Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology <p>Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology is a double-blind peer reviewed international journal. The frequency is quarterly. It deals with Forensic Medicine, Forensic Science, Toxicology, DNA fingerprinting, sexual medicine, environmental medicine, Forensic Pathology, legal medicine and public health laws. It has been assigned International standard serial No. p-0973-9122 and e-0973-9130. The Journal has been assigned RNI No. DELENG/2008/21789.The journal is also abstracted in Chemical Abstracts (CAS) database. The journal is also indexed with Google Scholar, Scilit, CINAHL, EBSCOhost (USA), Embase and many other international databases.</p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> en-US <p> </p> <ol> <li>The journal allows readers to <em>read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles</em> and allow readers to <em>use them for any other lawful purpose</em>.</li> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions</li> </ol> (Prof (Dr) S K Dhattarwal) (Apoorva) Wed, 21 Dec 2022 06:03:18 +0000 OJS 60 Forensic Odontology: Science, Skills and Future Prospects <p>Forensic odontology is a growing field with a lot of room for advancement. It has established itself as a necessary<br>science in medical and legal problems, as well as in the identification of the deceased. Even if a person is skeletonized,<br>degraded, burned, or dismembered, dental tissues are frequently retained. Using dental tissues, many methods<br>have been devised to establish a person’s age, sex, and ethnicity. In forensic dental identification, data gathering<br>methods and auxiliary technology have experienced substantial changes. This article gives an overview of the<br>changing trends in traditional approaches as well as new forensic odontology ideas.</p> Alisha Chugh, Shalini Kapoor, Amit Bhardwaj, Aishaan Sharma, Megha Tomar Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Sex Determination from Hand Dimensions in a South Indian Population <p>The aim of this research was to generate a standard formula for estimating sex in the South Indian population from<br>hand anthropometric measurements. Sex is one most important and foremost criteria in establishing the identity of<br>an individual. The present study comprised a sample of 300 healthy individuals (150 males and 150 females). The<br>databases for Hand Length, Hand Breadth and Hand index were analysed using IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for<br>Social Sciences, Version 20.0) computer software. The issue of sex discrimination can be very complicated in cases<br>of intersex, bodies in an advanced state of putrefaction, mutilated &amp; fragmentary remains in which it is common<br>to recover dismembered &amp; peripheral parts of the body. It was realized that anthropometric measurements of<br>the hand have been a very useful tool in sexual identification. Hand length and hand breadth show statistically<br>significant male – female differences at p &lt; 0.0001. Hand Breadth was found as best predictor of sex in comparison<br>with hand length. Sectioning point confirms that cut-off point below and equal to 44 is suggestive of male hand<br>whereas those above 44 were considered as female hand.</p> J. S. Arun Kumar, A. Karthikeyan, Mohamed Asardueen S Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Retrospective Study of Pattern and Medicolegal aspects of Sexual Offence Cases reported at a Government Tertiary Care Hospital in Tamil Nadu <p>Background: Women and off late children are being more vulnerable group for sexual assault which causes severe<br>and irreparable damage to the physical and more so to the mental health of the victims. As per the recent data,<br>woman faces a rape attempt every two hours and a case of assault with intent to outrage the women’s modesty is<br>reported every six minutes.<br>Aim: To analyze the pattern, social aspects and medico legal implications of sexual offence cases reported to a<br>government medical college hospital in South India.<br>Methodology: A retrospective record based study by analyzing the data of the past three years was conducted in<br>the department of forensic medicine and toxicology at Tanjore Medical College and Hospital (TN). A total of 185<br>sexual assault victims data were analysed in our study. Data of the subjects related to their age, marital status,<br>time of the assault, accompanying trauma and the report of the medical examination which were recorded in the<br>register were noted and analysed. All the data regarding accused which were entered in the register were also<br>noted.<br>Results: The minimum age of the rape victim was 6 years and the maximum age was 60 years with a mean age<br>of 17.5 years. The mean age of the accused was 27.7 years. Majority (89.7%) of the rape victims was known but<br>not relative for the accused. Majority of the victims educational status was higher secondary. Penovaginal was<br>the most commonest type of sexual assault conducted on the victims and the commonest place of crime was the<br>residence of the accused. Injury to the hymen is the most common type of physical injury occurred among the<br>victims. The average time interval between the rape incidence and the first medical examination was 24 days.<br>Conclusion: Wide spread education and awareness regarding sex and moral values is the need of the hour which<br>is to be taught both at college and at school level. The government and the society have to work unitedly to end<br>sexual abuse on females</p> S. Saravanan, K. Priyatharsini, R. Sangeetha Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Observational Study of Elderly Suicidal Deaths <p>Suicide is a self-planed and deliberate termination of one’s own life. Painful experiences suffered during their life<br>lead to varying degrees of depersonalization and alienation. In the course of defending themselves from onslaught<br>of negative stimuli, elderly people establish a desire for hastened death. An Observational study of suicides among<br>elderly age group ≥60 years was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Osmania<br>Medical College and General Hospital, Hyderabad during the period of 2016 to 2020.Police inquests, hospital<br>records, toxicological reports and suicide letters were collected and studied.The total elderly suicidal deaths<br>during the period of 5 years were 257, more common among 60-64 years aged people. Educated, middle class,<br>joint family and different categories of professional background with physical ailments were common factors in<br>the study. The methods used for suicide ranged from poisoning, hanging, burns to fall from height. The results<br>were analysed and compared with previous research studies and this study matched with results of several other<br>studies. This is possibly due to beginning of dependency and stressful life following their retirements. Suicide<br>is the 3rdleading unnatural cause of death among elderly which is not an impulsive act.Intervention in the aged<br>suicide will be a complex task and should involve changes at different levels of the current aged care system.</p> G. Jhansi Lakshmi, A. Yadaiah, Shetty Srinivas, S. Mounika Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Insight into Forensic Accounting <p>Forensic accounting comes under the category of relatively new profession that utilizes various methodologies and<br>implementation of various techniques. This field of forensic science is structured and constructed by keeping in<br>mind the world’s economy, society and legislation. With the increasing number in financial accounting deceptions<br>and frauds in the global economy, forensic accounting has become the field tagged as savior for the safety for<br>the financial administration process of academic, research and commercial institutions. The total combination of<br>accounting, auditing and investigative skills signify this specific field. Just as forensic science has been implemented<br>to capture the criminals for long, forensic accounting is fast emerging in the arena of corporate accounting frauds<br>to play a similar role. The purpose of this study is to develop an innovative approach of combating economic crime<br>using the forensic accounting techniques by reviewing the previous studies made on this field of forensic science.</p> Gurleen Kaur, Debhjit Mukherjee Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Fingerprint Pattern in Relation to Gender and Blood Grouping amongst the Medical Students of GMC Srinagar <p>A study was conducted on MBBS students in GMC Srinagar. A total of 100 students was included in the study of<br>both genders. A proper informed consent was taken from participants. For collection of fingerprint, a tabulated<br>proforma was be used. Black printers ink was used for creating an imprint by rolling the finger on ink and then<br>on paper (rolling method) A cello tape was used to seal the print and a magnifying lens was used for aiding in<br>observation. Imprints from all ten fingers were collected. Information about blood groups was collected from<br>student identity card. In a few cases where the information was not known, blood grouping and Rh typing was<br>confirmed by slide agglutination method using antiserum A, antiserum B and anti serum D. The aim of the study<br>was to find out the correlation between gender, fingerprint and blood grouping in students of GMC. Results: We<br>noted that majority of the subjects belonged to blood group O (37.2%), followed by B+ve(24.5%) and A+ve(23.5.<br>Maximum subjects (97%) were Rh positive. The rest were Rh negative. Females had highest percentage of loops<br>(44%) followed by whorls (41%). Males had the highest percentage of whorls (55.5%) closely followed by loops<br>(39.4%).Blood group O-ve is correlated to fingerprint whorl followed by AB+ve with whorls and B+ve with loops.<br>A+ve is correlated to whorls and O+ve with whorls and B-ve with whorls. Blood group A showed highest whorls<br>(45.4%) followed by loops (41.25%) and arches (10.42%). Also males had predominantly whorls (44.2%) followed<br>by loops (39.4%) and females had predominantly loops(44.29%) followed by whorls (41.7%). the purpose of this<br>study is to correlate the relationship between various patterns of fingerprints, gender and “ABO” blood groups<br>and “Rh” blood types in students of GMC Srinagar. Conclusion: blood group, fingerprint and gender can only be<br>assessed independently to secure identity if an individual.</p> Insha Chishti, Ukshan Shah, Farida Noor, Arsalaan F Rashid Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Suicidal Electrocution: A Case Report <p>Most common electricity-related deaths in forensic practice are associated with accidents in domestic or industrial<br>environment. Despite the fact that electricity is a readily available suicidal mean in developed countries, suicides<br>by electrocution are relatively rare. Mostly suppose in individuals working in the electrotechnical industry or at<br>home by “handymen”. An autopsy findings are usually uncharacteristic, accompanied by pulmonary edema,<br>fluid blood, organ congestion (suffocation signs). The passage of electric current through the body is confirmed by<br>specific finding so-called current signs. In many cases, current marks are small, easily overlooked or unrecognizable,<br>which significantly complicates the diagnosis and determination of the cause of death by a forensic pathologist.<br>In some cases, it´s possible to determine the suicidal electrocution only by the investigated circumstances or in<br>cooperation with an expert in the field of electrical engineering. Authors warn of the potential risk that a person<br>may be part of an active electrical circuit at the time of the finding. Knowledge of the victim‘s psychiatric and social<br>history is an equally important part. The authors present the case of an 82-year-old man who, in a suicidal manner,<br>constructed a suicide electric circuit in a social services home.</p> Ivana Kumicikova, Veronika Rybarova, Lubomir Straka, Martin Janik, Frantisek Novomesky, Jozef Krajcovic Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of various level of MDMP-4en-PINACA Orally Gavaged to Wistar rats <p>This research studied effects MDMB-4en-PINACA on white Wistar rats’ liver, kidney, and heart, as well as their biological<br>and hematological parameters. For 14 days, 24 male albino rats received orally. First group was the control group; groups<br>2 and 3 received 5 and 50 mg/kg (bw) MDMB-4en-PINACA. Liver and kidneys deteriorated in treated rats. Small clusters<br>of inflammatory cells, “cytoplasmic degeneration with karyolysis”, “venous congestion with hemorrhage” and “edema”,<br>and “steatosis deterioration” were among the liver’s histological abnormalities. Tubular deterioration increased, as did the<br>appearance of tubular casts, and glomeruli suffered from atrophy followed by an increase in Bowman’s gap in renal tissue.<br>Tubular also showed signs of disintegration, including the formation of foam cells that seemed empty in the glomerulus.<br>Myocardial fibers, the central disc nucleus, and endothelial cells were all healthy. The value of HGB, RBC, HCT and MCHC<br>were higher in groups 2&amp;3 and the values of MCV, MCH and WBC were decreased in groups 2&amp;3. The activity of serum<br>AST, ALT, ALP and Creatinine Kinase and the concentrations of total protein, Albumin, Triglyceride, Total Bilirubin, Direct<br>Bilirubin, Urea, and Creatinine in number 2 group and 3 were greater than that of the control. and that of Cholesterol and<br>HDL were lower in groups 2and 3. According to this research, synthetic cannabis’ (MDMB-4en-PINACA) negative effects are<br>worse on the liver and kidneys in group 3 than group 2.</p> Nagwan.E. Abbas, Elgamel. A. A, E. H. Abdelgadir Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Analytical Instrument and its Utilization in Soil Forensic: A Review <p>In the present paper, we give an overview on the importance of the analytical instrument used in the field of<br>forensic science for the elemental analysis of soil evidence collected from the scene of occurrence. The forensic<br>scientist must rely upon the elemental composition of major and trace elements for the soil sample comparison<br>and discrimination. Variation in the composition of soil sample allows considerable discrimination through the<br>instrumental technique even there is a little amount of sample. Through this paper, reviews on the techniques<br>which are extensively used in forensic sciences have been reported. Report summaries based on soil analysis<br>application and techniques employed for the elemental composition like X-ray fluorescence (XRF), SEM/EDX,<br>inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, and XRD. ATR-FTIR for mineral identification.</p> Neha Yadav, Lav Kesharwani Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Awareness of Forensic Odontology among Medical and Dental Graduates and Undergraduates in Karnataka, India <p>Background: Forensic odontology is one of the crucial contender of forensic medicine. Medical and dental<br>professionals with appropriate knowledge of forensic Odontology will be able to identify and produce right data<br>at right time which will help in criminal investigation.<br>Knowledge and awareness of medical and dental students is significant factor that influences quality of<br>medicolegal reports like certification of age, determination of race and sex. Hence reasonably good knowledge<br>and skill regarding forensic odontology should be known to them.<br>Aim of the study is to assess knowledge and awareness of forensic odontology among medical as well as dental<br>graduates and undergraduates.<br>Study design: Cross- sectional observational study conducted among 1000 medical and dental students of<br>Jawaharlal Nehru Medical college and Vishwanath Katti Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, India in month<br>of May 2022. A predesigned pre-validated multiple choice questionnaire containing 16 questions was used in the<br>study. Data was analysed and results were expressed in percentage.<br>Results: Most of the participants could correctly answer basic knowledge based questions but only few could<br>answer in depth knowledge questions. 94 % of participants were of opinion that there is need for maintaining<br>dental records. But only 18 % were aware of period for maintenance of dental records. 12 % of students knew that<br>amelogenin gene can be used in determination of sex and only 13 % participants were of dimerjian’s method of<br>age estimation from teeth.<br>Conclusion: This study shows that participants had positive attitude and basic knowledge of forensic dentistry<br>but lacked in depth knowledge. Structured skill modules should be included in the curriculum and implemented<br>appropriately so that both medical and dental students gets hands on training in field of forensic dentistry.</p> Pratima R Bhat, Namratha Patil, Prasanna S Jirli, Ravindra S Honnungar, Somashekhar Pujar, Vishal V Koulapur Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing Time Since Death by using Changes in Electrolytes in C.S.F and Vitreous Humour in Bodies Subjected to Autopsy <p>Death is an unpredictable truth in every one’s life. Death can be broadly classified as natural and unnatural.<br>Medicolegal experts are concerned only with unnatural deaths. My study was aimed to estimate time since death<br>(TSD). TSD is done grossly using various factors, to narrow down the limit of margin of error I assessed changes in<br>electrolytes in Cerebro spinal fluid and vitreous humour in bodies subjected to autopsy. The study was conducted<br>on 100 cases brought for medicolegal autopsy. I concluded as there is definite relation in the values of electrolytes<br>with relation to the post-mortem interval or time since death.</p> Rama. V, Uthayakumar R Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of Mortality among Adolescent Suicides in Victoria Hospital Mortuary <p>Background: Each year approximately 8 lakh people die by suicides worldwide.(1) Suicideamong adolescents<br>warrants special concern for several reasons. Early adolescence and young adulthood display increase in<br>deaths from suicides.(2) It is the second leading cause of death in adolescents in comparison to other age groups.<br>Adolescence and youth are predominant ages during which suicide is attempted.(3) Hence, studies on adolescent<br>suicides potentially presents opportunities to prevent the same, thus saving many lives.<br>Objectives: To determine pattern of adolescent suicides in terms of socio-demographic parameters, methods, and<br>causes.<br>Materials &amp; Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted at the Victoria Hospital Mortuary for 18 months<br>between November 2017 to May 2019. Medicolegal autopsies were performed on the victims of suicidal deaths<br>between the age group of 13-18 years during that period. The cases were then analysed with the information<br>gleaned from the police, family, and the autopsy procedure.<br>Results: 192 cases belonged to the study age group and 48% (92 cases) of the cases were suicides. Majority of the<br>victims were between 17-18 years of age and belonged to lower middle socio-economic status.Family history of<br>suicide was seen in 1%. Hanging was the commonest method of suicide followed by poisoning and burns. Family<br>conflicts,Love failure, psychiatric disorder, financial problems, exam failure werefew reasonscompelling suicide.<br>Conclusion: Adolescence is a vulnerable age. Adequate addressal of increasing suicide rates among teenagers is<br>the need of the hour by increasing psycho-social awareness and implementing necessary regulations.</p> Ramesh. C, Karen Harshitha, Mahesh. C, Venkata Raghava Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Autopsy Findings of Endocardial Fibroelastosis in an Adult <p>Background: Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is commonly presented with diffuse endocardial thickening due to<br>deposition of collagen and elastin, usually affecting the left ventricle of the heart. Case presentation: A 59-year-old<br>gentleman who had no known medical illness had collapsed while performing house chores at home. Autopsy<br>examination showed cyanosed lips and nail beds. The heart weighed 360 gm with distinct presence of whitish,<br>firm and thickened endocardium of the left ventricle. The anterior descending coronary artery showed an almost<br>complete occlusion by atheroma, in keeping with coronary artery disease. Mild pulmonary oedema was present.<br>Histological examination revealed fibroelastosis forming plaque-like covering of the inner ventricle, with patchy<br>myocardial fibrosis. Numerous ‘heart failure’ cells were present in the intraalveolar spaces. Conclusions: This<br>case showed remarkable autopsy findings of EFE in adult with evidence of congestive heart failure episodes in<br>his lifetime.</p> Razuin R., Nur Amirah MA, Mardiana AA Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Profile of Poisoning in Autopsy cases in Bangalore South: A Ten-Year Retrospective Study <p>Poisoning occurs when any substance interferes with normal body functions after it is swallowed, inhaled, injected, or<br>absorbed. In this retrospective study, all cases of fatal poisonings brought for medicolegal autopsy during the period<br>1st January 2011 to 31st December 2020 were analysed at the Department of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology, RRMCH,<br>Bengaluru. The data obtained was computed and descriptive analysis of baseline characteristics were inferred.<br>In our study, 12.18% of the total cases in the study period were deaths due to poisoning of which the males<br>formed 512 cases (73.14%) and females formed 188 cases (26.86%), the male to female ratio being 2.7 : 1. Most of<br>the cases belonged to the 18-30 years age group. Majority of cases were suicidal in manner. Most common poison<br>was noted to be organophosphorous compound. The majority of hospitalised cases involved consumption of<br>organophosphorous compound forming 23 cases. Most of the hospitalised cases had a survival period of less than<br>12 hours. The study concluded that males were more commonly involved, and poisoning is seen most commonly<br>among people from the age group of 18-30 years. The most common cause of death being suicidal poisoning by use<br>of organophosphorous compound, and if hospitalised with a survival period of less than 12 hours.</p> Aditya Kidiyoor, Jayprakash. P. Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Group of Iraqi Patients with type II Diabetes Mellitus have a Correlation between HbA1c, lipids, and Thyroid Hormone <p>Background: The objectives of this study were to: (1) find out the levels of thyroid hormones, lipid profile, and<br>glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetic patients type II; and (2) examine the relationship between thyroid<br>hormones and HbA1c, as well as distinctive sorts of lipids and HbA1c in the patient groups.<br>Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review study for the group of patient’s vs control was carried<br>out at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital in Baghdad Al-Karkh, Iraq. From December 2020 to February 2022, 100<br>male and female patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 100 non- diabetic males and females as controls were<br>included, respectively, in this study. The biochemical laboratory tests were obtained from a laboratory database<br>of the hospital. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 to estimate the P-value from the T-test of<br>independent groups.<br>Results: For the patient groups compared with the control groups, there was an increase in the mean levels of both<br>HbA1c (7.84%) and TSH (7.65 μlU/ml), while T4 (10.31 μg/dl) and T3 (1.44 ng/ml) were normal. It also increased<br>mean levels of triglycerides (191.46 mg/dl) and normal total cholesterol (185.94 mg/dl). The results of the patient<br>groups showed an insignificant correlation between HbA1c and TSH (P = 0.96844) and a significant correlation<br>between HbA1c with T4 and T3 (P = 0.00323) and (P = 0.00001) respectively. Significant and positive relationship<br>between HbA1c and total cholesterol and triglycerides (P = 0.00001), (P = 0.00001) respectively.<br>Conclusion: Increased blood glucose did not cause the anterior pituitary gland to enhance TSH production,<br>although there was a clear link between increased glycemic index and the rate of thyroxin secretion. Furthermore,<br>there is a link between blood glucose and several lipid markers, according to the findings.</p> Ahmed Arnaoty, Ibrahim Ismail Shahad, Dina Suhail, Saad Abdul Kareem Mohammed, Jinan MJ Al Saffar Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Proteomic Approaches vis-a-vis Forensic Evidence Analysis: Forensic Proteomics a Valuable Tool <p>Proteomics is a valuable tool for identifying biological systems because it allows researchers to study all the <br>proteins in an organism or system on a large scale. Advanced proteomic techniques can be used in the forensic <br>field as a confirmatory and complementary approach to well-designed genomic analysis. When nucleic acids <br>are missing or destroyed at the crime scene, it is particularly beneficial for efficient and reproducible peptide <br>and protein analysis, identification, and characterization in a variety of biological and non-biological contexts. In <br>forensic sciences, this could help identify new biomarkers. Unlike DNA markers, protein markers prevent sample <br>contamination while giving quantifiable and highly reliable data that can be evaluated employing databases. <br>They are used in forensics to identify body fluids, ethnic groups, genders, and individuals, and to estimate postmortem intervals from decomposition fluid, bone and muscle samples. Our current review focuses on a wide <br>spectrum of human samples used in forensic proteomics, as well as recent research achievements. This review is <br>for forensic investigators who want to learn and explore more about proteomics and how to get more information <br>from biological evidence.</p> Ajay Kumar Gautam, Vijay Yadav, Anurag Sharma, Sameer S. Bhagyawant, Sanjeev K Gupta, Deepa Verma Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Retrospective Chart Analysis of Sexual Assault Victims Referred to Psychiatry OPD <p>Background: Sexual assault is a traumatic experience and can lead to various physical and psychiatric health <br>issues. The victims of sexual assault have to live with the long-lasting implications of mental health problems. <br>This study aimed to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in people with a past history of sexual assault <br>referred to outpatient department of a tertiary healthcare facility in urban India. <br>Methods: A retrospective chart review was carried out by analyzing clinical records of the patients with a past <br>history of sexual assault who were referred to the Psychiatry OPD of our hospital from January 2021 to December <br>2021. For analysis, demographic data like age, sex, employment status, and marital status and phenomenological <br>data like type of sexual assault, frequency of assault, frequency of assault leading to pregnancy, and psychiatric <br>illness were collected. <br>Results: The study included 33 patients with a past history of sexual assault, out of which 30 were females and <br>3 males. It was found that 7 patients were diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and 2 had Intellectual <br>Disability. Furthermore, 4 patients were diagnosed as having Attention deficit hyperactive disorder, Anxiety <br>disorder, Post traumatic stress disorder, and adjustment disorder with depressed mood each.<br>Conclusion: Almost 40% of patients with history of sexual assault had some or the other psychiatric disorders. So, <br>its important to follow up these patients to diagnose early and intervene at right time.</p> Ajita Nayak, Ritika Behera, Sagar Karia, Daria Smirnova, Avinash Desousa Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Injury in Elderly Patients in Dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro Hospital <p>Background: Health and quality of life problems in elderly are one of the problems that should be addressed in <br>order to improve overall health expectancy. Elderly injury risk factors in Dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro Hospital need to <br>be determined, which includes the demographic and cognitive condition of the elderly. The aim of this research is <br>to study the injury cases data from Dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro Hospital Emergency Department medical records and <br>then compare the data with existing relevant studies.<br>Methods: The method used in this research is cross-sectional study. Data were collected from the medical records <br>of the emergency department of Dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro Hospital, Klaten.<br>Results: From the medical records of the emergency department of Dr. Soeradji Tirtonegoro Hospital, there were <br>1,055 reported injury cases in 2019. 127 of those were patients aged 60 and older. There were reported 37 nontraffic accidents, such as falling at home, slipping, et cetera. There were reported 83 traffic accidents. The other 7 <br>accidents were accidents related to illnesses and disabilities.<br>Conclusion: The data reported 1,055 cases of injury, only 127 of those are elderly with the criteria of age 60 years <br>old and older. As the data is limited and there are no risk factors reported, there is no further conclusion that can <br>be made. Further studies can help better understand cases of injuries and even help predict reentry of patients by <br>using a form to collect the data of risk factors of the patients admitted into the emergency department.</p> Beta Ahlam Gizela, Ahnav Bil Auvaq, Nurholis Majid Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic-Dose Anticoagulation Therapy with Intermediate-Therapeutic Doses in Covid-19 Patients <p>Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 <br>(SARSCoV-2) was declared a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020 and globally, on April 29, 2022, there were <br>510,270,667 confirmed COVID-19 cases, including 6,233,526 deaths, reported to WHO. As of April 2022, the <br>Government of the Republic of Indonesia has reported 4,249,323 confirmed cases of COVID-19. There have been <br>143,592 COVID-19-related deaths reported and 4,096,194 patients have recovered from the disease. COVID-19 <br>is associated with a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), however, to date, optimal prophylactic <br>anticoagulant therapy remains uncertain and may depend on the severity of COVID-19.<br>Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the difference in efficacy and safety in administering prophylactic <br>doses with intermediate/therapeutic doses in confirmed COVID-19 patients.<br>Results: This study used 6 studies that met the inclusion of differences in efficacy and safety in administering <br>prophylactic doses with intermediate/therapeutic doses in confirmed COVID-19 patients.<br>Conclusion: From 6 studies, there were 2 studies comparing anticoagulant prophylactic doses with intermediate <br>doses and 4 studies comparing anticoagualnt prophylactic doses with therapeutic doses. In all studies, there were <br>no significant differences in thromboembolic events or all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients. The incidence of <br>bleeding at the intermediate and therapeutic doses increased compared to the prophylactic dose, but the difference <br>was not significant.</p> Diva Rachma Kurniawati, Agus Subagjo, Lilik Djuari Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Different Modalities of Management of Patients with Upper Ureteric Calculus in Today’s Era: Study of 50 Cases <p>Background: The incidence of the stone disease has risen significantly over the last several decades because of <br>modern lifestyles and dietary modifications. This puts a financial liability over the health care delivery system. The <br>reported lifetime risk of having urinary stone is around 5-21%. Ureteric stones account for 2/3 of all urinary calculi <br>brought to attention¹. Moreover, the recurrence rates are even more troublesome, reaching 10% at one year, 35% at <br>five years and 50% at ten years. Since the affliction mainly involves adults with a peak incidence in 3-5th decade, <br>the loss of work years and deleterious effects on productivity are considerable.<br>Aims and Objectives:<br>• To compare the different modalities of treatment in managing the patients presenting with upper ureteric calculus.<br>• To evaluate the impact of the following in patients with upper ureteric calculus:<br>a) Age distribution<br>b) Sex distribution<br>c) Clinical presentation<br>d) Sensitivities of radiological investigations<br>e) Stone size<br>Study Design: Prospective Study<br>Sample Size: 50<br>Duration : June 2020 to June 2022<br>Conclusion:The most common presenting symptoms of patients are Pain in abdomen, Nausea/ Vomiting and Burning micturition. Amongst all investigations CT-IVP has the highest sensitivity of 100% in diagnosing upper ureteric calculi and assessment of renal function. Analysis shows that URS yields significantly greater stone free rates for majority of the stone stratifications. However, for the stone size &lt;10mm and stone of HU &lt;1000, ESWL is a better option in terms of stone free rates and complication rates. Pushback-PCNL is done only in few selected cases and only when ESWL fails (requiring &gt;3 sittings), • Complications have been reported in all procedures with Bacteriuria/UTI being the most common complication in all, but when considering URS only, the most common overall complication in the post op period was Fever</p> Pratik H Vyas, Kirit D Parmar, Jignesh Z Dalvi, Varsha Aswani, Shree Patel, Dharmik B Gondalia Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Seropositivity of HIV, HBV, HCV and SYPHILIS in Blood Donors in Tertiary Care Hospital, Rajkot <p>Background: Blood is elixir of life. Although blood transfusion plays important role in the supportive care of <br>medical and surgical patients, use of unscreened blood transfusion keep the patient at risk of acquiring many TTIs <br>like hepatitis virus (HBV, HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis.<br>Aim: To study the seroprevalence of the HIV, HBsAg, HCV, VDRL and malaria in blood donors. To compare the <br>seroprevalence of these disease in male and female donors. To compare gender and age wise seroprevalence. <br>Methods: The study was conducted in blood bank, Department of pathology, P.D.U medical college and hospital, <br>Rajkot, India from 1st June 2021 to 31st May 2022. Blood samples were collected from blood donors who came to <br>donate at blood bank or donated in voluntary blood donation camp. We collected data from total a total of 18951 <br>donors out of which 18804 were accepted and 147 were rejected.<br>Results: A total of 18,951 donor samples were analyzed during the said period. Out of 18,804 accepted donors, a <br>total of 156 (0.82%) were diagnosed positive for TTI infection.<br>Conclusion: Comprehensive, screening of blood donors for HIV, HBV, HCV, VDRL and malaria, strict selection <br>of donors with emphasis on getting Young voluntary on remunerated donors rather than replacement donors, <br>reestablishment of strict guidelines for blood transfusion and use of sensitive laboratory screening tests may be <br>possible to reduce the incidence of transfusion transmitted diseases in India.</p> Gauravi A. Dhruva, Khevana N. Karavadiya, Amit H. Agravat Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Medico Legally Significant Blunt Thoracic Trauma <p>Introduction: Thoracic trauma (TT) accounts for significant mortality and morbidity. Blunt thoracic trauma is <br>reported more frequently than sharp force trauma, where motor traffic collisions account for the majority. <br>Addressing medico-legal issues is often a challenge in TT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate blunt chest <br>trauma from a medico-legal point of view.<br>Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted based on case records of the victims (living and dead) <br>of TT over three years presented to a Teaching Hospital and a District General Hospital in Western Province.<br>Results: There were 248 living patients and 195 deceased. Road accidents accounted for TT in 236 (53.3%), followed <br>by 166 (37.5%) assaults. Out of the deceased, 89% had a very short survival period. “Multiple chest injuries” was <br>the cause of death in 83 (42.5%) dead, and 91 (46.7%) died due to TT. Road accidents accounted for N=71 (78% of <br>deaths due to TT). Out of the live patients, 87 (35.8%) had grievous or above-category injuries to the chest, and <br>victims of assault were commonly having non-grievous injuries with a significant association (p&lt;0.001). A total of <br>175 (39.5%) had rib fractures, and 125 were following motor traffic accidents.<br>Conclusions: Blunt TT accounts for significant mortality and morbidity, with the most common circumstances <br>being road accidents. Most of them come under a severe category of hurt with a short survival period among the <br>dead.</p> Gunathilaka M.M.A.C, Kitulwatte I.D.G, Handun Wijewardena, Gunathilaka K.M.T.B, Chanuka Dissanayake, Ruchini Jayathilake, Pabasara Wijeratne Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Platelet Rich Plasma in Erectile Dysfunction A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial <p>Background: The studies postulate that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections improve key elements of <br>neovascualrity to erectile dysfunction (ED).<br>Aim: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in <br>patients with mild and moderate ED. Exclusion criteria were patient undergo sever ED<br>Methods: Study is accomplished in Alnuman teaching hospital 2019 and 2022 over 59 patients were complaining <br>mild to moderate ED, four sessions of P-shot 2 weeks apart each session.<br>Results: In period 3, 6 months’ interval, a response was achieved by 35/42 (83%) patients in the PRP group <br>compared to 5/17 (29%) in the placebo group.<br>Key words: Platelet rich plasma, erectile dysfunction, p-shot, intracavernosal injection.</p> Jihad Anad Khalef, Shaymaa Abed Hasan, Ahmed Nazar Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Socio Demographic Profile of Natural Death in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Hyderabad, Telangana <p>A cross sectional study was conducted on socio demographic profile on natural death in a tertiary care teaching <br>Hospital Suraram, Hyderabad Telangana, it was a retrospective and record based study. 100 death case sheets were <br>collected from Medical record department {MRD} of the hospital for a period of 1 year from 1st July 2020 to 30th<br>June 2021. Socio demographic and clinical details were collected in the pre structured data sheet and statistically <br>evaluated by MS Excel software. <br>Non communicable diseases are predominant in our study. We observed five leading causes of deaths among the <br>most common cause of death was due to diseases of the respiratory system (36%) Pneumonia being the leading <br>cause, Cardio vascular diseases (18%), septicemia (15%), GIT and liver diseases caused mortality (14%) and Central <br>nervous system diseases are (7%). Highest number of deaths was observed in urban, married and above 50 years <br>age group individuals. Diabetes and COPD was the highest co morbidity found in our study group. Heavy traffic <br>congestion and many industries in the hospital catchment area are the probable reasons for highest respiratory <br>diseases. Better ergonomics and industrial health management can prevent these diseases.</p> K Srinivasulu, Jupaka Om Shanti, Aditi V Sajjanar, Allam Sindhu Meghana, Nikhitha Puvvala Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Serum cholinesterase and Serum Creatinine Phosphokinase Levels in Organophosphorus Poisoning Patients at a Tertiary Care Centre of Northern India <p>Introduction: Poisoning with Organophosphorus compounds is an important global health problem, possibly <br>the most common acute poisoning in developing countries. This study was done to correlate the severity of acute <br>organophosphorus poisoning with serum cholinesterase and serum creatine phosphokinase level.<br>Materials and Methods: A Prospective observational clinical study was done on 42 patients suspected of <br>Organophosphorus poisoning of age &gt;15 years admitted to the emergency unit at a tertiary healthcare center in <br>northern India. Serum cholinesterase levels and serum Creatinine phosphokinase levels were estimated at the <br>time of admission in all patients and the severity of Organophosphorus poisoning was assessed according to <br>Peradeniya Organophosphorous Poisoning (POP) Scale.<br>Results: In this study, among 42 patients of acute organophosphorus poisoning 32(76.2%)were males and <br>10(23.8%) were females. Our study authors observed a significant correlation between the severity of poisoning <br>categorized by the POP scale and the serum cholinesterase and Serum CPK level at the time of the patients’ initial <br>presentation. Also found that there was a significant correlation between serum cholinesterase and serum CPK <br>with the outcome of the patients.<br>Conclusion: In our study severity as well as outcomes of OP poisoning was directly correlated with serum <br>cholinesterase level and serum Creatinine phosphokinase.</p> K.K. Gupta, Somesh Srivastava, Kauser Usman, S.C. Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Pneumonitis Following Diesel Oil Siphonage: A Case Series <p>Abstract</p> <p>Manual siphoning of diesel with mouth from automobiles is common practice in rural communities. This<br>practice can be hazardous leading to ingestion and aspiration of diesel leading to chemical pneumonitis. Here<br>we present two cases of chemical pneumonitis following siphonage of diesel managed with steroids and<br>recovered completely.</p> Komal Gharsangi, Parul, Rajesh Bhawani Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DNA Identification in Mass Casualty – Forensic Perspective <p>Fire related mass casualty incidents have always been difficult in terms of identification. Often the bodies recovered<br>are in such bad shape making the process near impossible to get them identified through secondary methods<br>of identification. Extremely charred bodies having remnant burnt soft tissue and bones are most difficult to get<br>identified. It is exactly where Primary method of identification i.e. DNA Analysis comes into play.<br>One such incident occurred at a Sanitizer manufacturing factory where tragic massive fire broke out engulfing<br>lives of seventeen adult humans. The victims were trapped because of ongoing fire making it inescapable. On<br>autopsy, necessary samples were preserved and sent for DNA Analysis to Forensic Science Laboratory. Blood<br>samples of all claiming relatives were also sent to the laboratory for cross matching of the DNA. Identity of all<br>victims was thus ascertained, once again proving how DNA Analysis has been a scientific boon to the humans.</p> Meenakshi Malhotra, Hemant V. Vaidya, Naresh P. Zanjad Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Pattern of Envenomation in Bilaspur Region of Chhattisgarh: A Three Years Cross Section Retrospective Study <p>Myths and ancient medical literatures states, snake bites must have been the first kind of poisoning known to<br>human being. Chhattisgarh states economy majorly depends upon agriculture, which is also relatively dependent<br>on rainy season and this season along with good crop gives a fear of fatal snake bites and scorpion stings. The<br>present cross section retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology,<br>CIMS, Bilaspur, during the period from January 2019 to December 2021 which includes 209 envenomation death<br>cases out of 3392 cases brought to the mortuary for medico-legal postmortem examination. In Present study records<br>of post mortem requisition form, panchanama, post mortem report and other relevant documents were compiled,<br>tabulated and analyzed. During the study period 63.6% of total envenomation cases were male victims and 36.4%<br>are female, maximum affected age group is of young adults ranging from 21 to 50 years (54.5%), most cases are in<br>the month of September (15.3%), attacks at night (51.2%), and snake bite are more prevalent (75.6%) than scorpion<br>stings (24.4%), in rural region (65.1%) of Bilaspur. The main objectives of the study were: to ascertain the various<br>aspects of envenomation deaths, to analyze the probable reasons for the same &amp; to find preventive measures to<br>bring down the incidence of mortality.</p> Piyush Kumar Singh, Gyanendra Kumar, Ulhas Gonnade, Simant Singh Thakur, Rahul Agrawal Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Supporting Factors in Continuing Life of Chronic Renal Failure Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis <p>Chronic Kidney Failure Patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy experience an impact. Not only the physical<br>impact, but the patient also experiences a psychosocial impact. On the other hand, the patient must also continue<br>his life with a good quality of life. This study aims to obtain an overview of the supporting factors of chronic kidney<br>failure patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy to continue their lives. This research used qualitative research<br>with a phenomenological study approach. Data was collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with<br>32 participants who underwent hemodialysis therapy at a hospital in Buleleng. Data was analyzed by the steps<br>in the Colaizzi method. Results: There were 4 themes generated: encouragement to bounce back from oneself,<br>support from the surrounding environment, psychological burden during treatment, and the role of religion and<br>culture. This theme is the basis for developing intervention models and service systems to reduce psychosocial<br>distress in patients undergoing hemodialysis</p> Putu Agus Ariana, I Made Ady Wirawan, Dyah Pradnyaparamita Duarsa, Cokorda Bagus Jaya Lesmana Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Determining Carboxyhaemoglobin levels in Children with Asthma and Recurrent Wheezing in Relation to Exposure to Second-hand Smoking and Solid fuel <p>Background: This study aimed to see association of exposure to solid fuel for cooking and second-hand smoking<br>(SHS) with asthma and recurrent wheezing in children. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels were also estimated<br>levels in these children and their relation to exposure to solid fuels and SHS was assessed.<br>Methods: The study enrolled 124 children in two groups; 72(58.1%) in Group 1 with asthma/recurrent wheezing<br>and 52(41.9%) in Group 2 as controls. Exposure to SHS and solid fuel were assessed using a simple questionnaire<br>in both the groups. COHb levels were estimated non-invasively and it’s relation to demographic variables,<br>occurrence of asthma, exposure to SHS and solid fuel was estimated.<br>Conclusion: The study reported significant association of SHS and use of solid fuel among children with asthma<br>and recurrent wheezing seen in 26(36.2%) and 26(36.2%) respectively. The study showed that COHb levels were<br>greatly elevated among children with asthma and wheezing conditions (5.45%) as compared to controls (2.95%).<br>The study showed association of COHb levels with use of SHS and solid fuel exposure which were found to<br>be (5.31%, 5.98%) respectively, thus emphasizing the need for interventions to reduce these potential sources of<br>carbon monoxide exposure.</p> Richa Choudhury, Priyanka Rai, Shamrendra Narayan, Dipti Agarwal Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological Evaluation and Comparison of Alcohol and Marijuana users’ w.r.t Violence (Adult) <p>Marijuana and Alcohol both are psychological drug. There are evidences and studies where it proves intake of<br>these drugs can result in various criminal activities. And despite both having psychological affects one is legal<br>(alcohol) whereas other is not (marijuana). There are many research and review article regarding alcohol and<br>marijuana, in relation to violence but very less work done on comparing both side by side with respect to the<br>personality traits of user. Thus review paper helps other researchers, model creator and policy makers in regard to<br>legalization of both marijuana and alcohol and their effects.</p> Gurleen Kaur, Surender Sehrawat, Sreya Gosh, Rohit Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Search for Neuropsychological Indicators: A Comparative Study with Children with Conflict in Law <p>Law violation amongst adolescents have become a very important area of concern for the nation as a whole. In<br>the current study, the objectives are to find whether there exist any neuropsychological markers that will help to<br>differentiate children in conflict with law (CCL) from neurotypicals who have never engaged in law violation and<br>also to find whether there exists any significant difference between CCL-I, CCL-E and CCL-M with respect to the<br>neuropsychological markers. The sample included 59 adolescents out of which 10 were neurotypicals, 14 CCL<br>with predominantly internalising manifestation (CCL-I), 17 CCL with predominantly externalising manifestation<br>(CCL-E), 18 CCL with both internalising and externalising manifestation (CCL-M). The tools used in the study are<br>Child Behaviour Checklist- Youth Self Report(CBCL/YSR), Bhatia Battery of Performance tests and three subtests<br>from Delis- Kaplan Executive Functioning System. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal Wallis test. Test<br>results included significant differences between the groups with respect to ‘Twenty Questions Test’ and ‘Colourword<br>Interference Test’.</p> Saranya Banerjee, Sanchari Roy, Atanu Kumar Dogra, Sanjukta Das Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Assessment of Medico-Legal Knowledge among Interns and Post Graduate Students <p>Introduction: Forensic Medicine and Toxicology is an essential subject for medical students as it deals mainly with<br>legal aspects<br>Aim and objectives: To assess medico legal knowledge and awareness in interns and post graduate students.<br>Materials and methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire with 20 questions was designed and distributed to<br>120 interns and 80 post graduate students from January 2022 to April 2022. The data was collected and analyzed<br>statistically for number and percentage using EPI-Info statistical software.<br>Results: Total 200 students were included in our study. We found that 84 (70%) interns and 32 (40%) post<br>graduate students had no proper knowledge in handling medico legal cases independently. 55 (45.83%) interns<br>and 63 (78.75%) post graduate students were of opinion that the present UG teaching is not sufficient for them to<br>tackle medico legal cases. Only 36 (30%) interns and 33 (41.25%) post graduate students were aware about the best<br>type of consent in MLC and 25 (20.83%) interns and 65 (81.25%) post graduate students were aware of Consumer<br>Protection Act.<br>Conclusion: We detected that the knowledge about various medico-legal aspects needs to be freshened up time<br>to time chiefly at internship and postgraduate levels. They need be refreshed about various medico-legal aspects<br>which can be done by giving training to them.</p> Shilpa Rani G.R, Sunil Kumar C. A, Nagaraj R Shetkar, Sathyashree H Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Acute Yellow Oleander Poisoning-Its Cardiotoxicity and Clinical Profile: A Study on Eastern India Population <p>Background: Yellow oleander/Cerebra thevetia/Pila kaner a plant widely cultivated in the plains in india is highly<br>poisonous. Kernels of the seeds contain glycosides thevetin, thevetoxin, cerberin, and peruvoside. Poisoning<br>usually leads to gastrointestinal and cardiac toxicity.<br>Aims and Objectives: Our aim was to determine the clinical profile of yellow oleander poisoning with special<br>emphasis on cardiac toxicity, neurotoxicity if any and outcome of management using currently available treatment.<br>Materials and Methods: We studied 60 patients with yellow oleander poisoning prospectively admitted in<br>Hospital. A 12 lead electrocardiogram 3 min rhythm ECG strip and blood sample for measurement of electrolytes,<br>Serum calcium, urea and creatinine and liver function tests were taken before treatment. ECG was also done in<br>every patient on 2nd day of admission and at the time of discharge. Serum cardiac glycosides could not be done<br>due to lack of facilities.<br>Results: Toxic manifestations included were Gastrointestinal, cardiac toxicity in the form of cardiac arrhythmia but<br>Some patients developed neurological symptoms in the form of tremor (6 patients -10%), ataxia( 8 patients-13.33%)<br>at the end of first week, and focal seizure (only four patients-6.66%).<br>Conclusion: In our study we found gastrointestinal symptoms(vomitting, loose motion with dehydration) and<br>cardiological symptoms (sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, AV block and nodal rhythm, ventricular ectopics<br>are more commonly present in Yellow oleander poisoning. Moreover we have found some Neurological symptoms<br>in our study in the form of tremor,ataxia and focal seizures.</p> T.K. Bandyopadhyay, Amita Pathak Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Anthropometric Measurement of Face Index in Adult Malay Population <p>Abstract and Aims: Anthropometry is notable for its suggestions in, human anatomy, forensic science, and<br>physical human studies. The purpose is to determine the facial morphologic value differences between ethnic<br>groups and indices among three unique races in Malaysia.<br>Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study was led on 420 people (80 Malay male, 80 Malay female,<br>60 Indian male, 70 Indian female, 60 Chinese male and 70 Chinese female) in the age range 18-45 years. In this<br>study digital caliper was utilized to identify the nasal landmarks. This research was conducted that the mean of<br>variables were statistically significant differences in nose measurement scores among adult Malay population. All<br>the average independent variables were measured and compared whether differs at the same time among race.<br>Results: It was discovered that total face height measurements were remarkably smaller in Chinese compare to<br>Malay and Indian. But there was no significant difference between Malay and Indian for total face height. The<br>measurements of upper face height were smaller in Chinese compare to Indian and Malay. The measurements<br>of upper face height were larger in Malay compare to Indian. The face width was remarkably larger in Chinese<br>compare to Malay and Indian. But there was no major difference in Malay and Indian for face width parameters.<br>Total face height, upper face height and face width measurement are huge larger in male than female.<br>The face shape of Chinese was hypereuriprosopic which was short and wide while shape of Malay and Indian<br>were intermediate. The face shape of Malay was Euriprosopic and Mesoprosopic. The face shape of Indian was<br>Mesoprosopic and Leptoprosopic. There was not a significant difference in face index between male and female.<br>Conclusion: The statistically significant difference in facial measurement and face index were found among adult<br>Malay population.</p> Thin Thin Aung, Husni Ahmed Abdullah Al-Goshae Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Clinico-Haematological Profile of Geriatric Anaemia (A Study of 300 Cases) <p>Introduction: Anaemia in the elderly patients is associated with increased morbidity and poor health related<br>quality of life. It is an emerging global health problem for 21st century which negatively impacts quality of life.<br>Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to know clinico-haematological patterns and morphological types<br>of anaemia in elderly.<br>Material and Methodology: The present study is a descriptive cross-sectional study, which was conducted in<br>Pathology Department of P.D.U. Government Medical College, Rajkot in which all the indoor patients of 60 years<br>and above and clinically diagnosed as anaemic were included. Haematological investigations, factors like age,<br>gender, symptoms and signs, peripheral blood smear, cause and grade of anaemia were utilized in this.<br>Result: Total 300 cases were studied; anaemia of chronic disease in age group 60-65 years was most common.<br>Males were affected more than females. Smoking was the most common associated factor. Mostly respiratory<br>system involved. Normochromic normocytic anaemia mostly seen. Grade-1 (mild) anaemia was most common.<br>Conclusion: Geriatric anaemia being under-reported and inadequately investigated, especially when mild, there<br>is need of evaluation of even mild cases. Further studies with larger population and wider parameters should be<br>encouraged.</p> Vaidya Tejas H., Amit H. Agravat, Gauravi A. Dhruva, Nikita A. Machhi Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000