adult male rats injected with gentamicin (80 mg / kg IP daily for 10 Days)<br>to induce nephrotoxicity compared to control group. The results showed a significant increase (P?0.05)<br>in the concentration of urea and creatinine in the blood serum and a significant increase (P?0.05) in the<br>activity of liver enzymes AST, ALT, ALP, and albumin concentration in (untreated induced nephrotoxicity)<br>compared with (control group). The results showed a significant decrease (P?0.05) in the levels of urea<br>and creatinine in the blood serum and a significant decrease (P?0.05) in the activity of liver enzymes AST,<br>ALT, ALP, kidney weight and a significant increase (P?0.05) in albumin concentration, from the induced<br>nephrotoxicity group treated with (15% w / v / day) Gum Arabic compared to the untreated nephrotoxic<br>group, but the values In all treated groups were less than the control group. The present study concluded that<br>the induced nephrotoxicity group treated with Gum Arabic showed improvement in some biochemical and<br>hematological parameters associated mainly with nephrotoxicity</p> Eman Aboud Hussein Husham Qassim Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2297 2303 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14713 Factors Related to Postnatal Care Utilization in Indonesia in 2018: An Ecological Study <p>Postnatal care is very crucial in the postnatal period because it is a critical period for babies. This study aims<br>to analyze the factors related to postnatal care utilization (1st neonatal visits) in Indonesia. The ecological<br>analysis was conducted using secondary data from the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia<br>report in 2018. All provinces were taken as samples. Apart from postnatal care utilization, 5 other variables<br>analyzed as independent variables were the ANC 1st visit, ANC 4th visits, poverty depth index, percentage<br>of health centers with sufficient midwives, and the ratio of gynecologist per 100,000 population. The results<br>show there was a tendency for a positive relationship between ANC 1st visit and 1st neonatal visit. The higher<br>the ANC 1st visit coverage, the higher the 1st neonatal visit coverage (p = 0.034). Meanwhile, there was also<br>a trend towards a positive relationship between the ANC 1st visit and the 1st neonatal visit. The higher the<br>coverage of the ANC 4th visit, the higher the coverage of the 1st neonatal visit (p = 0.040). Moreover, poverty<br>depth index, percentage of health centers with sufficient midwives, and the ratio of gynecologist per 100,000<br>population were found to have no significant correlation with 1st neonatal visits. It could be concluded that<br>from the 5 independent variables analyzed, 2 variables were proven to be ecologically positively related to<br>postnatal care utilization (1st neonatal visit), namely ANC 1st visit and ANC 4th visit.</p> Eni Purwaningsih Hario Megatsari Agung Dwi Laksono Mursyidul Ibad Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2304 2310 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14714 The Effectiveness of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) and Ambon Banana Fruit (Musa Acuminata Cola) in Reducing Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients in Palangga Gowa District, Indonesia <p>Hypertensive patients who are not adhering to treatment cannot control their blood pressure so it is important<br>to find solutions that can stabilize blood pressure with food that is consumed and can be found anytime<br>around them. Objective: This study was to identify the effectiveness of cucumber and Ambon banana fruit<br>in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive sufferers. Method: This type of research is a Quasy Experiment<br>with a non-randomized pretest and posttest control group design. Population of this study were hypertensive<br>patient in Pallangga subdistrict and Sample participated were 24 people with hypertension selected by<br>purpossive sampling with the sample formula of unpaired numerical analytic research. Results: There were<br>differences before and after treatment in the two groups, there was no difference in the effectiveness of the<br>sample in the two same treatments. Conclusion: Cucumber and banana fruit are effective for lowering blood<br>pressure.</p> Erlina Y Kongkoli Nasrullah Sumira M. Askar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2311 2316 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14715 E-learning Challenges in Nursing Education during COVID-19 Pandemic-A Narrative Review. <p>Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has alarmed an urgent change in all spectra on the lives of people<br>including education sector. Objective: This narrative review summarizes the challenges of online education<br>in nursing and explores the possible opportunities to improve or maintain the standards of nursing education.<br>Methods: A comprehensive literature search was done to identify the challenges of online education in<br>nursing. Seven primary studies meeting the inclusion criteria, published from the onset of COVID-19 until<br>5th September 2020 were included in this narrative review. Results: The available literature shows that,<br>students are missing the practical aspects of nursing care, the real essence of nursing education during<br>e-learning, cancellation of international training, loss of job opportunities due to lack of confidence in<br>their skill are bothersome for students and educators. Success of e-learning is also affected by internet<br>connectivity issues, problem with electricity and lack of computer literacy. At the same time, it is found that<br>online education delivery is substituting theory learning to a great extent, however practical training remains<br>indispensable for nursing education. Conclusion: Continuous engagement and motivation from the part of<br>both the students and nurse educators is very essential in meeting the educational needs during this crisis.</p> Divya K Y Binil V Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2317 2322 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14718 Alveolar Bone Density after the Orthodontic Treatment in Patients of Rsgm Universitas Airlangga <p>Background: There is a relation between the orthodontic therapy and the periodontal tissue. In the moving<br>teeth and planning treatment, the periodontal tissue is very influential in an orthodontic therapy. During the<br>movement of the teeth, all components of the periodontal tissue such as the bones, periodontal ligaments,<br>and gingiva will change and move together. Some studies indicate a decrease in alveolar bone fraction and<br>alveolar bone density. The changes in density are seen by comparing the new bone mineralization with<br>the old bones. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the differences in alveolar bone density after an<br>orthodontic treatment in patients of RSGM Universitas Airlangga. Methods: This study used a patient’s<br>panoramic radiograph at the time before the orthodontic treatment and the time after it. Photographs of<br>panoramic radiographs were measured using a digital densitometer. Results: The results of the study<br>revealed a decrease in alveolar bone density after orthodontic treatment, both anterior and posterior. The<br>average decrease in the anterior was 35.4%, while in the posterior was a decrease of 31.5%. Conclusion:<br>There was a decrease in the alveolar bone density after orthodontic treatment in the anterior and posterior<br>sections.</p> Ernie Maduratna Setiawatie Mohamad Rubianto Muhammad Naufal Ilmi Roswand Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2323 2327 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14719 Prosthodontic Management of Flabby Ridge with a Modified Window Impression Technique – A Case Report <p>The performance of a complete denture is often a reflection of its support and retention of the underlying<br>hard and soft tissues. If the superficial aspect of alveolar ridge is compressible more than 2mm, this will<br>result in a mobile soft tissue (flabby tissues). This occurs when hyperplastic soft tissue replaces the alveolar<br>bone. During conventional impression procedures, the flabby tissues are compressed and will later tend<br>to recoil and dislodge the resulting overlying denture. This article aims to presents a case report for the<br>prosthodontic rehabilitation of a patient with a flabby tissue with a modified window impression technique.</p> Eswaran.B Rohit.M Soniya.H Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2328 2332 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14720 Molecular Detection of bla(SHV), bla(IMP) and bla(VIM) ?-lactamases genes among Klebsiella pneumonia strains <p>Spreading of antibiotic resistance genes producing bacteria among patients usually caused potential<br>infections for human with high morbidity and mortality especially Klebsiella pneumoniae and the fast<br>development of Multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains has significantly increased and can be quite problematic.<br>Thus, the current study was aimed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (?-lactamase)<br>among K. pneumoniae isolates. Methods: Fifty K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from sputum samples<br>for patients suffered respiratory infection. The detection of resistance genes (blaSHV, blaVIM, bla IMP)<br>was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The frequency of ?-lactamase-positive K.<br>pneumoniae was 28%, and the prevalence of the blaSHV, blaVIM and blaIMP genes was 100%, 0% and 0%<br>respectively. Conclusions: These results ?-lactamase genes believing multi-drug resistance genes. This help<br>to decrease treatment problems as a result of resistant bacterial infections and prevention of transmission of<br>drug resistance by rapid discovery infection-control programs.</p> Faten Naeem Abbas Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2333 2338 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14721 Improving Mental Health of Adolescents through Self-Presentation <p>Mental health is currently the problem faced by youth especially during the pandemic of COVID-19.<br>Adolescents use of social media is also increasing due to this coronavirus pandemic. This situation have risk<br>of increasing the risk of lower mental health of Adolescent as the impact of posting their self-presentation<br>through a social media such as Instagram. Instagram is a social media platform that has a rapid user growth.<br>Indonesia is one of the countries with highest number of users. Instagram users recorded as of May 2020<br>had reached 9.2 million users. Instagram as social media is a means for users to present themselves to<br>wide audience. Self-presentation can be in the form posting photos or videos on their Instagram social<br>media accounts. By posting photos, user hope to get feedback in the form of likes and comments. This<br>research aims at the improving mental health of adolescent through self-presentation. This research used<br>is secondary data obtained from journal database. The sample was 35 scientific articles obtained from the<br>basis of screening journal that has been screened using pre determine inclusion criteria. The result found that<br>self-presentation on social media Instagram was related to giving or managing impression, popular, selfdisclosure, narcissistic behavior, self-image and self-esteem that in turn will result in lowering adolescent<br>mental health if it is not manage well.</p> Ferina Agustia Yuarta Ira Nurmala Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2339 2344 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14722 Comparison of Palatal Rugae Pattern among Indian and Malaysian Population <p>Background: Tools for establishing identity is invaluable part of forensic sciences form the beginning<br>of the profession. Odontology is one of such branches which in early days started in its crude form with<br>identification of different species and races within the species, currently is an individual subject with<br>specialist societies, journals and courses. Palatal rugae, was identified to be a potential tool for establishing<br>identity few centuries back itself but is not validated even today to be part of standard protocols. This is a<br>pilot study comparing two racial groups i.e., Indian and Malaysian with established parameters for palate<br>rugae aiming at testing the feasibility of the parameters to be used in identification of individuals and racial<br>groups and also to provide preliminary data to make way to larger studies.<br>Aims and Objectives: The aim of this pilot study is to explore the feasibility of palate prints as tool for<br>identification by, studying palate print in Indian and Malaysians and Comparison of plate Rugosity between<br>Indians and Malaysians students for identification.<br>Methodology: Study population was male Indian and Malaysian Medical and Dental students, age between<br>18-25 years studying at Mangalore, India. Sample size 80 (40 in each group); were selected for studying of<br>Palatal Rugae. The palate impressions were collected using maxillary alginate cast. The parameters assessed<br>were: Total number of rugae, number of primary rugae (length- 5 to 10 mm), secondary rugae (3-5mm),<br>fragmentary rugae (less than 3 mm). Comparison for two populations was done using non-parametric MannWhitney Test.<br>Results: There were no statistically significant differences among the Indians and Malaysians in total<br>number and number secondary rugae in both sides more in Indians than Malaysians.<br>There was statistically significant difference in number of the primary rugae and the fragmentary rugae,<br>which in both sides were more in Indians than Malaysians.<br>Conclusion: In conclusion, palatal rugae pattern are unique to an individual and their use in forensic<br>identification has been advocated and applied. Our study demonstrated significant difference in the number<br>of primary rugae on each side. It was more in Indians than Malaysians. This study demonstrated the<br>uniqueness of rugae pattern in different individuals. Thus, it appears to be an effective &amp; reliable source of<br>identification.</p> Firoz Ismail Rejeeh.E.P Rajesh.H Nabeel Abdul Vahid Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2345 2350 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14723 Shape and Unification Pattern of Palatal Rugae as a Race Identification Tool- A Cross-Sectional Study <p>Background: One of the integral parts of forensic medicine is identification of individuals from biological<br>samples and from the anatomical signatures. Identification of individuals, races, species, gender from the<br>anatomical signatures of teeth and oral cavity is one of such branches which existed in practice in crude<br>form even before origin of the Forensic odontology as a specialization. Individual variations in Palatal rugae<br>pattern, and its biometric value as a potential tool for establishment of identity was reported centuries back. It’s<br>not standardised or included in the regular standard protocols even today in the age of artificial intelligence.<br>In this pilot study we are comparing two racial groups i.e., Indian and Malaysian with established parameters<br>for palate rugae with an objective of testing feasibility and validation for identification of individuals and<br>racial groups and also to provide preliminary data for larger studies.<br>Aims and Objectives: The aim of this pilot study is to explore the feasibility of palate rougoscopy as a tool<br>for race identification by studying the shape and unification Pattern of Palatal Rugae in Indian and Malaysian<br>population.<br>Methodology: Study population was male Indian and Malaysian Medical and Dental students, aged 18-25<br>years studying at Mangalore, India. Sample size 80 (40 in each group); were selected for studying Palatal<br>Rugae. The palate impressions were collected using maxillary alginate cast. The parameters assessed were:<br>shape an unification based on classification of Thomas &amp; Kotze. Comparison for two populations was done<br>using non-parametric Mann-Whitney Test.<br>Results : Predominant Shape: The Curvy patterns were more common in Malaysians compared to Indian.<br>The Wavy patterns were more common in Malaysians than Indians.The Circular patterns were more common<br>in Indians than Malaysians.<br>Predominant unification: Diverging patterns were more in Malaysians than Indians and Converging patterns<br>were more in Indians than Malaysians and statistically significant.<br>Conclusion : In the present study the Malaysians had predominantly curvy and wavy patterns and Indians<br>had circular shapes. Straight patterns were seen equally in both the populations. Although unification of<br>the palate rugae was seen, the diverging patterns is more in Malaysians and Converging patterns more in<br>Indians.</p> Firoz Ismail Rejeesh.E.P Rajesh.H Nabeel Abdul Vahid Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2351 2355 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14724 Immune Dysregulation in Childhood Leprosy <p>Leprosy is a chronic infection which is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Leprosy has long been considered<br>a complex disease, in which host and environmental characteristics are as important as the pathogen to<br>determine disease outcome. Leprosy is an excellent model for examining the immunoregulatory functions.<br>Children are believed to be the most vulnerable group to leprosy infection due to their immature immunity.<br>This review is aimed to summarize the findings of previous studies about immune dysregulation in childhood<br>leprosy. This study highlighted the plausible maternal-fetal connection which are related in immune<br>dysregulation in childhood leprosy.</p> Flora Ramona Sigit Prakoeswa Budi Prasetyo Santi Martini Hardyanto Soebono Muhammad Yulianto Listiawan Anang Endaryanto Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2356 2364 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14725 Environmental Factors and Leprosy in Mother and Child: A Study in Endemic Areas in East Java, Indonesia <p>Background: Leprosy is a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae. In endemic locations,<br>children become vulnerable as a result of being continuously exposed to foci of active transmission from a<br>very young age, especially from their mothers. This study aims to find association between environmental<br>risk factors and leprosy in mothers and children in endemic areas.<br>Methods: This study is a case-control study in endemic areas in Tuban Regency, East Java Province,<br>Indonesia. Retrieval of data was done using structured questionnaire and direct measurement. Chi-square<br>was used to assess the association between environmental factors and leprosy in mothers and children groups.<br>Results: 22 pairs of cases and 57 pairs of controls were examined. It is found that access to clean water<br>is associated with leprosy in mothers in endemic areas (p value = 0.047, OR 3.080, CI 95% 2.232-4.251).<br>Environmental factors are not associated with pediatric leprosy in endemic areas.<br>Conclusion: The results of our study show that environmental factors are not associated with pediatric<br>leprosy in endemic areas. Access to clean water is associated with leprosy in mothers in endemic areas.</p> Flora Ramona Sigit Prakoeswa Hardyanto Soebono Dominicus Husada Hari Basuki Notobroto Muhammad Yulianto Listiawan Anang Endaryanto Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2365 2373 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14726 Estimation of Stature from Hand Measurements. A Population based Study <p>A prospective study was carried out in the department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Kanachur<br>Institute of Medical sciences, Mangaluru in 2016. The aim of the study was to evaluate the stature from<br>hand length and hand breadth in Dakshina Kannada population. Materials and method: The study group<br>comprised of 100 individuals of ages ranging from 22-45 years of both males and females (50 males and 50<br>females) residing in Dakshina Kannada. Individuals were selected randomly who attended Kanachur hospital<br>in the age group of 22-45 years of both males and females. Written informed consent was taken from each<br>individual. Ethical clearance was obtained from Yenepoya University to carry out the study. Materials used<br>were stadiometer, digital caliper. Results: The linear regression analysis and multiple regression equation<br>were obtained for both males and females. Conclusion: Linear regression equation is useful in estimating<br>stature than multiple regressions. To denote a population it is always better to do on a larger sample size to<br>get accuracy of the results.</p> Fouzia Hameed Vina Vaswani Viswakanth B Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2374 2378 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14727 Potential Effect of Djambal Catfish (Pangasius djambal) Gelatin as Biomaterial Product on Healing Socket after Tooth Extraction in Rats <p>Purpose: Adequate wound healing after a tooth extraction is significant because the oral cavity has a<br>masticatory function and plays a role in nutrient intake. Various scientific studies have been conducted to<br>find the ideal biomaterial to support wound healing. This study aims to determine the wound healing activity<br>using Djambal Catfish (Pangasius djambal) gelatin after tooth extraction.<br>Method: Gelatin was obtained from Djambal Catfish (Pangasius djambal). The sample was selected by<br>random sampling, divided into 6 groups, namely the control group on the 3rd day (n=6), the control group<br>on the 5th day (n=6), the control group on the 7th day (n=6), the treatment group on the 3rd day (n=6), the<br>treatment group on the 5th day (n=6), and the treatment on the 7th day (n=6). Wound healing was examined<br>by evaluating wound healing marker such as macrophages, fibroblasts, epithelialization, angiogenesis, and<br>collagen. Data were processed using statistical analysis.<br>Results: The treatments had a positive result in wound healing as compared with the control groups.<br>Histological assessment showed a remarkable sign of an increased number of macrophage, fibroblast,<br>epithelialization, and collagen deposition.<br>Conclusion: Gelatin derived from Djambal Catfish (Pangasius djambal) can accelerate the wound healing<br>process thus could be a component therapeutic potential product that may be beneficial in wound healing in<br>the future.</p> Fredy Mardiyantoro Nenny Prasetyaningrum Miftakhul Cahyati Zefry Zainal Abidin Norifumi Nakamura Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2379 2387 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14728 The D614G Mutation in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike Glycoprotein: A MiniReport <p>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a quickly spreading virus that poses<br>a major burden on global human health. Thus, it is essential to develop COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine<br>development might not be easy, as a consequence of mutations. This study aimed to demonstrate the D614G<br>mutation in SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein from Indonesia. 102 isolates from the GISAID EpiCoV<br>database and the Wuhan-Hu-1 isolate (reference sequence) from GenBank, NCBI were used in this study.<br>BioEdit employed to examine the D614G mutation in the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. In this report,<br>there are 56 D614G mutations among 102 SARS-CoV-2 isolates. In summary, this report might suggest<br>that the D614G mutation implicates the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Nevertheless, this report was a<br>preliminary study and this study recommends expanding molecular epidemiology and surveillance programs<br>to monitor COVID-19</p> Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2388 2391 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14729 Alpinia galanga or Lengkuas (Zingiberaceae): A Possible Treatment for COVID-19 <p>Alpinia galanga (Zingiberaceae) or lengkuas is one type of herbal plant that is widely grown in Southeast<br>Asia. Various countries cultivate this medicinal plant, including Indonesia. This medicinal plant has a variety<br>of benefits and also be used as a treatment for many diseases. Although the lengkuas rhizome is the most<br>widely used and studied part of the plant, the flower on the lengkuas can also provide additional advantages,<br>such as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate lengkuas for the<br>future prospects against SARS-CoV-2. In summary, this study suggests that lengkuas might be useful as a<br>treatment for COVID-19, although further studies could be conducted to confirm the results of computational<br>studies.</p> Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2392 2395 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14730 Discovery of Therapeutic Targets and Potential Drugs to Fight Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2): A Review <p>SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has led to more than two million deaths worldwide. There<br>are currently no specific therapies approved to treat COVID-19 and drug repositioning, rather than new<br>drug discovery, which may be the best short-term option for controlling the pandemic. In this review, the<br>author discusses important viral targets such as the papain-like protease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase,<br>3-chymotrypsin-like protease, and spike protein. The information about chemical compounds and targets<br>provided in this review will aid further in vitro and in vivo studies to discover drugs to treat COVID-19.</p> Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2396 2401 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14731 In Silico Study of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Candidate: Spike Glycoprotein <p>This study aimed to perform the analysis of toxicity prediction, allergenicity prediction, and in silico cloning<br>of peptides originated from SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in the previous study. Allergenicity prediction<br>employed AllerPred to predict the non-allergen peptides and toxicity prediction performed using ToxinPred.<br>Then, this study designed the in silico cloning of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with pET-28a(+) using<br>SnapGene software. Therefore, this study successfully constructed the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate via<br>in silico method. Therefore, these data could be used to design a peptide-based vaccine against SARSCoV-2. However, the advanced study is recommended confirmation, such as in vitro and in vivo study</p> Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2402 2405 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14732 Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Nimodipine as an Orodispersible Film <p>The objective of this study is to prepare nimodipine as orodispersible films by using solvent casting method<br>in order to enhance its oral bioavailability and improve patient compliance. Nimodipine is a calcium channel<br>blocker belongs to class II, it used to improve neurologic outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage<br>(SAH) by reducing the incidence and severity of ischemic deficits. ODFs were prepared using three types<br>film forming polymers with different concentration HPMC E3, HPMC E5 and HPMC E15, using (Glycerin)<br>as plasticizer and (Poloxamer 407) as surfactant. The effect of different concentrations and types of polymers,<br>on mechanical properties such as (folding endurance and percent of elongation) and the in-vitro evaluation<br>parameters such (disintegration time, surface pH, weight variation and dissolution profile) were evaluated.<br>HPMC E5 films showed slightly higher cumulative % drug release than films of HPMC E3 and HPMC E15<br>at the same concentration of plasticizer and surfactant</p> Ghadah Hamid Naji Khansaa Hattam Abdul-Jabar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2406 2412 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14733 Association of Genetic Polymorphisms with Risperidone Treatment Response in Schizophrenia: A Review <p>Background: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by positive, negative, and cognitive<br>symptoms that affect the quality of life. Risperidone is widely known as second-generation antipsychotic<br>that is effective to treat schizophrenia. Unlike the first-generation antipsychotic, risperidone has a lower<br>impact on the extrapyramidal adverse effect. However, individually, the risperidone treatment response may<br>be different caused by the genetic polymorphisms. This review aims to examine the association of genetic<br>polymorphisms with risperidone treatment response in schizophrenia.<br>Method: The review was conducted using the Pubmed database and 49 articles included in this review<br>among 80 articles obtained in an initial search. The result showed genetic polymorphisms which affects<br>risperidone therapy include DRD2, genetic polymorphisms on serotonin, cytochrome P450, BDNF, COMT,<br>and ABCB1. Those polymorphisms might increase or decrease pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic<br>profile of risperidone. In addition, genetic polymorphisms also contributed to the risk of metabolic syndrome<br>and hyperprolactinemia induced by risperidone treatment.<br>Conclusion: Based on those findings, several genetic polymorphisms had an association with therapeutic<br>outcomes and side effect after risperidone treatment. Genetic polymorphisms screening may be useful for<br>drug choices or dosage adjustment that safer and effective for patients.</p> Gina Sabila Rano K. Sinuraya Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2413 2421 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14735 Evaluation of the Relationship between Ossification of Sternal Joints and Age with Multi-Slice CT Scan <p>Objective: Sternum radiograph is used in determination of age after 21 years old according to manubriosternal<br>body (MB) and xiphisternal joint body (XB) ossification. In this study, we intend to estimate age using<br>multi-slice CT images as radiographs have lower sensitivity and CT images demonstrate ossification better.<br>Materials and Methods: Multi-slice thorax CT images found in PACS archive are evaluated retrospectively.<br>Cases between 21-65 years old are selected. Coronal reconstruction images were obtained. MB and XB joint<br>ossification presence and degree are evaluated in respective age groups. MB joint ossification is graded<br>as 0-3 and XB joint ossification graded as 0-1. Relation between variables is examined with Spearman<br>correlation coefficient. Threshold for age variable is calculated using ROC analysis.<br>Results: Multi-slice CT images of 396 cases are examined (198 females, 198 males). In females and males,<br>MB and XB fusion was seen to start between age group of 21-25 years but there were complete fusion in<br>a few. In 61-65 age groups there were cases without complete fusion. There was statistically significant<br>difference in males and females according to MB and XB joint ossification in between age groups (p&lt;0.001).<br>Conclution: Evaluation of MB and XB joint ossification with CT scan in age estimation is not appropriate<br>between wide age groups.</p> Gokhan Gokalp Selman Candan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2422 2429 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14736 Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge toward Sleeve Gastrectomy in Surgical Unit at Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Governorate <p>A sleeve gastrectomy is a life changing surgery which used for helping patients who are severing from<br>obesity (BMI 40+ or BMI 35+ with other health problems) for losing weight and enhance their health weight<br>loss help to less the risk for development medical conditions related to obesity as high blood pressure,<br>D.M, arthritis, respiration problems), the sleeve gastrectomy operation makes stomach small to change<br>the amount of meals, and it helps to losing weight. This study aims to assess nurses’ knowledge toward<br>quantification sleeve gastrostomy in surgical unit and to identify the relationship between nurses’ knowledge<br>about quantification sleeve gastrostomy and their sociodemographic data in surgical unit. A quantitative<br>descriptive design is used in the present study to perform objectives. A purposive sampling method; 40<br>nurses distributed on hospitals in surgical units, the data collection used through constructed questions<br>divided to demographic data and nurses’ knowledge, and data analyzed by descriptive analysis and an<br>Inferential analysis. Nurses’ knowledge about sleeve gastrostomy was ranging between poor to moderate,<br>and as general the total score of nurses’ knowledge was poor and no significant association between nurses’<br>knowledge and their demographic characteristics.</p> Hadeel Abbass Wadi Al-Azawi Dergham Majjed Hameed Copyright (c) 2021 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 15 2 2430 2436 10.37506/ijfmt.v15i2.14737 An Physiological Enzymatic Study for Atherosclerosis Patients in the City of Fallujah <p>Atherosclerosis is a syndrome that affects arterial blood vessels. Arteriosclerosis thickens the walls of<br>blood vessels as a result of accumulation of macrophages and white blood cells, and fat accumulation is<br>more pronounced over time. Blood pressure, smoking, obesity, lifestyle, sugar and age are risk factors.<br>Atherosclerosis. The symptoms and signs of atherosclerosis differ depending on the arteries affected by<br>atherosclerosis.<br>This study was conducted in the Pharma lab in the city of Fallujah and samples were collected from the<br>Fallujah General Hospital. 50 samples were collected, 30 of which were patients with atherosclerosis and the<br>remaining 20 samples were for healthy people. The samples included both males and females between the<br>ages of 30 to 78 years. A questionnaire was used to collect some information from patients and corrections<br>that included (gender, age, blood pressure, smoking, Weight and blood sugar) and some tests were performed<br>(Cholesterol , TG, HDL, LDL, VLDL, GOT, GPT, ALP, Albumin). The results showed a significant<br>increase in concentrations of Chol, TG, LDL, VLDL, GOT, GPT, ALP) in patients with atherosclerosis<br>and a significant decrease in conc