Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology <p>Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology is a double-blind peer reviewed international journal. The frequency is quarterly. It deals with Forensic Medicine, Forensic Science, Toxicology, DNA fingerprinting, sexual medicine, environmental medicine, Forensic Pathology, legal medicine and public health laws. It has been assigned International standard serial No. p-0973-9122 and e-0973-9130. The Journal has been assigned RNI No. DELENG/2008/21789.The journal is also abstracted in Chemical Abstracts (CAS) database. The journal is also indexed /abstracted with many databases. </p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> en-US <p><strong>Re use and mixing of content policy</strong>- We follow Creative Commons Licence Policy. We follow CC BY. Please refer below for all details</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>CC BY</strong></p> <p>This license lets others distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon our work, even commercially, as long as they credit us for the original creation.</p> <ol> <li>The journal allows readers to <em>read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles</em> and allow readers to <em>use them for any other lawful purpose</em>.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> </ol> <ol> <li>The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions</li> </ol> (Prof (Dr) R K Sharma) (kavita) Wed, 02 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Assess the Knowledge, Utilization & Barrier of Non-Utilization Regarding Maternal Health Services <p>Background: Maternal health services refer to the promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative care <br>of mothers. Antenatal care is the care of women during pregnancy the main aim of care is to achieve at the <br>end a healthy baby from healthy mother. Antenatal mothers should be educated regarding regular antenatal <br>checkups, diet, personal hygiene, adequate rest, sleep, exercise, immunization, warning signs of pregnancy <br>and child care. <br>Methods: Descriptive study to assess the knowledge, barriers of non- utilization regarding Maternal Health <br>services. The data was collected using structured knowledge questionnaire and utilization and barriers to <br>non-utilization checklist from 60 postnatal mothers up to 3 months after delivery.<br>Result: The study result showed that women 78.34% had average knowledge and 21.66% had good <br>knowledge regarding maternal health services. Social barriers for non-utilization were family pressure, <br>shyness, poor transportation and illiteracy. Economic barriers for non-utilization were health expenditure <br>perceived as waste, unemployment, low socio economic status and large family size respectively. Cultural <br>barriers for non-utilization were lack of formal education and religious practices respectively, family <br>members disapproved superstition. There was no significant association between knowledge, utilization and <br>barrier on non-utilization of maternal health services and selected demographic variables.<br>Conclusion: The study concluded that postnatal mothers had average knowledge and there is need to create <br>awareness on maternal health services launched by the government of India. Low socioeconomic condition, <br>early marriage and pregnancy, inappropriate antenatal health check-up, and cultural taboos were significant <br>factors affecting the satisfactory utilization of services among mothers. Hence, there is a need to emphasize <br>on utilization and eradicate barriers related to non-utilization of maternal health services</p> Sonu, Akoijam Mamata Devi, Anu Grover, Deepak Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Research Study on Medicolegal Autopsies Conducted at Mortuary of Government Medical College, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh from 1St January to 31St December 2020 <p>Aim: To do a research study on Medicolegal Autopsies conducted at Government Medical College Mortuary, <br>Ongole, Andhra Pradesh from 1st January 2020 to 31st December 2020. Materials &amp; Methodology: This <br>study was conducted at Government Medical College, Ongole from 1st January to 31st December 2020. <br>A total of 534 medicolegal cases were brought to mortuary for the sake of medicolegal autopsy during <br>the study period. Result: In the research study, it is evident from the statistics that maximum number <br>of medicolegal autopsies were conducted in the decreasing order in the following deaths - Road Traffic <br>Accidents &lt; Poisoning &lt; Hanging &lt; Homicidal Deaths &lt; Deaths due to hit by Train &lt; Drowning &lt; Burns <br>&lt; Fall from Height &lt; Snake Bite. Medicolegal autopsies were done more in males compared to females in <br>almost all types of deaths. Likewise maximum number of autopsies were conducted in the active age group <br>of 18 to 36 years</p> Venati Jayashankar, Chaitanya. R, G.B. Raja Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Dietary and Nutritional Strategy for the Prevention and Management of Hyperuricemia <p>Background: The global prevalence of gout which occurs due to increased serum urate levels owing to <br>changing diet and lifestyle is ever increasing and not much is known about the efficacy and impact of <br>modifiable dietary factors.<br>Methods: Databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google scholar were searched extensively using <br>appropriate keywords which matched the scope of the study.<br>Results and Conclusion: While the etiology of gout is multi-factorial, modification of dietary factors <br>contributes to the lowering of urate levels in blood. Studies shown that Vitamin C, coffee, tea, cherries, <br>turmeric and many other supplements which may have a significant role in the management of gout along <br>with pharmacological treatment, hence studies are suggested to conduct on dietary intervention for the <br>prevention and management of hyperuricemia.</p> A. Priyadharshini, Manali Sudhir, Anirudh Manikandan, Ahalya S.P Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Medico Legal Study of Fetal Deaths in and Around Guntur <p>Introduction: There are quite a number of foetal deaths occurring in the developing country like India due <br>to low socio economic status, illiteracy, ignorance, lack of interest, concealment of the birth, having female <br>child etc. This is despite the fact that these occurrences are a world- wide phenomenon and by definition <br>involve criminal law concerns such as illegal abortion, concealment of birth, murder, or neonaticide and <br>abandonment of babies. This study is to make comprehensive and analytical study of various medico legal <br>aspects of foetal and infant deaths in and around Guntur district during the period of 2013-2015.<br>Materials and methods: This is a three year retrospective study of autopsies done on the foetus and infants at <br>the Department of Forensic Medicine, GMC/GGH Mortuary, Guntur from 2013 to 2015. Inquest and autopsy <br>findings are analyzed to evaluate demographic profile and various socio-economic factors contributing to <br>the foetal deaths, the pattern of injuries, manner &amp; cause of death of the foetuses, neonates and infants. <br>Observations and conclusion: Total number of cases of foetal autopsy amounts to around 1.2 % of total <br>autopsy during the study period but in the study, relatively large number i.e., 50% of cases of abortuses, <br>foetuses and newborns indicated that the manner had been homicidal or death by abandonment. Female <br>foetal autopsies amounted to about 52% of total foetal autopsies and homicidal male foetal deaths are 56% <br>of total homicidal foetal deaths. This study is helpful to the investigating authorities to identify such cases <br>for further investigation of the cases.</p> A.Krishnajaneyulu, N. Devchand, Raja Sekhar Uppu, T.T.K.Reddy Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Exploring the Depth- Influence by Female Sex Hormones Seen in the Periodontium <p>Growth is a gradual process and continuously brings about changes in human body and so do the hormones. <br>There are two hormones produced by the gland in females which govern all the functions and regulate the <br>entire process in all stages of life. Inspite of being just two in number i.e. estrogen and progesterone carry <br>out numerous functions and these functions are of varying complexity. The changes brought about by female <br>sex hormones also are of varying nature in different stages of life, be it early teenage or early fifties. Of these <br>vast changes taking place in a female body in a life time several of them remain unnoticed.<br>Because of rising awareness with changing trends in dentistry, we as Periodontists are trying to highlight <br>phases of female reproductive cycle from puberty through menopause and some of the changes brought <br>about by female sex hormones and their effect on the periodontium and management in different stages of <br>life through our review article.</p> Aishwarya Dham, Deepa G Kamath Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Forensic Dental Age Estimation Using Radicular Dentine Translucency in Indian (Himachal Pradesh) Population-A Digital Method <p>Introduction: Age estimation plays a crucial role in establishing identity of the individual. Root dentin<br />translucency (RDT) is one of the stable parameter and is based on the translucent zone present in the root<br />due to calcific deposits.<br />Aims &amp; Objective: the aim of our study was to estimate age using root dentine translucency length in a<br />cluster of Himachal Pradesh (Indian Population) and to derive a population specific formula, also to observe<br />the correlation between root dentine translucency and gender.<br />Materials and Method:A digital calibration of translucency length was calculated in 80 extracted natural<br />teeth and was statistically analysed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression model was applied<br />to derive the regression equation.<br />Result: RDT length was positively correlated with chronological age with correlation coefficient r = 0.95,<br />population specific regression equation was derivedAge (y) = 18.384 + 6.4654 x RDT and age was estimated<br />with a mean absolute error of ±3.4 years.<br />Discussion &amp; Conclusion: This study reinforced the theory that RDT length is strongly correlated with age,<br />a population specific linear regression equation was derived. However there were no significant differences<br />for RDT and gender was observed.</p> Akshay Sujith, Neeta Sharma, R Guru Prasad Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An Epidemiological Study of Snake Envenomation in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North India <p>Purpose: To study the epidemiological profile, clinical features, complications, and outcome of snake bite <br>cases in a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India.<br>Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study of snake bites was carried out from June 2012 to <br>October 2013. Data was collected regarding the socio-demographic profile, clinical features, complications, <br>management and the outcome. The ICU LOS and the associated mortality were taken as the measures of <br>outcome.<br>Results: Out of the total 88, majority of the victims were rural men in the age group of 21-30 years. More <br>than 90% of incidents were reported during the monsoon season. Neuroparalysis was present in 92% of <br>patients. The mean bite to hospital time was 5.66 ± 1.78 hours. All patients had received polyvalent ASV <br>with a mean dose of 20.85 ± 5.73 vials. 61.36% patients required ventilatory support with mean duration of <br>5.22 ± 7.69 days. The ICU LOS was observed to be 4.83 ± 6.96 days and associated mortality rate was 6.8%.<br>Conclusion: There is urgent need to create awareness amongst the vulnerable population. To get a real <br>picture of the burden, information need to be collected from community based surveys along with the <br>peripheral primary healthcare centers</p> Amit Kumar, Shweta Tanwar, Rajesh Chetiwal, Rajesh Patnaik Thonangi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Learning Styles: An Overview <p>Learning styles aim to know variations in individuals’ learning. As per most of the theories, humans may <br>be classified in line with their‘style’of learning. The term “learning styles” speaks to the understanding that <br>each student learns uniquely. Learning is a vital experience for individuals of all ages. Based on Howard <br>Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, there are eight varieties of learning styles that everybody falls <br>into which include visual, aural, verbal, physical, logical, social, solitary and naturalistic learning. <br>Learning style inventories are designed to assist respondents verify learning style they have. These <br>inventories usually take the form of a questionnaire that focuses on how folks prefer to learn. <br>Learning style inventories are based on the thought that individuals have completely different strengths and <br>preferences when it involves learning. Learning style inventories remain a preferred classroom tool despite <br>the actual fact that research has found very little proof that matching a student’s learning preferences to <br>instructional methods produces better educational outcomes. These are a few popular types of learning style <br>inventories such as Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (LSI), Fleming’s VARK Learning Style Questionnaire, <br>Jackson’s Learning Styles Profiler (LSP), Learning Style Quizzes.<br>In short, it is important to remember that there are a number of learning styles and learning style inventories. <br>Each learning style has its own advantages and disadvantages. Knowing your learning style is not meant to <br>limit you, instead to expand you – by helping you to learn, understand, work and live more efficiently.</p> Amita Sood, Jyoti Sarin Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Novel Method to Estimate Height of an Individual with Facial Index <p>Objective: Face is the most important part of the body. Cranial anthropometry is well known determinant of<br>good and important aspects of treatment in the field of medicine, dentistry, plastic surgery, aesthetics. There<br>are studies on the facial index determination and classification of faces. There are very few studies on the<br>estimation of height of an individual from facial index as a parameter. Here in this study, we have aimed to<br>estimate height of an individual from facial index derived from his/her 2D photograph. Therefore, here in<br>this study we have attempt to estimate height from the facial index of an individual.<br>Materials and Methods: Study population were randomly selected 105 samples to measure the facial<br>parameters using digital vernier calipers manually, and also height with the help of stadiometer. Then the<br>facial index was determined from the postcard size photograph of an individual, then classified based on<br>Bannister classification and formula was derived to estimate the height of an individual from it.<br>Result and Conclusion: We observe a correlation existing between the facial index and the height of an<br>individual. This study will be of great utility for the forensic application for estimation of height from the<br>2D photograph of an individual.</p> Arunashri, Lalitha C., Venkateshu K.V. Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Snake Bite Cases Admitted To Hospital in Tertiary Care <p>A significant problem faced in rural India is snake bite. India’s high mortality rate is due to climatic conditions,<br>population predominance in rural areas, and agricultural dependency. In order to research the epidemiology<br>and outcome of snake bite cases, this retrospective study was done at B.K.L Walawalkar Rural Medical<br>College and Hospital, Sawarde. During the study period, 58 snake bite cases were reported.30 of the bites<br>were poisonous. Male preponderance has been noted.Maximum number of cases were seen during rainy<br>season and more during day time.The lower limbs were most frequently involved.42 cases were recovered<br>out of 58 cases and 16 patients left the hospital againstthe medical advice.As a specific treatment, polyvalent<br>Anti Snake Venom (ASV) vials were used. The improvement in mortality may be the consequence of timely<br>hospitalization and specific care and subsequent first aid steps.</p> Avinash H. Waghmode, Pravir Bodkha, Suvarna N.Patil, A.J.Ajankar, Sonali Kotkar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Current Trends of Poisoning Cases Admitted at Tertiary Care Hospital <p>Acute poisoning is important medical emergency and one of the cause of death. A thorough knowledge of <br>the profile of the victim is essential for management and prevention of poisoning. A prospective analysis <br>of all poisoning cases admitted to BKL Walawalkar Hospital, Sawarde was done to study the pattern of <br>poisoning reported. 186 cases of poisoning including snake bite and scorpion bite were admitted. Data on <br>age, sex, marital status, type of poison, time of exposure, mode of poison and outcome of poisoning were <br>recorded and analysed. There are 111 males and 75 females victim involved in the study. Most common <br>manner of poisoning was Accidental. Most common age group found was 1-10 year followed by 21-30 <br>year. Majority of the victims were Married. Out of all 186 cases admitted 133 were recoverd, 48 had taken <br>Discharge Against Medical Advice (DAMA) and 2 died and 2 were referred.</p> Avinash H. Waghmode, Prakash Mohite, Sudhir Ninave, Pravir Bodkha, Sonali Kotkar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>I</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Knowledge, Attitude and Perception Regarding the Procedure of Autopsy in COVID-19 Cases among Doctors Doing Post Mortem Examination <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has raised challenges in dealing with the dead body of deceases who have <br>been a suspected case or a confirmed case of Covid-19, considering the extreme shortage of trained and <br>experienced manpower in dealing with various duties and responsibilities in the COVID-19 scenario it is <br>very important to ensure safety of the health care workers.All the guidelines issued from time to time for <br>control of spread and treatment of Covid-19 are speculations depending on the current trends and none are <br>based on robust research due to lack of scientific literature and work as the Covid-19 virus in new to the <br>human race .The main driver of transmission of COVID-19is through droplets. There is unlikely to be an <br>increased risk of COVID-19 infection from a dead body to health workers or family members who follow <br>standard precautions while handling body. Only the lungs of dead COVID-19 patients, if handled during <br>an autopsy, can be infectious.1and there is no evidence so far of transmission of virus through the handling <br>of corpses.2There are a lot of speculations in the mind of forensic medicine experts regarding the ongoing <br>mortuary work and dead body management in the Covid-19 scenario considering the risk of acquiring the <br>infection during handing or bodies or while conducting a medico legal post mortem examination.</p> Anil Mangeshkar, Ashok Najan, Seema Sutay Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Critical Appraisal of Ethical issues in E-Learning <p>Covid-19 pandemic left a long lasting impact on entire education sector, as an estimated 90% of educational <br>institutions closed down in at least 188 countries in the world and offline traditional teaching came to a <br>standstill. In such critical situation pedagogical innovations in form of online education, virtual simulators <br>etc came to rescue to keep the students academically occupied and motivated entering into the virtual era.<br>With advent of online education, several issues like social, infrastructural &amp; pedagogical and psychological <br>issues came to fore. Social divide, geographical issues, technical support and know how etc added to the <br>gravity of situation. Educationists also pointed out that ethical issues in e-learning like academic dishonesty, <br>plagiarism and copyright violations need to be addressed.<br>The present work is an attempt to find out various ethical issues in online education and to make suggestions, <br>where ever required.</p> Anjankar A J, Mohite P M, ,Waghmode A, Patond S, Ninave S Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Do Nursing Students Have High Social Intelligence? Findings from Selected Nursing College, South India <p>Background: Social intelligence is the capacity to know oneself and to know others. Social intelligence <br>can be expressed as a measure of social awareness, social skills and social information process. Nursing is <br>a career, which demands high level of social intelligence. The aim of the present study was to describe the <br>social intelligence among nursing students in a selected nursing college, south India.<br>Methods: Descriptive survey design was used to conduct the study among 323 Nursing students South <br>India. After getting ethical clearance and informed consent from the subjects the data were collected during <br>the month in March 2020 using the standardised tool “Tromso Social Intelligence Scale”. Cluster random <br>sampling was used to conduct the study. Nursing students currently undergoing their course are included in <br>the study and those who were suspended or dismissed from their course or absent during the time of data <br>collection were excluded from the study.<br>Results: Among 323 subjects’ majority 229 (70.9 %) were in &lt;20 years of age. Most of the subjects 315 <br>(97.5%) were females. The subjects are studying in the first, second, third and fourth year of the course. Two <br>hundred and thirty (71.2 %) are belonged to rural community. The average social intelligence score is around <br>90 [Q1= 85, Q3= 95]. It is observed that variables such as age, year of study and occupation of father are <br>significantly associated with Social intelligence score [p&lt;0.05].<br>Conclusions: From the present study, it is observed that nursing students are equipped with good levels of <br>social intelligence.</p> Anju Philip.T, Sunitha P.P, Lakshmi S Babu, Vrinda R Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An Observational Study of the Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Haemodynamic and Airway Responses During Extubation of Trachea Following Major Surgery Under General Anaesthesia Anuja Agrawal, Riddhi Shah, Kirti Patel, Pooja Shah, Dinesh Chauhan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Determination of Sex by various Morphometric Traits of Clavicle in the population of Central India (Bhopal region) <p>Background: Identification is the determination of the individuality of a person based on certain physical <br>characteristics. The clavicle is one of the bones which is less explored but has drawn considerable interest <br>in this field, particularly concerning sexual dimorphism. Aim&amp; Objectives: The present study evaluates the <br>existence of sexual dimorphism based on various morphometric parameters of the clavicle in a dry sample <br>and identifies the best predictor amongst these. Materials &amp; Methodology: The study was conducted in the <br>mortuary of the Department of Forensic Medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal on 100 random cases <br>(50 males;50 females) in which medico-legal post-mortem examination was done. After taking due consent, <br>clavicle bone of deceased between25 to 60 years age group were collected during the autopsy, dried and <br>then examined for the study. Measurements were carried out and statistically compared to evaluate sexual <br>dimorphism. The studied parameters include Maximum length of clavicle, Breadth of sternal end, Breadth <br>and Length of acromial end, Area of acromial surface and Mid clavicular circumference. Observations &amp; <br>Results: Amongst all the parameters, Maximum length of clavicle and Mid clavicular circumference are <br>the most reliable parameters for sexual dimorphism with 81% accuracy rate when considered together. If <br>all the morphometric parameters are taken together then the sex can be determined with 87% accuracy. <br>Conclusion: Sexual dimorphism exists in clavicle and all the measured parameters contribute to different <br>sex individually and with 87% accuracy when taken together. The derived discriminant function equations <br>can be used to correctly assign the bones to the proper sex.</p> Anuradha Singh, Rajendra Baraw, Jayanthi Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Relationship between theSeverity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Tension-Type Headache Frequency Aprilia, Herlina Suryawati, M.I. Widiastuti, Aris Catur Bintoro, EndangKustiowati, Jimmy Eko Budi Hartono Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Need for Psychological Check-ups and Medical Treatment to the witnesses of Heinous Crimes <p>Witnesses are regarded as one of the most indispensable element in the criminal justice system. It is because <br>of them that the trial finds some substance so as to arrive at a fair conclusion. The inputs provided by the <br>witness may have direct bearing on the conviction or acquittal of an accused, hence it is desired that such <br>witness be protected from the wrath of extraneous factors that have the capability to change his stance over <br>a particular case. Extraneous factors in form of corruption or threats form a majority which results in turning <br>of the witness hostile; hence it becomes rudimentary for the state to ensure protection of such witness so as <br>not to alter the prescribed course of justice.</p> Archit Panwar, Komal Vig Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Profile of Fatal Head Injury Cases Autopsied at District Governament Hospital Mortuary <p>Background and Objectives: the study of profile of skull fractures is important as head being the most <br>exposed and prominent part of body; it becomes most susceptible to injuries, as a result of criminal violence <br>or accident. The present study was taken up to know the incidence of head injuries, age relationship,sex <br>relationship, agent causing skull fractures, common skull bone fractures. Methodology: data in the current <br>study was collected from the autopsy reports and from police inquest of all fatal skull fractures from the <br>period of june 2012 to may 2014 irrespective of age and sex with history of death due to head injuries brought <br>for postmortem examination to the department of forensic medicine &amp; toxicology, al-ameen medical college <br>mortuary and district hospital mortuary, bijapur between june 2012 to may 2014.<br>Results: most common circumstance causing skull fractures are road traffic accidents in 77 cases (81.94 <br>%). Male preponderance over females noted in this study with males constituting 80 cases (85.10 %) and <br>females 14 cases (14.89 %). The most common age group affected was 21-30 years. Blunt force is the most <br>common agent causing the skull fracture in 90 cases (95.74 %) and least is sharp in 4 cases (4.25 %). Among <br>skull fracture comminuted fracture were seen in 46 cases (48.93%) , linear fracture in 38 cases (40.42%), <br>depressed fracture in 8cases (8.5%) and sutural fracture in 1 case and gutter fracture in 1 case (1.06%) <br>respectively. Temporal bone was the commonest bone fracture in 17 cases (18.08%). Conclusion: the study <br>had concluded that incidence of skull fractures were common at the age group of 21-30 years, with male <br>predominance, most common cases were those of RTA, cause of death that were given in majority of cases <br>was that of Head injury as a consequence of injuries sustained.</p> Ashokkumar Rajaput, Kumar H, Faisal Nasim Gilani, Eshwar S Goudar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Awareness of Non-communicable diseases and their Risk Factors among Adolescents: A Comparative Questionnaire Study <p>Background: Non-communicable diseases are also known as chronic diseases. The burdens of noncommunicable diseases are increasing day by day. Disability and early death are the results, which are turning <br>out to be the biggest concern for health in the world. The purpose of the study was to assess the awareness <br>of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors among adolescents studying in selected high schools <br>at Mangaluru. Methods: A comparative descriptive research design was adopted for this study. The sample <br>was drawn through a simple random sampling technique and the sample consisted of 120 (60 each) urban <br>and rural adolescents. The tool used for the study was a demographic proforma and structured knowledge <br>questionnaire. Conclusion: The mean percentage of the awareness scores among urban adolescents was <br>60.31% when compared to rural adolescents 43.06%. There was a significant difference in the level of <br>awareness on non-communicable diseases and its risk factors between urban and rural adolescents that is, <br>the calculated t value (t118=25.55) is greater than the table value (t118=1.98) at a 0.05 level of significance. <br>The findings of the study suggest that schools should play an active role and on another side parents need to <br>provide a supportive environment for their children to adopt a healthy lifestyle.</p> Athira Bhaskaran, Juniya Thomas, Roselin Sumesh, Kevin Rodrigues, Shycil Mathew Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Self-isolation of Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Pandemic in a Tertiary Care Center – Association between their Sleep Quality, Anxiety Status and Social Capital <p>With the rapid spread of COVID-19 since its inception a year back, the frontline healthcare workers, who <br>underwent isolation and quarantine following possible exposure, faced multiple psychiatric problems like <br>deterioration of sleep quality and anxiety manifestations. Different demographic variables were found to <br>be associated with their occurrence, as well as inter-relation between them were found to be common. <br>We tried to examine the role of social support system as well to the appearance of such problems in the <br>present study. After getting the ethical clearance, willing healthcare workers during their isolation and <br>quarantine were presented questionnaires consisting of Socio-demographic proforma, Self-rating Anxiety <br>Scale (SAS), Personal Social Capital Scale 16 (PSCS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data <br>taken were analysed with independent t test and Fishers exact chi square test, Pearson’s correlation analysis <br>and linear regression analysis. Majority of the subjects were married Hindu female from urban background, <br>mostly doctor and nurse by profession. Independent T test revealed significant association between gender <br>and anxiety status as well as between marital status and sleep quality. Positive correlation between the <br>PSCS scores and the SAS scores (r=0.652, P&lt;0.01) and negative correlations between the PSCS and PSQI <br>scores and between the SAS and PSQI score were found albeit being statistically insignificant. Significant <br>association was found between the SAS score and social bridging component of PSCS (Fishers exact chi sq. <br>value 0.54 and p = 0.003). Anxiety score was significantly affected when the socio-demographic factors like <br>gender, religion, marital status and scores of sleep quality (PSQI) and social capital (PSCS) were considered <br>together as seen in the linear regression analysis.</p> Avik Kumar Layek, Nilanjana Ghosh, Jagadish Biswas, SpandanBhaduri Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Changing Trends (Patterns) of Human Poisoning in Kadapa Region – a Five Years Study <p>“Caution is advised while decontaminating a victim of poisoning. Over enthusiasm may result in the patient, <br>not the poison” – John Morrision <br>Poisoning has been known to mankind since time immemorial and the study of various poisons and their <br>effects has always fascinated mankind. References to poisons and various instances of poisoning are <br>available in Indian Shastras, Egyptian Papyari and Sumerian writings.1<br><br>Since then many substances considered advantages and disadvantages in the form of food or poisons have <br>been discovered. Those substances which are used unfortunately to take away the man’s life or cause ill <br>health have been changing. <br>Some of the great persons who were poisoned to death are Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj,2-3 whose bed was <br>poisoned, Socrates, who was made to drink Hemlock (Conium maculatum) and Rasputin who was poisoned <br>with cyanide and then shot. Aluminum phosphide poisoning, a rodenticide is also posing a formidable <br>challenge and is on the way for taking the number one position. As poisoning trends go on changing, it is <br>necessary to know the poisoning trends from time to time.</p> B. Nagendra Prasad, L. Anand Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Comparison of the Traditional Chalkboard Lecture System with the Powerpoint Presentation: as a Teaching Technique for Medical Students <p>Introduction:The emerging technologies made by day changing the techniques of teaching medical education. <br>The teaching technique has changed since the last decade from the old traditional technique of chalk and talk <br>(CNT) to a newer technique of Power-point presentation (PPT) to the video classrooms converting the whole <br>traditional environment of the classrooms. This paper aims to access the perception of the medical students <br>about these two instructional methods. Materials and methods: In this study cross-sectional descriptive <br>survey was used. Medical students were selected through non-probability convenient sampling. The data <br>were collected using a questionnaire-based survey about their views and perception of two lecture delivery <br>methods, viz., PPT presentation, and using a chalkboard. For each of the two methods, the students were <br>asked to rank twelve comments on a four-point scale: strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree. <br>The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions. Results: In our study, <br>more than 97% of our study respondents emphasized the value of chalk and talk and declared it a more <br>effective and useful teaching tool in their learning experience than PowerPoint (86%) and recommended it <br>for teaching. Conclusion: Both CNT, as well as PPT, are effective methods for medical education and both <br>can be used in combination for the effective delivery of classroom sessions.</p> Deka Subha, Das Anandita, Ullah Kalim, Doungel Nomi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Cephalometric Norms-based on Steiner’s Analysis on Young Adults of Tamil Nadu Population <p>Aim-The purpose of the study was to establish skeletal and dental parameters for Tamil Nadu young <br>adults using Steiner’s analysis and comparing it with Caucasians, as well as other racial groups. Materials <br>&amp;Methods- A study of 70 south Indian young adults (35 male and 35 female) within the age range of 18-28 <br>years with acceptable profile and occlusion was selected for the study and assessed using Steiner’s analysis. <br>Results- The Tamil Nadu population showed a more skeletally protrusive maxilla, dentally proclined and <br>forwardly positioned upper and lower incisor, it also exhibited a horizontal growth pattern when compared <br>with Caucasians norms. The Tamil Nadu male samples reported a protrusive skeletal and dental pattern <br>when compared to female samples. <br>Conclusion-The result of the study supports the fact that the norms and standards of one racial group could <br>not be used without modification for other racial groups and each different racial group would have to be <br>treated according to its individual characteristics. A case of malocclusion needs to be treated based on the <br>individual merits and demerits of that case and not based on a template of norms derived from mean values <br>of select subject groups with ideal occlusion and proportion.</p> Evan. A. Clement, Navaneetha Nambi, Anusha Sreedharan, Dharmisha, Arshitha Ramesh Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Glyphosate, Phorate, and Monocrotophos Hazardous Pesticide Usage and Its Public Health Impact – An Empirical Analysis <p>Background: Pesticides are used extensively around the world and it has many health significance due <br>to the usage of glyphosate,phorates, and monocrotophos that were mainly used as organophosphate <br>pesticides in all the countries. Aim: To evaluate the countries which banned glyphosate, phorates, and <br>monocrotophos hazardous pesticide usage and to assess the severity of risks caused by exposure of the <br>pesticides.Methodology: This study was based on a review of scientific publications on usage of hazardous <br>pesticides such as glyphosate, phorates, monocrotophos, and its impact on public health.Data were retrieved <br>from the manual and electronic database by using the search engines (PubMed and google scholar). Results: <br>European countries had banned glyphosate, phorate, and Monocrotophos pesticides within the year 2015 to <br>2019 whereas in India, two states namely Punjab and Kerala had banned glyphosate pesticides by the year <br>2018 to 2019, Phorates pesticides had banned in 2019, and monocrotophos pesticides were banned by the <br>two states namely Punjab and Maharashtra in the year 2018. Glyphosate pesticides caused more impact <br>on cancer and other health effects in the body in contrast to the other two pesticides had a lesser impact on <br>cancer.Conclusion: Chemical pesticides can protect and improve farm productivity. However, their inimical <br>and environmental health effects makes an inadequate long-term solution. Hence, to overcome this problem, <br>there must be minimization of the usage of chemical pesticides and introduction of eco-friendly natural <br>pesticides, which are easily accessible, low cost, and healthy method of a pest control system.</p> Elakiya Sugumaran, Prashanthy.M.R, Bharathwaj, Prabu.D, Sunayana Manipal, Rajmohan, Vishali.M Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Legal Contemplation Regarding Healthcare and Covid-19 <p>Public healthcare and disease prevention is the utmost concerns of the governments around the world. The <br>quality, accountability and accessibility of health infrastructure along with medicines are desired so that the <br>people use these resources at the time of medical emergency. Good health is measured when the mortality <br>rate, malnutrition, huger, pollution and other parameters are low and does not impact upon the individual’s <br>life. The communicable and non-communicable diseases put harmful effect on the health and life the people <br>and COVID-19 which is a pandemic spread all over the world through transmission. The World Health <br>Organisation issued various guidelines for safety and security but it’s a medical emergency like situation and <br>governments of the countries already framed rule and regulations for the prevention/ protection and eliminate <br>the transmission of disease through lockdown. There are number of legal provisions at international and <br>national level for health and medicare as well as implementation of government mandates for protection <br>from corona virus.</p> Bhupinder Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Misinterpretation of Section 304A IPC vis-a-vis 304IPC in medical Negligence cases – Deliberate or Inadvertent? <p>Negligence is specific tort and in any given circumstances is the failure to exercise that care which the <br>circumstances demand. What amounts to negligence depends on the facts of each particular case. The degree <br>of care required in a particular case depends upon the surrounding circumstances, and may vary according <br>to the amount of risk to be encountered and to the magnitude of the prospective injury. A basic knowledge of <br>how judicial forums deal with the cases relating to medical negligence is of absolute necessity for doctors. <br>The need for such knowledge is more now than before. In light of higher premium being placed by the Indian <br>Forums on the value of human life and suffering, but sometimes misinterpretations are done deliberately <br>or inadvertently when the doctors are charged for culpable homicide not amounting to murder (304 IPC) <br>instead of medical negligence (304 A IPC). A case of medical negligence is being discussed in which a <br>gynaecologist has been charged for 304IPC instead of 304A IPC. The scenario was that, the patient died after <br>readmission in private hospital, who had delivered a healthy baby, managed properly and discharged by the <br>Gynaecologist and suffered undiagnosed complications after discharge at home. The charge was framed that <br>the doctor was absent from the hospital and the case was handled by nurses on telephonic conversation with <br>doctor. Earlier also the doctors had been prosecuted under 304IPC instead of 304A IPC in lower courts and <br>even high courts (e.g. Jacob Mathews V. State of Punjab, Dr. Suresh Gupta V. Govt. of NCT Delhi). But in <br>many cases, finally Supreme Court set aside the judgement of high court and held that the doctors could not <br>be criminally prosecuted.</p> Binay Kuma, Avinash Kumar, Vinita Kumari, Ashok Rastogi, Himanshi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Maternal Health in View of COVID 19: Women’s Awareness, Attitude and Self reported behavior <p>Background &amp; Aim:Pregnancy is a distinctperiod of enjoyment and keenness. But for expectant mothers <br>facing the outbreak of corona virus disease, this otherwise happy moment is clouded by terror, anxiety and <br>uncertainty. When pregnant women are infected with viruses from the same family as COVID-19 and other <br>viral respiratory infections, such as influenza, they have a higher risk of serious illness. Most women are <br>unaware of the pregnancy effects of COVID 19 and how to protect themselves and their infants. The purpose <br>of this study was to assess awareness, attitude and self-reported behavior is assessed about impact of COVD <br>19 on pregnancy and newborn outcomes<br>Methods:Cross sectional research design was employed in the study. Data was collected through online <br>survey from 500 adult women using Total enumerative sampling technique. Self-structuredquestionnaire <br>and likert scale was used.<br>Result: Result showed that most of the women (84.2%) age group 20-30years. 64.8% of women were <br>Graduate and 23% of women were Postgraduate. Mean knowledge score on maternal health 5.52±1.608. <br>Knowledge score of women residing in Urban and rural area was found significant and in different states at <br>p&lt;0.05.The correlation between awareness and attitude which shows weak positive correlation as coefficient <br>value was 0.109.<br>Conclusion : The results of the study revealed that adult women have little knowledge about impact <br>of COVID 19 on maternal health.There was weak positive correlation between knowledge and attitude <br>regarding impact of COVID 19 on maternal health.</p> Deepak Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An Observational Study to Compare the Effects of Esmolol and Diltiazem in Attenuating the Haemodynamic Response to Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation <p>Background - Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation are two most essential part of anaesthetic <br>management. They help in control of airway during general anaesthesia and produce transient marked <br>sympathetic response which manifest as an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, intraocular and intracranial <br>pressure. Esmolol is a selective beta adrenergic receptor antagonist and diltiazem is a calcium channel <br>blocker. The drugs were compared towards reducing the haemodynamic stress response.<br>Methods –This study included 50 patients of both gender, with ASA grade I to IV, aged between 18 to 60 <br>years, scheduled for surgery under general anaesthesia. Among these 25 patients were given inj. esmolol <br>with dose of 1mg/kg i.v.bolus and 25 patients were given inj. diltiazem with dose of 0.2mg/kg i.v.bolus . <br>The haemodynamic parameters were recorded at baseline , just after premedication , after injecting the drug <br>under study, after intubation at 1 , 3 , 5 and 10 minutes. <br>Conclusion –Patients who received inj. esmolol in dose 1mg/kg i.v. showed marked attenuation in both <br>heart rate as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure whereas inj. diltiazem with dose of 0.2mg/kg only <br>showed attenuation in systolic and diastolic blood pressure but failed to achieve any control over heart rate.</p> Dinesh Chauhan, Avani Vayeda, Jigisha Mehta Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Case Report of Juvenile Intraoral Pleomorphic Adenoma <p>Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common tumour of the salivary glands. About 90% of these tumours <br>occur in the parotid gland and ten % in the minor salivary glands. The most common sites of Pleomorphic <br>adenoma of the minor salivary glands are the palate, followed by lips and cheeks. Throat, floor of the <br>mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx, retro molar area and nasal cavity are rarely involved. Pleomorphic adenoma <br>typically present as a slow growing, unilateral and painless mass of salivary glands, with a predilection for <br>recurrence and risk of malignant transformation (about 1.5% up to five years and increases to 9.5% after <br>more than 15 years). This case report describes a case of Pleomorphic adenoma of buccal mucosa in a <br>13-year-old male patient.</p> Gupta Radhika, Chandavarkar Vidyadevi, Sinha Abhishek, Mishra Mithilesh Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Comparative Evaluation of Disinfection on Elastomeric Impression Material using 2% Gluteraldehyde, Ultra Violet Radiation and Gaseous Ozone using Customised Disinfection Unit - An In-Vitro Study <p>Dental impressions is the preliminary step for any procedure and acts as a microbial source leading to <br>contamination to the operator and lab technician. Hence, the disinfection of these impressions materials <br>should be carried out unfailingly. The device was fabricated which helped in easy and effective disinfection.<br>Aim: The aim of the study is to Compare and Evaluate the Efficacy of Disinfection on Elastomeric Impression <br>material using 2% Gluteraldehyde, UV Radiation Disinfection and Gaseous Ozone. Objective: The efficacy <br>of the disinfectants was compared based on the ability of the disinfectants in reducing the microbial colonies <br>on the impression material. Methodology: Microbiological analysis was done and the colony forming units <br>were evaluated and compared. The disinfection was done with a customized disinfection chamber which <br>can be readily installed in the clinic and has multitudes of use other than disinfection. Result: Dry Gaseous <br>Ozone as a disinfectant proved to be efficacious as compared to the other disinfectants. Conclusion: Dry <br>gaseous ozone can be used effectively for disinfection of impressions without altering its dimensional <br>stability. The customized disinfection unit is portable and can be readily installed in the clinic.</p> Hetal Purohit, Sweta Kale Pisulkar, Seema Sathe Kambala, Seema Sathe Kambala, Surekha Dubey Godbole, Chinmayee Dahihandekar, Rohit Ashok Mistry Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Epidemiological Study of Cases of Death Due to Drowning at Mortuary of North Bengal Medical College Hospital <p>Drowning is a mode of asphyxia which literally means, ‘suffer death by submersion in water or any other <br>liquid’ or ‘suffocation by submersion in water or any other liquid because of being unable to breath’. As per <br>WHO, in 2015, an estimated 360 000 people died from drowning, making drowning a major public health <br>problem worldwide. We have conducted this study in Morgue of North Bengal Medical College, Siliguri to <br>find out the demographic profile of drowning cases of North Bengal Region. In this study we have analysed <br>the 55 cases of drowning deaths autopsied in the mortuary of Department of Forensic Medicine, NBMCH, <br>Darjeeling, West Bengal in the last one year from 1st January 2020 to 31st December 2020. All data were <br>analysed by appropriate statistical tools like SPSS software. In this study we found that most of the cases <br>belong to young adult age group (29%) and cases are mostly of males (82%). In the month of July to <br>September (34.54%) cases of drowning deaths were high and most of deceased died due to fall inside the <br>well (43 %). Incidence of drowning deaths were mostly seen between 12 noon to 4 pm (60%) and 89.09 % <br>cases of drowning deaths occurred immediately after the incidence.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jagadish Biswas, Vivek Kumar, Tenzing Zampel Bhutia, Prabir Kumar Deb, Mrinal Kanti Jha Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among the Nursing Students Regarding COVID-19 Preparedness in A Rural Tertiary Care Center in Eastern India <p>The present pregression of the highly contagious novel coronavirus [COVID-19] has been testing the<br>healthcare system globally pressing the medical staff everywhere. Present and future healthcare workers’<br>updated knowledge, proper attitude towards the pandemic and adequate preventive practices are of<br>paramount importance for the combat effectiveness of the healthcare burden.This study assessed the<br>knowledge, practice and attitudes regarding COVID-19 among the nursing students of a tertiary care center<br>in Eastern India. KAP scores were compared with their socio-demographic variables. Inter-relation between<br>knowledge, attitude and practice was also assessed.Out of the 131 students participated in the study the KAP<br>parameters were not significantly different based on the socio-demographic factors. Though knowledge<br>and attitude parameters were positively correlated among them, it was found that practice was negatively<br>correlated to both knowledge and attitude. This finding can be attributed to them being non-exposed and<br>inexperienced in the regular healthcare activities as well to the fact that Indian population was to some extent<br>unprepared to cope up with this type of epidemic for a long time. Training on the updated knowledge along<br>with exposure to simulated environment with scheduled supervision to reflect the behavior of the students<br>is of great importance so that in extreme situation, the trainee students can also come handy into utilization<br>if needed.</p> Uttam Majumder, Jagadish Biswas, Avik Kumar Layek, Sabita Tamang Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Lukewarm Water Footbath Therapy on Quality of Sleep among Elderly People Staying in Nadiad <p>Introduction: Sleep is necessary for human being regardless of age. Specifically elderly people have<br>complaints in sleep disturbances which if treated can improve quality to sleep.<br>Aim: To identity the sleep quality among elderly people and to evaluate effectiveness of lukewarm water<br>footbath therapy.<br>Materials and Methods: An interventional study was conducted among 40 old age people staying in selected<br>old age home, Nadiad. The purpose of the study was to improve the quality of sleep amongst elderly. The<br>samples were selected by non-probability convenient sampling technique. The tool used for data collection<br>was Pittsburgh sleep quality index which is a self rated questionnaire. Lukewarm water foot bath therapy<br>was used as an intervention after taking consent from the samples. Pre-test was conducted from samples by<br>using Pittsburgh sleep quality index followed by which researcher has given intervention (lukewarm water<br>foot bath therapy) for 10 days consecutively before sleep at same time for 20 minutes. Later on, post-test<br>was conducted after 1 week by using Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Descriptive and inferential statistics<br>was used to analyze the data obtain was tabulated analyzed and interpreted in terms of objective of the study.<br>Results: The demographic data related to age 12(27.9%) belonged to 71-75 years, gender 23(53.5%) were<br>females and 17 (39.5%) were males, education the majority of the people 23 (53.5%) was from secondary<br>education, the source of income 16(37.2%) were having pension, social status 25(58.1%) was from middle<br>class, medications 23(53.5%) were taking and 17(39.5%) were not taking, factors affecting sleep 20(46.5%)<br>were having anxiety, activity 15(34.9%) was doing recreational activity, night hours of sleep 16(37.2%)<br>was having 6-7 hours, hours of sleep in day time 16(37.2%) was having 2-2.5 hours, habit 24(55.8%) was<br>having alcohol habit. Researcher applied Mann-Whitney test for comparison between pre-test and post-test.<br>Calculated Mann-Whitney pre-test values were 2.5 and post-test values were 4.29 which prove there is a<br>significant effectiveness of lukewarm water footbath therapy on quality of sleep.<br>Conclusion: It conclude that assessment of sleep quality after Lukewarm water footbath therapy shows that<br>the lukewarm water footbath therapy is helpful for improving the sleep quality among the elderly.</p> Jasmin Prakashbhai Patel, Bhoomi Bhoopendrabhai Patel, Shruti Bharatbhai Patel, Pavitra Sanjaykumar Prajapati, Janki Kamleshbhai Patel, Bhavisha Rameshbhai Sonara, Nickson Das Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An Observational Study of Propofol Mct-Lct Versus Propofol Lct with Lidocaine Pretreatment for Pain During Induction in General Anaesthesia <p>Aims and Objectives: To compare efficacy between Propofol Medium Chain Triglycerides-Long Chain<br>Triglycerides and Propofol Long Chain Triglycerides with lidocaine pretreatment under venous occlusion<br>on propofol induced pain.<br>Material and Methods: 50 patients of age 18 to 55 years of either gender of ASA I or II Grade were assigned<br>to two groups of 25 each undergoing elective surgeries under general anaesthesia.Patients in Group M<br>received Propofol MCT-LCT 1% (without any pretreatment with Lidocaine) and Group L received Propofol<br>LCT 1% with Lidocaine pretreatment under venous occlusion. Following propofol injection, patients were<br>asked for any sensation of pain at injection site during propofol injection till patient was unconscious. It was<br>graded as per 4 point verbal pain score, with 0 being No pain to 3 being severe pain.<br>Anaesthesia was induced by a standard technique of intravenous induction. Endotracheal intubation was<br>done after giving injection succinyl choline (2mg/kg) I V and was maintained on O2, N2O, Isoflurane<br>and Atracurium. Monitoring of heartrate, blood pressure and SPO2 were done during the surgery . After<br>surgery, reversal of neuromuscular blockade was done and extubation was performed. After that patient was<br>transferred to recovery room.<br>Result and Summary: Both the groups were comparable in term of demographics and ASA grading. It was<br>observed that in the group L a significantly higher proportion (80%) of patients experienced pain while in<br>the Group M only 44% patients experienced pain during propofol administration. (P value-0.0044- highly<br>significant). We observed that the pain intensity score seen in group L was 0, 1, 2 and 3 in 20%, 48%, 20%<br>and 12% of the patients , while in the group M was 0 and 1 in 56% and 44% of the patients, respectively and<br>none of the patients had pain score of 2 and 3. A significantly higher proportion of patients in group M had<br>pain intensity score of 0 (P value&lt;0.01)which was statistically highly significant. Pre and post-operative<br>vitals were comparable in both the groups.<br>Conclusion: The study concluded that Propofol MCT-LCT is better in view of less incidence and severity<br>of pain on injection during induction of anaesthesia than Propofol LCT with lidocaine pretreatment under<br>venous occlusion.</p> Jatin Patel, Chandini D, Malini Mehta Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Round Cell Tumors - Classification & Overview <p>Round cell tumors from time indefinite have been affecting mankind, not only by their dangerous and life<br>threatening nature but also by their vast variety. Number of tumors share similar histology, composed of<br>relatively uniform primitive Small Round Blue Cells. They also share many demographic, radiographic<br>and clinical similarities, which often lead to misinterpretation and wrong diagnosis. These tumors, although<br>sharing similar looks which is quite confusing, come from different origin, in different sizes, colors, site of<br>action &amp; most importantly nature. A few are aggressive and others are latent and benign. In some cases the<br>etiology is known, however on the other hand a large number of these tumors have an idiopathic etiology.<br>Whatever the lesion or however the appearance clinically, histopatholgically or cytologically, these round cell<br>tumors, continue to fascinate and confuse us &amp; lack of a proper classification adds to the misinterpretation.<br>This review article is thus an attempt to go through this vast variety of tumor thoroughly along with an<br>attempt to provide a proper classification for the tumor itself.</p> Kush Pathak, Prachi Nayak, Asha Karadwal, Sushruth Nayak, Satyajit Tekade Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Mucormycosis in Post Covid Patient - A Case Report <p>Mucormycosis is considered to be a rare notorious fungal infection mainly affecting diabetics with or without<br>ketoacidosis &amp; immunocompromised patients, with high mortality rate. Occurrence of Mucormycosis as an<br>implication of Covid-19 has not yet been reported. We present a case of aggressive mucormycosis in a Post<br>covid-19 type-2 diabetic patient and aim to illustrate the possible Covid-19 effects on body and a dire need<br>for early diagnosis.</p> Kush Pathak, Asha Karadwal, Prachi Nayak, Sushruth Nayak Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>xyz</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Profile of Female Victims of Alleged Sexual Assault Cases Reported to Dr.B.R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru <p>Sexual violence is one of the most heinous crimes against women. Sexual assault is a violation of the dignity<br>of a person. The present prospective descriptive study was conducted in the department of Forensic Medicine,<br>Dr.B.R.Ambedkar medical college, Bengaluru, Karnataka, South India for a period of one year from January<br>to December 2014, where victims of alleged sexual assault cases were brought in for examination. Majority<br>of victims, 77 out of 149 were between 16 - 20 years. 107 victims (71.8%) were educated up to school level.<br>101 victims were students. 85.2% cases were unmarried victims. In 106 (71.1%) cases, accused was known<br>to the victim. 54 cases (36.3%) of sexual assault occurred in the house of the victim or accused. 65.1%<br>victims in our study had bodily injuries.</p> Karthik SK, Mohana Velu J, Jayaprakash G Copyright (c) 0 Thu, 17 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Prospective Study of Ligature Mark in Deaths Due to Hanging <p>Hanging is one of the ten leading causes of death in the world accounting for more than a million deaths <br>annually. The hanging deaths are one of the most important asphyxial types of death which are encountered <br>in day to day life by forensic pathologists. Ligature mark in the neck is the principal external sign in hanging <br>depending on body suspension from ligature point. This prospective study was conducted at the Department <br>of Forensic Medicine, Dr.B.R.Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru between January 2018 to December <br>2018 to assess the information provided by a ligature mark in deaths due to hanging. We found that typical <br>hanging is seen in 50 cases and atypical hanging in 225 cases. Partial hanging is seen in 73.09% deaths and <br>complete hanging in 26.9% deaths. Ligature mark was obliquely placed in 91.3% cases and was found to be <br>running above thyroid cartilage in 80.7% cases. Single ligature mark with a breadth of 1-2cms is observed <br>in the maximum number of cases. In 93% of the incidents, ligature mark showed discontinuity. The colour <br>of ligature mark was reddish-brown in 46.9% cases</p> Karthik SK, Mohana Velu J, Jayaprakash G Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Applications of Reverse Panoramic Radiography for Age and Gender Determination- A Radiographic Study <p>Objectives: This study was conducted to establish if any correlation exists between individual’s chronological <br>age and lambdoid sutures closure status in mortals through modified reverse panoramic radiograph.<br>Materials and Methods: Total number of 140 subjects, 10 years and beyond were included in the study, and <br>divided into seven groups with an age interval of 5 years. Assessment of lambdoid suture closure was done <br>according to Frederic Rating Scale on modified reverse panoramic radiographs. Data obtained was subjected <br>to statistical analysis using Cramer’s V test.<br>Results: A significant correlation was observed between the age group and suture closure. Cramer’s test <br>gave value of 0.000, and was interpreted as a good correlation between the age and suture closure status <br>with a P value of &lt;0.05<br>Conclusion: Lambdoid suture can be very effective and reliable practical tool for age assessment in <br>mortalsthrough modified reverse panoramic radiography (ectocranially)</p> Karthikeya Patil, Mahima VG, Poornima Chandran, SrishtiTayal, Jaishankar HP Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Age Estimation Using the Radiographic Visibility of the Periodontal Ligament in Mandibular Third Molars in Mysore Population- A Retrospective Study <p>Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the reliability of age estimation using the radiographic <br>visibility of periodontal ligament surrounding the roots of completely erupted mandibular 3rd molar.<br>Materials and methods:Visibility ofperiodontal ligament was assessed in completely erupted mandibular <br>third molars, in a sample of 135 panoramic radiographs, of which 55 belonging to females and 80 to males, <br>from a Mysore population aged 18to 32 years. A classification of four stages based on the visual phenomenon <br>of disappearance of the periodontal ligament of fully mineralized third molars was used. For each stage, <br>mean, standard deviation, minimal &amp; maximal age were assessed.<br>Results:The relationship between age and stage of periodontal ligament had a statistical significance for <br>both sexes.In this population, stage 1 can be used for predictability of age above 19 years and stage 3 for <br>predictability of age above 23 years. No significant correlation exists between periodontal ligament visibility <br>and gender of the individual.<br>Conclusion:Thistechnique is advocated for determining age above 19 years as it is a relatively simple and <br>reliable method. Differences exist in different ethnicities demanding specific population standards.</p> Karthikeya Patil, Mahima VG , Poornima Chandran, Bharathi Penumatsa, Nagabhushana Doggalli, Sanjay CJ Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Simulation Versus Traditional Method Of Teaching On The Retention Of Birthing Care <p>Background: Nursing is profession where practical and theoretical knowledge needs to be highly integrated <br>and clinical practice is significant for the professional development of Nursing students. The shift from <br>traditional instructional methods towards student-centered teaching challenges Nursing faculty to create <br>learning experiences that will develop safe and competent graduates. Going out into the clinical field can be <br>stressful for Nursing students. They know that mistakes can seriously affect a patient’s outcome. Nursing <br>faculties are always looking for more effective teaching methods that enhance student knowledge and skills. <br>Materials and Methods: Comparative research design was used to evaluatethe effectiveness of simulation <br>based training versus traditional method of teaching on the retention of birthing care knowledge and skills. <br>Convenience sampling technique was used to select 77 B.Sc Nursing Fourth Year students from SGT <br>University Gurugram and R.R College of Nursing Gurugram.<br>Results: The knowledge score for simulation group (23.05) was higher than traditional teaching group <br>(17.87) at t = 31.08.The skill score for traditional teaching group (29.23) and simulation based training <br>group (37.23) at t = 33.23.Simulation based training was more effective rather than traditional method of <br>teaching in improving the retention birthing care knowledge and skills among students.<br>Conclusion: Simulation based training has opened up a firsthand learning in a nursing profession. Evidencebased practices can be put into action by means of protocols and algorithms, which can then be practiced <br>via simulation scenarios. The key to success in simulation training is integrating it into traditional education <br>programmes.</p> Jyoti, AK Mamata Devi, Khushbu, Shalu Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Meditation in Prevention of Suicidal Deaths <p>Stress is a feeling of emotional or physical tension. It can come from any event or thought that makes you <br>feel frustrated, angry, or nervous. The period between childhood and adulthood is viewed as Adolescence. <br>It is the period, where physiological and psychological maturity takes place. By nature, adolescents are <br>sensitive, emotional, and temperamental and pass through a major transformation from childhood to <br>adulthood involving a great physical, mental and emotional evolutionary process. Most of the students are <br>stressful during the times of exams. Stress occurs while preparing and clearing the exams as one struggles <br>to achieve the expected grade and mastering the content in a defined time. Raja Yoga meditation eases <br>physiological and psychological stress and restores mental harmony if practiced on a regular basis; it is a <br>compliment for promoting and maintaining physical, mental, and spiritual health. Heartfulness meditation <br>used in this investigation is a simplified form of Raja Yoga where a practitioner meditates on the heart.</p> K. Ravimuni, K. Usha Rani Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Cross Sectional Study to Assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Personal Hygiene among School Children in Rural Primary School of Kheda District, Gujarat <p>Background of Study: Personal hygiene is very important in all stage of human life, but appropriate <br>cleanliness habits should be started from childhood. Children are who learn about good hygiene practice it <br>will be last longer the life and will carry during adulthood1<br>. Hygiene guidance counseling should start as <br>earliest possible along with parents so parents can teach about right hygiene to their children2<br>.<br>Objectives: 1. To assess the Knowledge regarding personal hygiene among primary school children. 2. To <br>assess the Attitude regarding personal hygiene among primary school children. 3. To assess the practice <br>regarding personal hygiene among primary school children. 4. To prepare and distribute a health education <br>pamphlet on personal hygiene. <br>Methodology: The Descriptive survey approach cross sectional study research design carried out for the <br>study, Sampling method was Non Probability sampling technique Convenience sampling method Study <br>population Primary and middle school children. (5th, 6th &amp; 7th standard) Study Setting Rural Primary School <br>Kheda District Study Size 100 School Children’s3.<br>Results: Regarding the distribution of sample according to knowledge regarding hand hygiene where 3(10%) <br>had Moderate knowledge, 27(90%) Had Adequate Knowledge and none of them had inadequate knowledge. <br>Only 17.3 % children’s found that they does not used and cloth or tissue paper during sneezing or coughing <br>and rest of para-meter regarding hand hygiene were founded that primary school children had good practice.</p> Kailash Nagar, Jyot Darji, Shiney Parmar, Niral Patel, Niyati Patel Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Relation between Duration of Diabetes and Cardiac Mortality in Post-Mortem Cases Coming to GMERS General Hospital, Himmatnagar <p>The term diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies characterized by chronic <br>hyperglycemias with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism resulting from defects in <br>insulin secretion and/or insulin action1<br>. Diabetes is fast becoming the epidemic of the 21st century. Type 2 <br>diabetes, which is more prevalent (more than 90% of all diabetes cases) and the main driver of the diabetes <br>epidemic, now affects 5.9% of the world’s adult population with almost 80% of the total in developing <br>countries2<br>. World Health Organization (WHO) reports show that in India, 32 million people had diabetes in <br>the year 20003<br>. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimates the total number of diabetic subjects <br>to be around 40.9 million in India and this is further set to rise to 69.9 million by the year 20252. <br>Cardiovascular disease (CVD), comprising coronary heart (CHD) and cerebro-vascular disease, are currently <br>the leading cause of death globally, accounting for 21.9 per cent of total deaths, and are projected to increase <br>to 26.3 per cent by 20304<br>. The factors that coalesce to increase the risk of developing atherosclerotic CHD <br>were demonstrated in Framingham in the mid – 20th century5 and have subsequently been shown to be <br>pervasive across ethnicities and regions of the world6. These are not new risks, but the ubiquity of smoking, <br>dyslipidaemia, obesity, diabetes and hypertension has been gradually escalating7<br>, and is thought to be the <br>driving influence behind the epidemic of heart disease faced today. <br>Present study was conducted to estimate the diabetes as risk factor more clearly and its influence on cardiovascular complications particularly on coronary arteries and on heart structures.</p> Kamesh Modi, Uttamkumar Solanki, Kavita Banker, Rajni Bhagora, Jagdeep Jadav Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Comparative Study Between Effects Of Ketamine And Fentanyl As Co-induction Agents With Propofol For I-Gel Insertion In Minor Surgical Procedures. <p>Background: The study aimed to compare and determine the success rate, ease of introducing I-gel and <br>the hemodynamic effects of two adjuvant drugs ketamine and fentanyl, when used with induction agent <br>propofol in minor surgical procedures.<br>Methodology: The study comprised of 68 patients of ASA-I &amp; II grading of either gender, aged between 18 <br>to 60 years undergoing minor surgical procedures. Patients were distributed into two groups.<br>Group K- inj. ketamine 0.5mg/kg &amp; inj. propofol 2mg/kg<br>Group F- inj. fentanyl 1mcg/kg &amp; inj. propofol 2mg/kg<br>Results: Both groups K and F were comparable in terms of baseline clinic-sociodemographic variables <br>such as age, gender, weight, ASA grade and Mallampatti grade. Attempt of insertion was more than one in <br>26.5% cases of group K and 8.8% cases of group F, showing statistically insignificant difference(p&gt;0.05). <br>Jaw relaxation was significantly good in group F than group K (p&lt;0.01). Incidence as well as severity <br>of coughing and limb movement was much higher in group K than group F (p&lt;0.01). Overall excellent <br>significantly higher condition was observed. Excellent conditions seen in 85.3% and 50% cases belonging <br>to group F and group K respectively (p&lt;0.01). <br>Mean total requirement of propofol was 124±24.56 and 110.06±18.95 in cases belonging to groups K and <br>group F respectively. Thus showing significant difference. Hemodynamic parameters such as heart rate(HR) <br>and blood pressure(BP) were significantly higher in group K than in group F following induction(p&lt;0.01).<br>Conclusion: Fentanyl when used as co-induction drug with propofol provides ideal condition for I-gel <br>insertion, decreases total requirement of propofol &amp; stable hemodynamic response as compared to ketamine <br>&amp; propofol</p> Jayshri Desai, Jayati Jain, Priya Kishnani Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An Observational Study to Compare Patient and Surgeon Satisfaction and Hemodynamic Changes Occurring in Spinal Anaesthesia Versus General Anaesthesia in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Surgery <p>Background:Renal stones are the most painful condition of the urological system requiring hospital <br>admission. The treatment depends upon type, number and size of renal calculi. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy <br>(PCNL) can be conducted under regional anesthesia such as spinal anesthesia (SA) as well as in general <br>anesthesia (GA).<br>Methodology: In this study, we selected 50 patients of ASA-I &amp;II of either sex, 18 to 60 years undergoing <br>PCNL surgeries.<br>GROUP S (n=25)- PCNL under spinal anaesthesia<br>GROUP G (n=25)- PCNL under general anaesthesia<br>Result: Mean pulse rate, Mean arterial pressure and Mean oxygen saturation were significantly lower in <br>SA group during intraoperative period as compared to GA whereas the difference in both groups were <br>insignificant postoperatively with p&lt;0.01 and p&gt;0.05 respectively.<br>Mean VAS score for patient’s satisfaction were significantly lower in SA group as compared to GA group <br>with p&lt;0.01.<br>Likert’s scale for surgeon’s satisfaction were significantly higher in GA group as compared to SA group with <br>p&lt;0.01<br>Conclusion: My study concluded that VAS score (patient’s satisfaction) is better in spinal anesthesia whereas <br>hemodynamic stability and Likert’s scale (surgeon’s satisfaction) is better in general anesthesia.</p> Jatin Patel, Juhi Jain, Kalpesh Patil, Kirti Patel Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Pattern of Suicidal Deaths in Females- A Cross Sectional Study in the Age Group of 12-24 Years <p>Background: Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among young males and the third for young <br>females, globally. Suicide affecting the youth is a big loss to the community. Hence, the aim of this study is <br>to identify pattern of suicidal deaths in females belonging to 12-24 years age group.<br>Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Gandhi Medical <br>College, Secunderabad, which included all the deaths that occurred due to suicide in females aged 12-24 <br>years from January 2017 to November 2018. <br>Results: Most victims belonged to the age group of 19-24 years (49%) and were from rural area (60%). <br>Majority attempted suicide during day time (72%) and inside their own homes (89%). In 91% of the cases, <br>there was no history of previous attempt and in 92%, no suicide note was found. 55% of deaths occurred on <br>the spot. Most common method of suicide was hanging (53%).<br>Conclusion: Suicide is a growing public health concern amongst the young. Peer support groups for <br>adolescents and young adults, who have exhibited suicidal behaviours, must be established to help prevent <br>repeated attempts.</p> Kandagatla Krishnamurthy, S.M. Krishna Sagar, Abhijith Subedhar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Hidden Smile- An Overview of the General and Oral Hygiene Status of Transgenders <p>Transgenders constitute quite a sizeable population that remains a neglected group, facing much <br>discrimination from the society in many respects especially in health. With their low self esteem and suicidal <br>tendencies owing to neglect and shaming, financial constraints, they often neglect to maintain good personal <br>hygiene. One such component is their oral health which is in a pitiful state. With this study we aim to assess <br>the various factors that act as barriers to the transgender community obtaining quality dental care. Their <br>healthcare access should be much more widened with their comfortable way of acceptance.</p> Manikandan Shanmugam, Kurunji Kumaran Navaneethakrishnan, Bhaskar Venkatachalam, Rajasigamani Kandasamy, Krishna Prasanth Baalann Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>x</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Stature Estimation from Anthropometry of Foot in Adults of Border Areas of Punjab <p>Background: Stature is one of the various parameters of identification of the individuality of a person. <br>Estimation of stature from various measurements of the body is of value in medicolegal investigations as <br>well as in anthropology. The foot measurements are important in forensic field as they can be used as body <br>height predictors for an individual.The current study deals with developing a regression equation for stature <br>estimation from foot breadth and foot length and to find out the correlation between stature, foot breadth <br>and foot length. Methods: The data was collected from 500 asymptomatic, healthy adults (250 males &amp; 250 <br>females) belonging to border areas of Punjab region of age group ranged between 18-50 years.<br>Results: The correlation between foot length and stature (r= 0.337) was more than foot breadth and stature <br>(r= 0.046) indicating foot length to be a better predictor of stature. Linear regression equations were derived <br>for estimation of stature from foot breadth and foot length.<br>Conclusion: Both foot breadth and foot length showed positive correlation with stature as indicated by the <br>regression coefficient. The results indicate that one can successfully estimate staure from different foot dimensions. <br>The calculated regression formulae show good reliability and applicability of estimate which would be useful <br>for Anthropologists and Forensic Medicine experts.</p> Megha Rapotra, Jaswinder Kaur Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An Observational Study between Intrathecal Fentanyl and Butorphanol with Low Dose Bupivacaine to Facilitate Early Ambulation in Perineal Surgeries <p>Background: Neuraxial opioids are widely used with local anaesthetics as they allow lower dose of local <br>anaesthetics while providing adequate anaesthesia and faster recovery from spinal anaesthesia because of <br>their sympathetic and motor nerve sparing activities. In the last few years the number of surgeries performed <br>on an ambulatory basis has increased worldwide because of many advantages like short hospital stay, less <br>chance of wound infection and less chances of deep vein thrombosis.<br>Methods: 64 patients of ASA- I or II of either gender who underwent perineal surgeries were divided into two <br>groups of 32 each:- Group BF patients received 1ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 20µg fentanyl(0.4ml) <br>and Group BB patients received 1ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 200µg butorphanol(0.2ml) and <br>normal saline(0.2ml).Patients were observed for onset of sensory and motor blockade, duration of sensory <br>and motor blockade, duration of analgesia and time to unassisted ambulation. There was no difference in <br>onset of sensory and motor blockade between the two groups(P&gt; 0.005).Patients receiving butorphanol <br>had statistically significantly longer duration of sensory and motor blockade and duration of analgesia <br>than fentanyl(p-0.001).Patients receiving fentanyl were observed to ambulate unassisted significantly early <br>compared to butorphanol (p-0.001).<br>Conclusion: Patients receiving intrathecal fentanyl 20µg can ambulate earlier compared to patients receiving <br>butorphanol 200µg when used as an adjuvant with low dose hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% without any <br>complication.</p> Malini Mehta, Soumya Jha, Pooja Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Awareness Programme on Knowledge Regarding Disaster Preparedness For Common Natural Disasters among the Adults Residing at Selected Rural Areas of Dehradun, Uttarakhand <p>Disasters have a huge impact on humans, environment and economy throughout the globe. Preparedness <br>for disasters is critical for individuals, households, businesses, organizations and communities, but many <br>remain unprepared. India has been vulnerable to a large number of natural and human-made disasters on <br>account of its unique geo-climatic and socio-economic conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the <br>effectiveness of awareness programme on knowledge regarding disaster preparedness for common natural <br>disasters among the adults residing at selected rural areas of Dehradun, Uttarakhand. A quasi experimental <br>study using non-equivalent control group pre-test post-test design was used. Purposive sampling technique <br>was used to select 80 adults: 40 each in control group and experimental group. Data was collected using <br>structured knowledge questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics <br>using SPSS-16 programme. The findings showed that the pre-test mean knowledge score among the adults of <br>control group was 15.88 and experimental group was15.35. The post-test mean knowledge score among the <br>adults of control group was 16.02 whereas in experimental group it was 30.05. In post-test, in control group, <br>maximum 62.5 % adults had average knowledge, 30% had poor knowledge and 7.5% had good knowledge, <br>whereas in experimental group, maximum 82.5% adults had good knowledge, 17.5% had average knowledge <br>and none had poor knowledge. Hence it was concluded that the awareness programme had significant impact <br>on improving knowledge of adults regarding disaster preparedness for common natural disasters.</p> Manisha Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Knowledge and Awareness about Burning Mouth Syndrome among Dental Students <p>Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and level of awareness about Burning mouth <br>syndrome among dental students. <br>Method: The study was carried out among the dental students.A self-constructed questionnaire was made <br>and given to a total of 100 students. The answers were recorded and converted into numbers and percentages.<br>Results: The results of the study reveal that undergraduate dental students have a fair knowledge about <br>burning mouth syndrome.<br>Conclusion: There is an increased need for comprehensive educational programmes and clinical exposure <br>for students to be aware about burning mouth syndrome.</p> Manju J, Mutum Sangeeta Devi, Meena.J, Rahul B, Kavitha.M, Niveditha.B Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>D</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An Observational Study of Intravenous Granisetron Vs Oral Gabapentin in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting after Middle Ear Surgery <p>Background- Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most unpleasant complications after <br>middle ear surgery. Several studies have demonstrated use of gabapentin as antiemetic. This study aims at <br>comparison of intravenous granisetron vs oral gabapentin in preventing PONV. <br>Methods - 64 patients of ASA I or II between the ages of 18 and 65 years were divided equally into two <br>groups. Patients in group I received 3mg granisetron iv 2 minutes and patients in group II received 300 <br>mg gabapentin orally 1 hour prior to surgery. Patients were premedicated with inj. glycopyrrolate and inj. <br>midazolam. Anaesthesia was induced, maintained and reversed in usual manner. Haemodynamic changes <br>and number of episodes of nausea and vomiting were recorded upto 24 hours postoperatively. No statistically <br>significant difference was observed in both the groups at 0 and 1 hour in preventing PONV (p&lt;0.05). Next 24 <br>hours postoperatively neither group showed PONV. No significant haemodynamic changes were observed <br>and there were noside effects in either of the groups.<br>Conclusion- There was no statistically significant difference in prevention of PONV in the patients who had <br>either received inj granisetron 3mg i.v. 2 minutes prior to surgery or oral Gabapentin 300mg 1hour prior to <br>surgery after middle ear surgery without any side effects.</p> Malini Mehta, Akshata Thakurdesai, Sujay Thakkar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Imprints of miRNA- An Update <p>Introduction: Micro Ribonucleic acid (miRNA) is the novel fraction of non-coding RNA, which <br>is considered as the biological measure of genetic state of a cell. It plays a mantle regulatory role post <br>transcriptionally, involving both biological and pathologic cellular processes. miRNAs possess unique <br>properties like, abundant tissue expression which allows for reproducible isolation and quantification. <br>Methods: Literature search was carried out by using different combinations of keywords on Pub Med and <br>Cochrane database to retrieve the data for the literature review. <br>Discussion: Distinct expression profiles of miRNA in OSCC (Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma) offers the <br>use of specific miRNAs signature for early-stage diagnosis, prediction and prognosis. It plays a critical role <br>in the initiation and progression of cancer functioning either as an oncogene or as tumor suppressor. At <br>present, it has a huge impact on understanding the aberrant gene modifications in OSCC and its future effects <br>on prognosis and therapeutic relevance needs to be looked upon.<br>Conclusion: Distinct phases of miRNA from its origin, properties, functionality, detection, cancer association <br>to future trends are updated in this review.</p> Priya N S, Ramakant Nayak, Vijayalakshmi K, Kishore Bhat Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Prospective Observational Study Ondemographic Profile and Clinical Outcomes of Acutepoisoning Cases in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India <p>Background: The profile of acute poisoning cases is fast changing in last few years, due to advancements in <br>agriculture, construction, sanitation, cosmetic industry and not the least in pharmacology. The advancements <br>and invention of new chemical agents in these industries have increased the access to wide range of materials <br>with quite varied chemical nature, which is reflected in the profile of acute poisonings.<br>Methods: The study is a prospective observational study for a period of 18 months .The study population <br>included all the patients presenting to the emergency department with history of acute poisoning excluding <br>accidental non-self- poisoning.<br>Conclusion: In the current study, highest proportion of subjects in the overall study group was between <br>26 to 40 years. The proportion of males and females were almost equal whereas in OPC poisoning group <br>the proportion of males was much higher than females. Majority of the affected population were married, <br>living in urban areas, educated ,belonged to lower class. Highest proportion was constituted by housewives <br>and students .Organophosphorous poisoning was the most common poisoning reported followed by <br>benzodiazepines and rat killer in thestudy.The overall mortality rate in the study was 10.53%.Mortality was <br>highest when the subjects were presented beyond 6 hours. Among the type of poisons OPC poisoning had <br>highest mortality.</p> Priyadarshini Varadaraj, Aiswarya M Nair, Vaasanthi Rajendran, Lakshmi Marappa, Santhosh Kumar P, Senthil Narayanasamy Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An Autopsy based Study on the Relationship of Cystic Artery with Respect to Common Bile Duct, Common Hepatic Duct and Calot’s Triangle in Light of Hepato-Biliary Surgery <p>Background: The arterial system of human body is often subjected to a good number of variations. Therefore, <br>trying to find out variations in relationship of cystic artery with CBD, CHD and Calot’s triangle will surely <br>be a useful endeavor for an Anatomist and Autopsy Surgeon, moreover such an effort will help the surgeons <br>in planning and operating upon the hepatobiliary system. Method: The present work was carried out in <br>the Department of FMT, NRSMCH, Kolkata in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, Medical <br>College, Kolkata over a period of one year to find out relationship of Cystic artery with CBD and CHD and <br>also to check whether Cystic artery was present within Calot’s triangle. Fifty cadavers of both sexes were <br>subjected to detail dissection method based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Adult human cadavers above <br>18 yrs of age were included in this study whereas paediatric cadavers below 18 yrs of age, cadavers above <br>18 years where dissection cannot be done because of pathology in and around porta hepatis, decomposed <br>dead bodies and dead bodies came for autopsy with gross abdominal injury involving hepato-billiary system <br>were excluded from the study. The study was prospective, cross sectional, observational, autopsy based <br>study. The cystic artery was lying posterior to CHD or CBD in 90% cases where as it was placed anteriorly <br>in 10% of specimens. The cystic artery was lying anterior to CHD in 6% cases whereas and anterior to <br>the CBD in 4% cases. In these 4 % cases CA was also inferior in position with respect to the cystic duct. <br>In 96% of specimens the cystic artery was lying inside the Calot’s triangle whereas the 4% cases showed <br>presence of cystic arteries outside the Calot’s triangle. Conclusion: Because variations are very common in <br>hepatic and Cystic arteries, sound knowledge will allow the surgeons to practice safe laparoscopic or open <br>Cholecystectomy, liver resections and vascular recombination in transplantation and there by avoid errors <br>and patient morbidity. A good knowledge of Calot’s triangle is important for conventional and laparoscopic <br>Cholecystectomy.</p> Puloma Chakraborty, Sayak Sovan Dutta, Sandip Mukhopadhyay Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An Integrated Autopsy based Study on Variations in Origin of Right and Left Hepatic Arteries & Cystic Artery in Light of Hepato-Biliary Surgery <p>Background: Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy is widely accepted as the gold standard in the treatment of <br>cholelithiasis and this new technique was initially associated with a significant increase in morbidity, and in <br>particular, in iatrogenic biliary injury and arterial haemorrhage, perhaps due to a lack of knowledge of the <br>laparoscopic anatomy of the gallbladder pedicle.The arterial system of human body is often subjected to a <br>good number of variations. Therefore, trying to find out variations in origin of right and left hepatic arteries <br>and also cystic artery will surely be a useful endeavor for an Anatomist and Autopsy Surgeon, moreover <br>such an effort will help the surgeons in planning and operating upon the hepatobiliary system. Method:The <br>present work was carried out in the Department of FMT, NRSMCH, Kolkata in collaboration with the <br>Department of Anatomy, Medical College, Kolkata over a period of one year to find out variations ion <br>origin of right and left hepatic arteries and cystic artery. Fifty cadavers of both sexes were subjected to detail <br>dissection method based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study was prospective, cross sectional, <br>observational, autopsy based study.<br>Conclusion:In 92% cases total number of branches from the HAP were three, four branches were arising <br>from it in 6% cases, whereas &gt;four branches from the HAP in remaining 2% cases.The branching pattern of <br>the HAP at the porta hepatis showed bifurcation in 96 % cases, whereas HAP showed trifurcation pattern at <br>porta hepatis in 4% cases.Any source of origin of the RHA and LHA other than the HAP was recorded as <br>0%. The percentage of occurrence of accessory or replaced RHA was 0%.This was also the case with LHA.<br>The present study revealed the RHA (92%) being the commonest source of origin of cystic artery. In 8% <br>cases cystic artery represented variant origin. Variant origins of CA were represented by the HAP (6%) and <br>GDA (2%).In 96% of cases, the cystic artery was single. Remaining 4% of cadavers showed presence of <br>more than one cystic artery, the number being two.Most significant finding in this present study according <br>to the researcher is the presence of double cystic arteries.</p> Puloma Chakraborty, Sayak Sovan Dutta, Sandip Mukhopadhyay Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Clinical Pattern, Morphology and Treatment Modality of Basal Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck Region: Analysis of 10 Cases <p>Basal cell carcinoma is most common type of non-melanotic skin cancer. Causative agents are UV and <br>ionizing radiation and chemicals. Nodular, pigmented, superficial, cystic and infiltrative are major subtypes. <br>It is mainly treated by excision surgery in the form of wide local excision and reconstruction is done by <br>various flaps. In our study 10 patients were included and found that carcinoma is commoner in old age <br>female patients and mainly near right canthus of eyeball; treated with surgery which is well tolerated by all <br>the patients.</p> Parveen Mendiratta, Vandana Mendiratta, Roopak Aggarwal, Shailendra Pal Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Protocol Regarding Infection Control in Labour Room in Terms of Knowledge Gain among B. Sc Nursing III Year Students of Govt. College of Nursing Indore Pragati Das, C. Chouhan, Asha Ram Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Dental Amalgam- Anthropogenic Aspects <p>Mercury is released in the environment by various natural and anthropogenic activities. As mercury is toxic, <br>presence of high levels of mercury in the environment is a major concern. One source of mercury in humans <br>is dental amalgam fillings. Dental amalgam has been used for ages in dental clinics and dental hospitals <br>for restoring defective and decayed teeth. This raises concern regarding the use of dental amalgam and <br>its disposal. The purpose of this article is to sensitize people about the hazards of mercury, make them <br>cognizant with guidelines regarding the use of mercury in dental clinics and enforce the use of alternatives <br>to mercury when possible.</p> Pragya Pandey, Kirti Srivastava, Himanshu Reddy, Diksha Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Morphometric Study of Dry Human Patella with Its Clinical Correlation <p>Background- Patella is the largest sesamoid bone and forms the femuro-patellar component of the knee <br>joint. Dimensions and classification of patellae are important anthropologically as well as clinically.<br>Aims &amp; Objectives- Morphometry of patella has a definite role in implant design and reconstructive <br>surgeries of knee joint. The present study aims to find out different dimensions of patella and its facets on <br>both sides and compared.<br>Material &amp; Methods- The morphometric study comprised of sixty (30 left and 30 right) dry human patella <br>collected from department museum by using sliding digital calliper. The different parameters studied are <br>height, width, thickness of patella, length and width of medial and lateral facets. Classification of patella was <br>done by using the measurements of its articular facets.<br>Observations- The mean height, width, thickness of patella of left side were found to be 37.79mm, 38.26mm, <br>19.35mm and that of right side were 35.72mm, 34.91mm, 17.64mm respectively. The mean width of medial <br>and lateral articular facet of left side were 19.42mm, 21.21mm and that of right side were 18.33mm,20.97mm <br>respectively. Width of lateral articular facet is significantly larger than that of medial articular facet of same <br>side(p&lt;0.05) and 85% of patella belongs to Wiberg typeB.The mean patellar thickness on left and right side <br>is 19.35mm &amp; 17.64mm respectively,left side being significantly more than(P&lt;0.05) that of right side.<br>Conclusion- These dimensions of patella may be helpful for different patellofemoral operations like knee <br>arthroplasty, ligament repair, proximal tibial osteotomy, implant design for knee replacement and for forensic <br>measurements.</p> Pratima Baisakh, Lopamudra Nayak, B Shanta Kumari, Saurjya Ranjan Das Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on Knowledge Regarding the Secondary Growth and Developmental Changes in Early Adolescent Period (10-14yrs) <p>Background : The stage of adolescences is passing through the different level and period of growth, so <br>it is very important and outstanding because the changes that occur during adolescence affect the family <br>as well as the society1. The pubertal or physiological changes during this period include the adolescent’s <br>growth spurt, gonadal growth, growth of secondary sexual organs and characteristics, changes in body <br>composition and growth of respiratory, circulatory and muscular systems2. Objectives: The objectives of <br>the study have drawn to fulfill the research reflecting on the effectiveness of planned teaching programme <br>regarding secondary growth and developmental changes in early adolescent period (10-14yrs) among <br>students studying in the selected Govt. school of Haryana. Material and method : The study was conducted <br>at Govt. Sr. Sec. School, Nuna Majra ( Jhajjar) Haryana.100 students was selected for the study by using nonProbability convenient Sampling Technique. Knowledge of the children was assessed through the structured <br>questionnaire and after that planned teaching programme was delivered to samples and after 7 days post <br>test was conducted to the gained knowledge of children regarding secondary growth and developmental <br>changes in early adolescent period. Result : The mean of pre-test skill score 9.88 and post-test skill score <br>24.63 having a significant difference with t- value for skill 30.90 at level of significant p&lt;0.05. Post-test <br>mean knowledge score was more than pre-test knowledge score with mean difference of 14.75. Paired <br>t- test was performed to find the difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge score. Therefore, it <br>was concluded that there was a significant difference in pre-test and post-test knowledge score to assess the <br>effectiveness of planned teaching programme in terms of gain in knowledge score among children in early <br>adolescent period (10-14yrs).</p> Raveena, Sarika Yadav, Khushbu Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Breastfeeding among Mothers Having Children Below 1 Year <p>A study to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breastfeeding among the mothers having <br>children below 1 year. The objectives of the study are to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practices <br>regarding breastfeeding in mothers having children 1 year, to find out the relationship between knowledge <br>attitude and practices with selected demographic data/variables and to determine correlation between <br>knowledge, attitude and practices. Quantitative research approach and descriptive research design were <br>used. Convenient sampling technique was used to select the 60 subjects. Permission of data collection was <br>taken from head of the department of paediatrics, GMCH Sec-32 Chandigarh. The data was analyzed by <br>using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results of the studies were presented in the form of figures and <br>tables. The study findings revealed that 83.33% mothers had average knowledge regarding breastfeeding, <br>13.3% mothers had good knowledge and 3.3% mothers had poor knowledge. The study also shows that <br>88.3 % mothers had positive attitude and 11.7% mothers had negative attitude regarding breastfeeding. The <br>practices were adequate in 91.7% mothers and 8.3% had inadequate practices of breastfeeding. Among all <br>socio-demographic variables, only occupation and parity has significant relationship with attitude score. <br>Only type of family has significant relationship with practice score. The findings revealed non-significant <br>correlation (r=0.058, p=0.636) between knowledge and attitude, statistically significant positive correlation <br>(r=0.290, p=0.038) between knowledge and practices, non-significant correlation (r=0.110, p=0.396) <br>between attitude and practices. This project was carried out by students of final year of B.Sc.(N) Ashish, <br>Ashu, Balraj, Dency, Gaganjot, Harsimran at GMCH-32.</p> Ramandeep Kaur, Manjit Kaur, Jyoti Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Dental Practitioners in Chennai Towards Management of Hazardous Dental Radiological Waste –A Cross Sectional Survey <p>Background: Management of hazardous dental radiological waste is very important for the dentist to known <br>and practice correct protocol. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice among <br>the dental professionals in Chennai, towards disposal of radiographic hazardous waste.<br>Materials and Methods: One hundred dental practitioners from different part of the city were participated <br>in this study. A set of hundred questions were given to the education qualification divided into 2 groups, <br>those with BDS (UG degree) and MDS (PG degree) and the answers obtained was tabulated and recorded. <br>Descriptive statistics were calculated for all the questions recorded among the education qualification they <br>were divided into 2 groups, those with BDS (UG degree) and MDS (PG degree) in chennai city and chi <br>square test was done to find the association between the questions recorded. <br>Result: Among the participants, they found a positive association between some questionnaire while <br>assessing the experience of practice whereas based on qualification of the participant they was no association <br>between the questionnaire. <br>Conclusions: This study is to bring out sustainable social and behavioural change and to reinforce the moral <br>and professional obligations of the dental surgeon towards human health and environment therefore it is <br>important to collect base-line and follow up data to evaluate the outcome of any awareness programs aimed <br>at promoting good hazardous waste management practice.</p> Ranjit Kumar, Uma Maheswari, Lubna Fathima, Jasmine Crena, Santo Grace, Suba.A Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>B</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Review of Obstetrical Emergencies: Its Concept and Optimal Management <p>Obstetrical emergencies are life threatening conditions that occur in pregnancy during labour and after <br>delivery. It is common that approximately 15% of all pregnant women develop serious complication from <br>conception to delivery. Obstetrical emergencies may turn catastrophic in women, so every little contribution <br>to save maternal and neonatal life brings about reduction in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. <br>Among all the emergency situations which may arise across the field of obstetrics, there are small numbers <br>which call urgent practical steps to be taken in order to safeguard the life of the mother or the baby or both. <br>Emergency obstetric care is a set of critical lifesaving functions commonly called signal functions provided <br>by a health care facility throughout the day and week. Obstetric complications can neither be predicted nor <br>be prevented but can be managed by timely provision of life saving services. When obstetric emergencies <br>occur, effective and efficient care by the health care professionals is essential for good outcome and safety. <br>Diagnosis of serious situation to delivery interval should be less than 30 minutes; however, it is expected <br>to be lengthy then appropriate measure should be taken to manage the obstetric complications. Prompt <br>diagnosis , timely performed intervention and positive impact of maternal and neonatal management have <br>significantly improved the maternal and neonatal outcome.</p> Simarjeet Kaur, Poonam Sheoran, Jyoti Sarin Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Oral Health Status and Oral Hygiene Practices among Children Having Parents with Different Levels of Dental Anxiety <p>Background : The aim of this study was to identify parents with dental anxiety using Modified Dental <br>Anxiety Scale and comparing different levels of dental anxiety with oral health status, oral hygiene practices <br>and treatment needs of their children.<br>Methods: This cross sectional study included 442 children and their parents. Informed consent form and <br>structured proforma was handed over to children explaining the purpose of study. A structured proforma <br>includes demographic data, oral hygiene practices, Dentition status &amp; treatment need (WHO, 1997) of <br>children. The study subjects were also provided with self-administered MDAS questionnaire to be filled by <br>the parents consisting of 5 items to assess parental dental anxiety.<br>Conclusion: Compared to children belonging to anxious parents, Children of non-anxious parents had less <br>chances of having dental caries (Adjusted Odds ratio (OR) = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.336-1.010). More than 98% of <br>study subjects were using toothbrush and toothpaste to brush their teeth once a day in horizontal scrubbing <br>method. The caries experience among the study population was considerably less. The reason may be that <br>the present study was conducted on school children and some school may be in the endemic fluoride region.</p> Shilpa Warhekar, Ashish Warhekar, Vandana Pandey Tripathi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Correlation of Sex & BMI with Fusion of Human Sternum in ‘Bengalee’ Population from Dead Bodies Sent for Autopsy in NRSMCH Morgue <p>Background: Sternum is the bone which gives a fair idea for the estimation of age in the later decades<br>of life. It is a well established fact that factors like endocrinal, heredity, climate, diatic habits have certain<br>degree of influence over bony union and it is also proved that epiphyseal union occurs one to two years<br>earlier in females than in males. BMI (Body Mass Index) is defined as person’s weight in kilograms divided<br>by the square of height in meters. Methods: The aim of the study is to establish any Correlation of sex and<br>BMI with the fusion of different parts of Sternum in Bengalees.120 sternums are studied in this study over<br>a period of 1.5 years from the dead bodies of ‘Bengalee’ persons sent for Post Mortem examination in the<br>Hospital morgue, Department of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology, N.R.S Medical College &amp; Hospital,<br>Kolkata. Concussion: There was no significant difference between male and female in respect to the ages<br>showing fusion. When the BMI of the subjects were compared with different grades of fusion between the<br>sternal segments, significant statistical correlation was found between the fusion of sternebrae and the BMI,<br>but fusion of Xiphisternum and Manubrium with Mesosternum did not show any statistically significant<br>correlation. Sexual variation of ages for fusion of sternum was not found in ‘Bengalee’ population. Nutritional<br>status has a significant effect on the fusion of the sternebrae with each other, but no significant effect on the<br>fusion of xiphisternum and manubrium with body of sternum.</p> Sayak Sovan Dutta, Sandip Mukhopadhyay, Subhajit Adhikary Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Extended Parallel Process Model on Sexual Self- Control of Female Adolescents in Aliabad Kotoul in 2020 <p>Introduction: This study we aimed to examine the effect ofExtended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) on the<br>sexual self-control of female adolescents in Aliabad Kotoul in 2020.<br>Methods: This experimental study with two intervention and control groups was conducted on 50 secondyear<br>high school female students in Aliabad Katoul, who had been selected by simple random sampling<br>method. In the intervention group, 8 training sessions (45-60 minutes each) were carried out in groups of 6-7<br>people, based on the EPPM for 2 months. Data were collected in both groups before and after the intervention,<br>and then were analyzed by SPSS-16 statistical software using descriptive and inferential statistics.<br>Results: Independent t-test did not show a significant difference between the intervention and control groups<br>before the intervention (P = 14.14) in terms of the score of sexual self-control, but after the intervention, it<br>showed a significant difference (P &lt;0.01) between the two groups. Also, ANCOVA test showed a significant<br>difference between the two groups by removing the pre-test effect (p &lt;0.01, Eta = 0.64), so that the EPPMwas<br>able to increase the sexual self-control of samples in the intervention group.<br>Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness of EPPM, the results showed that if people understand that<br>they are at high risk of disease or health problem, they will be more sensitive towards performing high-risk<br>behaviors. Therefore, increasing awareness and creating sensitivity can play an important role in controlling<br>behaviors.</p> Mahboubeh Tabarsa, Farzaneh Roshangaran, Shahla fakhreazizi, Elham Khaloobagheri, Nafise Hekmati Pour Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study on Autopsy Findings of Different Types of Poisoning Cases at NRSMCH Morgue WHO Admitted and Expired at NRS Medical College Hospital, Kolkata <p>Background: Poisoning constitutes a major number of hospital admissions among different types of<br>hospital admission cases in India. Several factors like development of science along with invention of strong<br>insecticides and change in life style of human beings added with mental &amp; social stress and easy availability<br>of poisons are few factors responsible for increasing number of poisoning cases. The cause and the nature of<br>poisoning cases which are admitting in different hospitals many times remain unknown to us. This problem<br>can be solved by examining different autopsy findings of different poisoning cases &amp; chemical analysis of<br>different organs as early as possible. The main objective of the study is to study both the external and internal<br>autopsy findings in case of death due to poisoning. Methods: 74 poisoning cases were studied over a period<br>of one year who were first admitted in NRSMCH and subsequently died at the said Hospital. Brought death<br>and nursing home/other Hospital admission cases/ cases referred from other Hospital are excluded from this<br>study. The study is a prospective, cross sectional and descriptive study. Conclusion: Corrosive poisoning<br>is the commonest type of poison followed by ophitoxaemia. Face was congested in most cases of death. No<br>significant findings found in most of the victim’s oesophagus. Majority of internal organs were congested.</p> Sandip Mukhopadhyay, Sayak Sovan Dutta, Apurba Biswas Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Descriptive Study to Assess the Level of Knowledge Regarding the First Aid Management among Undergraduate Nursing Students at Dinsha Patel College of Nursing of Nadiad City <p>First help is the best help so first aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. A Descriptive study<br>was conducted to assess the level of knowledge regarding the first aid management among undergraduate<br>nursing students at Dinsha Patel College of nursing of nadiad city. Sample size for the present study was<br>consisting of 106 Nursing Students. The instrument used for data collection is structured knowledge<br>questionnaire. The data analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of the<br>present study was that The findings of study reveals that the Majority of the Undergraduate Nursing Students<br>were having Average Knowledge (62%), 39 % were having Good Knowledge &amp; 5% were having Poor<br>Knowledge. The study concluded overall, students’ level of first-aid knowledge was moderate. So it is<br>necessary to improve wide-spreading of first aid and basic life support training programs to college area.<br>Constant and practical of training first aid program for the nurses must take an effective role.</p> Sanjana Bhatia, Rashmi Limbachiya, Nikita Barot Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Herbal therapy in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Short Review <p>Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder causing significant mortality and<br>morbidity. It is a chronic insidious disease, which progressively causes reduced mouth opening, stiffness<br>of oral mucosa and inability to eat. Treatment of this condition is difficult as various modalities have been<br>used, but with its own limitations and inefficiency. Reversing the fibrosis and improving the mouth opening<br>remains the most challenging part of the management. In recent years, various studies have been conducted<br>on usage of alternative modalities for the management of OSMF. These include several herbal products like<br>aloevera, turmeric, spirulina, Oxitard, Tulsi, nigella sativa, turmeric with black pepper and many others.<br>The objective of this article is to review various herbal agents that has been used in the treatment of OSMF.</p> Sanjay C J, Shilpa Padar Shastry, Karthikeya Patil, Nagabhushana Doggalli, Naveen Kumar, Swathi Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Program on Knowledge and Practice Regarding Adult Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation among Road Traffic Police in Nadiad City <p>Background: The initial few minutes following an emergency are very crucial care provided during this<br>period has direct bearing on the final outcome in an emergency. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an<br>emergency clinical procedure for the victim of cardiac arrest or, in a few instances, Respiratory arrest.<br>Aim: This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge<br>and practice regarding adult cardio pulmonary resuscitation among Road traffic police in Nadiad city, India<br>Material and Method: A quasi experimental research study design was used to conduct this study at Nadiad,<br>India from January, 2020 to July, 2020, with pre experimental – one group pre-test and post test design.<br>The knowledge Structure questionnaire and practice checklist was developed to assess the knowledge and<br>practice of adult cardio pulmonary resuscitation among 60 road traffic police.<br>Results: This study revealed that the pre-test knowledge range was 19, mean 14.05, standard deviation was<br>4.18, mean percentage was 56.2 % while the post test knowledge range was 14-29, mean 21.11, standard<br>deviation was 3.07, and mean percentage was 72.7 %. The outcome of paired t-test knowledge score and<br>statistical significance based on Paired t-test as follows: The maximum score was 26, mean was 9.73, standard<br>deviation was 3.85, mean percentage was 37.4% and paired t-test value was 19.56 that hence there exists a<br>significance effectiveness on level of knowledge before and after administration of adult cardiopulmonary<br>resuscitation among Road traffic police.</p> Sapan S. Macwan, Virendra Jain Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Rationale of “Potency Test” as Performed on Alleged Accused of Sexual Offences in Age Old Forensic Practice- A Study <p>Background: Following the amendment in Sec 375 IPC as per Criminal Law Amendment Act 2013, potency<br>is not at all essential to commit rape and so even an impotent man can rape a woman. Even after the change in<br>definition of rape and laws related to it in 2013, still the same age old question of potency is repeating in every<br>requisition seeking medical examination of alleged accused of sexual offence. Investigating police officers<br>ask for potency test of the alleged accused persons irrespective of the type of sex offence committed by the<br>persons. MoreoverMedical examination report of the alleged accused is often labelled as the ‘‘POTENCY<br>TEST REPORT” in the Court of Law disregarding all other findings. Method: Diagnosis of impotence is<br>a multi-disciplinary approach. The aim of the study is to discuss the rationale of potency test in relation to<br>sexual assault cases in light of CLAA (2013) and current practice followed in many Institutions.76 Alleged<br>accused of various sexual offence cases are studied here concerning the history of sexual offence, self<br>claim of potency and duration between alleged incident and medicolegal examination. Conclusion: There is<br>absolutely no necessity of potency test if there is no history of peno-vaginal intercourse and if the accused<br>is not claiming himself to be impotent. Integrated approach between doctors and law enforcing agencies is<br>essential to channelize the investigation in a more scientific way.</p> Sayak Sovan Dutta, Sandip Mukhopadhyay, Joydeep Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Estimation of Age from the Fusion of Human Sternum in ‘Bengalee’ Population from Dead Bodies Sent for Autopsy in NRSMCH Morgue <p>Background: Age is a datum of identification for any human individual.It is mandatory for an autopsy<br>surgeon to perform autopsy of unknown dead bodies brought by the police, and the dilemma that he or<br>she faces is how to establish the identity of that body.Sternum is the bone which gives a fair idea for the<br>estimation of age in the later decades of life. Method: the aim of the study is estimation of Age from the<br>fusion of different parts of Sternum in a human individual.Dead bodies of ‘Bengalee’ persons sent for<br>Post Mortem examination in the Hospital morgue, Department of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology, N.R.S<br>Medical College &amp; Hospital, Kolkata. 120 sternums are studied in this study over a period of 1.5 years.<br>Fusion of xiphisternum with the lower end of mesosternum starts above 22 years of age, complete union<br>can be observed above 31 years on the other hand beginning of union can also be seen at 45 years of age.<br>No union or beginning of union was seen in older ages also.Complete fusion between manubrium and upper<br>end of mesosternum was found at as low as 24 years age,yet beginning of union and recently complete union<br>was seen at 40 years and 47 years- 49 years respectively. Older ages also showed no union. There was no<br>significant difference between male and female in respect to the ages showing fusion.The increasing grades<br>of fusion of different sternal segments when compared with increasing ages showed significant statistical<br>correlation. Conclusion: In the ‘Bengalee’ population it can be said that with increasing age the different<br>parts of sternum show increasing grades of fusion, fusion of the sternebrae startsaround puberty and is<br>completed by 17 years- 20 years of age, xiphoid process fuses next and then comes the fusion between<br>manubrium and mesosternum, though exceptions are there, where younger aged individuals showed<br>complete union yet older aged individuals showed no union or beginning of union.</p> Sandip Mukhopadhyay, Sayak Sovan Dutta, Subhajit Adhikary Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Post-Mortem Study of “Lifelines”: Common Belief Vs. Reality <p>Background: Dermatoglyphicsis the scientific study of naturally occurring creases on certain body parts<br>like palms, fingers, soles and toes.As per Dermatoglyphics, the creases are believed to result from flexion<br>of the fetal skin and can be influenced by factors causing aberrant development of the embryo. Method: the<br>objectives of the study was to examining the length of lifelines of the deceased and calculation of predicted<br>age of individuals from their lifeline’s length by applying the knowledge of palmistry. And to compare the<br>predicted age with the age at death of those deceased individuals. 100 cases all above 18 years are studied<br>over a period of three months. Conclusion: The result of this study revealed that it is not in agreement with<br>the popular belief of Palmistry among most of the common people that length of lifeline reveals longevity.<br>More is the age at death, the likelihood of the prediction of longevity from the lifeline being right is more.</p> Sandip Mukhopadhyay, Sayak Sovan Dutta, Shelly Samanta Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Estimation of ‘Stature’ from Long Bones of the Lower Limb-A Cadaver based Study <p>Background and objectives: Stature of a person is an important parameter of personal identification. In<br>this study stature ( body total length) was estimated from the measurement of length of femur and tibia<br>belonging to unclaimed cadavers. Methodology: a total number of 51 unidentified dead bodies (42 male<br>and 9 female) in age group of 18-80 years were studied. Length of the body of the study subject in lying<br>position on autopsy table, length of the fresh and dry bones of femur and tibia were measured. Regression<br>formulae and Multiplication factors were derived for both sexes for fresh and dry bones of femur and Tibia<br>for estimation of stature. Results: Among males; Wet femur shows highest correlation with the stature,<br>while wet tibia shows least correlation, though both show significant correlation for the estimation of stature<br>(P&lt; 0.0001). Among females ; Dry femur, and combined dry femur and tibia shows highest correlation<br>with the stature, while wet tibia shows least correlation, though both shows significant correlation for the<br>estimation of stature (P&lt; 0.0001). Interpretation and Conclusion: This study will be useful to the forensic<br>medical experts when only the lower limb is available for forensic investigation in estimating stature and<br>in anthropological research projects. Regression formulae are dependable than multiplication factor for<br>estimation of stature [52].</p> Tangirala Rajesh, B.Nagendra Prasad, P.Umamaheswara Rao, M. Balaji Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study of Blood Alcohol Level in Victims of Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Manipur, India <p>Background: Alcohol is well-established risk factors for road traffic deaths around the world. Method:<br>This is a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption among the victims of fatal<br>road traffic accidents in Imphal, Manipur. A detailed post-mortem examination was carried out among<br>160 victims and blood alcohol concentration was assessed by Cavett test and then quantified by gas liquid<br>chromatography. Result: A total of 40 (25%) cases were found to be positive for alcohol in the blood. Most<br>of the cases 11(27.5%) occurred in age group of 21-30 years and 41- 50 years, respectively. Maximum<br>number of cases 13(32.5%) showed blood alcohol concentration of 90-120 mg% while 7(17.5%) cases<br>showed readings above 180 mg%. Conclusion: This study found that driving under the influence of alcohol,<br>exponentially increases the risk of having an accident which could be fatal in its outcome.</p> Tej Bahadur Chhetri, U B Ghaffar, Syed Meraj Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An Observational Study to Compare Epidural Tramadol and Epidural Fentanyl for Postoperative Analgesia in Lower Limb Orthopaedic Replacement Surgeries Tejash H. Sharma, Vibhakar Vasudeva, Kalpesh Patil, Dinesh Chauhan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Magnitude of Unnatural Deaths amongst Autopsies Over a Period of 4 Years at a Tertiary Centre Catering to Both Urban and Rural Population <p>Descriptive study of “Magnitude of Unnatural deaths amongst autopsies” was carried out at a tertiary care<br>centrecatering to urban and rural populationwith aims todetermine cause &amp; manner of unnatural deathsand<br>to estimate its magnitude according to area and sex.<br>840 cases (81%) fulfilled criteria,male: female ratio was 2.28:1. In urban &amp; rural areas;vulnerable age group<br>was 21-30 years (35% &amp;29%) followed by 31-40 years (23% &amp;20%); most cases were hanging (49%&amp;<br>32%) followed by RTA (27% &amp; 31%) &amp; poisoning (10% &amp; 19%).Suicides (60% &amp; 55%) were more than<br>accidents (35% &amp; 42%) &amp; homicides (5% &amp; 3%). Hanging was more common in urban, whereas RTA &amp;<br>poisoning common in rural areas. More percentage females succumbed to hanging &amp; poisoning whereas<br>more males to RTA, electrocution &amp; fall from height. Males succumbed mostly during 6 am-12 pm (161)<br>&amp; 8 pm-6 am (157); whereas females succumbed mostly during 6 am-12 pm (74) &amp; 69 cases each in 12-4<br>pm &amp; 4-8 pm.<br>This study indicates need of strategies to curb unnatural deathsthrough health education&amp; safety measures,<br>counseling &amp; treatment of depression; and better roads with signal boards.Unnatural;Cause; Manner of death;Urban;Rural</p> Udaya Shankar B S, Shivakumar B C2, Sujatha P L, Tyagaraju M R Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Knowledge Management and its role in Health Care Education <p>Knowledge management in health care is a hot cake to study. Since this sector is heavily relying on the<br>knowledge of different ingredients, and evidence based medicine is expected to be implemented in daily<br>health care activities; besides, delivery of care replies on cooperation of several partners that need to<br>exchange their knowledge in order to provide quality of care. IN health care a knowledge based treatment<br>and consultancy is most required things in contemporary scenario. Since lot more challenges are lies in<br>the way of knowledge management. In public health decision is mainly based on data and a shift is needed<br>towards evidence based decision making. It is obvious that health care can profit from many advantages that<br>KM can provide. Nevertheless, several challenges are ahead, some are proper to KM and other particular to<br>the health care field. This chapter will overview KM, its methods and techniques, and provide and insight<br>into health care current challenges and needs, discuss applications of KM in health care and provide some<br>future perspectives for KM in health care.</p> Uusha Patel, Deepika S Joshi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Research Study on Medicolegal Autopsies Conducted at Mortuary of Government Medical College, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh From 1St January To 31St December 2020 <p>Aim: To do a research study on Medicolegal Autopsies conducted at Government Medical College Mortuary,<br>Ongole, Andhra Pradesh from 1st January 2020 to 31st December 2020. Materials &amp; Methodology: This<br>study was conducted at Government Medical College, Ongole from 1st January to 31st December 2020.<br>A total of 534 medicolegal cases were brought to mortuary for the sake of medicolegal autopsy during<br>the study period. Result: In the research study, it is evident from the statistics that maximum number<br>of medicolegal autopsies were conducted in the decreasing order in the following deaths - Road Traffic<br>Accidents &lt; Poisoning &lt; Hanging &lt; Homicidal Deaths &lt; Deaths due to hit by Train &lt; Drowning &lt; Burns<br>&lt; Fall from Height &lt; Snake Bite. Medicolegal autopsies were done more in males compared to females in<br>almost all types of deaths. Likewise maximum number of autopsies were conducted in the active age group<br>of 18 to 36 years</p> Venati Jayashankar, Chaitanya. R2, G.B. Raja Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Pattern of Injuries in Railway Fatalities at Bowring and Lady Curzon Hospital, Bangalore <p>Background: The Indian Railways, started over 167 years ago, is among the world’s largest rail network. In a<br>country like India, the railway network is ideal for long-distance travel and movement of bulk commodities,<br>apart from being an energy efficient and economic mode of conveyance and transport. Although beneficial<br>in a multitude of ways, railway fatalities are known to cause tremendous loss, in terms of human lives as<br>well as economic forfeiture.<br>Methods and results: A 7-month prospective and descriptive type of autopsy study was conducted at the<br>Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Bowring and Lady Curzon Hospital attached to Shri<br>Atal Bihari Vajpayee Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore. Out of 98 cases of railway<br>fatalities, maximum number of deaths belonged to 21- 30 years age group i.e., 33 cases (33.67%) with male<br>preponderance (88 cases – 89.79%). The Hindu community contributed to 54 cases (55.10%). Maximum<br>cases occurred in the monsoon season (34 cases - 34.69%) and majority of victims were found dead at the<br>scene (90 cases - 91.83%). The predominant manner of death was suicidal (49 cases - 50%) and the most<br>common cause for death was shock and hemorrhage (53 cases - 54.08%).<br>Conclusion: Studies such as this, can help in better understanding of railway fatalities which can help policy<br>makers in implementing counteractive measures to prevent accidental deaths, discourage suicidal deaths and<br>to improve railway safety in general.</p> Vidusha Vijay, S. Venkata Raghava Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Estimation of Stature from Foot Print Length among Students and Staff of S. Nijalingappa Medical College of Age Group 21-30 Years <p>Identity means the determination of the individuality of a person. Identification of a person is one of the most<br>important issues for a forensic expert in solving many medico-legal cases. The present studies was under<br>taken to estimate the stature from foot print length and to evolve regression equation for the same in both the<br>gender. 100 healthy subjects (50 males and 50 females) of age group 21-30 years, who are resident of north<br>Karnataka, were included in the study. The foot print lengths of both the feet of the participants were taken.<br>The readings were subjected to statistical evaluation and regression formulae were established for stature<br>estimation from foot print lengths in males and females.</p> Vinay Manjunath Raj, Kelvekar V H, Manjula R Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study to Assess the Quality of Life of Under Graduate Nursing Students of Dinsha Patel College of Nursing, Nadiad <p>Background and Aims: Quality of life (QOL) is a subjective concept because the interpretation of each<br>individual depends on his/her personal point of view. It is also multidimensional, given the influence of<br>factors related to education, economy and socio-cultural aspects.<br>Although the quality of life (QOL) of nursing students is a relatively well-researched topic in the West, there<br>is a lack of it in developing countries like India. The aim of this study was to examine the QOL of Indian<br>undergraduate nursing students and its associations with socio demographic and other parameters.<br>Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in nursing college in Gujarat, India. In this institution<br>undergraduate nursing students were selected. Usually, students start nursing program at 18 years of age.<br>During the course of their study they learn different medical and paramedical related nursing subjects.<br>Also, from the first year, they have their first direct clinical contact with patients in hospitals (scheduled<br>clinical rotations). All the eligible subjects were approached after class hours to participate in the survey.<br>Participation was completely voluntary. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants<br>included in the study. The questionnaires were anonymous, personally identifiable information such as name<br>and identification number was not collected. Students were requested to sit at a fair distance from each other<br>so as to assuage their privacy concerns. Students were assured of confidentiality and informed that the data<br>collected shall be published and later would be provided to nursing education policymakers. The study<br>was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee and was conducted according to the ethical principles<br>laid down by the declaration of ICMR. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 225 nursing students in<br>Nadiad Gujarat, India. Students self-reported their QOL using the World Health Organization Quality of<br>Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF).Data were collected on the individuals’ characteristics, including the year<br>of study, substance use, physical exercise, academic performance, and other parameters.<br>Results &amp; Conclusion: The present study evaluates the quality of life of B.Sc nursing students of Dinsha<br>Patel College of Nursing. On the basis of the findings the researchers concluded that the 146 students are<br>perceived that they are live with average Quality of Life.</p> Virendra Jain, Arpita Vaidya, Nickson Das, Sachi Christian, Pragnesh Patel Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Demographic Studies of Autopsied Cases at North Bengal Medical College Hospital During the National Lockdown Period Due to COVID 19 Pandemic <p>The outbreak of COVID 19 pandemic in India has started from the month of March when many cases were<br>tested positive for novel coronavirus. The high infectivity of the disease led many governments to impose<br>strict lockdown with the aim of limiting its spread. To restrict its spread and save the people of India our<br>government has also imposed strict nationwide lockdown in a phase wise manner. Though the lockdown was<br>imposed to restrict the spread of COVID 19 but it had severe undesirable impact on the socio-economical<br>and psychological status of the people especially of low to medium income groups involved in private jobs.<br>The aim of this study was to study the cases of autopsied unnatural deaths with special emphasis to find out<br>the correlation between demographic pattern of deceased with the lockdown. In this study we have analysed<br>the 961 cases of autopsied unnatural deathsin the mortuary of Department of Forensic Medicine, NBMCH,<br>Darjeeling, West Bengal from the first day of lockdown up to the month of September (24th March 2020 to<br>September 2020). All data were analysed by appropriate statistical tolls like SPSS software. In this study we<br>found that male (66.4%) predominated over the females and most of the cases belongs to adult age group<br>(44.27%). Persons involved in private jobs (44%) were more severely affected compared to the government<br>jobs and cases of suicidal deaths (45.7%) rises but cases of deaths due to road traffic accidents (13.9%)<br>drastically reduced during lockdown period.</p> Vivek Kumar, Jagadish Biswas, Tenzing ZampelBhutia, Dibyakar Chhetri, Rumi Maitra, Prabir Kumar Deb Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Importance of Forensic Science in Crime Investigation <p>Forensic science has been used for justice delivery system since ages. However it started gaining ground<br>in early fifties as an independent discipline and since then it has derived applications from every field of<br>science and technology. Today it is well settled and much sought after and ever growing technology forensics<br>and forensic investigations are fast changing their face as every other day new types of crimes are being<br>committed. To cope up with the demanding nature of this profession, forensic services need up-gradation at<br>every stage. This paper focuses on the applicability of Forensic science in criminal investigation and the role<br>it plays in keeping law and order in a society, also throws light on how forensic science is acting as a bridge<br>between the medical scientists and legal scientists.</p> Yogender Singh, Pratima Devi Ranga Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Prospective Study on Profile and Pattern of Electric Injuries Cases brought in RNT Medical College, Udaipur <p>It is well known fact that electricity is essential to everyday life, both home and on the job. Perhaps it has<br>become such a familiar part of daily life , most people don’t give much thought to it or how much our work<br>depends on a reliable source of electricity. More importantly , people tend to overlook the hazards that<br>electricity poses and fail to treat it with the respect it deserves.<br>A prospective study on profile of electric injuries cases was conducted at RNT Medical college Udaipur,<br>Rajasthan from July 2019 to November 2020 to know about the incidence and pattern of electric injuries<br>cases , also to study the manner of events, seasonal variation, population at high risk to be victims of electric<br>injury and to provide recommendation for developing useful safety programs to decrease the incidence. Out<br>of the total 100 cases, 86 were male and 14 were female. 83 cases were of 11 year to 50 year age group. 68<br>cases occurred at work place , out of which 62 were male and 6 were female and 32 cases occurred at home.40<br>cases occurred in rainy season and 39 cases occurred in winter season and 21 cases occurred in summer.<br>This study emphasizes on better implementation of electrical injuries control program in communities and<br>increase the awareness of people and also on use of safety equipments and protective measures. As our study<br>suggests that most of the electric injuries cases were preventable.</p> Yogesh Sharma, Punit Jain Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Pulp Testing -Implication and Advances <p>One of the greatest challenges to the clinicians is the accurate diagnosis an evaluation of the pulp status. Pulp<br>sensibility tests [thermal and electric tests] interprets status of pulp health from sensory response. Thoughit<br>is the most commonly used test in clinical practice, Recent studies have shown that blood circulation is<br>the most accurate determinant in assessing pulp vitality as it provides an objective differentiation between<br>the vital and non-vital pulp tissue. Examples of vitality tests includes Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse<br>oximetry. Although the results are promising with these tests,in order to replace sensibility tests as the<br>standard clinical pulp diagnostic test, practical issues of pulp vitality tests need to be addressed. The aim<br>of this review is to provide the clinician a thorough knowledge and understanding of various pulp testing<br>and its indications. The results of any pulpal test has to be interpreted carefully, as false results can lead to<br>misdiagnosis and ultimately inappropriate, or unnecessary treatment.</p> Arumugam Karthick, Selvam Harish Gowtham, Dhakshinamoorthy Malarvizhi, Paramasivam Vivekanandhan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Salivary Diagnostics – A Review Article <p>Saliva is abundantly delivered within the mouth and saliva collection is a relatively easy procedure. Therefore,<br>saliva evaluation might be considered as a possible alternative to blood and/or tissue analyses, for researching<br>specific molecule associated to the presence of systemic diseases, oral diseases and malignancies. Salivary<br>diagnosis is viewed as a promising modality that can provide an early and accurate diagnosis.Saliva has<br>several advantages over serum and tissue fragments in its use as a diagnostic tool.</p> Aiswarya, V.T. Hemalatha Hemalatha Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Tongue Lesions - A Review <p>Tongue is a vital organ within the oral cavity that has varied function,and it may act as an index for the<br>underlying systemic diseases.The investigation of the tongue diseases may begin with mere clinical<br>examination .This review is to highlight the signs and symptoms of the various lesions that affects the<br>tongue and especially to talk in brief about the benign and malignant tumours that affect the tongue along<br>with other inherited and congenital abnormalities.Tongue lesions are categorized as tumours,infections,<br>reactionary,congenital,developmental,acquired,autoimmune and potentially malignant disorders for easy<br>understanding and to arrive at appropriate diagnosis.Tongue playing an important role in maintaining the<br>harmony in the oral environment,it should be treated from diseases.</p> N.Anitha, Dharini Jayachandran Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Role Oral and Maxillofacial Imaging in Upper Airway Assessment <p>Evaluation of upper airway space is a routine procedure in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.<br>The two-dimensional representation of three-dimensional structures as afforded by the radiographic image in<br>cephalometry provides limited diagnostic information. Cone Beam Computed Tomography was developed<br>with the purpose of providing a superior imaging modality in dento-maxillofacial diagnosis. Objective:<br>To review the limits, functions and anomalies of different areas that make up the upper airway, to provide<br>information about specific methods most widely used by specialists for their evaluation, and to describe and<br>evaluate the information level and diagnostic accuracy of methods such as lateral cephalometric analysis<br>and Cone Beam CT (CBCT). Conclusions: It is essential to know upper airway assessment methods, which<br>include a clinical examination, a radiographic evaluation and CBCT. These will indicate possible functional<br>changes that could interfere with treatment.</p> M. Deivanayagi, R.Saravanan, K.R. Shakila, N. Raj Vikram Vikram Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Peripheral Osteoma of the Mandible-A Case Report <p>Osteomas are benign osteogenic tumour characterised by proliferation of compact or cancellous bone. The<br>three varieties of osteoma are central variant arising from endosteum, the peripheral variant arising from<br>periosteum and the extra skeletal soft tissue osteomas arising within a muscle. Osteoma arising in facial<br>bone is a rare entity. Peripheral osteoma has been known to occur in frontal, ethmoid and maxillary sinuses<br>but not common in jaw bones. We describe here a case report of peripheral osteoma of mandible in a middleaged<br>female patient.</p> P.Venkatalakshmi Aparna, S.Leena Sankari, A.Niranjana, S.Mehazabin Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Review on Basal Implants <p>The primary indication of implant prosthesis, essentially the endosseous implants, is to replace the missing<br>tooth or teeth structure with a prosthesis that mimics the morphology of an original tooth and facilitates<br>function and aesthetics. However, the main disadvantage of this prosthesis is that it shows very less success<br>rate in the areas with less residual bone present. One of the designs to combat this problem is the use of basal<br>implant in areas of very less bone height. This review aims to elaborate the features of the basal implant<br>design</p> Vijayebenezer, Balakrishnan, Arunkummar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Advancements in Local Anaesthesia- A Review <p>Intra oral local anesthesia is perceived as a painful and an anxiety causing dental procedure. Most of the <br>researches are focused on improvement in the area of anesthetic agents, delivery devices and technique <br>involved. Newer technologies have been developed to reduce the pain of injection and adverse effects. <br>These include buffering the local anesthetic, warming the local anesthetic, applying topical anesthesia <br>before injection, reducing speed of injection using finer needles with electric delivery devices[1]. Sterile <br>local anesthesia should be used and effort should be made to reduce the speed of injection[2]. This article will <br>discuss in detail about the various advanced techniques of local anesthesia.</p> Vijay Ebenezer, Balakrishnan Ramalingam, S.S.Shanjay Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Chronic Obstructive Sleep Aponea-A Review <p>Obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnea syndrome is an important medical condition brought to limelight in the <br>last five decades. It is a major cause of morbidity and significant cause of mortality worldwide, including <br>developed and developing nations.OSA is a sleep disorder that involve cessation or significant decrease in <br>airflow in the presence of breathing effort.It is most common type of sleep disordered and is characterized <br>by recurrent episodes of upper airways collapse during sleep, usually at the level of soft palate.The golden <br>standard diagnosis is by polysomnography. Treatment includes positive continuous airway pressure, oral <br>appliance and several surgical procedureConservative procedures includes alcohol&amp; tobacco cessation, <br>weight loss.</p> Vijayebenezer, Balakrishnan, Arun Kummar.M Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Dental Implants: A Review <p>Introduction: Dentists are often faced with the tough decision of whether to prescribe prophylactic <br>antibiotics for complex oral surgeries such as dental implants. Although these decisions are generally made <br>on a case by case basis, if antibiotics were improperly prescribed, it would produce a greater difficulty in <br>treating infections.<br>Materials and Methods: Antibiotics are used to prevent infections. If a dental implant does become <br>infected, the chances of implant failure become high. While a huge number of factors can ultimately lead to <br>the failure of dental implants, most of us take extra precautions regarding infection.<br>Generally, Amoxicillin and Penicillins are prescribed as first line of treatment, due to their superior absorption <br>rate and prolonged serum levels. In today’s population, however, there is increased levels of penicillin <br>allergies. In such cases, Clindamycin is used as an alternate with excellent results. The use of antibiotics <br>in implant dentistry is controversial. While, pre-operational standard guidelines regarding antibiotics are <br>possible to form; however, post-operational will need to be based on procedural outcomes during, and after <br>completion of the operation.<br>Conclusion: The non-evidence-based practice protocol of prescribing prophylactic antibiotics raises serious <br>ethical concerns. Surgeons and general practitioners are routinely placing implants with antibiotics perhaps <br>due to the fact that they are fearful of the repercussions of implant failure. The negative impacts associated <br>with use of antibiotic therapy must be assessed in comparison to the costs and morbidity. The dental <br>professionals must be careful, to not only prescribe antibiotics only when necessary, but also work towards <br>performing implant procedures with utmost care and importance given to sterilization and a maintenance of <br>aseptic conditions before and during the procedure.</p> Vijay Ebenezer, Balakrishnan Ramalingam, Bhagyasree Nair Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Management of Avulsion of Tooth– A Review <p>“Avulsion” the word derived from Latin “avellere” which means “to tear off”. Tooth avulsion is an emergency <br>situation which requires immediate observation and management. To preserve the tooth, the dental physician <br>should have knowledge in various procedures to follow before and after replantation. The aim of this review <br>article is to highlight the different treatment modalities which can provide good prognosis of the avulsed <br>tooth.</p> Vijay Ebeneze, Bala Krishnan, A. Aarthee Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Mandibular Third Molar Impaction Vs. Inferior Alveolar Nerve – A Review <p>Impacted third molar is more likely to have inferior alveolar nerve involvement. Surgical extraction of this <br>tooth without proper evaluation of pre operative investigations can lead to neurovascular damage which will <br>lead to sensory loss in lower lip that is extremely unpleasant to the patient. This review article is to gain <br>knowledge about how to know the association of nerve injury in the surgical extraction of mandibular third <br>molar and its preservation technique</p> Vijay Ebenezer, Bala Krishnan, A. Aarthee Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Twin Block Appliance-A Review <p>Twin block appliance is mostly for correction of class II malocclusion part with mandibular skeletal retrusion. <br>This appliance uses the force of occlusion of teeth, the most natural functional mechanism to initiate bone <br>remodelling process for functional correction of malocclusion.</p> Padmavati.R, S.Muthuraman Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Silver Diamine Fluoride : A Review <p>Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a solution containing ionic silver, fluoride and ammonia that arrests the <br>progress of carious lesions and prevents the development of future caries. SDF has proven efficacy in <br>preventing the incidence of new carious lesions.Application of SDF is painless and simple to use for young <br>children or patients with special needs.</p> Amudha S, Ponnudurai Arangannal, Kashmiri Chowdhury Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Triple Antibiotic Paste in Primary Teeth- A Review <p>In primary teeth the foremost goal of endodontic treatment is to eliminate all bacterial infection by endodontic <br>instrumentation. Lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR) therapy is an unconventional endodontic <br>technique which requires less instrumentation succeeded by placement of a triple antibiotic paste on the <br>floor of the pulpal cavity. Antibacterial drugs have proven to be successful in eliminating microorganisms <br>from root canal, thereby resulting in successful endodontic treatment.</p> Aarthi J, Kaviarasu Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Outcome of Different Techniques of Gingivectomy <p>Gingival enlargementis a condition that occurs commonlyduring orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic <br>appliances are retentive factors for plaque accumulation which leads to gingival inflammation. A case of <br>gingival hyperplasia undergoing orthodontic treatment was reported &amp; treated by gingivectomy. A split <br>mouth study was done to compare the outcomes of different techniques of gingivectomy like LASER, <br>electrocautery and conventional methods.</p> Kalicheti Deepika, J.bhaskar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Operculectomy Using Electrocautery-A Case Report <p>Electrosurgery is an application of electrically generated heat energy to tissue to alter it for therapeutic <br>purposes. Electrosurgery has been used in dentistry for many purposes such as for, gingivectomy, pulpotomy, <br>frenectomy, operculectomy and hemostasis. The main advantage of the electrocautery is coagulative effect <br>that provide bloodless area and clear view of the operative field. With any device that creates thermal energy <br>to cut or ablate tissue, heat may be dissipated by diffusion into adjacent tissues (conduction), or into the <br>circulating blood.(convection) This paper highlights its application and usage in dentistry.</p> S. Sindhuja, Bagavad Gita Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Surgical Exposure and Orthodontic Positioning of An Unerupted Ndibular Canine: Case Report <p>This report describes the surgical and orthodontic management of a patient with a buccally impacted <br>permanent mandibular canine. Following surgical exposure, orthodontic traction was applied to reposition <br>the canine with resultant proper functioning, excellent esthetics, and good periodontal health.</p> S. Sindhuja, Mohan Valiathan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Clinical Acinetobacter Isolates in a Teritay Care Centre <p>Acinetobacter is an opportunistic pathogen which is associated with high fatal rate in hospitalized patients <br>due to multidrug resistance among these isolates with limited cure option. The present study was done <br>to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species in various samplesfrom both <br>inpatients and outpatients attending a tertiary care. The sensitivity patterns were analyzed from various <br>clinical specimens obtained from both in-patients and outpatients of a teaching hospital.The isolates were <br>recovered from Nutrient agar, sheep blood agar and Mac Conkey agar and then identification was done by <br>standard biochemical test, antibiogram was obtained by disc diffusion method. Acinetobacter isolates were <br>obtained more from wound sample. All the isolates were susceptible to Tigecycline and colistin.About 60-<br>80 % of isolates were resistance to third and fourth generation cephalosporins and 45-55 % of isolates were <br>resistance to carbapenem. Hence the combination of colistin and tigecycline with other antibiotics seems to <br>be the rational treatment options for treating MDR Acinetobacter isolates.</p> Bindu D, M S Nandini, Chitralekha Saikumar, T.Puhazhendi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment Changes in Hematological Parameters for Iraqi Individuals That are Working in Petrol Refineries <p>The attention has been increased to assess the hematological toxic effects of petroleum products from <br>refineries especially the volatile chemical contaminants (VCC) like benzene. Petrol pump operators <br>are workers frequently exposed to petroleum products that has been occasionally associated with large <br>incidences of hematological disorders and adverse health effects as a result of damage to the haemopoietic <br>system accompanied by depletion to the bone marrow. This study was made to evaluate the hematological <br>parameters among petrol refinery workers according to the duration of exposure. A cross sectional study <br>was done in Al Najaf -refinery for petrol. It involved 101 petrol pump operators, thirty one (31) healthy <br>male office workers who were considered as the control group and two groups of seventy (70) male petrol <br>pump operators as the study group. The samples of blood were collected from both study and control groups <br>and tested for red blood cells count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), white blood cell count (WBC), <br>packed cell volume (PCV) level and platelet count (Plt). Chronic exposure to volatile chemical contaminants <br>has a harmful effects on refinery workers with increasing the risk of developing hematological disorders due <br>to the deleterious effects on the bone marrow</p> Athraa Sami Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Frequency and Prognostic Value of ABO Blood Groups in Patients with Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, and Anemia in Local Population of Al-Najaf City/ Iraq <p>This study was designed to investigate the distribution of ABO blood types and the possible association of <br>hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and anemia diseases with ABO types. A total of 535 individuals <br>277 (51.77% males and 258 (48.22% females) were participating in the present study. Among them, 389 <br>healthy subjects (187 (48.07% males and 202 (51.92% females) as well as 146 patients 90 (61.60%) males <br>and 56 (38.40% females), 67 (37.85 % had hypertension, 51 (28.81%) had DM, 29 (16.38% had obesity <br>and 30 (16.94%) subjects had anemia, the participants were attending hospitals, clinics, and laboratories. <br>The demographic and clinical details, including ABO blood groups, blood glucose, blood pressure, blood <br>hemoglobin as well as height and weight were obtained for both groups. Data analysis was done using <br>the Chi-square test for comparing data. Based on the results, O blood type was the most common group <br>with a percentage of (43.18% and 47.26%) followed by A type (25.44% and 26.02%) then B (22.87% and <br>13.01%), and AB (8.48% and 13.69%) respectively for healthy and non-healthy individuals. Hypertension <br>and diabetes mellitus diseases were the greatest percentage (37.85% and 28.81%) respectively comparing <br>with obesity (16.38%) and anemia (16.94%). The present study indicated that individuals of blood group <br>O and A (52.48% and 23.75%, respectively) were more susceptible to diseases as compared with patients <br>of blood group B (12.70%) and AB (11.04%). Our results suggested that the relative risk for hypertensive <br>and diabetic patients was found to be higher in blood group AB (45% and 35% respectively) and lower in <br>blood group O (36.84% and 25.26% respectively); high incidence of obesity was found in type O blood <br>(24.21%) compared to other ABO types, while anemia was prone for patients with A blood group (20.93%). <br>The results showed no association between ABO blood groups with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, <br>and anemia diseases.</p> Shaimaa Jaber K., Huda A. Saleh, Rajaa A. Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Live Experiences of Mothers of Children with Disability in Karbala City a Qualitative Study <p>Holding a toddler with disabilities at domestic causes severe issues and conflicts for all circle of relatives <br>participants to exceptional levels. However, because of their stronger emotional connection, mothers are most <br>at risk from the issues of worrying for children with disabilities. The goal of the present observe changed <br>into therefore to explore the dwelling revel in of mothers of kids with disabilities in karbala. Methods: In <br>this qualitative phenomenological research, the statistical pattern consisted of mothers of children with <br>disabilities living in karbala, from which 20 topics had been selected via selective sampling and analyzed <br>the use of in-depth interviews. Sampling proceeded to the factor of facts saturation and, on the same time as <br>interview. Results: The findings of this have a look at confirmed that key issues protected dwelling reports <br>of mothers of kids with disabilities, specifically interpersonal relationships and social stories. The revel in <br>of mothers with disabilities has additionally been proven to have eight sub-issues feelings of shame, loss <br>of assets, maternal sacrifice, problem for the future, feelings of shame for different kids, isolation, lack of <br>socio-financial assist and stigmatization Conclusion: The findings of this study have proven that there are <br>numerous and varied difficulties and boundaries faced by means of mothers of kids with disabilities. The <br>burden of stress on mothers can be minimized and their resilience better by using taking an expansion of <br>steps concerning man or woman interventions and social aid.</p> Esraa Shaker Saeed, Zainab Abidzaid Al-Hadrawy, Alaq Hameed Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis in Basra Province \Iraq <p>To evaluate the intestinal parasites in (auditors) reviewers in Basra province. The present study recorded <br>(188) persons infected with Entamoeba histolytica infection ( 21.19%) , Giardia lamblia (61) cases (6.8%), <br>The highest infection with Entamoebahistolyticain May (27) cases ,Giardia lamblia in December (10) <br>cases ,The lowest infection with Entamoeba histolytica in February.( 7) cases, Giardia lamblia (2) cases in <br>August .the number infected with the parasite Entamoeba histolytica ( 100) male and 88 , 30male and 31 <br>female infected with Giardia lamblia ;17 and 19 of male and female. The highest infection with Entamoeba <br>histolytica in male (14) cases in May ,6 male infected with Giardia<br>The lowest infection with Entamoeba histolyticain male (3) cases in February, The highest infection with <br>Entamoeba histolytica in female (13) cases in May , 4 cases infected with Giardia lamblia in both September, <br>November and December The highest infection with Entamoeba histolytica (52) cases at age ( 21-30) years, <br>with Giardia lamblia ( 14) cases at age ( 11- 20) years, with Blastocystis hominis (7) cases at both age <br>( 1-5) years and (21-30) years. The lowest infection with Entamoeba histolytica (12) cases at age ( 1-5) years <br>, Giardia lamblia ( 5 ) cases at age ( 1-5) years , Blastocystis hominis (5 ) cases at both age (6- 10) years and <br>(41- 60 over) years.The study was conducted in Basra region between2nd January and31st December2019 .</p> Haydar Abdul- Jaleel Rhadi [ H A Rhadi] Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Different Types of Fat on Lipid Metabolism in Rats <p>The current study was conducted to inquiries and to determine the impact of different edible oils in <br>experimental animals. Sixty albino rats that were randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 animals. The groups <br>were fed on dietary without fat(control) (Group I), corn oil (Group II), butter fat (Group III), refined palm <br>oil(Group IV) sunflower oil (Group V) and frying fat more than one for 8 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, <br>blood was collected to measure serum lipid profile (T.C., HDL, LDL and T.G.) levels. Rats of Group A were <br>kept as control by feeding rat normal chow diet. Animals (rats) of groups B, C, D, E &amp; F where fed by corn, <br>butter, palm, sunflower and frying fat more than one oils respectively, at the dose of 15% in feed for 8 weeks. <br>The procedures included determination of body weight gain, lipid profiles and histopathological lesions in <br>different organs. All experimental rats declared advance or delay weight gain during the research period <br>relying on type of oil. GC &amp; GF oil treated group show highest significant (P&lt;0.05) body weight gain, while <br>GB, GD&amp; gE show lowest significant (P&lt;0.05, (P&lt;0.05, P&lt;0.03) Respectively than control group. Rats fed <br>on diet include butterfat and frying more than one had the increment levels of TG, TC &amp; LDL, and lower <br>the HDL level than control group. On the other hand, corn, palm, sunflower oils led to the lower levels of <br>TG, TC &amp; LDL, but the same oils or viz (corn, palm, sunflower oils ) had incremented the HDL level as <br>compare to control group.<br>However, dietary intake of vegetable oils improved lipid profile, while butterfat and frying more than one <br>had the contrary impact.</p> Mawahib B. Gasim Al-Farhaan, Azhar lateef Jabur, Hanaa S. Khadem, Mahdi M. Thuwaini Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Biochemical Importance and Kinetic Studies of Placental Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme as a Predictor Marker of Primary Malignancies <p>ung cancer is the main cause of cancer-related death worldwide and conventional diagnostic strategies <br>must be improved. developments of a simple method or techniques which would enable researchers to <br>identify and validate the early screening biomarker of lung cancer patients. <br>The aims of this article were to review the background documents on the state of the art of the scientific <br>literature in studies that used Placental alkaline phosphatase in the diagnostic of lung cancer also to suggest <br>areas where further research is needed, either to deal with gaps in the knowledge related to employ the heat <br>stability of Placental alkaline phosphatase or assessment the quantitation methods of the isoenzyme.</p> Noor Kareem Aead, Fadhil Jawad Al-Tuma, Rana Majeed Hameed3, Riyadh Abd-Alrasool Hne Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Aflatoxin B1 as a Threshold Concept of Uncertain Etiology of Chronic Kidney Diseases <p>A case control study was conducted in karbala province to investigate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure among <br>the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and healthy control. AFB1 level were measured qualitatively by <br>Thin layer chromatography and quantitatively by high-performance liquid chromatography.The assessment <br>of positive AFB1 samples were evaluated along with biomarkers of renal functions tests.<br>The results showed that the investigated population were exposed to Aflatoxins. AFB1 was detected in 100% <br>of uncertain CKD patients and 24%, 20% in certain CKD patients and healthy control respectively. The <br>concentration ranges in serum samples were 0.68 –8.33 ng/mL for uncertain CKD patients, 1.21-5.60 ng/mL <br>for certain CKD patients and 0.11- 1.30 ng/mL for healthy control. The un-certain etiology of CKD patients <br>had a significant associations of decreasing GFR and increasing the levels of urea, creatinine with positive <br>serum AFB1. This association was also highly interest with regard to potential interactions with Urea levels <br>in the control group. The measurement of the AFB1 in serum samples of CKD patients and healthy control <br>were indicated a long term exposure to the toxin which result in uncertain etiology of CKD. The effect <br>of AFB1 exposure was confirmed through the assessment of the biochemical marker of renal tests. This <br>study can be a good establish of a national AFs exposure monitoring programs. Also the study highlighted <br>the needing to identify the pathogenesis of contribution AFB1 in the increasing number of uncertain CKD <br>patients. Future study is encouraged to focus on broader areas which cover the whole of country.</p> Sada Abdullah Kareem, Rana M Hameed, Sami Abd AL-Redha, Hassanein Al-Khatt Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Intrasubject Variability in the Acute Phase Protein (Orosomucoid) Levels and their Influenced by Breast Malignancy <p>Background: The major healthcare burden is breast cancer, screening services are expensive and difficult <br>to organize, requiring major issues of administrative and quality control. however a potential biomarker that <br>could help in the screening of the disease progress might improve the available routine mode of diagnosis. <br>This study was aimed to examine the variability of Orosomucoid levels in breast cancer patients also to <br>review the background documents on the state of the art of the scientific literature in this area of work.<br>Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conduct on a breast cancer patients which were collected <br>from oncology unit , Al-Hussein teaching Hospital in Kerbala / Iraq. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent <br>Assay system (ELISA) was performed using Sandwich method to measure the concentrations of serum <br>Orosomucoid protein levels. Results: The primary stage of breast cancer was shown a wide spread range of <br>the protein levels ( 95.4- 664.5 ng/ml) compared to the metastasis stage range (59.0- 376.3 ng/ml). The effect <br>of disease duration and drug therapy also examine. Long term of duration of the disease with chemotherapy <br>and/or hormonal therapy might decrease the level of protein, but, no significant differences were found.<br>Conclusion: Since rosomucoid protein works as transporter, the protein may be used as an indication of the <br>drug response due to decreased level in patients who were taking both chemotherapy and hormone therapy. <br>Determination of serum rosomucoid protein could guide treating oncologist to have an idea to what extent <br>the patients have response.</p> Shatha Abd Al-jabbar, Rana M Hameed, Wesen Adel Mehdi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Relation between CRP and Ferritin in People Infected with COVID-19 in Al- Amariah City <p>he study aimed at the Covid-19 infection causes an increase in both the effective protein level C and the <br>level of the ferritin of blood in the early diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. In the present study that was <br>carried out in Amariah city from 15th of July to 15th of October 2020, a total of 100 people (60 infected <br>group with COVID-19 and 40 control group without Covid-19) who were admitted to AL-Amariah Hospital <br>whose ages were between 15-75 years. Patients were investigated for the detection of COVID-19 by using <br>Real-Time PCR. The current study showed that the infection with COVID-19 is affected by the age factor <br>of the patient. The highest rate of a patient with COVID-19 was within the age group &gt;50 years with a <br>highly significant relation between COVID-19 and age. The study showed that the highest rate of CRP in the <br>infected group compared with a control group with a highly significant difference. The highest rate of ferritin <br>in an infected group than the control group.</p> Arkan Abdullah Abbas, Ban Mohammed Abbas Al-Kanan, Yasser Qassim Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Efficacy of Phototherapy in the Treatment of Neonatal Jaundice <p>Phototherapy is safe and effective in the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; its efficacy has been <br>demonstrated in several studies.<br>A prospective study done on 100 cases of newborns with jaundice admitted to the pediatric ward at Tikrit <br>Teaching Hospital during January to July 2009 were selected randomly, aim to evaluate the efficacy of <br>phototherapy used in the treatment of significant indirect hyperbilirubinemia. The total serum bilirubin <br>determinations were performed on newborns with jaundice. The current study demonstrated a statistically <br>significant positive relation between the rate of TSB decrement and supplementary feeding, B.Wt. and <br>type of light ,and a statistically non-significant negative relation between the rate of TSB decrement and <br>gestational age, type of jaundice and receiving IVF. Conclusion: the efficacy of phototherapy in neonates <br>with mixed feeding more than the bottle feeding and breast feeding, also the response to phototherapy <br>in VLBW newborns was significantly slower than that of NBW and LBW. neonates under blue light <br>phototherapy showed faster response than those under white light.</p> Khalid Yas Khudhur Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Bacteriological Findings in Active Otitis Media with Perforated Tympanic Membrane <p>Background: Discharge from the ear is one of the commonest symptoms of infections of the ear. It can arise <br>in both adults and children from a number of sources, (External canal, Middle Ear, and Mastoid cavity). <br>And may have a variety of aetiologies, but the most common causes were acute, and chronic otitis media <br>with perforation of the tympanic membrane. Aim of Study: To evaluate the most common types of bacteria <br>that found in a discharging ear, and to appreciate the most appropriate antibacterial drugs acting on these <br>bacteria. Patient and Methods The present prospective study includes 200 patients presented with ear <br>discharge to the department of otolaryngology in Sulaimani Teaching Hospital from July 2008 to July 2009 <br>including age group ranging from 6m-&gt;40years from both sexes.Identification of bacteria was done by <br>colonial appearance, gram stain and biochemical tests. Results :Of 200 patients with ear discharge the <br>maximum age involved is &gt;40 years, male to female ratio 1.01:1, most of the cases were chronic otitis media <br>154 (77%), and the commonest type of discharge were mucopurulent (31%) in which the most common type <br>of pathogen was staph.epidermidis(18%). followed by klebsiella sp. (15%), and Pseudomonas.aeroginosa <br>(11%). Acute otitis media constitute about 27% of cases in which the most common type of discharge was <br>serous, and the bacteria was staph.aureus as a most common pathogen (31%), most of gram +ve bacteria are <br>strongly sensitive to amikacin and gentamycin, all types of the cultured microorganisms were sensitive to <br>ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: chronic otitis media is the most common cause of ear discharge (mucopurulent) <br>in which the most common type of microorganism is staph.epidrmidis. and (purulent) type of discharge is <br>pseudomonas.aerogenosa. while in acute otitis media the most common type of discharge is (serous) in <br>which staph aureus is the most common type.</p> Muwafaq Ahmed Salih Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Management of Congenital Duodenal Obstruction by Diamond-Shaped Duodenoduodenostomy <p>A prospective study of 20 patients with clinical diagnosis of duodenal obstruction done at pediatric surgery <br>center in AL Khanssa maternity and children Teaching Hospital in Mosul from December 2006-January <br>2010, a detailed case-record of 20 consecutive newborn patients treated for duodenal obstruction. The aims <br>of the study was to analyze our experience and to evaluate the clinical presentation, diagnosis, postoperative <br>care, and outcome in infants with duodenal obstruction.The 20 patients were classified according to <br>classification system modified from James A. O’Neill: duodenal web, atresia , annular pancreas and <br>malrotation.The presumptive diagnosis and decision regarding the need for surgery was based on clinical <br>findings and investigation of plain abdominal radiographs in all patients without the need of dye study. <br>Abdominal ultrasound examination was done for all patient to evaluate the associated renal anomalies and <br>echocardiogram was done for 15 patients because of suspicion of congenital heart disease.other laboratory <br>investigation including complete blood count, serum electrolyte, blood urea and total serum bilirubin <br>were done for all patients.the management strategy for all patients was outlined as follows: After initial <br>evaluation, a nasogastric tube (NGT) was placed for gastric decompression. The operative procedures <br>performed through supra umbilical transverse abdominal incision. The type of duodenal obstruction was <br>assessed after mobilizing the ascending and transverse colon to the left and identifying any associated <br>malrotation. Kocherization of duodenum then performed and a transpyloric tube was passed to determine if <br>a windsock abnormality was present . In duodenal atresia intraoperatively injection of saline or air into the <br>distal segment was done to rule out a second atresia. Using a single layer of interrupted suture with posterior <br>knots tied inside and anterior knots tied outside by using 5-0 or 6-0 Vicryl (polyglactin) o Polydiaxonone <br>suture(PDS) 5/0 to complete the anastamosis. The age of our patients were ranging from1day to 16 days <br>and divided in to two groups from 1 up to 7 days. The Common clinical findings in our patients were bilious <br>emesis, upper abdominal distension, failure to pass meconium . And accordingly the incidence of each <br>symptoms and signs.The available investigations in our center at any time was the plain abdominal x ray, <br>the finding in plain x-ray of abdomen was double bubble sign in 18(90%)of the patients and single gastric <br>gas shadow in 2(10%) of patient. Abdominal ultrasound examination was done for all patients locking <br>for any associated anomalies especially of the urinary tract. The finding was ectopic kidney in 1(5%) and <br>hydronephrosis in 1(5%) of our patient. Echocardiography has been performed in 15 patients , abnormal in <br>2 male babies one of them had VSD and another one had ASD. Careful examination and follow up locking <br>for associated anomalies were done and their types and percentile shows male patient have more associated <br>anomalies than female.</p> Mahmood Mosa Mahmood, Alaa Mohammed Ali Al Baazi, Athir Ahmed Kadium Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Year of Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis in the Children Welfare Teaching Hospital Ali Kadhim Al-Husseinawi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Relationship between the Effect of Severity Vertigo and Demographic Characteristic for Iraqi Patients <p>Background: Vertigo, an illusory sensation of self or environmental rotation is a common presentation to the <br>emergency department, affecting approximately 20–30% of the general population. Despite its frequency, <br>most clinicians find acute vertigo challenging. An easy way of approaching it is to have in mind the most <br>common causes and to consider them all during history taking and examination. Patients and Methods:A <br>cross-sectional study involved 150 adult participants, who complained of vertigo and attended the vertigo <br>center in Baghdad Medical City, using a 25-item Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire. During period (February – <br>June) 2020. Results of Current study showed no effect of vertigo in (17.9%) of patients in age group (20-29) <br>years. The effect of vertigo is more severe in female (3.3%) than in male (1.8%), so vertigo is more severe in <br>patients with primary education (6.5%) and Mild effect of vertigo is more in retired patients (71.0%), while <br>moderate effect of vertigo as (50.0%) in students and (35.0%) in governmental employed patients. As well <br>as vertigo is more severe in patients live in rural area, Patients who have duration of symptom less than one <br>year have no effect of vertigo in (3.8%), and severe effect in (3.8%), Also patients who currently employed <br>(9.0%) had slight or no effect of vertigo. Conclusion: There is no significant correlation found between the <br>severity of the effect of vertigo and demographic characteristic of studied individuals. The vertigo handicap <br>questionnaire may be a useful tool for screening patients, counseling, and charting treatment progress.</p> Zainab Sabah Rashid, Ban Juma Abed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Bacteriological Study of Carbapenem and Aminoglycoside Resistance in Staphylococcus Aureus Recovered from Patient in Baghdad Province <p>Background: In population- and hospital-acquired infections, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most <br>powerful causative agents. Aminoglycosides are active bactericidal drugs and are frequently used to <br>treat staphylococcal infections in conjunction with beta-lactams or glycopeptides. Staphylococcus aureus <br>is immune to carbapenems and other beta-lactams A different mechanism that can lead to carbapenem <br>resistance is the active expulsion of carbapenems from the periplasmic space after their entry, due to the <br>high distribution of these bacteria that are now immune to other antibiotics, it has become more difficult to <br>treat these drug-resistant strains. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 staph.aureus isolates were isolated <br>from different clinical samples in some public &amp; private hospitals in Baghdad city during the period from <br>November to December 2019. Bacterial identification was done using conventional cultural &amp; chemical <br>methods &amp; and VITEk 2 cards for identification (GP), while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) <br>testing was performed using disk diffusion &amp; (AST-GP30) cards in VITEK 2 automated system. Results: <br>By using disk duffusion test out of 130 of Staph.aureus isolate, 76(58.4%) were resistant to aminoglycosids <br>antibiotics (gentamicin) while 29(22.3%) were resistant to carbapenem antibiotics (imipenem) The MIC of <br>different antibiotics was performed on 26 isolates using (VITEK2AST-GP30) showed that 18(69.2%) were <br>resistant to aminoglycosids antibiotics (gentamicin) while 26(100%) were resistant to carbapenem antibiotics <br>(imipenem). Conclusion: The MIC of different antibiotics By using disk duffusion the Staph.aureus isolate <br>resistant to gentamicin 76(58.4%) and 29(22.3%) were resistant to imipenem, while, by VITEK2AST-GP30 <br>showed 18(69.2%) were resistant to gentamicin , while 26(100% were resistant to imipenem.</p> Hajir Adil Anwar, Maliha Masaoud, Ahmed Salim Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of the Adequacy of Pharmaceutical Services the Provision in Primary Health Care Centers <p>Background: Changes in the national health care system, particularly the implementation of managed care <br>and integrated health systems, promote the adoption of primary care as a means of meeting basic health care <br>needs and managing access to specialty services. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study <br>conducted at 23 randomly selected (multistage random sampling) primary health care centers in Babylon <br>governorate. Data were collected during the period starting (November 2020- January 2021). Result:This <br>study demonstrates that 47.8% of the health centers had a fair score regarding the amount of medicines <br>according to actual need, and the availability of medications according to the basic list. While there are <br>three indicators that had a full score (100%) for the presence of an administrative order for the responsible <br>pharmacist and his assistant, and writing the patient’s name and sex on the prescription. Conclusion: The <br>current study shows there are clear deficiencies in some standards (such as pharmacist assistant), and <br>furniture (such as computer).</p> Qasim Abbood Kareem, Thulfiqar Mohammed Habeeb, Ahmed Salim Hadi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Emergency Traumatic Patients, Study & Analysis in Nineveh Province in Iraq <p>Background: Trauma is the medical problems associated with physical injury. Physical injuries includ <br>thermal, chemical and ionizing radiation but mechanical injury is the most common type. The study was <br>aimed to highlight the epidemiological parameters of these cases, determine most common causes and the <br>management as well outcome for them. Patients and Methods: This was a cross section study involve <br>250 trauma cases admitted to Alsalam and Aljumhoory teaching hospitals of Nineveh province Iraq, from <br>November 2018 to April 2019. Results: Males are more affected than females, and 56 % of patients belong <br>to the age groups from 10 to 39 years, we found that Slips and falls (or same level falls) are the most common <br>mechanism of injury specially among elderly people, while bullet and blast injuries form a small percentage <br>of injuries with 4% &amp; 1.6% respectively. Limb injury is the most common type of injury, followed by head <br>injuries. Most of these injuries were treated conservatively but about quarter of them require surgery, while <br>abdominal injuries which represent about 5.6% of all injuries, were treated by surgery with exception of <br>21.4% treated conservatively. Conclusion: Young males are more exposed to trauma. Limb injury is the <br>most common type of injury while head injury is the commonest cause of death. Conservative treatment is <br>the most used strategy. Bowel is the most intra-abdominal organ affected</p> Mohammed Salih Abdullah Ali, Zainab Saud Abdulaziz, Sara Raad Lahoob, Azzawi M Hadi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Zinc and Nano Zinc Supplementation on Serum Testosterone and Testicular Histology in Male Rats <p>Background : Infertility is a universal medical problem, 50% was contributed to male factors. Zinc is <br>an important elements for all living cells and it is one of the most important trace elements in our bodies. <br>Nanoparticles, are mall particles, that have a large surface area if compared to their size, this small size, help <br>them to enter into living cells easily. This makes them an essential participant in all biological interactions <br>and their modern applications. The aim was to evaluate the effects of Zinc and Nano zinc on male gonads <br>histology and function. Methods: A double blind case control study, designed to test the effects of Zinc oxide <br>and Nano zinc oxide on 20 rats that were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. Control, Zinc, Nano zinc, <br>and hybrid (zinc and Nano zinc) group. The dose was 0.11mg/kg. Results: There was significant change in <br>in serum Zinc and testosterone, more in ZnNPs containing groups. While the histological picture of testis <br>ameliorated in zinc arm, but worsen in ZnNPs arm of experiment. These results lead to the Conclusion that <br>Nano zinc though improve S. testosterone, it can damage the testicular tissues in certain doses.</p> Adil A. Mustafa, Khalaf N Ahmed, Tamathir A Hamoudi, Azzawi M Hadi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Knowledge and Attitude of Paramedical Staff Towards COVID-19 Vaccine in Babylon City <p>Background: Several vaccines against coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been licensed and are being <br>distributed globally in various regions. The general population’s knowledge, and attitudes of COVID-19 <br>vaccinations, on the other hand, are poorly understood. Subjects and Methods: This study is a descriptive; <br>cross sectional study conducted at 4 hospitals and primary health care sectors in Babylon City. The Data <br>were collected by direct interview with the paramedical staff by the researcher, by using a self-reporting <br>questionnaire form. Results: The current study showed that the highest proportion of paramedical staff, 28% <br>in Imam Al-Sadiq Hospital. The mean ± SD of their ages was 36.3±15.7 years, the age range at the time of <br>study was between (19-59) years. The study found that 50.25% of participants were single and for Job title, <br>distribution of Medical assistant constitutes were 40% of participants. Conclusions: We conclude that most <br>paramedical staff had good scores for knowledge and attitude towards Covid-19 vaccine, despite found poor <br>scores for some participants.</p> Noor Abdulwahid Abbood, Sally Alaa Kareem Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of an Education Program on Nurses’ Practices toward Some Sterilization Techniques at Emergency Department in Al-Diwaniya Teaching Hospital <p>Sterilization procedures is an essential clinical competency in health care to minimize visibility of hospital <br>staff, guests, patients, and their visitors, follow both of these grooming instructions. incorporate infectious <br>control and outbreak detection techniques across all healthcare systems Since one of the main factors for <br>medical services is the prevention of infectious infections, the health care team must consider infection <br>management and infection control as well. in order to deter the transmission of microorganisms, process <br>involves all hands-use, safety clothing (gowns, masks), and adequate waste disposal.<br>the aim of this research is to evaluate nursing’s sterilization techniques. The preliminary pre-experimental <br>architecture was put in place in place in Al-Dani Teaching Hospital for the duration of the timeframe from <br>(17 September, 2020 to 16 March, 2021) on non-probability sampling of 30 Emergency department staff.<br>The analysis showed major changes in the application of sterile domains from before the evaluation <br>(pvalue=0.0001). The researcher found that emergency department nurses did not use appropriate <br>sterilization techniques prior to the introduction of an instructional curriculum, yet after the application, <br>they demonstrated high quality toward the use of sterilization techniques Facilities and medical equipment <br>are urged to develop their awareness and sterilization procedures in the ED; it also, emergency nurses with <br>additional experience are invited to join</p> Wissam Mohammed Kareem, Sabah Abbas Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of An Educational Program on Mother’s Knowledge toward their Children with Sickle Cell Anemia about Non-Pharmacological Approaches to Pain Management in Basra Center for Hereditary Blood Diseases <p>Background: Sickle cell anemia is a chronic disease and a blood disorder that induces cellular modification <br>to the sickle-shaped form of defective hemoglobin in red blood cells. It is the most common genetic blood <br>disease in the world. For people with sickle cell disease, it is important to explore non pharmacological <br>treatments and use them as alternatives to drug treatments to relieve and treat acute and chronic pain. <br>Methodology: A descriptive (quasi experimental) design. This study used a pretest, posttest I and posttest II <br>with a design that is used is the one group. A non- probability sample of (30) mother was chose. <br>Result: The findings of the study indicated that there was high significant difference among mother’s <br>knowledge pretest and posttest I and posttest II at p-value =0.001. That indicates the effectiveness of <br>educational program.<br>Conclusion: The study concluded that there was no significant relationship between (age of mother, marital <br>status, and Number of Pain Crises per Month) with mother’s knowledge also significance relationship <br>between (level of education,) with mother’s knowledge. <br>Recommendation: Frequent lectures and such educational program about non pharmacological to pain <br>management should be implemented in Basra center for hereditary blood disease. Provide an educational <br>booklet for mother includes information about sickle cell anemia and non-pharmacological to pain <br>management. Real need for coordination with the media in order to increase mothers’ knowledge about non <br>pharmacological to pain management.</p> Aula Ibrahim Abd-Alrazzaq, Afifa Radha Aziz Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of an Education Program on Nurses Knowledge toward Care of Chest Tube in Children at Pediatric Teaching Hospital Baghdad City <p>Study background: A chest tube is a drain that is inserted into the pleural cavity space to extract air, fluid, <br>or blood to restore negative pressure to the pleural space, re-expand a partially collapsed lungs, and prevent <br>reflux or leakage back into the chest. Since the pleural cavity’s .<br>Methodology :The study was designed as quiz-experiment design using test retest approach for study groups <br>.The sample (30) nurses enrolled as a control group and (30) nurses enrolled as a study group participants <br>were exposed to an educational program pre test1, post test1 post test 2 .<br>Results: The results of the study indicate that there are differences with the high test between the previous <br>and post-test in the experimental group (the study group) in the main general axes with nursing knowledge <br>care chest Table (4-2-2) shows summary statistics concerning nurses’ knowledge of the chest tube related <br>to formed questionnaire’s items along (Pre, Post1, and Post2) studied periods due to applying a proposed <br>of an educational program for the study group the table shows the assessments Intervals scoring scales of <br>relative Sufficiency Coefficient (RS%): [L: Low (0.00 – 33.33)]; [M: Moderate (33.34 – 66.66)]; [H: High <br>(66.67 – 100)]. The results of controlled group has recorded marginal immovable responses over the three <br>periods of times with low levels or moderate but all of studied items illustrated too highly and meaningful <br>changeability with highly levels of evaluations along (pre-post2) periods.<br>Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between the pre-test and post test result of educational <br>program also significant nurses’ response concerning nursing knowledge chest tube care.<br>Recommendations: The nurses’ are provided with suitable training to participate in the program and receive <br>information on the best way to encourage communities they serve to get chest tube care in children</p> Hassan Ali Jabar, Afifa Radha Aziz Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>B</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Role of Short Term Open Eye Orthok Lens Wear in Inducing Myopia Control Changes in Eyes with Moderate Myopia <p>Purpose: To assess peripheral refraction, corneal, and visual acuity changes after open eye use of <br>orthokeratology (OrthoK) contact lenses. <br>Methodology: OrthoK contact lenses were worn on separate occasions for half an hour and 2 hours in <br>open eye condition. The peripheral refraction (PR) changes were assessed monocularly up to 30° nasally <br>and temporally in the horizontal visual field using the open field autorefractometer. Average corneal power <br>(ACP), central corneal thickness (CCT), and visual acuity (VA) was recorded using corneal topographer, <br>specular microscope, and LogMAR chart respectively. <br>Results: Mean baseline PR at 25° and beyond both nasally and temporally was -0.54 ± 1.68D (mean ± SD) <br>which increased to mean -1.29 ± 1.43D (p &lt; 0.01) post half an hour of lens wear and further increased to <br>mean -1.62 ± 1.53D (p &lt; 0.01) after 2 hours lens wear. The mean baseline ACP was 43.45 ± 1.34D that <br>reduced to mean 43.11 ± 1.37D (p &lt; 0.01) after half an hour of lens wear and a further reduction to mean <br>42.73 ± 1.34D (p &lt; 0.01) 2 hours post lens wear. Mean CCT changes after half an hour lens wear were <br>not significant but it reduced by mean 14.92 ± 4.68 µm (p &lt; 0.01) 2 hours post lens wear as compared to <br>baseline. The unaided VA improved from mean 0.85 + 0.37 log at baseline to mean 0.49 + 0.35 log (p &lt; <br>0.01) after half an hour of lens wear and mean 0.39 + 0.35 log (p &lt; 0.01) after 2 hours of OrthoK lens wear. <br>Conclusion: Rapid corneal and peripheral refraction shifts are seen after half an hour of open-eye wear of <br>the OrthoK lens with a gradual rise in impact for 2 hours of lens wear.</p> Kulkarni Pancham1, Bandamwar Kalika Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Gender Stratified Physical and Psychological Health Status and Its’ Correlation among Community-Dwelling Older Adults <p>Background: Maintenance of physical and psychological health is crucial to prevent general health problems <br>in older persons. There is inadequate information on gender based physical and psychological health status <br>in older adults attending primary care clinics in Malaysia. <br>Study Design: Cross-sectional study <br>Methods: 106 participants were required to perform physical performance tests consisting of 30secs chair <br>stand (30sCS), chair sit and reach (CSR), back scratch (BS), timed up and go (TUG), single leg stance (SLS) <br>and 2minutes walk (2MWT) tests. Psychological health measures consisted of Satisfaction with Life Scale <br>(SWLS) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). <br>Results: Only CSR was found to be significantly higher in men (M= 1.27, SD= 3.1) compared to women <br>(M= -0.88, SD= 3.67). A significant correlation (p&lt;0.05) was found only in men between GHQ-28 and 30 <br>seconds sit to stand test (r= -0.424), TUG (r= 0.361) and 2 Minute walk test (r= -0.436). <br>Conclusion: Older males and females had similar physical and psychological measures except for lower <br>limb flexibility which was greater in females. Lower physical performance (lower body strength, mobility <br>and endurance) correlated with higher psychological issues in older males. There may be a need to consider <br>distinct physical and psychological needs between genders in order to provide optimum health prevention <br>and management stategies among older adults.</p> Rajwinder Kaur Hardev Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh, Norhamizah Ideris, Ponnusamy Subramaniam, Sheela Bai Paneer Selvam Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Immediate Effectiveness of Planned Teaching on Knowledge and Practice Regarding Household Waste Management among the Rural Community People <p>Background: The generation of the waste and collection, processing, transport and disposal of waste -the<br>process of ‘waste management’ - is important for both health’s of the public and aesthetic and environmental<br>reasons. The study uncontrolled hazards waste from the industry after mixing with municipal waste create<br>potential risk to human health. Objectives: 1. To assess the knowledge and practice regarding household waste<br>management among the rural community 2. To Assess Effectiveness of Planned Teaching on Knowledge and<br>Practice Regarding Household Waste Management among the Rural Community People in Selected Area of<br>Wardha District. 3. To correlate the study finding with demographic variable. Materials and Methods: This<br>study was based on one group pre-test post-test experimental research study. The population was the rural<br>community people from Sawangi and Salod in the Wardha district. The subject consisted of 50 community<br>people of 18-50 years of age in the selected rural community of Wardha district. Results: The minimum<br>score in the posttest was 13 and the maximum score was 18, the mean score for the posttest was 16.04±1.10<br>with a mean percentage score of 89.11±6.14. The tabulated value for n=50-1 i.e. 49 degrees of freedom was<br>2.00. The calculated ‘t’ value is much higher than the tabulated value at 5% level of significance for overall<br>knowledge score of community people which is a statistically acceptable level of significance.</p> Nilima Rakshale, Pratibha Wankhede, Charlotte Paul, Ashwini Gardhane, Sanjay Deshpande, Swarupa Chakole Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Socio-Demographic and Health Related Problems of Construction Workers Indulge in Building Industry in Central India <p>Introduction: Industrialization plays an important role for development of the country. Building construction<br>is one of the basic needs for overall developments. In India, Modernization, Industrialization and land<br>development are growing at high speed in most of the cities. Aims: assessment of socio-demographic and<br>health related problems of construction workers indulge in building industry in central india. Material<br>&amp; Method: This cross-sectional type of analytical study was carried out by Department of Community<br>Medicine, Datta Meghe Medical College, Wanadongri, Nagpur. After approval from Institutional Ethics<br>Committee and concerned authorities at construction sites, the study was conducted on the workers employed<br>at construction sites in Wanadongri, Nagpur. Results: Socio-demographic Profile: Data was collected from<br>all 147 workers by interviewing them about various socio demographic and workplace factors. Out of 147<br>workers, majority i.e. 79 (53.74%) of workers belongs to 30-45 years age group, followed by 47 (31.97%)<br>of 15-30 years age group and rest i.e. 21 (14.29%) were more than 45 years. Morbidity Profile (Health<br>Problems): Morbidity profile revealed the average health problems workers were suffering from in past and<br>present. Musculoskeletal problems were most common health problem found most frequently (53.06%)<br>in workers. Conclusion: Study shows that working in construction place exposed the workers to various<br>factors that if not properly care, may adversely affect their health causing them losses in term of physical<br>injuries, financial constrain and socio-personally relations.</p> Patil Sachin, Makade Jagadish, Deshpande Sanjay, Swarupa Chakole Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Management Modalities and their Outcome in Patients of Acute Pancreatitis: A Cross Sectional Study <p>Background: Acute pancreatitis is a potentially serious condition with wide variation in severity ranging<br>from mild and self-limiting to a rapidly progressive illness leading to multi-organ failure.<br>Aim and Objective: To study early enteral feeding and their outcome in patients of acute pancreatitis.<br>Methodology: Present study was a prospective study carried out in 60 patients out of 50 were male (83.3<br>%) and 10 female (16.6 %) admitted as acute pancreatitis in the department of surgery, Shalinitai Meghe<br>hospital and Research centre, Datta Meghe Medical College, Nagpur. A thorough history was taken and<br>detailed clinical examination was conducted of all the patients on admission. All the patients were subjected<br>to biochemical and Radiological investigations. Radiological investigations like X-Ray chest abdomen and<br>Ultrasonography were carried out initially in all the patients. CT Abdomen performed as per requirement.<br>Severity of disease was accessed on admission on the basis of BISAP scoring system. Conservative<br>management was instituted with early enteral feeding for all patients. All patients who recovered were<br>discharged and followed up on outpatient basis. Data was analyzed with appropriate statistical tests.<br>Results: All the patients were initially managed conservatively with early enteral feeding. Type of feeding<br>was according to the severity of the illness. Oral in mild / moderate pancreatitis and nasogastric feeding<br>in severe pancreatitis. Mild and moderate variety tolerated enteral feeding well thus need for intravenous<br>infusion was obviated. Out of these, 1 patient (1.7 %) required interventional management due to acute<br>necrotizing pancreatitis. This patient later required intravenous infusion and TPN in view of progressive<br>clinical deterioration due to necrotizing pancreatitis. The management of complications was essentially<br>conservative. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis has a mortality of 100 % even with aggressive management.<br>The overall mortality rate in our study was 1.7% .<br>Conclusion: Conservative management is the mainstay of treatment in acute pancreatitis. Early enteral<br>feeding obviates the need for intravenous infusion in mild and moderate pancreatitis and in selected cases<br>of severe acute pancreatitis. Early enteral feeding has advantages over Parenteral nutrition and reduces<br>mortality, infectious complications, preventing malnutrition, reduction in length of hospital stay. Early<br>detection and aggressive management of in acute severe pancreatitis can prevent its progression to acute<br>necrotizing pancreatitis and its complications.</p> Anil Akulwar, Ajonish Kamble, Chandrasekhar Mahakalkar, Dhruba Hari Chandi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Prospective Study of Use of Modified Triple Test (MTT) in Diagnosing Breast Mass <p>Breast cancer is one of the most common cause of cancer related mortality and morbidity worldwide. A <br>palpable breast mass in young women is a common cause of anxiety. It is indeed a frightful experience <br>for the patient to directly undergo an invasive procedure like biopsy of breast mass. Hence the need for <br>such diagnostic tool which is noninvasive or minimally invasive, quick, reliable, and also cost effective. <br>Hence this study was undertaken to study the use of modified triple test (MTT) in the diagnosis of palpable <br>breast mass. Methodology- The study was a prospective study done in the department of General Surgery <br>in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Central India from January 2020 to December 2020. A total of 150 <br>patients who presented with palpable breast mass were included. All the patients were investigated at <br>first by sonomammography then FNAC. Either core biopsy or excisional biopsy of breast mass was done <br>in all the cases. Findings were recorded and data analysis was done. Breast mass histopathology (HPE) <br>report was considered to be gold standard and all the results were compared with HPE of the same breast <br>mass. Observation and results: Out of total 150 patients studied, 148 were females and 2 were males. The <br>sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MTT is comparable with histopathology of the same breast mass. <br>Conclusion: MTT is alone a reliable investigation for diagnosing palpable breast mass and biopsy of breast <br>mass should be reserved only for doubtful cases.</p> Anil Akulwar, Avinash Rinait, chandrasekhar Mahakalkar, Dhruba Hari Chandi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Brachiobasalic Versus Brachiocephalic Arteriovenous Fistula for Vascular Access during Hemodialysis: A Review <p>Introduction: A functional vascular access site is the lifeline for patients with end stage kidney disease that <br>require chronic hemodialysis. The ground-breaking article by Brescia and Cimino in 1966 revolutionized <br>the creation of the vascular access, and the Cimino fistula was soon used in almost all dialysis patients. <br>Arteriovenous Fistula is an autologous arteriovenous access created by a connection of a vein to an artery <br>where the vein serves as the accessible conduit. The vascular access can be created using Radial artery or <br>Brachial artery. Common locations include the forearm (radiocephalic) and upper arm (brachiocephalic and <br>brachiobasilic). Other less common combinations may exist, such as the ulnar-basilic fistula. When less <br>commonly created vascular access are studied, a clear description of their surgical anastomosis is suggested. <br>Aim: to review Brachiobasalic Versus Brachiocephalic Arteriovenous Fistula for Vascular Access during <br>Hemodialysis. Conclusions: Most of the studies have measured the outcomes in terms of Time-dependent <br>patency, Anatomic patency, Vascular Access Maturation and Complications related to surgical Procedures <br>and Cannulation.</p> Chandrashekhar C Mahakalkar, Suhas N Jajoo, Suhas N Jajoo, Meghali N Kaple, Shivani Kshirsagar, Melisa Philip, Vaibhav Thorat Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Comparative Analysis between Laparoscopic and Open Cholecystectomy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Patients with Acute Cholecystitis <p>Background: Acute cholecystitis is clinically characterized as an episode of acute biliary pain; fever and <br>right hypochondrial tenderness with symptoms persistence exceeding 24 hours. <br>Aims &amp; Objectives: We compared and analyzed open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the current <br>study on the basis of the duration of the operation, intra and postoperative complications and the length of <br>hospital stay &amp; return to work.<br>Material and Methods: This was a prospective comparative, randomized hospital-based study performed <br>in patients of 20 - 80 years of age with acute cholecystitis in the Department of General Surgery from July <br>2019 to January 2021 at SMH&amp;RC, Datta Meghe Medical College Nagpur. Patients were divided randomly <br>into two classes as Open cholecystectomy (60 patients) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (60 patients). The <br>key assessed outcome was death, peri-operative &amp; post-operative complications; length of hospital stay and <br>wound infection, return to work. The gathered data was statistically analyzed. <br>Results: In both categories, the most common age group was 40-59 years old. The female population (78%) <br>was greater than the male population (22 percent). 1: 3.6 was the male to female ratio. The mean time <br>needed for open cholecystectomy was 53.18 ± 12.74 minutes, while 38.37 ± 6.21 minutes for laparoscopic <br>cholecystectomy, and the difference was statistically important. 2 (3.3 percent) laparoscopic procedures <br>involved conversion to open surgery due to difficult dissection, bleeding &amp; blurred vision. In terms of postoperative pain (VAS &gt; 4), hospital stay period and return to work, laparoscopic cholecystectomy had better <br>outcomes than open cholecystectomy and the difference was statistically important. In Open Cholecystectomy <br>patients, wound infection, post-operative paralytic ileus was substantially greater. There were 2 patients with <br>wound dehiscence from open cholecystectomy. No significant morbidity or any mortality during the study <br>period was reported.<br>Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy provides decisive advantages over open cholecystectomy in <br>acute cholecystitis (e.g. shorter time of surgery, fewer post-operative complications, less paralytic ileus, less <br>analgesic use, early discharge and mobilization).</p> A V Akulwar, Ajonish Kamble, Neha Bhatt, chandrasekhar Mahakalkar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Review of Concept of Agni in Ayurveda <p>The term Agni is used in the sense of digestion of food and metabolic products. So it is the great source of <br>energy in universe as well as in the body. Ingested food is to be digested, absorbed and assimilated, <br>which is essential for the maintenance of life and is performed by Agni in Ayurveda. Agni converts food <br>in the form of energy, which is responsible for all vital function of the body. About the importance of <br>Agni, Acharya Charaka has mentioned that the individual dies after stoppage of the function of Agni, <br>and when the Agni of an individual is in equilibrium state, then person is healthy and would lead a long, <br>happy and enjoying disease free life. But, if the Agni of a person gets disturbed by any means, the whole <br>metabolism would be disturbed, resulting in ill health. Hence, Agni is said to be the base (mool) of life. <br>Out of thirteen types of Agni, viz,- one Jatharagni, seven Dhatwagnis and five Bhutagnis, Jatharagni is the <br>leading one controlling all other kinds through its power.</p> Namrata Chouragade, Bharat Chouragade, Anita Wanjari, Sanika Kalambe, Roshan Jha Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Case Report on Bilateral Retinoblastoma in Older Children <p>Retinoblastoma is a rare intraocular malignant tumour more commonly seen in children below five years <br>of age. We presented a rare case of retinoblastoma in a 7 year old child who came to the ophthalmology <br>OPD with complaints of loss of vision in both eye and deviation in right eye. Fundus examination showed <br>multiple floating cotton ball opacities in vitreous cavity. B-scan was suggestive of Group E retinoblastoma in <br>right eye and Group D retinoblastoma in left eye. To conclude, any unexplained visual loss in children of any <br>age should be examined extensively by an ophthalmologist, as the risk of retinoblastoma cannot be ruled out.</p> Chetan Saoji, Sonal Muley, Ekanksha Kanfade, Sachin Daigavhane Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study of Biochemical Parameters Mothers and Neonates in Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Vitamin D Level in Vidharbha Region <p>Introduction: Vitamin D is a nutrient that is needed for bone growth and processing. Vitamin D and <br>calcium are extremely important during certain stages of life, such as the baby’s development, childhood, <br>childhood and adolescence, breastfeeding, lactation, and old age. Vitamin D and calcium deficiency have <br>severe implications at this time. Aim: Study Of Biochemical Parameters Mothers And Neonates In Cigarette <br>Smoke Exposure On Vitamin D Level In Vidharbha Region Material and Methods: Both pregnant nonsmoker women who were referred to Shalinitai Meghe hospital and Research center Consequently, <br>Nagpur was hired for distribution on the basis of their reports; 54 subjects were exposed to tobacco <br>smoke and 54 subjects were not exposed. Result: Status and metabolic parameters of maternal vitamin <br>D With no important difference in both the uncovered and exposed categories, we find a low level of 25 vit <br>(D) (OH) (depending on the level of urinary cotinine). (&gt; 0.0113 p total) (8.71 4.33 ng / ml vs. 11.02 4.96 ng <br>/ ml).(See Table 1) Based on self-reported exposure, maternal serum calcium levels were lower in exposed <br>populations than in untreated sub-jects (p = 0.001). There was a substantial variation between the groups in <br>serum phosphorus levels. Based on independent expression, alkaline phosphatase levels in the articulated <br>group were found to be higher than in the other group (p = 0.0129).Conclusion : The findings showed that <br>second hand smoke consumption had a detrimental effect on pregnant women. In songs and babies, serum <br>vitamin D levels were not substantially different between the two classes, but were lower in exposed persons.</p> Gangaram Bhadarge, Prajakta Warjukar, Pratibha Dawande, Roshan Kumar Jha Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Review- Learning and Memory activity of Brahmyadi Ghrita <p>Brahmyadi Ghrita (BG) is one of the formulations recommended in Ashtangahridya Balrogadhikara as <br>medhya &amp; Smritivardhak. It contains 8 ingredients Brahmi, Kushta, Sariva, Pippali, Vacha, Sidhartaka, <br>Goghrita, Saindhav. These are mainly having Medhya, Rasayana, Krimihara, Shodhana, Hridya, Dipana, <br>Pachana properties. In totality ingredient possess Tikta, Katu Rasa, Ushna Virya, Katu Vipaka. Due to these <br>properties it acts as Kaphavatahar and by clearing ‘Srotorodh’ it makes the way for the action of Medhya <br>drugs on target cells</p> Santosh Suryakant Pusadkar, Bharat Rathi, Kaustubh Bhoyar, Sunil G. Topre, Sanika Kalambe, Roshan Jha Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study of Pap Smear as Cervical Cancer Screening: A Prospective Study at a Periurban Tertiary Care Centre <p>Background: Cancer cervix is fourth most common cancer in the world and second most common in India. <br>In India, cervical cancer is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity amongst women. Methodology:<br>This prospective study was conducted among 200 women undergoing Pap Smear Test at gynecology OPD <br>between January-June 2020. Pap smear test was classified as per Bethesda system. Result: Abnormal pap <br>smear report was seen among 25.5% women. Higher proportion of abnormal pap report was seen among <br>women aged 21-30 years (41.17%), with a duration of married life between 10-20 years 33.3%. The common <br>abnormal pap smear report finding were inflammatory changes and vaginosis. Epithelial cell abnormalities <br>were found among 18 (9%) women. Conclusion: Pap smear test is a simple, affordable, effective, and <br>practical screening test for early detection of cervical cancer, and it decreases morbidities and mortalities <br>due to cervical cancer.</p> Priya Pratapan (Nair), Mugdha Jungari, Mrunal Nakade, Kiran Borkar, Saunitra A. Inamdar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Outcome Analysis of Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Osteoporotic Compression Fractures <p>Introduction: Osteoporotic compression fracture of vertebra are very commonly occurring with increasing <br>age. Pain and deformity are most common features. Vertebral augmentation procedures like percutaneous <br>vertebroplasty is a common surgical modality used for osteoporotic compression fractures. Materials and <br>Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 36 patients of vertebral compression <br>fracture that underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty in Datta Meghe Medical College in association with <br>Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College. A thorough clinical assessment including physical, neurological, and <br>systemic examination was carried out before taking up patients for percutaneous vertebroplasty. Bony <br>Tenderness at fracture site was examined. Results: This study was conducted in 36 patients of vertebral <br>compression fractures at our institute from January 2019 to January 2020. In our study, out of 36 patients, <br>24 (66.6%) were females and 18 (33.3%) were males. The mean age was 56.5 ± 6.2 SD years. D12 vertebral <br>fracture was most commonly involved vertebra. The VAS score was used to assess pre and post procedure <br>improvement. The mean pre-operative score 7.4 ± 1.1 SD which reduced to 2.2 ± 0.8 SD at 1 month followup and 2.1 ± 0.5 SD at 1 year follow up. There was significant reduction in pain score post operatively when <br>compared with pre-operative scoring (p value &lt; 0.01). Conclusion: On the basis of this study, we concluded <br>that vertebroplasty is a safe, cost-effective, and pain relieving treatment option available for geriatric patient <br>with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures which are not relieved by conservative management.</p> Suvarn Gupta, Tejas Sadavarte, Shraddha Singhania, Vasant Gawande Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Efficacy of Various Final Irrigant Activation Procedures on Smear Layer Removal - A SEM Study <p>Background: This in vitro study was intended to compare the removing efficacy of smear layer of the <br>EndoVac , EDDY tip, XP - endo Finisher and conventional needle irrigation in palatal roots of extracted <br>maxillary first molars, at the apical, middle and coronal levels by using scanning electron microscopy. <br>Material and Method: The palatal roots of sixty recently extracted maxillary first molars were selected <br>and divided into four groups (n=15) according to final irrigation agitation systems; EndoVac irrigation <br>system,Eddy tip, XP - endo Finisher and conventional needle irrigation. Each root was prepared to 40/0.06 <br>apical size with EDGEENDO X3 rotary files. Following splitting the root samples, single half of each <br>sample was selected for examination under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The comparisons among <br>irrigation activation devices were done using the Kruskal Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test at 0.05 <br>significance level. <br>Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, no one of the tested systems can remove the smear <br>layer completely. However, EndoVac system , Eddy tip and XP - endo Finisher remove significantly more <br>smear layer than conventional needle irrigation at the apical third but there was no significant difference at <br>middle and coronal thirds.</p> Amjed Majeed Khalaf, Biland M.S. Shukri Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Impact of Pregnant Women’s Depression State upon their Pregnancy Outcomes at Maternity Hospitals in Baghdad City <p>Objective: To assess the impact of pregnant women’s depression state upon their pregnancy outcome <br>Methodology: A descriptive purposive study was used to assess the impact of pregnant women’s depression <br>state on their pregnancy outcomes. The study was conducted from (22nd \ September \ 2020 to 15th \ February <br>\ 2021). A non-probability sample (purposive sample) was selected from 100 women. Data were collected <br>through an interview with the mother in the counseling clinic, during the third trimester of pregnancy, as <br>well as after childbirth in the labour wards to assess the outcome of pregnancy. Data were analyzed through <br>descriptive statistics (frequency and percentages).<br>Results: The most important thing observed in this study was the negative pregnancy outcome for women <br>suffering from depression during pregnancy. Low birth weight (31%), premature labor (22%), stillbirth <br>(2%), intrauterine growth restriction (1%)<br>Recommendations: The study recommends according to the results. We suggest that health care providers <br>pay attention to the mental state of pregnant women. Providing training and scheduling support during <br>pregnancy for mothers in order to identify risk factors and achieve skills and knowledge to support mothers, <br>as well as providing a soothing atmosphere to ensure a peaceful environment for pregnant women.</p> Raghad Z. Dosar, Najmah M. Meran Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Case of Multiple Mandibular Molar Extractions for a Hemophilia a Patient <p>Hemophilia A is a genetic coagulation disorder associated with a deficiency of clotting factor VIII. <br>It can be inherited or acquired and have different levels of severity. The present case report describes a <br>Libyan male patient with Factor VIII deficiency who underwent multiple remaining roots extraction.<br>The patient was a 26-year-old Libyan male with history of hemophilia A of mild type. The patient underwent <br>blood tests and imaging to assess the severity of hemophilia and the condition of the surgical area. The blood <br>examination revealed normal Bilirubin level (0.6), low levels of, RBC (4.55), HGB (10.9), PT (17.7) and <br>slight changes in platelet count and Factor VIII level. <br>The treatment plan for the day of surgery was accordingly, the patient was administered Factor VIII 24 hours <br>before the day of surgery. The patient underwent the multiple roots extraction of lower left first and second <br>molar under local anesthesia using 2% Lidocaine with 1:80, 000 Adrenaline. The Injection technique was <br>regional nerve block (inferior alveolar, Lingual, and long buccal nerve block).<br>After extraction, direct pressure on the area using a damp gauze swab, maintained for at least 30 min, a <br>hemostat and multiple thread suture were applied. One hour after surgical removal of the roots again the <br>patient administered Factor VIII.<br>There was no subsequent bleeding or complications at follow-up in the first three days. In the fourth day <br>there was moderate bleeding at the extraction sockets continued for a day. At fifth day the patient was <br>admitted at the Sebha Medical Centre. The bleeding stopped after 24 hours. <br>Treatment plan in the Medical Centre was administration of factor FVIII, tranexamic acid 500 mg three <br>times a day and vitamin K once a day. All injections were given intravenously. Then the patient discharged <br>from the Centre in the sixth day after bleeding controlled. The wound had healed completely without <br>abnormalities.</p> Aesa Alzaroug Jaber, Alshame M. J. Alshame, Prabhu Manickam Natarajan, Asok Mathew Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Gigantomastia Bilateral Induced Efavirenz: A Case Report <p>The prognosis of HIV-infection has improved dramatically since the introduction of Highly Active <br>Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). With the need for a lifelong treatment, the longterm side effect of <br>antiretroviral agents is an emergent issue of concern. Gigantomastia is a rare condition characterized by <br>excessive breast growth. It may occur spontaneously, during puberty or pregnancy, or while taking certain <br>medications. HAART medications which probably associated with gigantomastia is efavirenz. A 25-yearold woman with HIV-infection who developed bilateral gigantomastia while receiving efavirenz-based <br>HAART regimens. The diagnosis was made after other possible causes of disease-induced gigantomastia <br>were exclude and confirmed by mammography. Surgical treatment has been considered after failure of <br>medical treatment. Although it is rare, physicians should be aware so that a timely diagnosis can be made. <br>In most cases, only conservative treatment is sufficient, but in severe cases surgical intervention might be <br>required.</p> Amos Pongbulaan, Erwin Astha Triyono Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessing the Preparedness for Emergency Management of Status Asthmaticus in Pediatric Patients’ among EMS Professionals, Pune, India <p>Background: Asthma is one of the most common diseases affecting children. Children affected by Asthma <br>need recurrent hospitalization and show high degree of absenteeism in schools due to exacerbations. It is <br>characterized as a state of hyper responsiveness triggered by allergens such as pollens, foods, dust mites and <br>animal dander which irritate and cause bronchoconstriction. EMS professionals shoulder great responsibility <br>in pediatric respiratory emergencies as their actions determine the long term quality of life of these children<br>Aim: The present study is aimed at assessing the preparedness with regards to management of Status <br>Asthmaticus amongst EMS professionals in Pune, India.<br>Methodology: The study was conducted amongst 189 Emergency medical Services professionals residing <br>in Pune India. A pretested and validated questionnaire was utilized for the study. The questionnaire consisted <br>of 21 items meant to assess the knowledge and skills with regards to Emergency Management of Status <br>Asthmaticus amongst EMS professionals. Each correct answer was given a score of one with maximum <br>score of 21. The questionnaire was administered online.<br>Result: EMS professionals showed average level of preparedness with reference to management of Status <br>Asthmaticus. <br>Conclusion: EMS professionals need periodic training to improve their level of knowledge and skills. <br>Simulation play a pivotal role in augmenting the skills of EMS professionals in order to identify suspected <br>cases and provide accurate emergency management.</p> Parag Rishipathak, Navnita Sengupta, Anand Hinduja, Neha Ahire Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Interpersonal Communication Skills Among Emergency Medical Professionals in Pune, India <p>Introduction: Effective interpersonal communication is one of the most important skills for healthcare <br>providers to master, in order to deliver high quality patient care. Doctors need to communicate with a wide <br>range of people including peers, administration staff, patients, their family members and caregivers. Of <br>course, the most significant is doctor-patient communication as it forms the foundation of the healthcare <br>delivery system.<br>Poor inter-personal communication skills can jeopardize the patient care process and hence it is expected <br>that healthcare professionals undergo formal training both as part of their medical curriculum and on the job <br>Continued Medical Education. Studies have shown that effective interpersonal communication skills help <br>improve overall healthcare outcomes especially while managing difficult encounters and breaking bad news.<br>Designing training programs with contemporary relevance requires regular needs assessment. It is essential <br>to evaluate the baseline levels of inter-personal communication skills amongst practicing professionals to <br>devise appropriate training strategies.<br>Objective: To assess inter-personal communication skills among Emergency Medical Professionals in Pune.<br>Methodology: The study was conducted among 140 Emergency Medical Professionals (EMPs) employed <br>in various hospitals in the city of Pune, India. A questionnaire tool designed in 2019 by Piyush Ranjan et al <br>was utilized to assess inter-personal communication skills among Emergency Medical Professionals.<br>The tool was administered through online mode. The respondents were given one-day deadline to revert with <br>responses. Any queries pertaining to the questionnaire were clarified during data collection. 131 respondents <br>reverted with completely filled questionnaire. <br>Conclusion: It relies on self-assessment to assess interpersonal communication skills and has a limited <br>sample size. Yet, the study is an eye-opener to the incidents of conflicts in emergency healthcare settings and <br>the barriers that prevent a healthy doctor patient relationship</p> Parag Rishipathak, Monesh Bhandari, Anand Hinduja, Meenal Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of the Level of Clinical Preparedness amongst EMS Professionals in Managing Life Threatening Emergencies in Suspected Covid 19 Patients <p>Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected millions of people worldwide and has claimed lakhs of lives <br>in its wake. The sudden onset of the pandemic has led to increased levels of anxiety and depression amongst <br>healthcare workers. EMS professionals are the first responders and need to provide emergency Medical <br>Care to their patients. They are required to perform lifesaving interventions in a short period of time. As it <br>is not possible to ascertain the Covid status of the patient, hence EMS professionals are at the greatest risk <br>of getting infected. The study aims to assess the level of clinical preparedness of EMS professionals and <br>suggests recommendations to improve upon it. <br>Objective: To assess the level of clinical preparedness amongst EMS professionals in tackling life threatening <br>emergencies in suspected Covid 19 patients. <br>Methodology: The study was conducted amongst 150 Emergency Medical Professionals in Pune, India. <br>Respondents were asked to respond to each item using 5 point Likert scale. The Questionnaire was <br>administered to the respondents through online mode after obtaining informed consent. Responding to all <br>questions was mandatory. The respondents were given a period of two days to fill the questionnaire.<br>Discussion: The present study was aimed at examining the current level of preparedness with regards to the <br>disease after nearly a year of the pandemic. The result obtained in terms of knowledge were encouraging and <br>pointed to the fact that the EMS professionals had received adequate training in identification of suspected <br>cases and their initial management. Majority of the respondents suffered from high grade anxiety of <br>contracting the infection. The study highlights the urgent need to conduct counselling and stress management <br>sessions for better mental health of EMS professionals and showed that hospitals are slowly but steadily <br>devising appropriate protocols and safety measures to protect their employees. <br>Conclusion: The contribution of EMS professionals in providing emergency lifesaving care to suspected <br>Covid 19 patients cannot be over emphasized. As the pandemic continues it is essential to ensure the mental <br>and physical of all healthcare professionals. The study is a small attempt to portray the level of knowledge and <br>mental attitude amongst EMS professionals. The findings need to be corroborated with a larger multicentric <br>study.</p> Parag Rishipathak, hrimathy Vijayraghavan, Anand Hinduja, Prerana Dongre Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Covid-19: Information, Transference, Properties of Human Coronaviruses, and Enhancing Immunity by Dietary Recommendations <p>In Wuhan City, China was found a new type of viral infection could be a novel CoV strain (2019-nCoV) <br>which as an acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and formerly, severe acute respiratory <br>syndrome (SARS). All these emerging infectious diseases are caused great damage to general health.New <br>Coronavirus has diffused very quickly at the world and the World Health Organization has declared it a <br>pandemic. It usually affects people who are immunocompromised. Immunodeficiency often comes from <br>nutritional deficiency and this makes viruses stronger. Therefore, this review focused on the identification of <br>the SARS-CoV-2 virus, its transmission and spread, and the history of Coronavirus. In addition, how to boost <br>immunity by learn about nutrition recommendations and healthy diets during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Dalia I. Hemdan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Seizures and Phytotherapy: The Most Important Medicinal Plants Used for Seizures in Children and Adults in Iranian Ethnobotanical Documents <p>Due to the relatively high prevalence of seizures (8%), the cases of prescribing these drugs are very high and <br>usually have many side effects, so in this review study, the use of medicinal plants in different regions of <br>Iran in ethnobotanical documents was extracted and reported. In this study, for this purpose, keywords such <br>as convulsion (seizure), medicinal plants, ethnobotany, identification of medicinal plants, region and Iran <br>were performed. Databases such as ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, ISC, Magiran and Google Scholar <br>were used to review articles and resources. Based on the results, Anthemis nobilis L., Leonurus cardiac <br>L., Lotus corniculatus L., Hyoscyamus niger L., Salvia spp., Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. &amp; <br>Hausskn., Nigella sativa L., Anethum graveolens L., Papaver fugax Poir., Lotus corniculatus L., Verbascum <br>thapsus L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Ferula gumosa Boiss., Heracleum persicum Desf.ex Fischer., Angelica <br>archangelica L., Vicia faba L., Verbascum pseudonobile Stoj &amp; Stef., Melissa officinalis L., Teucrium polium <br>L., Datura stramonium L., Hymenocrater spp. and Melissa officinalis L., are medicinal plants that are used <br>in different parts of Iran to treat seizures. The data collected in this study were analyzed using Microsoft <br>Excel program. According to the results, the plants of this study belong to 11 plant families. The aerial part <br>with 32% is the most plant part used for seizures. Also, most of the medicinal plants used to treat seizures <br>were related to the northern region of Khuzestan. Ethnobotanical knowledge can provide pure ideas for <br>modern pharmacological knowledge and lead to the production of effective natural anticonvulsant drugs.</p> Halleh Mirbehresi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Impact of a Comprehensive Physiotherapy on a Complex Case of Locked Facet Joint: A Case Report <p>Introduction -Locked facet joint is a type of facet joint dislocation which occurs due to jumping of the <br>inferior articular process over the superior articular process of the vertebra below and causes locking in <br>that position. It can be unilateral or bilateral. In case of unilateral facet joint locking mechanism is flexion/<br>distraction and rotation. Only 30% of cases associated with neurologic defect. Most often it occurs at C4-5 <br>and C5-6 level. Inferior articular facet of superior vertebral body is locked in front of the superior facet <br>of the more inferior vertebral body but only on one side. X-ray Image Findings in such cases are - subtle, <br>slight anterior subluxation of one vertebral body on the one below usually less than 25% of the width. On <br>lateral view of cervical spine, some bodies appear true lateral below level of injury and oblique above level <br>of injury that is the “Bow-tie sign”. Spinous processes do not align on frontal film. Spinous processes of <br>inferior vertebrae displace toward the locked side. In case of bilateral facet joint locking there is always <br>a history of severe flexion injury. Both anterior and posterior ligamentous structures are disrupted at site <br>of injury. More superior vertebra subluxes forward by 50% or more of the body below. Usually occurs in <br>lower cervical spine. Generally, facet locking is a rare occurrence. Case Description – a case of 43 years <br>old female is presented in the report who presented with pain and stiffness in neck which was sudden in <br>onset was present since last two days. Assessment, patient’s history and treatment have been discussed in the <br>case study. Conclusion – This case study concluded that there is a significant effect of the given therapeutic <br>intervention on pain, range of motion and activities of daily living (ADL) of the patient.</p> Indrani Gurjalwar, Gouri Kalaskar, Mitushi Deshmukh, Pratik Phansopkar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>xyz</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Biofilm Forming Bacteria Isolated From Human Eye Conjunctivitis and Keratitis Cases and their Ability to Adhere on Contact Lenses in vitro <p>One hundred bacteria isolated from conjunctivitis and keratitis showed 14 different bacterial species as <br>Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most. All 100 <br>isolates were tested for their ability to form biofilm, 65 isolates (65%) showed positive for congo red agar <br>(CRA) test with the exception of Enterobacter hormaechei, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Bacillus <br>pumilus species, while 84 isolates (84%) showed positive for microtiter plate assay except Bacillus pumilus<br>species. Nevertheless, icaAD genes were detected in 75 isolates (75%) within all species. Although 100 <br>bacterial isolates showed different results toward biofilm production tests, CRA, MTP assay and icaAD <br>genes, but there was no significant difference found among these tests. Appliedally, the ability to adhere on <br>contact lenses (In vitro) appeared Staphylococcus aureus has the highest adhesion 12(92.3%) followed by P. <br>aeruginosa 3(75%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis 3(60%).</p> Mohammed A. Mahdi, Munaff J. Abd Al-Abbas, Ahmed M. Alsamak Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Exotoxin a Isolated from Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Against Human Cancer Cell Lines <p>In This study, the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated from many clinical samples, and <br>then about 54 isolates were obtained, diagnosed with all different diagnostic methods, and then the bacterial <br>isolates produced for Exotoxin A were detected by the ELISA method and then the most productive isolate <br>was chosen for purification by means of Precipitation with ammonium sulphate and ion-exchange column <br>and detection of molecular weight was (M.W 65.03KD).The competent isolation tested its toxicity against <br>two cancer cell lines HeLa and PC3 which were an inhibition ratio 69.1% and 61.6% respectively in high <br>concentration</p> Muthanna Hamid Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Forensic Odontology and Its Medico-Legal Applications <p>Forensic Odontology is a specialty field of dentistry that analyses dental evidence for the department of <br>justice. Forensic dentistry encompasses all dental specialties and the isolation of this industry from other <br>dental fields is nearly difficult. The objective of the paper is to discuss and describe the applications of <br>forensic odontology in the fields of justice and crime solving.</p> Sriram Kaliamoorthy, Vijayparthiban Sethuraman, Lakshmanan Vijayalakshmi, Sakthivel Sambasivam Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Management of Patient with Caustic Ingestion Injury: A Case Report <p>The ingestion of caustic substances, both accidental and voluntary, determines a complex syndrome, <br>characterized by severe, often irreversible, visceral lesions, with still remarkable mortality in highly <br>compromised patients. Al36-year-old woman came to Emergency-Room with the chief complaints of <br>blackish vomiting about 4ltimes after drinking liquid to clean the bathroom floor. Patients with findings of <br>grade 2B esophageal injury, pangastritis and gastric ulcer on endoscopy have high the risk of perforation <br>and complications. Endoscopy done within 12lhours and no later than 24lhours following caustic ingestion <br>to classify mucosal injury subsequent to caustic ingestion is useful to determine the severity of injury, <br>particularly in suicidal cases, and thus helpful in predicting outcomes. Patient threat with rehydration with <br>normal saline, total parenteral nutrition, pump omeprazole, injection of methylprednisolone, antibiotic, <br>and sucralfate. Consultation with the Psychiatry department has been conducted psychoeducation and <br>psychotherapy.</p> Supriadi1, Budi Widodo, Brinna Anindita Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Histopathological Changes in Brain Tissues Associated with Oral Administration of Tramadol in Male Rats <p>Background: Repeated and long treatment with tramadol that could cause toxic metabolites by accumulation<br>in the body and with high level of risk of pharmokinetic interaction alongside the decreasing of tramadol,<br>therefore this study was carried out to investigate the toxic impact of the tramadol on the tissues of the brain<br>in the male rats.<br>Method: This experiment was accomplished and processed at environmental toxicology laboratory,<br>environmental studies department, institute of graduate studies and research, university of Alexandria, Alexandria<br>p) ovince, Egypt. a group of rats (32, male) from Albano waster subspecies and they weigh from 200-250g,<br>all belonging to the animal house of the faculty of medicine, university of Alexandria and grouping in to<br>four groups (8 rats for each group in each cage). In regards to the control group, they were given basal food<br>and tap water through-out 10 days by gastric tube, day by day. Group three the rats were fed with basal diet<br>and given Tramadol HCL orally in dose 45mg/ kg .B.W dissolved in (5ml) normal saline (0.9%) by gastric<br>tube, daily for Twenty days. Group for the rats were fed with basal diet and given Tramadol HCL orally in<br>dose 45mg/ kg .B.W dissolved in (5ml) normal saline (0.9%) by gastric tube, daily for Thirty days. When the<br>experimental period reached its end, kidney tissues of each rat were instantly removed and after that weighed then<br>put into 10 percent of neutral buffer formalin to be considered as a fixative solution.<br>The Results: The results showed significantly decrease in the heaviness of the brain in the groups of the<br>rats that given the Tramadol HCL in dose 45mg/ kg .B.W with increasing the time of administration as<br>compared to the control group. Histopathological changes were observed in rats brain tissues section the<br>rats that given Tramadol HCL orally in dose 45mg/ kg .B.W dissolved in (5ml) normal saline for ten days<br>revealed mild degree of tissue injury in the cerebral cortex, with few vacuolar degeneration and dilatation<br>of blood vessels, and the tissue sections of group two after ten days revealed mild degree of tissue injury in<br>the cerebral cortex, with few vacuolar degeneration and dilatation of blood vessels, while the three group<br>Observed increase in the vacuolar degeneration, with neural atrophy and degeneration of neurons with<br>reduction the neural process and pyknosis of the nuclei dilatation of blood vessels after twenty days of<br>tramadol administration. The tissue Sections the obtained from the group four after thirty days revealed<br>increase in the vacuolar degeneration, with more atrophy of the neural cells and complete reduction the<br>neural process and pyknosis of the nucleus in the injured neural cells and glyosis.<br>The Conclusion of this study there are harmful toxic effects when administrated the tramadol for long<br>period on the brain tissues, therefore abuse of tramadol should be avoided except with medical prescription<br>owing to its toxic effects.</p> Abbas Ch. Mraisel, Sawsan A. Ibrahim, Muntadher H. Dawood Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Moringa oleifera Leaves Powder on Some Hormones to Prevent the Development of Experimental Hypothyroidism in Rabbits Abeer Ataallah Ayyed Al –Hadidy, Suher Taha Dawood Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Can Antisperm Antibodies affect Male Fertility after Subinguinal Varicocelectomy ? A Local Study <p>Background: Antisperm Antibodies researches emerged in 1899 in a report referring to the ability of sperms<br>to be antigenic in case of injection into a foreign species. In 1900, researchers showed that sperms are also<br>antigenic in case of injection into similar species. Moreover, Wilson (1954) identified ASAB in the partners<br>of infertile male and then observed the association of ASAB with male infertility. In addition, a correlation<br>was found between ASAB and sperm proteomics, and thus researchers specified those ASABs decreasing<br>male fertilities via inhibition of the sperm functions crucial for fertilization.<br>Objectives: The study aimed at evaluating the effect(s) of varicocelectomy on the anti-sperm antibody in<br>cases who suffer from varicocele.<br>Methods: In the present prospective, controlled, clinical research which has been performed during the<br>period from april 2015 to may 2020. Therefore, the blood samples have been randomly provided from<br>190 males with mean age 33 years (ranging from 20-45 years) ,with the clinical varicocele who have been<br>indicated for varicocelectomy. Then, participants have been randomly selected from the urology outpatient<br>clinic of Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital in Baghdad,Iraq,and Al-Ramadi Teaching Hospital and private<br>clinic.<br>Results: In our study, ASA level (27.2%) with the positive serum ASA prior to with those (43.2%) following<br>the operation demonstrated a significant difference statistically (p = 0.033). However, such a result has been<br>not confirmed in the patients (27.4%) with positive semen ASA prior to with those (31.3%) following the<br>surgical operation (p = 0.881).<br>Conclusion: According to the results, varicocelectomy did not have any impact on the semen ASA,despite,<br>but serum antibody enhanced following varicocelectomy and sperm motility improved. Therefore,<br>varicocelectomy usefully affected the semen parameters in the infertile men suffering from varicocele.</p> Ehab Jasim Mohammad, Duraid Taha Abdulkareem, Omar Aziz Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Prevalence of Dental Erosion among Children aged 11-12 years Old in Primary Schools at Sammawa City(South of Iraq) <p>Objective: The purpose of this research was to assess the prevalence of dental erosion in children between<br>the ages of 11 and 12 years and compare the various factors influencing dental erosion in both study and<br>control groups.<br>Materials and Methods: a clinical assessment of the research was performed among children aged 11- 12<br>years to assess the prevalence of dental erosion in relation to various factors that may cause erosion. The<br>sample size was 102 children with diagnosed dental erosion(63 boys and39 girls) and saliva from these<br>children was collected using a questionnaire to study the various factors that correlate with dental erosion.<br>Results: the children examined were 1000 aged between 11and 12 years. The prevalence was 10.2 per cent<br>more than girls (3.9per cent) with the highest level in boys(6.3per cent). The salivary flow rate and saliva PH<br>were lower in the study group compared to the control group and lower in boys compared to girls in the same<br>group. Tooth brushing frequencies and carbonated drink intake exhibited a greater effect on the development<br>of erosion in study group compared with the control group.<br>Conclusion: in Sammawa city, the prevalence of dental erosion was low and in boys more than girls, and<br>in study group, the salivary flow rate and saliva PH was low. The severity of dental erosion increases with<br>increased intake of carbonated beverages and tooth brushing frequencies.</p> Shayma Abdullah Hanoon Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Nigella Sativa (Black Cumin), Vitamin E and their Combination on Metoprolol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rabbits <p>Background: Metoprolol (MET) is a selective Beta-1 blocker. It is metabolized in the liver. Unlike most<br>Betablockers, Metoprolol is unique in causing liver toxicity, which is infrequent, ranging from raised liver<br>enzymes to severe liver damage. Aim: hepatotoxicity was induced in rabbits, and protective effects of<br>Nigella sativa (NS), Vitamin E (Vit E), and a combination of Nigella sativa + Vitamin E were investigated<br>on Metoprolol-induced hepatotoxicity.<br>Methods: 36 male rabbits were divided into six groups and treated as follow: Metoprolol (20mg/kg),<br>Nigella sativa (2ml/kg), control group, Metoprolol + Nigella sativa, Metoprolol + Vitamin E ( 175mg/<br>kg/day), Metoprolol + Nigella sativa + Vitamin E. Treatments were given orally for two weeks. Liver<br>enzymes, malondialdehyde, glutathione, and interleukins (IL-6, IL-10) were measured in serum and liver<br>homogenates. Histopathological examinations were done for two animals in each group.<br>Results: Elevated liver enzymes and histopathological changes were seen in all Metoprolol-treated animals.<br>Nigella sativa, Vitamin E, and Nigella sativa + Vitamin E reduced Metoprolol-induced rise in liver enzymes.<br>Metoprolol increased malondialdehyde concentration in serum and liver homogenate. Treatment with<br>Nigella sativa, Nigella sativa + Vitamin E insignificantly decreased these levels. Neither Metoprolol nor<br>Metoprolol and Nigella sativa, Vitamin E, and their combination changed the levels of IL-6 or IL-10.<br>Conclusion: Metoprolol increased liver enzymes, and treatment with Nigella sativa, Vitamin E, and Nigella<br>sativa + Vitamin E significantly modified rise in liver enzymes. Metoprolol and other treatments had little<br>effect on IL-6 or IL-10.</p> Fatima Hussein, Jawad Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Cytotoxic Potential of Purified Arginine Deiminase from Streptococcus spp <p>The results that presented in the study were based on collecting one hundred and ten clinical samples of oral<br>cavity, burns and wounds. Primary and secondary diagnositic showed that 14 out of these isolates belonged<br>to Streptococcus spp.. The ability of these isolates in arginine deiminase enzyme production was screened<br>and the results showed that these isolates were arginine deiminase producers with variable degrees. It has<br>been found that one of these isolates which were Streptococcus mitis S5 had the highest specific activity<br>(0.184 U/mg protein), therefore it was chosen for further study. Results of the optimum conditions for<br>arginine deaminase production reveal that the maximum arginine deaminase production was achieved after<br>supplementation of the production medium (pH 7.5) with 1% maltose as carbon source, 1.2% tryptone as<br>nitrogen source, 30mM as arginine concentration and incubated at 37ºC for 18h. Under these conditions,<br>ADI purified in three steps including; precipitation with 70% saturated ammonium sulphate, dialysis then ion<br>exchange chromatography using DEAE- cellulose column and the last step was gel filtration chromatography<br>throughout Sephadex G150 column. Specific activity of the purified enzyme was increased up to 18 U/mg<br>with 5 folds of purification and 70.8 % enzyme recovery.</p> Rusul Madhat Abdullah, Ruqaya Mohammed Al-Ezzy, Asmaa Ali Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Involvement of Insulin Like Growth Factor-I Gene Polymorphism with Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes in Babylon Province <p>Concerning type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a chiefmicrovascular complication.<br>Preceding studies have proposed that insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) signaling might do a significant<br>role in DN. The existing study was implemented to explorethe allianceof single nucleotide polymorphism<br>(SNP) rs6214 of the IGF-1gene with T2DM and DN. The study consists of three groups, the first oneincludes<br>50 subjects, those were apparently healthy were considered as controls. The second oneinvolves 69 patients<br>with T2DM without nephropathy and the third oneencompasses 89 patients who suffer from T2DM with<br>DN. The analysis of results elucidated that thegenotype CT was decided to significantly increase the hazard<br>of T2DM by about 2 folds and the genotype TT was established to significantly increase the risk of DN by<br>about 3 folds with respect to those of the genotype CC. This study concludes that theSNPrs6214 of theIGF-1<br>gene associated with T2DM and DN.</p> Maytham Ahmed Abdul Aemah, Moaed Emran Al-Gazally, Ali Jasim Al-Sultani Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Socio-demographic Characteristics of Newly Reported HIV Cases in Iraq (1986-2019) <p>Background: HIV/AIDS is considered as one of the most important public health concern faced by many<br>developed and developing countries.<br>Objective: To study the basic socio-demographic characteristics of the newly reported HIV Iraqi cases<br>during the period extending from 1986 to 2019.<br>Subjects and Methods: This is across sectional study conducted using data from newly reported HIV<br>Iraqi cases from March 2018 to March 2020. These data were available from the patient’s records at the<br>Iraqi National HIV/AIDS Program Centre. Annual registration statistics covering the period from 1986 to<br>2019 were reviewed. The diagnosis was done through identification of anti-HIV antibodies using primarily<br>ELISA as screening test and positive cases were confirmed by Western blot assay. The obtained data were<br>categorized according to the socio-demographic variables and were analyzed statistically.<br>Results: A total number of newly reported HIV Iraqi cases covering the period from 1986 to 2019 was 892<br>cases. The majority of the cases were males (83%), from 21-39 years old (60.3%), alive (65.7%), and single<br>(53.4%). Most of them were from low educational level (45.1%), low socio-economic status (48.3%), and<br>living in urban areas (75.6%) from Central origin (63.2%).<br>Conclusions: Identification of these findings may provide important directions for targeting certain sociodemographic<br>characteristics of the HIV infections to provide specific support for accessing healthcare<br>services and evaluating the effectiveness of prevention and control measures.</p> Jalil Ibrahim Saleh, Nawar Sahib Khalil, Haitham Noaman Al-Koubaisy, Hussien Ali Mahdi, Hadeer Naeem, Najoh Kadhim Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 HLA-G 14-bp Insertion /Deletion (In/Del) Polymorphism in Breast Cancer Iraqi Arabian women Adel Omran Salman, Wafaa Sabri Mahood, Hazima Mossa Al-Abassi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Phytochemical Study and Isolation of Scopolutin from Pimpinella anisum Seeds Grown in Iraq <p>As widely known plants are divided into many categories, one of them is the herbs; which have been always<br>used as effective remedies to treat many health issues. One of these remedies belongs to our plant under<br>study Pimpinella anisum (anise), which belongs to Umbelliferae family, that has been characterized as an<br>aromatic plant used in traditional medicine as carminative, disinfectant, and galactagogue. Anise dry seeds<br>were collected from Iraqi herbal market to investigate their chemical constituents by using two methods:<br>one of them hydrodistillation method using Clevenger apparatus in which oil sample was collected and then<br>analyzed by GC/MS and revealed the presence of anethol as the major constituent with percentage of 82.91<br>% of the oil; the second method was alcoholic extraction by Soxhlet apparatus with ethanol till exhaustion<br>then the extract was concentrated by evaporation under vacuum, after that partition with ethyl acetate was<br>done, the ethanol layer was discarded while the ethyl acetate layer was concentrated under vacuum, the<br>collected fraction were analyzed by TLC comparing it with standard Scopoletin .Phytochemical screening<br>proved that the plant contain Scopoletin and was confirmed by comparing Rf value of the sample with the<br>standard in three different solvent systems.</p> Noor Mohsen Nasser, Widad M K Al-ani, Zahraa A.E Al Naqqash Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Quercus infectoria Plant on Pap E gene Expression of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli <p>One hundred twelve urine samples were collected from Baghdad hospitals and examined by different<br>identification techniques. Seventy isolates (62.5%) were diagnosed as Escherichia coli after microscopic<br>and cultural identifications. The result of PCR product electrophoresis on the isolates showed that thirteen<br>isolates (18.57%) have Pap E gene which are uropathogenic E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done,<br>and four high resistant strains were mixed with aqueous extract of Quercus infectoria plant in 96 well ELISA<br>plate and incubated for different times. After 0, 6, and 12 hr. of incubation, the effect of the plant extract on<br>the bacterial growth was determined by ELISA reader, and the effect on the expression of Pap E gene was<br>examined by real-time PCR. The results were showed that the higher effect of the extract was on the E10<br>strain growth that dropped from 3.184 at zero time of incubation to 2.378 and 2.281 after 6, and 12 hrs. of<br>incubation respectively. Also, shown a downregulation in the expression of Pap E gene of the isolates at<br>different times of incubation. The E10 strain shows decrease in the fold from 1 before the treatment with the<br>extract to 0.076 at zero time of incubation with the extract, after 6 and 12 hrs. of incubation it shows a total<br>down-regulation of the gene.</p> Ammar Jawad Kadhim, Hassan Majeed Rasheed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Using the (K.W.L) Strategy on Developing Inferential Thinking and Performing Some basic Handball Skills for Female Students, College of Education and Sports Sciences, University of Misan <p>The importance of research is in the use of modern and effective teaching strategies and methods. Therefore,<br>teachers’ ideas tended to find and search for unique teaching methods. The teacher is a guide and assistant<br>to students on the knowledge and how to use educational techniques and strategies that would enable the<br>student from storing knowledge and reusing it in new situations. The present study used the (K.W.L.)<br>strategy in developing inductive thinking and learning some basic handball skills and to gain knowledge<br>from the theoretical and practical side. As well as this strategy has a new aspect. It is an expressive method<br>that supports teachers to achieve the best results. There were statistically significant differences when using<br>the (K.W.L.) strategy in developing inferential thinking and learning basic handball skills in the research<br>sample. The most prominent conclusions reached by the researchers: firstly the (K.W.L.) strategy has<br>an apparent effect on developing the performance level of the selected basic skills and stimulating the<br>spirit of competition and plays among the students of the research sample. There is a moral correlation<br>between learning some basic skills chosen and between developing inductive thinking among the students<br>of the research sample. The most prominent recommendations are the adoption of this strategy by faculty<br>professors due to the development achieved in the level of performance. Thus, the increase in suspense<br>and excitement, and the preparation of this strategy can apply for the rest of the games for the same school<br>stage and other stages of the study. As well as the possibility of learning and development for students with<br>inferential thinking, teams for universities can be selected from them for various games.</p> Majid Mohammed Msaed, Esraa AbdulZahr Irkhayyis, Nadia Mahdi Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Whitening Efficiency of Laser 940 nm and LED (450-505) nm on Extrinsic Stained Teeth (in vitro study) <p>Background: Teeth staining is one of the esthetic problems faced by dentists and patients. Many methods<br>have been suggested as crowns, restorations and bleaching. Dental bleaching effectiveness depends on many<br>factors including technique and materials.<br>Objectives: Studying the effect of diode laser 940 nm and light emitting diode (450-505) nm in bleaching of<br>stained teeth regarding : whitening efficiency; pulp temperature; surface roughness and topography.<br>Materials and Methods: 40 extracted anterior teeth divided into 6 groups immersed at 37 oC in either<br>tea; coffee; cola ; juice for 14 days, tobacco stained teeth as well as control group were also included (<br>immersed in distilled water ). These groups were subdivided into laser group or light emitting diode group<br>bleached according to manufacturer specifications. Shades of teeth were recorded before and after bleaching.<br>Furthermore, temperature changes during bleaching were recorded using thermocouple Thermometer. All<br>specimens were examined under light microscope, Atomic Force Microscope and Sectioning Electronic<br>Microscope to study the surface roughness and topography.<br>Results: the light emitting diode group yielded slight significant whitening efficiency with more pulp<br>temperature rise (3.4 ºC) compared to the laser group (1.4 ºC). Both groups showed non-significant effect on<br>roughness and topography compared to control group.<br>Conclusion: Although light emitting diode group showed slightly significant shade improvement, but the<br>increase in pulp temperature was greater than that of laser group indicated better prognosis and safety when<br>diode laser 940 nm used. Conducting between efficiency and preservation, diode laser is superior in safety<br>and slightly similar whitening efficiency.</p> Ali A Hassab, Basima Mohammed Ali Hussein, Mohammed G Rzoqi G Rzoqi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Serum Level of CCL20 and CXCL 10 in Patients with Vitiligo and their Association with Disease Activity <p>Aim of Study: study the level of CCL20 and CXCL 10 in serum of patients with vitiligo ,to compare their<br>level in patients with active vitiligo and stable vitiligo and compare level of each cytokine with others To<br>know their association with disease activity.<br>Materials/Methods: Sixty-five patients who include (35 active and 30 stable) with vitiligo. All participants<br>included were adult patients with nonsegmental vitiligo.<br>Blood sample were collected by venipuncture from 65 patients (five millimeter of venous were drawing by<br>disposable syringe under sterilization technique and putting in gel tube then, allowed to clot; after that serum<br>was separated by centrifugation 1500 rpm for 5 minute. The serum has been collected in plain tube then<br>stored at -20c to be used for ELISA test to determine concentration of CCL20 and CXCL 10. The results<br>were analyzed using the IBM SPSS analytic software.<br>Result: The : current study revealed thatCCL20 are significant (P&lt;0.05), while CXCL10 was not significant<br>(P&gt;0.05) according to the disease activity. The sensitivity and specificity of each of the measured biomarkers<br>was evaluated using the (ROC). It was found that CCL20 to be of a high significance to measuring the<br>disease activity. While the CXCL10 was of no significance when compared to the disease activity<br>Conclusions: CCL20 could be candidate as a biomarker to evaluate activity of vitiligo</p> Zainab R. AL-Mousawi, Alaa S. Alattabi, Dhamiaa M. Hamza, Fatima A. AL-Hussiny Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Mental Skills and their Relationship to Some Basic Skills of Sword Fencing Players for the Middle Euphrates Clubs in Iraq <p>The importance of the research lies in identifying the level of mental skills of dueling sword weapon players,<br>due to their close association with the ability to adapt to the different situations required by the struggles<br>and helps us determine the level of basic skills. Of the sword weapon players, the sword weapon, and the<br>extent of the relationship between them and mental abilities for the purpose of modifying weaknesses and<br>developing strengths, which helps us to stand on an important aspect of the psychological aspects that<br>support the efforts of the trainers and those responsible for the training process in raising the sword weapon<br>players to higher levels, and the most important results were not Statistically significant differences appear<br>between the players of the research sample teams in all mental skills. The most important recommendation is<br>the need to work on developing the basic skills of Sword Duel players in a way that ensures advanced levels.</p> Bushra Hussain Alwan, Jabbar Hzoar Mohammed, Qahtan Khudhair Abbas Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Dried Mushroom Powder and Bacillus subtilis on Some Physiological Traits in Broiler Chicks Ameer H. Kadhim Al-Sheikh, Mahdi Abdulkhudhur Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Estimation of Root Canal Working Length Using Three Different Apex Locators, An In-Vitro Study <p>Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of different generations of electrical<br>apex locators (EALs) using different measuring protocols. The accuracy of E-PEX PRO (Eighteeth,<br>Changzhou, China) as newly introduced device, Root ZX (J Morita Corp, Tokyo, Japan), and iPex (NSK,<br>Tochigi, Japan) EALs were evaluated.<br>Methods: In this study thirty extracted human permanent single rooted premolar were used. The working<br>length was determined with #15 K-file, then by one of the three EALs, first by introducing the file into the<br>canal until the EAL reads 0.0 then retracting the file until it reads +1.0, second by proceeding the file until the<br>EAL reads +1.0. The data were analyzed using One-way repeated measure ANOVA test at P value of (0.05).<br>Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the three EALs at either measuring<br>protocol<br>Conclusions: Under the in-vitro conditions of the current study, all tested EALs were accurate in estimating<br>working length.</p> Ammar Azeaz Lateef, Samer Aun Thyab, Noor Salman Nadhum Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Comparative Field Survey of Iraqi Camels with Trypanosomiasis between Karbala Governorate and Najaf Governorate Zahra M. Al-Hakak Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment for Common Causes of Burn Injuries Patients at Al-Imam Al-Sadiq Hospital <p>Background: Burn injury remain one of the commonest forms of injury and account for a significant<br>proportion of trauma cases in hospital emergencies worldwide. In the United States, up to 1.2 million<br>people experience burn injuries each year.However, continue to cause devastating morbidity and significant<br>mortality.<br>Methodology: A descriptive analytic study design is carried out to explore the common causes of burn<br>injuries among patient which conducted at AL-Imam AL-Sadiq Hospital for the period (15/1/2020-<br>15/3/2020). Non-probability Convenient sample consisted of (50) patients who admitted to the Burn Center<br>is selected through the used probability sample approach.<br>Result: (50) subject who participated in this study their age ranged from (20-29) years old and constituted<br>(40.0%) of the study sample. Concerning gender, most burned participants were female, which composed<br>(78.0%) and lives in urban areas (60.0%) out total number. Twenty-eight percent were primary school<br>graduated and sixty six were married they work as students.<br>Conclusion: common causes of burn as maximum incidence of burn injury seen in females in adult age<br>group from (20-29) years old and lives in urban area. Most burned patients were primary school graduated<br>and they were married and were burned by flame with moderate in severity.<br>Recommendation: Development of strategy for burn prevention by the Ministry of Health because it is<br>better way that makes people more aware and cautious when dealing with risks and preventing as much as<br>possible exposure to risks and injuries.</p> Wefaqq Mahdi Hadi, Shatha Saadi Mohammad Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Physiochemical Changes in Physical Activity in the Immune System to Prevent Corona Virus in Football Players <p>The practice of physical activity is of multiple benefits, including strengthening the immune system by<br>increasing the effectiveness of the blood circulation that contributes to chemical and physical changes<br>in many of the body’s systems, including the immune system and through physical activity, the body<br>needs greater quantities than normal to bridge the deficiency in which it is active. Minor and major blood<br>circulation, as well as an increase in horizontal and vertical breathing processes, as well as an increase in the<br>oxidized blood pressure to meet the need of working muscles, and therefore there is a clear change in the<br>speed of improvement of the immune system from foreign bodies and the speed of disposal in proportion to<br>the type and size of For the UFOs, the Corona virus is one of the most dangerous foreign bodies that cause<br>harm or death to humans. The practice of physical activity for a period of (20-30) minutes daily contributes<br>to improving the immune system and helps prevent this virus and other foreign bodies.</p> Raheem Abd Alwihed, Muzaffar Oraibi Baiji, Hamad Lahmood Taherh, Imad Kadem Yasser Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Purification and Characterization of Arginase from Serum of Healthy and Type II Diabetic Iraqi Patients <p>Arginase was purified from human serum of healthy and patient with type II Diabetes mellitus subjects.<br>The purification steps included, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration on Sepharoe6B.The<br>molecular weight of native arginase was find to be (94 Kd), by gel filtration. The purified human serum<br>arginase is characterized by optimum pH of (9.5), optimum pH of stability is between (9-10), optimum<br>temperature (350C), temperature of stability is between (30-500C) in both healthy and patient subjects.</p> Noor N.O. Al-Saad, Fayhaa M. Khaleel, Essam F. A. Al-Jumaili Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Medical Image Processing, Human Face Classification, Face Recognition and Medical Imaging: Performance Evolution Histogram of Orientation Gradients <p>In view of the common conditions and the security of the country from all the blackmail that is urging, whether<br>on the level of the Internet and social communication, there was an urgent need to secure all institutions and<br>also secure our phones and our possessions from laptops and others using more accurate safety methods<br>than these methods I used the method of destination classification, i.e. identifying the destination so that it is<br>possible to secure We can see you through the fingerprint of the destination, and this method that is popular<br>recently. In this paper, HoG algorithm was used and this algorithm is considered one of the powerful ways<br>to extract the features that we need in the classification process relying on one of the methods of learning a<br>machine an algorithm was used naive Bayes. After that, the system is evaluated by calculating the accuracy,<br>specificity, and sensitivity and it is found that the efficiency of the system reaches 98%.</p> Rana Ali salim Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Relationship of Mass Behavior to Sports Perception among Soccer Players <p>Sports activity is highly dependent on behavior that greatly affects the level of activity and the result and this<br>aspect is related to the amount of awareness that the player possesses during his public and private culture.<br>The research aims to know the relationship between these variables among football players. The amount of<br>culture that players have reached during their athletic careers.</p> Hamad Lahmood Taherh, Addul abbas Abdulrazaq Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of the Burnout Level in Health Care Worker During COVD 19 <p>Background: Health care workers are considered the first and real repelling line in the face of the COVID19<br>pandemic, and therefore they have an increased workload, and stress. Understanding risk for burnout is<br>critical to supporting health workers and maintaining the quality of healthcare during the pandemic.<br>Methods: A cross-sectional study design could be used to assessment the level of burnout during COVID<br>19. Included 1000 samples as a healthcare worker involved in the study by used of convenience sampling<br>technic , The study has been carried out in Iraqi, conducted throughout the period of April 15th, to July 19th,<br>2020. A self-administered questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Service Survey were used<br>to collect data.<br>Results: Overall, burnout were high level among 59.9 % of the participants in the study. High workload<br>and intention to leave were associated with burnout at statistically significant (P&lt;0.05), and high significant<br>relationship between demographic characteristics (age, gender, level of education, job title, work place ) and<br>level of burnout (P&lt;0.05).<br>Conclusions: The high level of burnout identified among health workers is mainly related to the high<br>workload and psychological stress fronting them during COVID 19, as well as the lack of personal equipment<br>necessary to protect themselves from this epidemic.</p> Mustafa Kareem Jawad, Dhiaa Abd Al-Rasoul Abd Al-Reda, Waleed Ali Armeah, Asmaa Jabbar Abdulhussein Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Anal Fissures in Pediatrics, and Its Non-Surgical Management, A Review Study <p>The aim of this study is to show the effect of conservative therapy in management of anal fissures in pediatrics.<br>Study samples were patients presenting to Central Teaching Hospital of Paediatrics between Feb. 2012 to Mar.<br>2013. In prospective descriptive-analytical study,50 cases with anal fissures were evaluated in the pediatric<br>surgery outpatient clinic. All cases were subjected to medical history and clinical examination. The collected<br>data were classified in tables. In history we focused on dietary habits , bowel habits , rectal bleeding, painful<br>defecation &amp; constipation. The collected data consisted of age, sex, presentation &amp; location of fissure. In clinical<br>examination we assessed the site , presence of skin tags &amp; PR if needed. All cases underwent conservative<br>treatment for anal fissure by using proctocidar ointment locally 2-3 times daily for 3-6 weeks &amp; lidocaine gel<br>2% applied 10 minutes before defecation to minimize the pain. Lactulose syrup was given 2-3 times daily<br>with meal to soften the stool &amp; Purgative (Dulcolax) orally in addition to dietary habit instructions. Two<br>patients only not responded to this regimen , so underwent anal dilatation under general anaesthesia. In our<br>study a total of 50 cases (30 cases 60% Males &amp; 20 cases 40% Females) at age between (6 months - 3years)<br>presented in central teaching hospital of pediatrics mainly as pain during defecation. All were evaluated ,<br>diagnosed &amp; managed during the period from Feb.2012 to Mar. 2013 &amp; followed up for 3-6 weeks. In about<br>48 cases (96%) associated with constipation &amp; 2 cases (4%) associated with diarrhea. 34 cases (68%) had<br>pain during defecation &amp; 27 cases (54%) had bleeding per rectum (streaks of blood or small drops of blood).<br>All Patients were diagnosed clinically by history from parents &amp; local examination. 45 cases of fissures in<br>ano were located posteriorly, 3 were anteriorly located &amp; only 2 cases have fissures on both sides. 48 cases<br>had history of developing symptoms within 2 weeks period &amp; underwent medical management in the form<br>of laxatives e.g. lactulose &amp; purgatives e.g. dulcolax in addition to lidocaine gel 2% which is topically<br>applied for about 3 to 6 weeks resulting in complete healing. 2 cases (4%) only were not responded to this<br>regimen &amp; needed anal dilatation. We found that an acute anal fissure is more common than chronic in<br>pediatrics. The most common presenting symptoms were pain during defecation &amp; constipation.</p> <p>Conclusion: Anal fissures can be simply and effectively treated medically by topical proctocidar ointment<br>and lidocaine gel 2% in addition to lactulose syrup &amp; purgative. These are an excellent combination,<br>associated with a low recurrence rate and minimal side effects.</p> Alaa Mohammed Ali Al Baazi, Athir Ahmed Kadium, Mahmood Mosa Mahmood Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of L- Carnitine on Cardiac Output in Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease on Regular Hemodialysis <p>Background: L- carnitine deficiency is common in patients with chronic kidney disease, especially those<br>who are in regular dialysis. L- carnitine deficiency associated with high incidence of oxidative stress,<br>dyslipidemia and impaired cardiac performance. The present study tends to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine<br>supplement on cardiac output in patients with chronic kidney disease on regular hemodialysis.<br>Methods: the current study included 105 patients with chronic kidney disease, they were randomly selected<br>from patients attending artificial kidney unit at Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital in Thiqar city for regular<br>hemodialysis. They were divided into two groups, group I include 35 patients with chronic kidney disease<br>who did not receive L- carnitine and considered as control group, group II include 70 patients with chronic<br>kidney disease who receive L- carnitine. patients of group II further divided into two subgroups depending on<br>dose of L- carnitine. Group II(A), include 35 patients with chronic kidney disease who received L- carnitine<br>10/kg body weight one time daily and group II(B): include 35 patients with chronic kidney disease who<br>received L- carnitine 10/kg body weight two time daily. Ejection fraction was determined by transthoracic<br>echocardiography. Frequency, percentage, association, paired t-test were used for analysis of variables. All<br>variables represented by mean ± SD. P value of &lt; 0.05 considered statistically significant.<br>Results: There was statistically significant increase in the mean of EF% (P&lt;0.001) among patients with<br>chronic kidney disease who receive L- carnitine in a dose of 10mg/Kg body weight twice daily (group IIB)<br>after six months of treatment in comparison with the baseline values. There was a slight but significant (p&lt;<br>0.05) increase in the mean of EF% in patients with chronic kidney disease who received single daily dose<br>of L- carnitine 10mg/Kg body weight (group IIA) after six months in comparison with the initial values at<br>the beginning of the study.</p> <p>Conclusion: carnitine supplement in a suitable dose seem to improve cardiac performance among patients<br>with chronic kidney diseases on regular hemodialysis.</p> Abdul-Hassan Mahdi S., Abdul-Aziz A.A. Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Post -Traumatic Stress Disorder Following Wars and Repression at Mosul City-Iraq <p>Background and Objectives: More than 27 years of wars, repression and sanction have led to human<br>suffering all over Iraq, this study was done to estimate the prevalence rates of symptoms of Post-traumatic<br>stress disorder ,and estimating the rate of exposure to traumatic events in Mosul City / Iraq.<br>Materials and Method: Across- sectional multi-cluster sample survey of 424 respondents aged 18 years<br>or older, conducted at Mosul city from January to March 2019 . 159 households were surveyed. Posttraumatic<br>stress disorder Symptoms and Trauma events measured by the Iraqi version of Harvard Trauma<br>Questionnaire.<br>Results: During the past 27 years ( 97.96% ) of respondents experienced at least 4 traumatic events, (<br>26.14%) experienced between 5-10 traumatic events and ( 17.51%) experienced more than 10 traumatic<br>events .The most common traumatic events experienced by respondents were home searching while they<br>were present , witnessing murder and murder of family members. The prevalence of respondents with<br>symptoms of Post-traumatic stress disorder der was (25.88%). Symptoms were more prevalent in women<br>than in men with p value &lt; 0.001 for PTSD.<br>Conclusion: The findings of the study are concluded that the prevalence rate of symptoms of Post-traumatic<br>stress disorder were high. This finding suggest the need for volunteer and health care planner.In addition to<br>the need for trained mental health care professionals.</p> Mohammad Salih Khalaf Alkaisy, Salem Shehab Ahmed, Mahfoodh Sulaiman Alsydan, Ahmed Abdel Qader Suleiman, Nasir Muwfaq Younis, Mahmoud Mohammed Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Rapid Induction of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Neural Cells <p>Background:-Human umbilical cord blood- mesenchymal stem cells(HUCB-MSCs) hold great promise in<br>vitro neural differentiation and therapy for neurodegenerative disorders. It has demonstrated that the number<br>and differentiating potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) decrease with age. Therefore,<br>the search for alternative sources of MSCs is of significant value.<br>Objective:-To determine the possibility of obtaining clonally expanded UCB-MSCs and evaluate their rapid<br>induction and differentiation into neural cells in vitro.<br>Methods:-MSCs were isolated from HUCB by combining gradient density centrifugation with plastic<br>adherence. In order to identify factors that able to lead to neural differentiation, the cultured cells were<br>treated with retinoic acid (RA) and B-mercaptoethanol (BME). Differentiating characterization of UCBMSCs<br>were detected by immunocytochemistry analysis.<br>Results:-UCB-MSCs appeared like the fibroblast cell and these cells were extensively expanded in culture.<br>The results showed that UCB-MSCs were positive for CD71and CD90 but were negative for CD34. The<br>immunocytochemistry staining indicated that the differentiated cells give positive response for nestine<br>marker. The result confirmed for neural progenitor differentiation of MSCs.<br>Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed that UCB provides a great source of stem cells for using in<br>treatment of neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system.</p> Baydaa H. Mutlak, Intidhar M. Mnati Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Rehabilitative Exercises on the Efficiency of the Knee Joint for Female Students with Simple Rupture of the Lateral Collateral Ligament <p>The research problem lies in the presence of large numbers of female students with knee joint, especially<br>in the effectiveness of rhythmic gymnastics because this event requires a high level of skillful performance<br>because most of the skills need to move quickly, jump and change direction, and that the lack of strength in<br>the muscles surrounding the knee joint exposes students to a lateral collateral ligament injury, and because<br>these muscles are among the most important muscles that participate in motor performance and which bear<br>a high rate of effort performed and this may lead to the occurrence of injury, and that the use of treatment<br>with chemical analgesic drugs over long periods of time usually causes many side effects, so the researchers<br>decided to use rehabilitating exercises that are of great benefit to such an injury to him, so rehabilitative<br>exercises were used in the rehabilitation of the lateral collateral ligament injury of the knee joint, the research<br>objectives to prepare rehabilitative exercises in the efficiency of the knee joint for female students with a<br>simple tear of the lateral ligament. The researchers used the experimental method in the method of (one<br>group) with the two pre and post-tests due to its suitability to the nature of the problem. The sample was<br>chosen by the intentional method of (7) students with partial tearing of the lateral ligament of the knee joint<br>based on a medical report from the specialist doctor, and after a medical examination and an (MRI). In light<br>of the results reached by the researchers, the following conclusions came out:- The rehabilitative exercises<br>have a positive effect in rehabilitating the partial tear of the lateral ligament for students with rhythmic<br>gymnastics.</p> Rehab Nabeel Abd Alazem, Ammar Hamza Hadi, Mayson Hussien Alwan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of the Thermal Frequency Device for Shock Waves on the Efficiency of the Knee Joint and the Skill of Rotating The Cord Backward by Bounce for Female Students with Simple Rupture of the Lateral Collateral Ligament <p>The research problem lies in the injury of the collateral ligament of the knee joint and what causes this injury<br>of pain. This pain increases in cases of bending and extending the knee joint for any movement and by<br>informing researchers about the physical therapy units, they found that rehabilitation of the injury is usually<br>through traditional rehabilitative exercises, such as weights, for example, which are often unwanted by the<br>injured who prefer the faster and easier method of performance and by using modern devices, including the<br>thermal frequency device and the shock waves because it generates the desire and the rehabilitation and<br>psychological effect on the injured, therefore, the researchers decided to go into this experiment by using<br>rehabilitative exercises in a scientifically studied manner accompanied by a thermal frequency device and<br>vibrational waves to rehabilitate the collateral ligament injury for students by strengthening the muscles<br>surrounding the joint, in addition, the development of some rope skills in rhythmic gymnastics for students,<br>and the research aims to prepare rehabilitative exercises accompanied by a thermal frequency device for<br>vibrational waves in the efficiency of the knee joint and the skill of rotating the rope backward with rebound<br>for students with a simple tear of the lateral ligament, the researchers used the experimental approach in<br>the method of (one group) with the two pre and post-tests due to its suitability to the nature of the problem,<br>the sample was chosen by the intentional method of (7) students with partial tearing of the lateral ligament<br>of the knee joint based on a medical report from the specialist doctor, and after a medical examination and<br>an (MRI) scan. In light of the results reached by the researchers, the following conclusions came out: The<br>rehabilitative exercises have a positive effect in rehabilitating the partial tear of the lateral ligament for<br>students with rhythmic gymnastics.</p> Rehab Nabeel Abd Alazem, Ammar Hamza Hadi, Mayson Hussien Alwan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Preventive Behaviors of Addiction among Students: Application of Health Belief Model <p>Background: Addiction is significant health concern worldwide. Addiction is inveterate trouble which is<br>associated with significant morbidity and mortality.<br>Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluation of preventive behaviors of addiction among students<br>in Mosul City during apply of Health Belief Model<br>Materials and Method: This study is based on descriptive design and includes randomly selected students<br>in Mosul University included (Political Science, Engineering, Sciences and Nursing Colleges). The sample<br>size was (80) students. Data were gathered in 1st of October / 2019 till 12 of May / 2020 using a questionnaire<br>method. The instrument consist of two parts; part I, involved, to describe the student’s socio-demographic<br>characteristic such as (age, gender, grade, college ,socioeconomic status) the part II, involved the using scale<br>to measure students’ beliefs towards of addiction.<br>Results: demonstrated that the results of study the overall mean age for the participants was 23.53 (SD =<br>2.06). Concerning body mass index (BMI) most of participants were normal body weight. The overall mean<br>BMI for participants was 21.23 (SD = 2.53).<br>Conclusion: These researchers found that the Health Belief Model concepts toward addiction were the no<br>significant improvement.</p> Nasir Muwfaq Younis, Arkan Bahlol. Naji Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Teachers’ Knowledge Regarding Child Maltreatment in Elementary Schools at Mosul City /Iraq <p>Objective: The study aim to assess the teachers knowledge level about child maltreatment in elementary<br>schools at Mosul city /Iraq.<br>Methodology: A descriptive study design was chosen to fulfill the objectives of this research which was<br>conducted in sixty elementary schools inside of Mosul city/Iraq during the period from 1 October 2019<br>till 30 May 2020. The study sample consists of (60) elementary schools teachers was selected by nonprobability<br>(Purposive) sample from (60) schools inside Mosul city . The questionnaire data was filled by<br>the teachers in a face-to-face direct interview. Different statistical processing was conducted by the use of<br>version 23 SPSS statistical package<br>Result: The result showed 63.3 % of teachers have poor knowledge regarding child maltreatment and<br>there is a significant relationship between the education levels of the elementary school teachers and their<br>knowledge about child maltreatment and there is no statistically significant relationship with other like the<br>socio-demographical variables.<br>Conclusion: Need for enhancing teacher’s knowledge because the teachers in the elementary schools in<br>Mosul city do not have appropriate and adequate knowledge about child maltreatment.<br>Recommendations: The researchers recommend design and implement different educational programs for<br>teachers based on needs assessment concerning child maltreatment (e.g., definition, types, causes, signs/<br>manifestations, methods like initial detection of a child at high risk, communication, management, etc.) to<br>promote child health and development.</p> Luay Amjed Mahmood Al-Waly, Iqbal Ghanim Ali Ma’ala Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Detect of Vitamin-D Deficiency in Children Under Five Years with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus at Diabetes and Endocrinology Center Qusay Hasan Mansi, Afifa Radha Aziz Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Exercises with a Proposed Device to Improving Some Bio-Kinematic Variables and the Performance of the Arab Round off Skill on Floor Movement Mat Device of the Artistic Gymnastics for Women <p>The importance of the research lies in preparing exercises using a proposed device to learn the skill of the<br>human wheel on a machine rug of ground movements of the artistic gymnastics. As for the research problem:<br>Through the presence of the two researchers as teachers and observers of this sport in the gymnastics hall,<br>they noticed that there is difficulty in the students’ performance of the skill of the round off on the machine<br>of the mat of ground movements, according to the researchers’ opinion, the reason for this is that skills<br>are taught with the limited availability of assistive devices, as well as the lack of use of these devices in<br>exercises according to biomechanical variables, although they facilitate the learning process for these skills<br>and work to shorten the time and effort in the learning process and enable the removal of the difficulties<br>encountered before. As for the objectives of the research : Design and manufacture of a device that teaches<br>the skill of the round off and helps in overcoming the difficulty of performing that skill for female students<br>and preparing exercises with a proposed device to learn the skill of the human wheel on the machine of the<br>ground movements mat in the artistic gymnastics of the students.</p> Zahraa Salah Abd Ali, Bushra Kazem Abdel Reda Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Building and Codifying a Measure of Pursue among Advanced Volleyball Players in Iraq <p>The importance of the study lies in the extent to which the players possess pursue and what it contains in<br>terms of cooperation, coordination and integration in the roles that lead to achieving common goals among<br>the players, which is reflected in their solidarity by performing the required tasks, whether in the training or<br>competition process.<br>The problem arises: Do advanced volleyball players rely on discipline to achieve the team’s common goals,<br>both in training and competition?<br>The objective of the research was to: Building and codifying the pursue scale for advanced volleyball<br>players, as well as setting standard levels for the advanced volleyball players’ pursue scale.<br>The researchers used the descriptive approach in the survey method because it is more appropriate to the<br>objectives of the research and the nature of the problem. The research community consists of the Iraqi<br>Premier League volleyball players for the season (2019-2020), whose number is (196) players. And all the<br>research sample was selected intentionally.<br>As for the most important conclusions: It was to find a measuring tool to build and standardize the pursue of<br>advanced volleyball players. The research sample was distributed over five levels of the scale of pursue for<br>advanced volleyball players. While the most important recommendations were: The researcher recommends<br>using a symmetry scale on all players in other team games.</p> Afrah Baqer Abduljaleel, Luma Sameer Hamoodi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Combined High-Intensity Interval Training Exercises on Some of the Technical Skills and Endurance of Performance for Advanced Futsal Players <p>The importance of the research lies in scientifically preparing a complex of high-intensity interval training, as<br>researchers believe that it affects some technical skills that are directly involved to endurance the performance<br>of futsal players. As for the research problem: Through the experience of field researchers, they noticed that<br>there is a noticeable decrease in the performance of skills in the second half and in the matches in which<br>the level of technical performance is very high, and this decrease leads to slow movement to take the right<br>place during the performance of those skills, the researchers believe that the reason for this is that these skills<br>do not receive their adequate share of training in a manner consistent with the nature of their performance<br>from the physical and physiological standpoint. The aim of which is to have a positive effect on some of the<br>technical skills and performance of futsal players. The researchers used the experimental method to solve<br>the research problem, and on the research community, the research community was identified with the 14<br>players of Naft Al Wasat club in the futsal season 2020-2021, they were distributed into two groups equally<br>in a random way (lottery method), and then data was processed using appropriate statistical methods.</p> Hasan Hadi Saleh, Mahmoud Nasser Radhi, Ali Wafaa Abdullah Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effectiveness of the Educational Field to Developing the Skills of Dribbling and Shooting of Football For Youth <p>The importance of the research lies in preparing an educational field in developing the skills of dribbling<br>and shooting football for cubs, depending on the stock of motor skills that were learned in a previous period,<br>which are prerequisites for motor learning and achieving good technical performance that secures a level<br>of performance. As for the research problem: through the experience of field researchers, they noticed that<br>there is a weakness in the performance of the dribbling and scoring skills of the young players, and that the<br>level of dribbling and scoring performance is not commensurate with the level required for this stage, a the<br>direct interest in dribbling and scoring through skill exercises is not sufficient to reach high performance<br>without concern for the effectiveness of the educational field, and this is what the cubs’ teams suffer at least<br>in our country, and if there is interest in these variables, then it is random and includes training that does<br>not distinguish between the important and most important dimensions and components of these variables.<br>Therefore, the researchers decided to prepare an educational field in developing the skills of dribbling and<br>scoring football for cubs in order to reach the desired and intended achievement.</p> Husam Kadhim Jawad, Mazin Abdul Hedi Ahmed, Asaad Hussein Abd Alrazaq Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Activity of an Educational Field by Means of Assisting in the Development the Speed Movement and Shooting Skill of Football For Youth <p>The importance of the research lies in preparing an educational field in developing motor speed and football<br>scoring skill for cubs, depending on the stock of motor abilities and skills that were learned in a previous<br>period and which are prerequisites for motor learning and achieving good technical performance that secures<br>a level of performance. the researchers decided to prepare an educational field by means of assisting in the<br>development of kinematic speed and football scoring skill for cubs in order to reach the desired and intended<br>achievement. The research objective : Preparing an educational field with assistive means to develop motor<br>speed and soccer scoring skill for young players. The researchers used the experimental approach in solving<br>the research problem, and on the research community, the research community was identified with young<br>players of ages (13-14) years for the football school to foster the sporting talent in football for the Kotha<br>district / Babil governorate, whose number is (22) players, and they were divided equally by the method,<br>simple randomness. As for the most important conclusions, they were: The educational field contributed by<br>means of assisting in the development of motor velocity and the skill of scoring football for young players.</p> Husam Kadhim Jawad, Asaad Hussein Abd Alrazaq Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Defensive Exercises in the Motor Response to Develop Some Defensive Skills for Young Basketball Players <p>The importance of physical and skill abilities in basketball has increased in recent times because modern<br>play has increased in difficulty and complexity compared to previous playing styles, and the motor abilities<br>and the kinetic response are of fundamental importance in building and advancing the basketball player and<br>works to improve the player’s level of skill and planning, and the speed of timely decision-making and the<br>speed of the movement’s reaction to the player, and understanding this relationship is the basis for developing<br>appropriate training curricula that help us reach high sports levels, so it became based on the above, the<br>importance of research is reflected in the necessity of numbers of curricula and training programs. As for<br>the most important conclusions, they were: The success of the training program in developing the defensive<br>skills of the experimental group and that the training program had a noticeable effect on the performance of<br>the players by comparing the results of the post-test of the control and experimental groups and confirming<br>that the special exercises had a positive effect in developing the defensive skills of basketball.</p> Noor Alhuda Satar Jabar, Huda Shihab Jari Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Building and Codifying the Strategic Agility of Handball Coaches from the Players’ Point View <p>The importance of the study lies in the extent to which the trainer possesses strategic agility and employs it<br>in his training work. The problem arises in the study of the strategic agility of a handball coach. Research<br>objectives: Building and applying the scale of strategic agility for handball coaches from the players’<br>point view, as well as setting standard levels for the scale of strategic agility of handball coaches from the<br>players’ point of view, and the researcher used the descriptive approach in the survey method because it is<br>more appropriate for the objectives of the research and the nature of the problem. The research community<br>consists of the Iraqi handball premier league players for the season (2019-2020) of (140) Player, and all the<br>research sample was deliberately chosen. The researcher concluded building and codifying the strategic<br>agility scale for handball coaches from the players ’point of view. The research sample was distributed over<br>five levels of the strategic agility scale for handball coaches from the players’ point of view. Therefore, the<br>researcher recommends adopting the scale designed for coaches, a tool for measuring the trainers’ possession<br>of strategic agility.</p> Reem Abbas Karim, Intisar Owaid Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Nurse’s Knowledge and Practices about Personal Protective Equipment in Hemodialysis Unit in Basra Teaching Hospital <p>Objectives: to assess the nurses’ knowledge and practices about personal protective equipment (PPE).<br>Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional design study has been carried out in Basrah teaching hospital,<br>A purposive (non-probability) sample consist of (34) nurses who worked in the units of hemodialysis, the<br>study started from 18th of October, 2019 to 12th of July, 2020. The instrument of the present study contains<br>three parts, first part: It is concerned with the nurse’s demographic data, second part: it is composed of (10)<br>multiple choice questions (MCQs) related to the nurses knowledge, and third part: it consists of (14) items<br>for nurses practice about personal protective equipment. The validity of the instrument had been achieved by<br>8 experts from different scientific branches. Statistical programs such as SPSS (Statistical Package for Social<br>Science) v. 23 were used to analyze the data. Result: the findings revealed that majority of nurses had poor<br>knowledge and practice about personal protective equipment and there has been a significant relationship<br>between the nurse’s knowledge about personal protective equipment and their level of education at a p&lt;0.05<br>level. Recommendation: Provide training programs for the hemodialysis nurses on the promotion of higher<br>standards of the hand hygiene and potential uses of the personal protective equipment during working in<br>hemodialysis centers.</p> Ahmed T. Saud, Aliaa H. Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Video Games on Psychological Development of the Child in Primary Schools in Baghdad <p>Objectives: To review scientific studies of the effect of video games on child psychological development.<br>And to examine the evidence that playing video games plays a role on child psychological development.<br>Design: A descriptive analytical study starting from December 2016 to May 2017 such an assessment<br>approach is apply to achieve the objectives of the study.<br>Methodology: A simple random sample of 300 students selected from a probability-stratified sample of<br>primary school for both sexes in Baghdad Al – Rasafa, starting from December 2016 to May 2017. A<br>questionnaire constructed for the purpose of the present study throughout a review of relevant literature,<br>previous studies and consultation from panel of experts. To begin, answer the questions using the scale, Know,<br>Uncertain, Don’t Know. The questionnaire consist of two main parts, Part one included the demographic<br>information (15) items, part two included the items of psychological effect which consist of (13) items.<br>The overall items which were included in the questionnaire were (28) items. Reliability and validity of the<br>questionnaire were determined through a pilot study. Data collected using the questionnaire from<br>February 27 2017 to 14th of March 2017 through the utilization of the semi - structured technique as a<br>mean of data collection. Data analyzed through descriptive statistical data analysis approach (frequency,<br>percentage and mean) and inferential statistical data analysis approach.<br>Results: The results showed that the effect of video games on the psychological development of the child<br>had a mild significant effect resulting from playing video games.<br>Conclusion: It is clear that the effect of video game is a serious problem for the generation of children and<br>future builders in our society, when there is no aware towards the impact of the problem.</p> <p>Recommendation: Educating children about media effects generally and about video game effects<br>specifically, so that children can learn to make informed choices. In addition, encouraging children to play<br>pro-social and educational video games in preference to violent games.</p> Siham A. Hammo Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect Skillful Exercises by Playing Method to Developing The Short Anaerobic Ability and Team Attacking for Young Basketball Players <p>The importance of the research lies in preparing skillful exercises in the method of playing and knowing<br>their effect on the anaerobic ability and team attacking of the junior basketball players.<br>As for the research problem: the research problem centered on lack of focus and lack of interest in exercises<br>that are built according to the physiological systems that overlap with work (anaerobic) and that would bring<br>about functional changes that are reflected in the development of the physical, skill and planning aspect in<br>order to make the player able to bear physical and functional burdens similar to the burdens of competition.<br>The objective of the research was to: Prepare skillful exercises by playing method of basketball, as well<br>as to identify the effect of skill training by playing method to development the anaerobic ability and team<br>attacking for young basketball players, and the imposition of the research is: There is an effect of skillful<br>training by playing method on anaerobic ability and team attacking for young basketball players.<br>As for the research methodology and its field procedures: the researchers used the experimental method to<br>solve the research problem, while the research community was identified with the emerging players of Al<br>Hillah Basketball Club, and they were distributed into two groups (experimental and control) by a simple<br>random method (draw).<br>While the most important conclusions were: that skill exercises by playing method helped to develop<br>(anaerobic ability), and also that skillful exercises by playing method contributed greatly to the development<br>of the team attacking of basketball for the young players.<br>As for the most important recommendations, they were: The researchers recommend paying attention to<br>the use of skillful exercises by playing method according to scientific training bases to raise the efficiency<br>of anaerobic basketball players during matches and competitions, the researchers recommend attention to<br>preparing and organizing skill exercises by playing method when training the team attacking of basketball<br>in its various types and for all groups.</p> Abbas Hatem Alwan, Tahseen Hamzah Najm Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Stress-Playing Style Exercises on the Development of Some Biomotor Abilities of Young Football Players <p>The football game has witnessed a great development in terms of the speed of play, possession and pressure<br>on the ball carrier. Those involved in the game have to keep pace with this development through the use<br>of integrated training programs that contain basic and advanced exercises that take care of most details<br>of the game in addition to paying attention to the physical and movement that the player needs during<br>the performance, such as Strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, ability, agility, coordination. and what<br>is associated with it, especially during defensive or offensive football performance, which contributes to<br>controlling the course of the game. The importance of the research is that it is a research attempt that is<br>concerned with consolidating the idea of a stress playing style in the reality of Iraqi clubs and teams training<br>through this defensive method to achieve the desired goal, as well as experimenting with the use of defensive<br>exercises characterized by rapid application and high accuracy together, and to know the extent of the impact<br>of exercises in the style of compressive play on the development of some biomechanical capabilities of young<br>football players in a step aimed at strengthening the sports field with practical experiments and service to<br>researchers in the sports field. The research aims to identify the impact of exercises with a stress playing style<br>on the development of some biomechanical capabilities of young football players. The researchers identified<br>the research community, who are the (23) players of the Al-shuohda football Club, and the research sample<br>was chosen by a random method (lottery) of (10) players, appropriate statistical means were used to find<br>differences in the pre and post-tests. The researchers came out with the following conclusions: Compressive<br>play style exercises developed some biomechanical capabilities (movement speed, agility and compatibility)<br>for the experimental group under discussion, compressive play exercises simulated the player for the same<br>conditions of the match.</p> Qasim Muhammad Ali Hazim, Ahmed Abdulameer Hamzah Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Concentrated Liquids Before Physical Exertion on Some Physiological Variables of 10,000 Meters for Young Runners <p>The objective of the research is to identify the effect of concentrated fluids before physical exertion on<br>some of the physiological variables of the 10,000-meter runners of youth for the individuals of the research<br>sample, to identify the speed of the hostile response 10,000 meters to the concentrated fluids before the<br>physical exertion of the individuals of the research sample. The research sample was determined by the<br>deliberate selection of young runners in athletics age (18-19 years) according to the classification of the<br>International Athletics Federation, as the research sample included (21) runners representing Baghdad clubs<br>and the National Center for Sports Giftedness, they were distributed randomly (by drawing lots) into three<br>groups, each group consisting of (7) runners, energy and speed of recovery, thus increasing the maximum<br>oxygen consumption and total energy drainage, sugar and sodium chloride have a great effect on energy<br>production and thus increase the maximum oxygen consumption and total energy drainage, as for water, it<br>did not have a significant effect in increasing the maximum oxygen consumption and total energy drainage.<br>The researcher recommended using concentrated liquids with water an hour and a half before running long<br>distances. From fatigue and increases the speed of recovery, drinking concentrated fluids before, during, and<br>after long-distance runs reduces the incidence of fatigue, thus delaying the onset of lactic acid and increases<br>energy production.</p> Ahmed Abdulrazzaq Fadhil, Emad Amanah Kaittan, Mohammed Amanah Kaittan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Psychosocial Climate and Its Relationship to Mental Distraction among Some Students of the Faculties of Physical Education and Sports Sciences <p>The needs of students are many and varied in the diversity of their physical and social formation, and the<br>psychosocial climate, which is one of the important and influential psychological processes in the nature of<br>the university atmosphere, which has an effect and relationship with mental distraction from the intellectual<br>side, and therefore it is necessary to identify this relationship, explain it and find appropriate solutions to it,<br>and that the rise the behavior and feeling of students should be characterized by positive energy, in addition<br>to the morale based on the desire and the struggle to excel in the situations of university life that will result<br>in a certain type of distinguished activity characterized by effectiveness and perseverance.</p> Maryam Abdul alameer Rashid, Sahira Razzaq Kazem Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Pulmonary Ventilation Exercises and some Respiratory Indicators in the Preparation for Olympic Lift and Achievement for Advanced Lifters <p>The research aims to identify the effect of pulmonary ventilation exercises and some respiratory indicators<br>on the preparation of the Olympic jacks and achievement for the advanced fourths, so the experimental<br>approach was adopted to treat the research problem, the research sample was intentionally chosen from (20)<br>different players, they were divided into two experimental and control groups using the method of random<br>division.(1) The homogeneity and equivalence processes were performed to initiate one point for the data of<br>the two research samples, after taking pre-measurements for them (height, age, ve. Vs. vo2 max), a training<br>approach was designed to develop pulmonary ventilation and know its effect on other research variables,<br>and the results of the tribal arithmetic media were compared And the dimensionality of the two groups and<br>treating them statistically, as the most important conclusions were reached which are the void filling when<br>inhaling and holding the breath with the need to take adequate inhalation at a rate of (RR10) inhalation and<br>exhalation operations before lifting that lead to the best achievement. .(2)</p> Hayder Jabbar Abd Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Aerobic Exercise and Omega 3 Supplementation to Reduce Primary Dysmenorrhea (Literature Review) <p>Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that is felt in the absence of organic disease.<br>Hypersecretion of prostaglandins, especially PGF2a and PGE2 and increased uterine contractility are the<br>main causes of primary dysmenorrhea during menstruation in women. Omega 3 can reduce menstrual pain<br>by reducing levels of prostaglandins during menstruation. besides aerobic exercise can be done as one way<br>to reduce the severity of primary dysmenorrhea.<br>Methods: This study used a literature review method using comprehensive strategies such as searching for<br>articles in research journal databases, searching through the internet, reviewing articles. The data database<br>search used was Proquest, Pubmed,, Elsevier journal. The inclusion criteria in this study<br>are British journals that discuss physiology, omega 3, aerobic exercise, and primary dysmenorrhea. The<br>exclusion criteria in this study were international journals that had been published over the last 5 years in<br>2021.<br>Result: Based on a review of research results, it is clear that regular aerobic exercise can significantly reduce<br>primary dysmenorrhea due to increased progesterone. Omega 3 supplementation can significantly reduce<br>primary dysmenorrhea because it can inhibit prostaglandin production<br>Conclusion: Aerobic exercise and omega 3 supplementation can reduce primary dysmenorrhea during<br>menstruation</p> Novadri Ayubi, Dhea Regita Sastika Putri Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Haplotyping of Echinococcus granulosus Isolates From Human, Sheep and Cattles Hydatid Cysts in Some Central Euphrates Provinces, Iraq <p>This study included nine samples collected from the infected (liver and lung) divided into three equal<br>samples (sheep, cattle and humans) collected from some Central Euphrates Provinces for the period from the<br>beginning August 2019 till February 2020. PCR technique was performed for in detection and genotyping<br>of Echiococcus granulosus hydatid cyst based on mitochondrial Cox1 gene and Nad1 genes in isolates.<br>This technique was carried out according to method described by Nikmanesh et al. (2014). The present<br>study aimed to showed haplotype genetic and the frequency percentage of it in the Central Euphrates<br>region.the result showed the H15 haplotype was a higher frequency followed it ( H10, H11) and then (H5).<br>The frequency percentage of the haplotype genetic in the current study of the taken samples (8) that the<br>prevalence and frequency of haplotype genetic H15 was 37.5%, followed by the genotype ( H10,H11) at<br>25% for both them , and the lowest was the genotype (H5) at 12.5% The human samples registered 100%<br>for (H15) , the sheep registered 50 % for H5, H10.While cattle samples registered 33.3 % for H10 and 66.6<br>for H11 . Isolation H15 is the essential in the infection to humans as a result of dogs were fed hydatid cysts<br>of cattle origin, and there is no relationship between sheep and humans, while there is a relationship between<br>sheep and cattle in the Haplotype (H10).</p> Nabaa Zahid Sabri Shani Al-Hasnawi, Ahmed Khudhair Al-Hamairy, Huda Jasim M. Altameme Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Serum Hepcidin Level in Iraqi Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Relation to Serum Iron Status Naeem Mohammed Mohsen Al-Abedy, Ehab Dawood Salman, Safa A Faraj Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Thermal Effect Created by Diode 810 nm Laser with Methylene Blue Stain: Histological an in Vitro Study Ali M. Sadeq, Balsam S. Abdulhameed, Ameer Dh. Hameedi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>R</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Protective Effect of Cladophora glomerate Algae Ethanolic Extract on Some Biochemical Parameters in Rats Experimental Induced Diabetes <p>The efficacy of alcoholic extract of Cladophora glomerate(Cg) algae in lowering levels of glucose , cholesterol<br>and triglycerides in male rats with diabetes induced with Alloxan and as will as the histopathology of the<br>pancreas was investigated in this report. The results showed that the alcoholic extract of algae reduced of<br>glucose cholesterol and triglycerides levels significantly and a histological examination of pancreatic tissue<br>revealed the therapeutic potential of Cladophora glomerate algae in inhibiting alloxan toxicity of alloxan.</p> Amal K. Abbas, Lubab G. Ali, Osama, I. Awad, Shaymaa, A. Ezaldeen Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Association of TSHR Gene rs2268458 Polymorphism with Thyroid Disorders (Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism) in a Sample of Iraqi Patients Yasimin Hassan Juma’a, Risala Hussain Allami Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Microleakage under Sapphire Brackets Bonded with Three Different Orthodontic Adhesives after Thermocycling and Water Storage (An in Vitro Study) <p>Objectives: To evaluate and compare the microleakage between enamel-adhesive, bracket-adhesive<br>interfaces at occlusal and gingival sides of sapphire brackets bonded with three different light-cure adhesive<br>systems after thermocycling and 2 months water storage.<br>Materials and Methods: Sapphire brackets bonded to forty eight intact extracted upper premolar randomly<br>assigned according to orthodontic adhesive systems used into three equal groups (n=16) with different color<br>coding: Conventional Transbond XT; Transbond XT plus self-etching primer; Resin-modified glass ionomer<br>cement (RMGIC) GC Fugi Ortho LC. After bonding and thermocycling, half of samples (8 teeth) in each<br>group, tested immediately after thermocycling and 24 hours of water storage and the remaining 8 teeth were<br>incubated in distilled water to be tested after 2 months of water storage. After each storage interval, samples<br>were subjected to a dye penetration test and examined under a stereomicroscope with image analyzer<br>software to assess the degree of microleakage in mm. Data was analyzed using the non-parametric tests.<br>Results: After both storage time intervals, RMGIC group displayed higher microleakage than other groups<br>with high significant differences with Transbond XT group and more microleakage seen at gingival margin<br>than occlusal margin in all groups. The microleakage values increased after 2 months storage, but without<br>significant differences.<br>Conclusion: The type of adhesive systems could effect the amount of microleakage and higher value<br>under brackets bonded with RMGIC with more microleakage gingivally than occlusally. The microleakage<br>increased after thermocycling with 2 months water storage.</p> Omaima Lateef Salman, Reem Atta Rafeeq Al-Ani Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Ginger Tea on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting among Patients Attending the Oncology Teaching Hospital, Baghdad 2020 <p>Background: Ginger has been widely used to relieve nausea and vomiting in several settings, one of<br>them, patients receiving chemotherapy. This study was done to assess the effect of ginger in controlling the<br>chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) among patients. Methods: An interventional (pre-post)<br>study design was conducted in oncology teaching hospital in Baghdad for three months. Sixty participants<br>were randomly assigned into intervention group (30 participants received ginger tea (1.5 g/d) with routine<br>antiemetic regimen for the first 5 days of the chemotherapy cycle) and control group (30 participants received<br>only routine antiemetic regimen). MASCC Antiemesis Tool (MAT) was used for assessment of CINV in<br>cancer patients before and after the use of ginger tea.<br>Results: No significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups in the acute<br>and delayed phases of CINV after intervention with ginger tea(p &gt;0.05), but difference between the study<br>groups was found statistically significant (p &lt;0.05)regarding the severity of nausea postchemotherapy.<br>Conclusions: The addition of ginger tea to routine antiemetic regimen in patients receiving chemotherapy<br>effectively reduced the severity of nausea. However, there is no additional role for ginger in reducing the<br>acute and delayed phases of CINV.</p> Remal Adel Kadhim, Besmah Mohammed Ali, Maysaa Adel Kadhim, Samer Jassim Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Development and Assessment of New Bioactive Glass Fiber Post. Part II: Ion’s Release <p>Objectives: This study was designed to develop and assess the ions release property of an innovative<br>experimental bioactive fiber-reinforce composite as a new material for an intra-canal post.<br>Study Design: An in vitro study<br>Materials and Methods: Surface treated unidirectional E-glass fiber were impregnated and implanted with<br>a triple cure, self-adhesive ACTIVA BioACTIVE resin cement to fabricate an experimental bioactive glass<br>fiber post using hand lay-up moulding technique and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) moulds, The cylindrical<br>and rectangular form specimens were prepared, for each specimen, ensure 3min for self-cure setting, then<br>light-cured for the 40s. The specimens were individually immersed in a deionized (DI) water, and sodium<br>chloride solution to assess the fluoride ion release, and calcium-phosphate ions release sequentially. Virgin<br>ACTIVA BioACTIVE cement was used as a reference group for all investigations.<br>Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was achieved by means of independent variable t-test, oneway<br>ANOVA, and Bonferroni Pairwise comparisons utilizing IBM-SPSS software.<br>Results: Experimental material recognized a significant reduction in F-, Ca+2, and PO4<br>3- release after<br>reinforcement compared to virgin ACTIVA BioACTIVE.<br>Conclusions: The ACTIVA BioACTIVE cement’s reinforcement process reduced the ion release intensity<br>of the material but not affected the releasing pattern.</p> Akram M. A. Altamimi, Manhal A. Majeed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Isolation of Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci from Hemodialysis Patients in Al-Najaf Province <p>Information about methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is unavailable in our<br>province, in comparison with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Two hundred and forty isolates of<br>Staphylococci were recovered from hemodialysis patients, from July-2019 to January-2020. Antimicrobial<br>susceptibility was performed for methicillin-resistant CoNS, by using the Kirby and Bauer technique.<br>mecA gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results revealed that the infections were<br>predominant in males (66.7%) especially in the age group more than 60 years old. Patients from urban areas<br>occupied the highest percent in comparison with the rural areas.<br>Staphylococcus epidermidis was predominant among other isolated genera (63.33%), of these forty strains<br>(26.32%) were mecA positive, while Staphylococcus saprophyticus takes only (16.67%) and six isolates were<br>appeared to be mecA positive. Resistant patterns illustrated that most mecA positive strains were resistant to<br>more than one antibiotic of none-beta lactam antibiotics especially rifampin (60.87%).<br>In conclusion, the increase of the antibiotic-resistant by coagulase-negative staphylococci, and in particular<br>mec A gene containing CoNS, is a risk factor for residents of the holy city of Najaf.</p> Oday Mitib Hadi, Ihsan Khadum Humaidy Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Insulin Resistance, Lipid Profile, BMI in Type II Diabetic Patients <p>Background: Zinc is one of the most important essential trace metals in human nutrition and lifestyle with<br>special role in diabetic patients mainly due to its involvement in insulin production, storage and secretion.-<br>Objectives: to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on changing insulin resistance ,modifying lipid<br>profile and body mass index(BMI) in type II diabetics.-Design and Setting: A randomized controlled clinical<br>trial.-Study participants: the study was carried on 50 type II diabetic patients, both gender and followed for<br>6 weeks. the participants were randomly divided into intervention group who receives 50 mg/d elemental<br>zinc and control group without zinc supplement.-Materials: S. zinc, fasting plasma glucose(FPG), fasting<br>S. insulin, HbA1c, lipid profile, BMI were measured at the beginning(before supplementation and at the end<br>of the 6 weeks duration.<br>Results: After 6 weeks of zinc supplementation, serum zinc levels improved significantly (P=0.0001). There<br>was no significant difference in BMI (P=0.092). Insulin resistance (IR), HbA1c were significantly decreased<br>(change mean -0.75 P=0.004 and -0.72, P=0.001) respectively. HDL-C was significantly increased (change<br>mean 3.56 mg/dl P=0.022). TG and TC were significantly decreased (change mean-10.92mg/dl P=0.001 and<br>– 3.52mg/dl P=0.009) respectively. There was significant positive correlation between zinc intake and serum<br>zinc level (R2=0.432).-Conclusion: Our study results revealed that supplementation of 50 mg zinc sulphate<br>improves insulin resistance and induces more healthy lipid profile, while it has no significant effect on BMI<br>of type II diabetic patients after 6 weeks of supplementation.</p> Ghusoon T. Witwit, Besmah M. Ali, Yasameen Alsaffar, Anmar D. Ghazala Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Neuron Specific Enolase Level and some Related Biochemical Factors in Patients with Diabetic Peripheral Nerve Disorders <p>Background: the disorder of neuron system by the action of hyperglycemia is Diabetic neuropathy<br>considers a common diabetic complication which is associated with a wide scope of clinical cases. Peripheral<br>neuropathy (PN) represents a clinical case, wherein the peripheral nervous system is damaged. Accordingly,<br>biochemical parameters have importance to apply as good predictor factors. Accordingly we attempt to<br>assess the biochemical factors of Neuron Specific Enolase NSE, Calpotectin CALP, Xanthine Oxidase XOD<br>in patients suffering from this type of diabetes complications as early predictors and study their correlations.<br>Methods: Fifty eight patients are known to have diabetic mellitus, which is classified into three groups.<br>Group I represents DPN of 30 patients, group II referred to 28 diabetic patients without DPN, in addition<br>to 30 healthy subjects as a control group, with range age (38-70) years old. BMI was determined for all the<br>studied groups. Levels of FBS, lipid categories and HbA1C were estimated. NSE, CALP and XOD levels<br>were measured by ELISA method. hs-CRP also determine for patients and control.<br>Results: The results revealed that levels of both FBS and HbA1C are increased significantly (p&lt;0.05)<br>in both patients groups rather than healthy subjects. Moreover, results recorded an important increase of<br>cholesterol, TGs, LDL and VLDL levels (p&lt;0.05). in contrast the HDL decrease in the two patient groups<br>related to healthy group. Increased levels of NSE, CALP, XOD and hs-CRP in DPN group and diabetic<br>group compared with control group. The results of this study showed a direct correlation between BMI and<br>FBS, in addition to BMI and hsCRP which possess the same correlation. Analysis by ROC curve showed that<br>both NSE and CALP are representing the strongest markers for diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy followed<br>by XOD and hs-CRP respectively.<br>Conclusion: Levels of the studied factors consider good indicators to use them as suitable markers for early<br>detection of diabetic sensory neuropathy. The results of ROC curve analysis revealed that NSE and CALP is<br>the strongest biomarker for diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.</p> Zina J. Ghaib, Kadhim K. Ghudhaib, Firas Y. Mohsen Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Prophylactic and Ameliorative Effects of Vinpocetine Against Lead Induced Hepatotoxicity by Evaluation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Interlukin-10, Interlukin-1beta and Caspase 3 Manal Abdulkhaliq Ibrahim, Sarah T Omran, Noora S. Ghalib Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effects of Vitex Agnus Castus Leave Extract on Induced Retinal Angiogenesis in Rabbit <p>Retinal pathologic angiogenesis is the leading cause of blindness in human generate from age-related<br>macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and premature retinopathy (ROP).The aim of this study<br>is to investigate the effect of vitex agnus castus leave extract on induced retinal angiogenesis in rabbits<br>by intravitreal injection of VEGF. Alcoholic extract of vitex agnus castus prepared and formulated for<br>intravitreal injection. Twenty four pigmented rabbits included in this study and allocated into four equal<br>groups(6 rabbits in each group): Retinal angiogenesis induced group, group treated by bevacizumab, group<br>treated by 100mcg of Vitex agnus castus leave extract, and group treated by 50mcg of Vitex agnus castus<br>leave extract as intravitreal injection. Parameters include matrixmetalloproteinase-9, intracellular adhesion<br>molecule-1. The result of the current study revealed that intravitreal injection of Vitex agnus castus leave<br>extract was reduced the level of MMP-9 and ICAM-1 in comparison with retinal angiogenesis induced<br>group after one week of retinal angiogenesis induction , although it was non-significant (P&gt;0.05).</p> Sara Wathiq Hadi, Shihab Abdulrahman Shihab Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Forensic Assessment of Genotoxic Effects of Lead Metal on leaf Phragmites australis Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) Markers <p>The influence lead metal on DNA integrity in leaf plant can measure by potential effects of pollutants<br>accumulation metal, Pb in leaf plant Phragmites australis was subjected to RAPD analysis, have been found<br>metal at concentrations of S1, S2,S3 (0.045 , 2.97, 0.93) Respectively. polymorphisms became evident as<br>the presence and absence of DNA fragments in affected samples compared to effect samples. Five prime<br>was selected OP-L05, OP-M14, OP-M20, OP-V09 and OP-M05 were used , the genomic DNA of leaf did<br>not appear polymorphic band at OP-L05 except molecular weight 600bp and presence of polymorphic band<br>,OP-M20 show only polymorphic band at 850bp,OP-M05 did not show any polymorphisms and OP-M14,<br>OP-V09 primers appeared polymorphisms when compare unexposed in control, this study confirmed RAPD<br>markers a fast and simple technique can be used detection of forensic environmental.</p> Ahmed Ghalib Ibraheem, Reyam Naji Ajmi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Immunologial Study of IL32-gamma in Different Hepatitis B Virus Patient Groups at Alnajaf City <p>Hepatitis B virus is a member of the Hepadnaviridae family and responsible for causing acute and chronic<br>hepatitis in humans. This review deals with our current understanding of the virology, life cycle and<br>immunopathology effecting of this very important pathogen. the present study show the relationship between<br>HBV infection and the rule of IL32 gamma against it ,all of which are considered essential for current and<br>future approaches to antiviral treatment. The study was conducted on 159 patients [ 43(53.75%) males and<br>37(46.25%) females] during December ,2019 to July 2020 at AL-Najaf province. They suffering from signs<br>and symptoms of liver diseases.</p> Ayat Hussein Shubbar, Fahem M. D Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>B</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Significance of Elevated Lactate Dehydrogenase and Creatine Kinase Activities as Prognostic Biomarkers for the Mortality in Patients with Terminal Cancers <p>Background: Both creatine kinase (CK) and/or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) mutually are elevated<br>significantly in many tumors. This study hypothesizes that LDH was evaluated as a prognostic factor for<br>survival time in patients with terminal cancer (PTC). Additionally, CK considered as a valuable in assessing<br>prognosis of advanced cancer patients. This study aimed to estimate the change in the CK/LDH levels<br>in patients with different types of cancer comparing with the controls, and to investigate their prognostic<br>significance for survival time termination in PTC.<br>Methodology: The study was performed at Cancer Central Research Clinic in Baghdad. We quantitated CK/<br>LDH using the colorimetric method in sixty PTC, and twenty age/sex-matched healthy adults.<br>Results: Serum values of CK/LDH were significantly increased in PTC compared to the controls (p&lt;0.001).<br>There was a weak non-significant correlation between CKLDH in PTC and control. There was a nonsignificant<br>correlation of CK to LDH levels in different cancer types, except in patients with lymphatic<br>cancer.<br>Conclusion: In agreement with our hypothesis, serum levels of CK/LDH were significantly increased as the<br>patients approached death.</p> Qasim J. AL-Daami, Hayder AA. Al-Hindy, Rzaq S. Kaurshead, Rawaa G. Abdullah Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Measurement of the Radioactivity Levels for Some Food Products Imported to Iraq and Estimation of the Risk to Consumers <p>In this study, Uranium (238U), Thorium (232Th), Radium (226Ra) and Potassium (40K) activity concentrations<br>were measured in 34 samples of biscuit, pastry, dessert, cakes and nestles manufactured in Turkey, Ukraine,<br>Poland, Spain, France, Russia, Turkmenistan, Iran, Jordan, Algeria, India, Morocco, Kingdom of Saudi<br>Arabia, Emirates, in addition to locally produced biscuit sample manufactured in Iraq using gamma-ray<br>spectrometry system. The average activity concentrations were 69.09±24.89 Bq/kg for 238U, 26.75±11.13<br>Bq/kg for 232Th, 4.86±1.16 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 178.84±58.39 Bq/kg for 40K. The effective doses arising<br>from ingestion of naturally occurring radioactive materials in the investigated food samples ranged from<br>0.068±0.02 mSv/y for adults (age &gt; 17 y) to 0.191±0.05 mSv/y for children (age 1–2 y), with a mean value<br>of 0.12 mSv/y. It was found that the estimated potential radiation doses for investigated population groups<br>were below the dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/y. The corresponding average radiation risk for all population<br>groups (6×10-6 per year) was found to be significantly lower than that considered acceptable in the relevant<br>International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety standards (10-5 per year). The results presented in<br>current study confirm that the potential radiation doses and radiological hazards associated with intake of<br>the natural radionuclides in the imported and locally produced food species is acceptable and well within<br>permissible limits. Hence, the imported and locally produced food species investigated in this study were<br>considered safe for human consumption with respect to radiological hazards.</p> Muhannad Kh. Mohammed, Mohammed Sh. Naji, Nabeel H. Ameen, Huda N. Karkosh Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Nutritional Assessment of Patients with Liver Cirrhosis in GIT and Liver Hospital, Baghdad, 2020 <p>Introduction: Liver cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term<br>damage which is characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue by scar tissue.<br>Patients and Methods: Cross-sectional study to a group of patients with liver cirrhosis. The data collection<br>was done between September 25 to November 2020 at the GI and Liver Center in Baghdad Medical City.<br>Convenient sample were chosen and each one was examined individually by a questionnaire designed for<br>this purpose. Body wight and height was measured, body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each one of<br>them.<br>Results: The mean BMI for both genders were within normal range (25±4.86), it was higher in males<br>(25.8±4.56) than in females (22.79±5.11). Underweight was observed in 4 cases (6.7%), Normal BMI was<br>recorded in 25 (41%) of cases, overweight was seen in 20 (33.3%) of patients and 15% was obese while only<br>two patients were extremely obese (3.3%), there was no significant difference for BMI between genders.<br>Mean energy intake was 1575.32±381.3 which had a high significant difference compared to recommended<br>intake.<br>Discussion: This study had shown that mean age is (54.4±13.14). Poor nutritional status is related to worse<br>prognosis and increases the mortality rates in liver cirrhosis, malnutrition is usual in patients and associated<br>with poor outcome. Nutritional support decreases nutrition associated complication. Current study revealed<br>that (51.6 %) of the subjects were alcoholic. The study showed that most of the patients found to take<br>balanced diet (38, 63.3%) compared to patients take unbalanced diet (22, 36.7%).<br>Conclusion: Most of the patients had malnutrition. The patients need to enhance their knowledge about<br>nutrition-related issues as a part of strategies to avoid nutritional inadequacies.Patients had modified diet<br>that does not meet with their nutritional needs in regarding to their health status.Energy adequacy is present<br>in more than half had lower than recommended.</p> Saif M. Badr, Nawal M. Alkhalidi, Mohsin Ahmed Aldelfi, Jawad K. Al-Diwan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Laser Surface Structuring of Commercial Pure Titanium <p>Aim This Study existent laser surface structuring of commercial pure titanium (Ti) grade II dental implant<br>,surface structuring of the titanium implant expected causing decrease the time of implant healing and<br>accelerated the periimplant bone formation. So the present study aimed was in vitro evaluation of commercial<br>pure titanium when subjected to two laser surface structuring (dot and groove) in different laser scans and<br>comparing with titanium surface that not subjected to any surface structuring (control) by using optical<br>microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction analysis (XRD) test.<br>Materials and Methods: CNC fiber laser machine laser was used for performing the structuring on the<br>surface of the commercial pure titanium (CP Ti) disks and then analyzed with the control group by optical<br>microscope, SEM and XRD test. The study groups are: polished CP Ti (control); (5, 15 and 25) CP Ti with<br>dot design laser scans; (5, 15 and 25) CP Ti with groove design laser scans.<br>Results the optical and SEM results showed a uniform homogenous structure on the surface of the CP Ti for<br>the two design of all tested laser scans (5, 15 and 25). The XRD results show an increasing in the titanium<br>oxide layer for the disks with laser structuring comparing to the control one which predicted to increase<br>titanium osseointegration while maintaining biocompatibility characteristics of the CP Ti.<br>Conclusions: CNC fiber laser machine are successful method for CP Ti surface structuring. For both laser<br>surfaces structuring design, the 25 laser scan showed more promising results follow by 15 laser scan then 5<br>laser scan and lastly the control group.</p> Aseel Mohammed Al-Khafaji, Thekra Ismael. Hamad Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Influence of, Surface Roughness and Different Types of Coating and Implantation Materials on the Frictional Forces of Aesthetic NiTi Arch Wires <p>Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study is that NiTi esthetic arch wires are preferred to match esthetic<br>braces; but the presence of coating layer is greatly affect friction during sliding mechanics.<br>The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of surface roughness with the coating material types<br>(coating and ion implanted) on the frictional force of coated nickel titanium wires.<br>Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 140 segments of coated Nickle titanium arch wires for both<br>tests (friction test and roughness test) 70 segment for each test involving wire dimensions (0.016 × 0.022<br>and 0.019 × 0.025 inches). The static frictional force was measured through pulling the wires through a set<br>of ceramic brackets by the universal testing machine while, the surface topography of wires were assessed<br>by using Atomic force microscope (AFM). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance<br>(ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc significance difference tests. Differences were considered significant at<br>P&lt;0.05.<br>Results: The frictional forces of coated wires differ from uncoated control being higher in the control and<br>polymer coated wires and lesser in the rhodium, gold implanted and labial coated wires owing to differences<br>in the wire dimension, surface roughness, thickness of coating layer, and physical properties of coating<br>materials.<br>Conclusion: when tested in vitro, rhodium implanted wires produce the least amount of friction, Surface<br>roughness of fully coated arch wires was higher than non-coated counterpart and It appeared that frictional<br>forces does not correlated with the surface.</p> Maher Saad Mohammed, Sami AL-Juborri Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Topical Tadalafil Gel in Imiquimod-induced Psoriasiform Skin Inflammation in Mice Nihad Hussein Ahmed, Adeeb Ahmed Kadhim Al-Zubaidy, Ban Jumaah Qasim Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Analysis of Rehospitalization of Preterm and Term Infants in First Month of Life <p>Background: rehospitalization of preterm and term neonates was planned readmission to the hospital within<br>30 days post birth discharge prematurity is the main reasons of neonatal illness and death in concentrated<br>care units universal. The aim of study to study the reasons of rehospitalization of preterm plus term infants<br>in first month of life and analyze the reasons of rehospitalization in relation to infantile and maternal sociodemographic<br>and medical characteristics. Method: It is descriptive cross sectional study in hospital on<br>200 preterm and term infants who were be concerned in the neonatal care units in Babylon Maternity<br>and Pediatrics Hospital, Imam Sadik General Teaching Hospital. Results: 200 cases of preterm and term<br>neonates were screened and enrolled in the study. The mean and standard deviation of current maternal age<br>and maternal age at marriage in year were (25.88 ± 7.89) , (20.82 ± 5.56) respectively. 45% of neonates<br>with birth weight less than 2500 Kg, 48.5% of neonates with gestational age of less than 37 weeks, 35% of<br>neonates were admitted due to prematurity at first admission , 53.5% of neonatal rehospitalizations was due<br>to jaundice. The second cause of rehospitalization was infection in 26.5% of neonates, this study found that<br>3.5% of neonatal readmission were due to surgical follow up , 62% of rehospitalized neonates the cause is<br>medical follow up. Conclusion: Jaundice was the major cause of readmission to hospital in both term and<br>preterm neonates. The relation between preterm and early admission (particularly for jaundice and feeding<br>problems) was well documented.</p> Athba Alaa Madhloom, Sijal Fadhil Farhood Al-Joborae Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Clinical and Immunological Evaluation of Isotretinoin in Patients with Acne Vulgaris Zahraa I. J. Shubber, Entisar Jawad Al mukhtar, Ifad Kerim Al-Shibly Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Outcome of Using Medical Grade Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate (DentoGen) in Unilateral Alveolar Cleft Repair <p>Objectives: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of fast setting (DentoGen) bone<br>substitute for secondary alveolar cleft repair.<br>Materials and Methods: Ten patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate were included for alveolar<br>cleft repair with fast setting (DentoGen) without autogenous bone graft in 2017 and 2018. Pre-operation and<br>6 months post-operation CBCT were used for measurement of bone density and bone volume in cleft site.<br>The data was analyzed by using Pearson’s correlation coefficient test and paired sample t-test via SPSS<br>software version 24.<br>Results: The mean age of patients in this study was 10.4±2.657 years. The pre-operative mean alveolar cleft<br>volume was 0.8996±0.117cm3. Six months after grafting with fast setting (DentoGen) graft, satisfactory<br>bone formation was observed in all patients except two patients. The mean bone density of cleft site was<br>303±42.843 HU which was significantly lower than the non-cleft side, and the mean percentage of new bone<br>formation was 64.74±10.290% compared with original cleft volume.<br>Conclusion: Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (DentoGen) can represent a promising alternative to autogenous<br>bone graft in repairing small unilateral alveolar cleft during mixed dentition.</p> Haidar Mohammed Al-Jwboory, Sabah Abdulaziz Issa Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>B</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Glycogen Phosphorylase BB (GPBB) Level in Serum as Marker in Diagnosis of Acute Ischemic Stroke <p>Objective: We aimed to investigate whether Serum levels of glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB) isoform<br>could be used as a potential diagnostic biomarker in Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) patients or not.<br>Materials and methods : glycogen phosphorylase BB were prospectively evaluated in 40 patients aged<br>between 40 to 70 y who were admitted within 24 h of the onset of AIS. The control group included 40<br>healthy volunteers of similar age without any disease.<br>Results: There is a significant elevation in the level of GPBB in ischemic stroke group and compared with<br>control group. For Control, the observations of GPBB had an Min = 4.91 For Stroke, the observations of<br>GPBB had an Min = 15.32<br>There was a significant positive correlation between stoke and Glycogen phosphorylase (rpb = 0.7473,<br>p&lt; .001). The correlation coefficient between Stroke and Glycogen phosphorylase was 0.7473 indicating<br>a large effect size. This indicates that moving from the Not having to having Stroke is associated with<br>an increase in Glycogen phosphorylase. Therefore, Stroke tends to be associated with higher values of<br>Glycogen phosphorylase<br>Conclusions: 1-This study shows there is significant elevation in enzyme level of glycogen phosphorylase<br>BB (GPBB) in ischemic stroke group and compared with control group.</p> Gheyath AlGawwam, Zeena abdul Iilah, Maryam Emad Shake Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study of Immune Status for Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis B Virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in Sera of University Students <p>The study was conducted to know the range of spread of Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis B virus,<br>and Toxoplasma gondii among students at Al-Mustaqbal University College, its impact on society in the<br>province of Babylon. Therefore this study includes the evaluation of the immune status in sera of students<br>to the investigation from Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus by IgM/IgG rapid test and<br>Hepatitis B virus by HBV-5 rapid test of 90 specimens that were collected during the period extending from<br>January 2019 to March 2019. Data about individuals have been collected aseptically in sterile containers,<br>after getting all data in the special formula including, name, gender, age. It revealed that Cytomegalovirus<br>formed (CMV) 13.3% followed by Toxoplasma gondii 0% Rubella 0%, depending on IgM. While shows<br>result in IgG seropositivity to Rubella was 60% followed by CMV was 36.7% and Toxoplasma was 10%.<br>The results of the present study showed that all HBs Ag and HBe Ag were negative whereas HBe Ab and<br>HBc Ab were positive, while HBs Ab was only three positive from other samples.</p> Saif A.J. Al-Shalah, Doaa Adil Abood, Sarah Kassab Shandaway Al-Zamali, Israa Habeeb Nasser, Laith A.I.K. Al-Kaif Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Acute toxicity of Neonicotinoids and Carbamete on Honey Bee Apis mellifera L <p>Background and Objectives: The current study represents the first part of a Ph.D. research project<br>conducted at The University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada in co-operation with the University of Babylon,<br>Hilla – Iraq. The main objective of this part was to estimate the acute toxicity (LD 50) of clothianidin,<br>imidacloprid (neonicotinoids), and carbaryl (Crabmeat) to honey bees. Method: The Three insecticides have<br>been blamed for the colony collapse disorder (CCD) crisis, newly emerged adult bees were challenged orally<br>and topically with a serial of doses of the three insecticides. Determination of the LD50 of each insecticide<br>revealed that clothianidin was the most toxic insecticide to bees in oral and topical applications compared<br>to the other two insecticides. The findings: The oral LD50 values were 0.004, 0.15, and 0.36 for<br>clothianidin, imidacloprid, and carbaryl respectively. The topical LD50 values were 0.034, 0.085, and 0.24<br>for the three insecticides respectively Data were statistically analyzed by probit analysis using the<br>US Environmental protection Agency statistical program (version 1-5).</p> Hassan Tarek, Ali S. Moalif, Ernesto Guzman Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Applications of Non-thermal Atmospheric Plasma in Restorative Dentistry: A Narrative Review <p>Plasma-related technologies are essential in modern industries. Recently, plasma has attracted increased<br>attention in the biomedical field. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is widely used for various therapeutic<br>applications in health care. Particularly in dentistry, this paper supplies an essential knowledge of plasma<br>and a narrative review of plasma uses in restorative dentistry. There have been efforts to use NTP technology<br>in restorative dentistry involving modifications of dental surfaces, adhesion, treatment of dental caries, and<br>tooth bleaching. Although various investigations were in the recent stages, the prospective value of NTP<br>for dental uses has been occured. To extende the scope of plasma approaches and put suitable research to<br>practical use, interdisciplinary research with the participation of dental professionals is recommended.</p> Maitham Yahya Al-Tufaili, Sara Valizadeh Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Bio-Molecular Allele Frequencies Availability of 23Y-Str Markers Polymorphisms and Odontogenic Diseases in Iraqi Population Study <p>Orofacial diseases of multidiscipline nature from carious lesions to tumors are significant diseases attack<br>a large number of individuals around the world. However, In the recent years, bioinformatics methods<br>have been reported to analyses several loci of simultaneously. Moreover, Analysis of molecular variance<br>(AMOVA) (23) was performed to measure the genetic<br>distance between the Iraqi population<br>sample and<br>reference data from populations. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 23 Y-STR loci<br>from PowerPlex® Y23 system in 313 unrelated healthy male individuals from Iraqi populations, and<br>observed 283 different haplotypes including 269 unique haplotypes and 16 duplicate haplotypes. in which<br>283 different haplotypes was identified classified into 264 (93, 23%) as a unique Haplotype and 19 (6,<br>77%) as replicated haplotype among individuals. The highest haplotype were found in sample H45, H85,<br>H135,H213 and H241 at frequency 0.010 ( haplotype replicated 3 times ), While 264 haplotype with 0.0033<br>frequency and haplotype diversity was 0.996 with a discrimination capacity 0.93 respectively. The gene<br>diversity values ranged from 0.3942 at DYS438 to 0.9607 at DYS385a/b. Such results indicated that the 23<br>Y-STR loci were highly polymorphic in Bagdad population and played crucial roles in forensic application<br>as well as population genetics. For the first time, we reported the genetic diversity of male lineages in<br>Bagdad population at a high-resolution level of 23 Y-STR set and consequently contributed to familial<br>searching, Odontologic science application tracking, and anthropology analysis of Bagdad population.</p> Mohammed Mahdi Al-Zubaidi, Ammar Riyad Mohi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Determination Total Creatine Kinase Activity and Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes Activities in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease under Infliximab Therapy <p>Creatine kinase (CK) catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from creatine phosphate to adenosine<br>diphosphate, and the CK has three isoenzymes CK-MM, CK-MB and CK-BB. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and<br>Crohn’s disease (CD) they are both conditions characterized by long life inflammation of the gastrointestinal<br>system. The Purpose of this study was to determine the total CK activity and CK isoenzymes in patients<br>with Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis under Infliximab therapy. For the UC patients, CD patients and<br>controls the CK isoenzyme activities and total CK activity was measured, the three CK isoenzymes separate<br>by suitable ion-exchanger small columns (DEAE-Sephadex A-50 exchanger). The results display Creatine<br>kinase isoenzyme chromatograms of all studied groups (UC, CD patients and controls), with variable<br>activities of (CK-BB) and (CK-MB) isoenzymes with noted an elevation of (CK-MM) isoenzyme activities<br>and significantly elevation total CK activity in serum of patient groups after therapy when compared with<br>before therapy patient groups.</p> Mustafa S. Al-timimi, Yasser A. H. Al-Issa, Nawal M. Alkhalidi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Prospective Study on Group of Heart Failure Patients in Ibn Al-Bitar Center for Cardiac Surgery for Evaluation of CRT-D Effect <p>Objectives: The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of CRT-D device on the cardiac<br>mechanics for group of patients with end-stage heart failure (HF).<br>Methods: For 13 patients with heart disease who are supposed to undergo a CRT (Cardiac Resynchronization<br>Therapy) implant, a single center study has been performed at the Ibn Al-Bitar center for cardiac surgery.<br>End stage HF (heart failure) with (NYHA class III or IV) left ventricular ejection fraction &lt; 35% and QRS<br>interval &gt;120 ms were selected for CRT. Before CRT implantation, the clinical evaluation was measured and<br>2-D echocardiography was performed to measure left ventricular volume and ejection fraction. Combining<br>both M-mode echocardiography, TDI color-coded tissue and speckle tracking technique, left ventricular<br>desynchrony has been tested. Clinical condition and increase in echocardiographic parameters (left<br>ventricular ejection fraction and volume) were re-assessed after 3 months of follow-up.<br>Results: Post CRT-D implantation, significant clinical improvement was observed in 54% of the patients.<br>Class of functional capacity decreased in the third month after implantation compared to basal levels (P &lt;<br>0.01). Left ventricular end-diastolic (LVIDd) and end-systolic diameters (LVIDs) decreased, and LV systolic<br>function improved significantly at the 3rd month after implantation when compared to baseline values.<br>Decrease in LV volumes continued to the 3rd month, that the decrease in LVESV was statistically significant<br>(P = 0.07), reduction in end-diastolic volume was also statistically significant (P = 0.07). Ejection fraction<br>and fractional shortening showed insignificant (p &gt; 0.05) increase after CRT-D implantation.<br>Discussion: Patients were divided into responders and non-responders, based on improvement in NYHA<br>functional class, it became evident that an improvement in clinical parameters was observed only in the<br>responders. Moreover, improvements in LVEF and reverse remodeling were also observed only in the<br>responders.</p> <p>Conclusion: Cardiac resynchronization therapy is considered as a therapy for patients with severe heart<br>failure, with statistically significantly improve in clinical and echocardiographic parameters.</p> Mais O. Al-Saffar, Rafid B. Al-Taweel, Zaid Al-Dahhan, Khalil Sarhan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>D</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Molecular Detection of Burkholderia cepacia and Comparative Study Between Medical Plant and Antibiotics against Bacteria Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis <p>Background: One of the major deaths causes in the patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is the impaired lung<br>function. Lately, Burkholderia cepacia was considered as a significant opportunistic pathogen in such<br>patients. Since the late 1970s, due to its increased isolation from CF patients, its ability to spread infections<br>in the community of CF patients, its role in disrupting lung function, and its inherent resistance to multiple<br>antibiotics. Those various factors are making the Burkholderia cepacia isolation one of the significant tasks<br>in cystic fibrosis health-care environment.<br>Objective: To identify the method and the complete recA nucleotide sequence, and to compare the isolated<br>bacteria from CF by medicinal plants and antibiotics.<br>Material and Methods: Bacterial identification of CF patients was carried out by standard microbiological<br>methods and identification was carried out using biochemical tests Vitek2 compact system, and PCR<br>identification to confirm the identification and evaluate the antibacterial activity in Mentha leaves and lemon<br>peel extracts against pathogenic bacteria.<br>Results: Biochemical tests and gene expression confirmed that Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas spp<br>strains were isolated from 50 sputum samples. These results indicate that Mentha leaves extract is better than<br>lemon peel extract, compares with antibiotics reveal the resistance of these bacteria.</p> Angham Najah Al-Khafaji, Mohammed Subhi Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Obesity on the Presence of Sebaceous Cysts and Some Hematological Variables <p>Background High triglycerides may lead to other conditions such as hypothyroidism or liver and kidney<br>disease. Certain medications, such as beta-blockers, birth control pills and steroids, can increase triglyceride<br>levels. Other factors can affect triglyceride levels Methodology Biochemical tests included (serum<br>cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, RBS and HbA1c These tests were performed according to the working<br>method of each analysis on the device Full automate and TUSO Hematological test included( WBC count<br>RBC count Hb and PCV) These tests were conducted at CBC device .<br>Result illustrates a study of some biochemical variables for people with lipoma and comparing them with<br>healthy peoples , where mean of the affected persons for cholesterol and triglyceride tests was 312, 296,<br>respectively, compared with the control 116, 89, respectively, and the level of sugar and HbA1c in the<br>affected persons was 11, 226 on Respectively compared to control 86, 3, respectively, and this explains that<br>there is a direct relationship between the rise in fat and blood sugar with the emergence of lipoma<br>Conclusion We conclude that the most vulnerable people are those who suffer from high levels of triglycerides<br>and cholesterol, as well as those with high blood sugar, as well as the genetic factor that plays a major role<br>in causing this disease, as the genetic factor gave a large percentage of infection with this disease, as well as<br>the quality of nutrition has a great role</p> Reem khalid Ibrahim, Mohammed S. Hussein, Shahd Hussein Rzaig Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Addition of Salinized Polypropylene Fibers and Hydroxy Apatite Macro Fillers on Some Mechanical Properties of Clear Heat Cured Acrylic before and after Artificial Aging <p>In order to restore facial and oral deformities ,we need to use a strength, esthetically acceptable and<br>biocompatible material .Heat cure acrylic resin as we used in our study(clear acrylic) for restoring facial<br>deformities as it is the material that occupy these requirements. To increase the properties of acrylic resin<br>we added salinized poly propylene fibers and hydroxyapatite macro fillers in 120 acrylic samples divided<br>in control group and two experimental groups before and after artificial aging(100hr and 200hr).Hardness,<br>impact and flexural strength are tested in this study. The results showed a none significant change in hardness<br>after addition of fibers and fillers but a significant increase in hardness after artificial aging .A significant<br>increase in impact strength after addition, significant decrease in impact strength after artificial aging .A<br>significant increase in flexural strength after addition of fibers and fillers.</p> Wasmaa Sadiq Mahmood, Zainab Salih Abdullah, Abdalbseet A Fatalla Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Comparison of Shear Bond Strength Values of Recycled Self-Ligating Ceramic Brackets with a New Ones (An-in Vitro Study) <p>Background: The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of different recyclrd procedures on shear<br>bond strength and morphological characteristics of deboned mechanically retaining self-ligating ceramic<br>brackets’ bases, then compare the results with the new brackets of the same company.<br>Material and Methods: Forty-eight mechanical retentive self-ligating ceramic brackets from Damon®<br>ClearTM company were used, thirty-six of these brackets were bonded to non-etched and slightly damp<br>buccal tooth surface in order to permit an easy debonding of these brackets by dental tweezer, these debonded<br>brackets were then allocated into three experimental groups (12 per group): recycled by sandblasting,<br>recycled via an Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation, and recycled by flame. After recycled, twelve new brackets<br>(the control) plus the previously thirty six reconditioned brackets were bonded to the forty-eight premolar<br>teeth following standardized bonding procedure.<br>Results: There were highly significant differences in the mean shear bond strength values among all groups<br>using analysis of variance F-test; in addition, the mean shear bond strength of new brackets had the highest<br>mean value of 22.90 Mpa, followed by Er,Cr:YSGG laser group 20.29 Mpa, then sandblasted group of 11.42<br>Mpa, while flame group had the lowest mean shear bond strength value of 7.63 Mpa; furthermore, the results<br>showed a significant difference in adhesive remnant index (ARI) among all groups.<br>Conclusion: all recyclrd procedures would result in a clinically acceptable shear bond strength value. The<br>Er,Cr:YSGG recyclrd procedure can effectively eradicate the adhesive from the bases of ceramic brackets<br>without jeopardizing them; thus, this technique can be preferred over other recyclrd procedures.</p> Zain Alabideen Ahmed, Mustafa M. Al-Khatieeb Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Relationship between Omentin-1, Fibrinogen and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Foot Ulceration in Babylon Province <p>Diabetes is a prolonged disease that can product in both lengthy term and little term complications. • Lengthy<br>term complications are affected by years of great blood sugar intensities in the blood vessels. • Danger of<br>complications rise the longer blood sugar heights are not below control. Several diabetes complications<br>don’t perform until after several years of having the disease. Aim of the learning To discovery out the<br>Relation among Omentin-1 ,Fibrinogen and HbA1c In patients by DFU . study sixty person with DFU and<br>sixty person actually healthy were reserved as a control group.<br>Serum Omentin-1 ,fibrinogen determind by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) . COBAS<br>HbA1c kit was resolute by colorimetric technique .Serum stages of omentin-1 was significantly deference<br>in DFU group related by control and fibrinogen was significantly deference in DFU group compared with<br>control group . A significant negative relationship among Omentin-1 then HbA1c and significant positive<br>correlation between fibrinogen and HbA1c .</p> Zinah Abbass Ali, Thana Mohammed, Ali Hussein Albayati Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Galectin-3 Level Insera Patients with Bladder Cancer in Babylon Province <p>For the assessment of Galectin-3 leveland toinvestigate the possible relation of Galectin-3 with age, gender<br>and different stage and grade of bladder cancer in Babylon province. Galectin-3 was measured in two hundred<br>subjects; 100 diagnosed with bladder cancer and 100 healthy subjectswere registered in this revision.The<br>age of patients and control ranged between (38-79) years.The level of Galectin-3was assessed in serum by<br>enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)technique.Serum levels of Galectin-3displayed a significant<br>increase in bladder cancer group associated with control group (p&lt;0.01). Amongbladder cancer patients in<br>Babylon province, increase Galectin-3 concentration indicate the significant relationshipwithbladder cancer.</p> HibaResheed Behayaa, Mufeed Jalil Ewadh, Ahmed Turki Obaid Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Rickets among a Group of Preterm Babies under the Age of Two Years at AL Ramadi Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Childhood <p>Background: Rickets of prematurity is a familiar status that leads to pathological fractures. Deficiency of<br>minerals leading to disturbed formation of bone is the most popular factor giving rise to disease and preterm<br>infants are at increased risk of developing this condition.<br>Objectives; To identify the incidence of rickets in preterm babies, and studying the risk factor associated<br>with this disease like age, gender, residence, type of feeding, and changes in some biochemical tests.<br>Patients and Methods: Across sectional study done in an outpatient clinic in maternity and childhood<br>teaching hospital, cases included in this study were children below two years old and were delivered before 37<br>weeks of gestation. The diagnosis of rickets was done radiologically. All studied babies, data were collected<br>by history about (gender, age, type of feeding, and residence). Cases which diagnosed radiologically as<br>rickets, a serological test was done for (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D).<br>Results: (29.3%) of preterm babies were diagnosed as rickets of prematurity. The most common age reported<br>with rickets was from 3months to less than13 months. Un-supplemented breast milk feeding was reported as<br>a significant risk factor while residence and gender variation were not. High alkaline phosphatase level was<br>reported in more than (90%) of rickety children.<br>Conclusion: A high incidence of rickets was found in preterm babies. Un-supplemented breastfeeding is an<br>important risk factor for the disease. Alkaline phosphatase activity and radiological features are important<br>for screening.</p> Mohammed Maher Al-Ani, Rana F. Shitran, Rafi Khaleel Al-Ani Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Embryonic Development of Spinal Cord in White Choeked Bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis) <p>The study concerned the embryonic development of spinal cord of white choeked bulbul Pycnonotus<br>leucotis. The spinal cord at the age 40 hour’s incubation from the neural tube and its tissue wall is composed<br>of two layers, the ependymal layer and mantle layer. The spinal cord differentiation is completed at the age<br>7 day’s incubation, its, were we notice that the central canal is clear and cavity lined with neurons and we<br>note the arrangement of gray matter in the form of the letter H and its inside and it is characterized by dorsal<br>and ventral horns and the gray matter substance and note the formation of dorsal medium spetum and ventral<br>medium fissure.</p> Asmaa Basheer Abed, Aws Basheer Abed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study the Relationship of PCSK9 Gene Polymorphism and PCSK9 Protein on Serum Bad Cholesterol and Risk of CVDs in Iraqi Patients <p>Cardiovascular disease responsible for number 1 of death worldwide. Many genetic and environmental<br>factors influence the development of CVDs. PCSK9 protein responsible for degradations of LDLR<br>which lead to increase blood level of bad cholesterol. Gain of function mutation in PCSK9gene result in<br>hypercholesterolemia and loss of function lead to hypocholesterolemia. Aim of this study: to investigate<br>the polymorphism of rs775278198 of PCSK9 gene and serum level of PCSK9 with their effect on LDL-C<br>level in CVDs patients. Materials and methods: a common SNP PCSK9 gene was studied using Real-<br>Time PCR and technique to show association between PCSK9 SNP with risk of developing CVDs. fifty of<br>cardiovascular diseases patients who were clinically diagnosed by physicians and fifty apparently healthy<br>individuals were conducted within this study. Blood samples were collected from all subjects after overnight<br>fasting. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and analyzed for rs775278198 SNP in PCSK9<br>gene with specific primers and probes using Real-Time PCR technique. Also, serum levels of PCSK9 were<br>evaluated using Elisa kit supplied by Bioassay Technology Laboratory. In addition LDL-C levels were<br>measured by lipid profile test kit (CHOL2) supplied by Roch. Identification of PCSK9 SNP polymorphism<br>and PCSK9 serum levels with LDL-C levels in this study success percentage of the methods. Results: in<br>Real Time PCR, CVDs patients appeared the TT (20 vs 4, OR=6, p=0.028) genotypes were significantly<br>higher in patients when compared to controls group (20 vs 4%, OR=6, P=0.028) .In comparison of the<br>serum levels of PCSK9 in CVDs patient were higher than PCSK9 serum levels in controls group (p value<br>=f0.000005) at the same time there is a positive relationship between PCSK9 serum levels and LDL-C levels<br>as measured by Pearson Correlation.</p> Rafid A. Abdulkareem, Anas Abdaljaleel Khaleel Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>xz</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of the Diagnostic Role of Gata3 Immunohistochemistry on Cytology Specimens for Metastatic Breast Carcinoma <p>Objective: Distinguishing of metastatic breast carcinoma from nonmammary metastatic carcinomas by <br>cytological examination might have some difficulties. The sensitivity of traditional tumor markers for <br>immunostaining might be not high enough . The role of GATA3 immunohistochemistry as a novel marker <br>of primary and metastatic stages of breast carcinoma in specimens of fine needle aspiration was evaluated.<br>Materials and Methods: Sections were taken from 73 cases of FNA samples of metastatic malignancies <br>including 38 metastatic breast cancer and 35 nonmammary malignancies were stained with GATA3 <br>immunohistochemical marker. Samples of FNA were taken from pleural effusion, ascetic fluid and lymph <br>nodes. <br>Results: Eighty-nine percent (34/38) of metastatic breast carcinoma cases were regarded as GATA3 positive <br>expression , while all nonmammary adenocarcinoma samples were GATA3 negative . Most of GATA3 <br>positive samples showed intense nuclear staining in the majurity of the malignant cells.<br>Conclusions: GATA3 staining is an important addition to immunohistochemical panels for fine needle <br>aspiration samples for distinguishing metastatic breast carcinoma from other malignancy.</p> Eaman Suud Khalifa, Ayser Hameed Latif Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of the Role of Pentraxin 3, B-type Natriuretic Peptide and Troponin I in Acute Carbon Monoxide Cardiotoxicity <p>Background: Acute carbon monoxide induced cardiotoxicity is one of the main causes of mortality. It <br>is considered as a poor prognostic factor in patients with carbon monoxide intoxication.Although early <br>diagnosis of cardiac injury is often difficult and might be misdiagnosed.<br>This study aimed to assess the role of Pentraxin 3 and B-type natriuretic peptide in comparison with cardiac <br>Troponin I as early predictors of cardiotoxicity in patients presented with acute CO poisoning. <br>Methods: Thirty patients with acute CO poisoning were recruited from PoisonControl Center, Ain Shams <br>University Hospitals. Serum levels of Cardiac biomarkers (Pentraxin3, BNP and Troponin I) were measured <br>on admission and after 10 hours after exposure. <br>Conclusion: Our results revealed that, B-type natriuretic peptide and Troponin I were more reliable cardiac <br>biomarkers in early prediction of cardiotoxicity in acute CO poisoning patients.While Pentraxin3 had low <br>sensitivity and specificity to predict the cardiotoxicity in acute CO poisoning in comparing with BNP and <br>Troponin I</p> Alaa Essam Mahmoud, Suzan Mostafa Mahmoud, Mona El KotbMoussa, AyaShawky Khater Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Legal Regulation of GMO Turnover and Health Protection in Russia <p>The article considersboth advantages and disadvantages of the widespread use of genetically modified <br>foodsamong the population. Special attention is drawn to insufficient arguments of their supporters and <br>opponents. The authors of the article propose to focus on the possible advances and risks of genetically <br>modified foodsfor public health. A state policy of approving or prohibiting the use of genetically modified <br>foods, including the relevant bio-policy, should be based on the priority of human life and health and the <br>interests of consumers of food products. Other arguments are secondary and subsidiary for making the <br>most important political decisions affecting the foundations of human life and the environment. Methods: <br>The research was carried out from the standpoint of theoretical analysis,general (sociological, systemic, <br>structural, functional) and specialscientific methods (comparative jurisprudence, technical and legal <br>analysis, specification, interpretation). The methodological basis of this study was the theory of knowledge.<br>Objective: The article aims at studying the possibility of GMO turnover in Russia, as well as determining <br>the purposes of their use and legal regulation.Results:It was concluded that the market authorization of <br>genetically modified products and the issuance of appropriate permissions to use them as food products, <br>whoseingredients contain a modified gene, make states answer the following question: “Do these genetically <br>modified products preservepublic health and the health of a particular individual?”.If such a goal is not <br>pursued, there is no social need (at least, in Russia) to introduce such products into civil circulation. <br>Supporting this conclusion, the authors of the article provideseveralarguments</p> Alexandr Anatolievich Mokhov, Yury Alexandrovich Svirin, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Gureev, Natalya Semenovna Posulikhina, Sergej Nikolaevich Shestov Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Research the Changes Across Three Phases of Pregnancy of Prolactin, Thyroid Hormones and Lipid Profile <p>Pregnancy allows the maternal blood to alter both the hormonal and biochemical material. This research was <br>therefore aimed at investigating the shift in the profile of Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine <br>(T3), tetraiodothyronine (Thyroxin T4), prolactin and lipid during the three stages of pregnancy. The study <br>included 30 pregnant women and 20 non-pregnant women as a control group (the age of women was <br>20-41 years). The study was performed from October to May 2017 at AL-Batool Teaching Hospital in <br>Baqubah District, Diyala Governorate, Iraq. Hormones were assessed using an automated hormone analyzer <br>(Cobase411, Roche, Germany) and the lipid profile was measured using an automated biochemistry analyzer <br>(Cobase400Integra Plus, Roche, Germany). The findings revealed a substantial elevation of prolactin in <br>the three phases of pregnancy (p&lt;0.05). While T3, T4, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) showed <br>no significant elevation (p&gt;0.05) in the first trimester relative to the control group, TC and TG increased <br>significantly (p&lt;0.05) in the second and third stages of the trimester of pregnancy and T3 and T4 increased <br>significantly (p&lt;0.05) in the first trimester compared to the control group.</p> Ali Abbas Ali, Adawia Fadhel Abbas Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Whether or Not A Shunt is Placed in the Brain (Pre/Post Repair) for Patients with a Lumbar Meningocele and Hydrocephalus Undergoing a Lumbar Meningocele Procedure <p>This study involves the important comparison in doing V-P shunt operation before surgical correction and <br>repair to the neonates born with spinal dysraphism meningocele at the lumber region versus doing V-P shunt <br>after repair of neural tube defect meningocele to avoid post operative (correction of neural tube defect) <br>leaking cerebrospinal fluid and surgical wound infection.<br>The study 50 newborn babies with hydrocephalus and spinal dysraphism meningocele.</p> Ali Abbas Hashim Almusawi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>A </p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>A</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>B</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Thermal Effect Created by Diode 810 nm Laser with Methylene Blue Stain: Histological an In Vitro Study Ali M. Sadeq, Balsam S. Abdulhameed, Ameer Dh. Hameedi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Is There is a Correlation between Vitamin D Status and Glycemic Control (HBa1c) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Review Article with Meta-Analysis <p>Background and Purpose: Diabetes mellitus type 2 represent significant problem for health care givers <br>because of its huge prevalence.The clue for non-skeletal impact of vitamin D become increasing suggesting <br>the potential benefit in many diseases related to cardiac system, immunity disorders and diabetes mellitus <br>type 2.We achieved this systematic review containing cross-sectional studies to assess the association <br>between vitamin D status glycaemiaindex as represented by glycosylated hemoglobin.<br>Method: We achieved literature search for cross-sectional studies which consider the impact of status of <br>vitamin D on HBa1c as major outcome of interest. The author targets database like Medline and google <br>scholar database for cross-sectional trials for period up to December 2020. The software utilized to analyze <br>the data statistically was comprehensive meta-analysis (CMA).<br>Results: Eighteen clinical trials have been identified by search.Thirteen studies found the inverse correlation <br>between glycemic index (HBa1c) and patient’s status of vitamin D.It was founded that the overall combined <br>influence of vitamin D level on glycosylated hemoglobinwas significant (p = 0.001, and 95% CI: - 0.230 to <br>-3.268).<br>Conclusion: The current review revealed that the impact of status of vitamin D in correction of glycaemia <br>was significant. Thepatient’s vitamin D status can has important impact on the pathogenesis of T2DM. <br>The diabetic patients with poor indices of glycaemia has higher prevalence of decreased vitamin D level <br>referring to potential benefit of vitamin D in correction of such indices.</p> Ali Shlash Al- Ibrahimy Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 GATA 3 Reactivity in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma and Pleomorphic Adenoma of Salivary Glands <p>Objectives:The main targets is evaluate clinicopathological distribution and comparison of <br>immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of GATA 3 between in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and <br>pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of salivary . Design and Methods: This retrospective analysis, open surgical <br>specimens of salivary gland that were done , and consisting of 150 cases that divided into three groups: <br>normal salivary gland tissues (n=50), adenoid cystic carcinoma(n=50), and pleomorphic adenoma(n=50). <br>Clinical data (age, sex, previous diseases ), physical examination, and investigations are done for all patients. <br>In addition.These 150 cases of paraffin embedding blocks of salivary tissue were stained by ordinary stained <br>(hematoxylin and eosin staining ). Manual IHC staining of GATA 3 was done. Results: Age groups is <br>younger for normal salivary gland tissues than PA, and ACC . Sex distribution was slightly increase in <br>male in comparison to female in normal salivary gland tissues and PA. GATA 3 staining was showing more <br>positivity in normal salivary gland tissues (43/50 patients) than PA (27/50 patients) and ACC (14/50 patients). <br>This positivity in GATA 3 IHC staining were more in male sex, regarding 55.8% in normal salivary gland <br>tissues than ACC50% and PA 51.9% . Age group 31-40, 40-50 and 61-70 years were showing more positive <br>GATA 3 IHC staining in normal salivary gland tissues, PA, and ACC respectively. there was insignificant <br>association between GATA 3 IHC staining with either age groups or sex groups distribution .Conclusion: <br>GATA3 IHC is good marker and can used for searching salivary gland tumor origin, assisting in diagnosis <br>Salivary gland tumors subtypes but GATA3 IHC staining has no association to specific sex or age groups in <br>Salivary gland tumors. Usage of surgical operations for histopathological specimens preparation are better <br>and give good efficiency for IHC markers staining.</p> Ali Zaki NAJI, Ammar Eesa Mahdi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Perception of Dental Students on Online Learning <p>Background: Online learning can overcome the shortage of teaching staff and has the potential to change <br>the passive learning process into active learning which depends on the willingness of students through their <br>views on the concept of online learning. Purpose: To know the perception of students of the Faculty of <br>Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia on online learning. Methods: Perception was <br>obtained using simple random sampling technique through distributing questionnaires in the form of google <br>form containing 14 questions with a choice of answers; completely disagree, disagree, do not know, agree, <br>and completely agree with the active students of the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga from <br>the class of 2016, 2017, 2018 regarding the student’s views on online learning. Results: it shows that almost <br>all Dental Medicine students have a computer and access to the internet (75% completely agree, 25% agree) <br>know how to open and open, modify and upload documents online (61% completely agree, 36.4% agree), <br>and access internet with daily or weekly use (59% completely agree, 36.4% agree). Conclusion: Students’ <br>perceptions of the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia are ready to use <br>online learning methods .</p> Alifia Ummu Risya, Putu Hiroko Anindya, Muhammad Raidjffan Z.T, R. Devathara Ardhisatrya, Seno Fauzi Alyanugraha, Muhammad Zaydan, Nastiti Faradilla Ramadhani Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>O</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Bacterial Co-infections and Antibacterial therapy in retrospective COVID-19 patients in AL Fallujah General Teaching Hospital <p>In order to determine a retrospective study data were collected from all 2031 COVID-19 patients detected <br>by PCR (nasal swap) from January/ 2020- January /2021 for Fallujah General Teaching Hospital ,which total <br>number of Positive covid19 were 210 in isolation ward and Negative number of COVID-19 were 1821.The <br>study condense on bacterial co-infections and antibacterial therapy for this bacteria. Clinical information <br>were : the genera females were 60 ( 28.5%) and were males 150 (71.4%). microbiological detected isolation <br>from blood sample through 48hour of 210 COVID-19 patients in isolation ward detected by BACT/ALERT® <br>Culture Media(1)then cultured on routine bacteriological media according to(2)for positive growth isolated <br>bacteria then identification were done by biochemical test. The result of bacterial isolation from blood of <br>patients assumptive co-infections among 210 samples, positive growth isolated of bacteria which were 121 <br>(57,6%) and included S. pneumoniae , S. aureus , S. epidermidis, K. pneumoniae, p. aeroginosa and E. coli <br>and total negative isolated which indeed enclose 89 (42.3%). Depending on ABS achieve guidelines, the <br>most commonly used antibiotic way was Meropenem, Azithromycin and Cefixime with a median duration of <br>6 (range 1–13) days in isolation ward and when using Antibiotic Susceptibility test expressed each resistant <br>and sensitive bacteria to antibiotic discs for all positive isolate and detected by sensitivity patterns of VITEK2 <br>system to some species as ensuring method, but; the study focus on co-infection had the highest frequency <br>of Staphylococcus aureus 57 (47.1%) isolates which were resistant to Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, <br>Gentamycin, Amikacin, azithromycin, Cefotaxime, tetracycline ,Trimethoprim/ Sulphamethoxazole and <br>sensitive to Levofloxacin and imipenem.</p> AL-Karbolii M. M Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Analysis of MCL-1 Copy Number Variation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer <p>Amplification of the MCL-1 gene induces MCL-1 overexpression, which is an important marker for drug <br>resistance in several malignancies through evasion of apoptosis. We analysed 39 lung adenocarcinomas <br>(ADCs), 38 lung squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), two large cell lung carcinomas (LCCs) and cell lines. <br>A duplex ratio test TaqMan qPCR approach was performed for MCL-1 copy number change analysis and <br>we demonstrated amplification of MCL-1 in H1395 cell line and copy number gain (isochromosome) in <br>H2342 cell line. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) were performed for protein <br>and mRNA analysis respectively. MCL-1 amplification was detected in 13% and 2.5% of SCCs and ADCs <br>respectively. MCL-1-amplified tumours demonstrated high expression of MCL-1 mRNA. Copy number gain <br>was detected in 2.5 % of ADC but not SCC.</p> Almahdi Alzaroukh Jaber, Howard Pringle, David Guttery, Aesa Alzaroug Jaber Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of an Educational Program Directing toward the Domestic Violence Behavior among Secondary School Students <p>Background: Domestic violence is now considered as a global health issue. It is defined as a threat or <br>physical, psychological and/or emotionally violent act. <br>Methods: An experimental design was used to guide this study. The study was conducted at three secondary <br>schools for girls from Al-Mahmudiya district. The study included a sample of 200) secondary school student <br>girls who were randomly selected. The education program is implemented through three sessions. Each <br>session is scheduled for 45-minutes.<br>Study instrument: A questionnaire was adopted from Elabani (2015). The behaviors considered as domestic <br>violence against women scale was used to measure behaviors that women consider them implying domestic <br>violence against them. <br>The study results revealed that was a (a priori p = 0.01) significant difference in the domestic violence as a <br>behavior over time for participants in the study group. The omnibus effect (measure of association) for this <br>analysis is .883, which indicates that approximately 88% of the total variance in the domestic violence as a <br>behavior values is accounted for by the variance in the administered intervention.<br>Conclusion : The implemented program positively affected the values of the domestic violence as a behavior, <br>for the study group by time compared to the control group.</p> Amena Razzaq Jasim, Arkan Bahlol Naji Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Molecular Association of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Methylation Pattern of SNRPN Gene Promoter among Males with Abnormal Semen <p>Infertility affects about 8-12% of couples worldwide, and male infertility accounts for a half of these <br>cases, therefore, thisstudy was undertaken to focus on some factors affecting male’s fertility such as DNA <br>methylation and genital tract infections by sexually transmitted diseases. The study groups included infertile <br>males as a patient group (n=63) in an age mean (32.28 ± 6.88 years) and fertile males as a control group <br>(n=13)in an age mean (34.07 ±6.52years).<br>Seminal fluid was collected from all males attending a clinical laboratory for routine semen analysis, seminal <br>fluid analysis was performed according to World Health Organization guidelines, all of the 63 infertile males <br>was suffering from reduced sperm concentration (9.42 ± 8.70 million/ml), reduced progressive motility <br>(2.89 ± 5.45%) and abnormal sperm morphology (27.06 ± 16.50%), while control group have a higher <br>values thus, there was a highly significant difference in semen parameters between the two groups.<br>The DNA samples of the patients group (n=44) and control group (n=13) was subjected to bisulfite treatment <br>to convert un-methylated C-residues to uracil, this step was performed to allow the qualitative detection of <br>methylation at the promoter of Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N gene by Real time polymerase <br>chain reaction using two sets of designed primers (methylated and un-methylated sets) allowing one set of <br>the primers to anneal, and amplify the desired region.<br>The results of real time PCR for the detection of methylation in SNRPN gene promoter showed hyper <br>methylation in the promoter of SNRPN in some samples (22.7%), a slight methylation in others (20.4%) and <br>no methylation in other samples (56.8%) from infertile males, while all the 13 control samples showed no <br>methylation.</p> Noor AL-Hamid, Abdul Kareem AL-Kazaz Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Obturation Quality of Chitosan-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement in Root Canals (In Vitro Study) <p>Background: Many materials are used for root canal obturation but all of them possess certain drawbacks. <br>In the present study compared the obturation quality of Glass ionomer cement containing chitosan root canal <br>filling material with other regularly used materials by using dye penetration. <br>Material and Methods: Thirty-six human roots were chosen for this study. After de-coronation of the teeth <br>and separation of the desired roots, they were instrumented by the Protaper Universal system from S1-F4 <br>and then divided into three major groups: Group 1, filled with experimental material (glass ionomer cement/<br>Chitosan); group 2, filled with gutta-percha with zinc oxide eugenol sealer; group 3, filled with gutta-percha <br>with AH26. The evaluation was performed by radiographs post-obturation and by dye leakage test.<br>Results: There was no significant difference between root canal obturation materials.<br>Conclusions: The use of glass ionomer cement with chitosan root canal filling material improves the <br>obturation quality of root canals.</p> Abdulkareem R. Al-Mezouri, Hussain F. Al-Huwaizi, Dara H. Saeed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Aspirin Resistance in Patients with Chronic Coronary Syndrome <p>This review summarizes aspirin features, actions and resistance in patients with chronic coronary syndrome. <br>As well, it describes mechanism of the aspirin action and possible ways and causality of the aspirin resistance. <br>In addition, it shows how to assess the efficacy of the aspirin therapy in patients with chronic coronary <br>syndrome.</p> A.L.Alyavi, Sh.I.Khodjanova, J.K.Uzokov, Sh.Kadirova Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Methanolic Extract of Green Algal Enteromorpha Intestanalis on the Bioactivity of Giardia lamblia Parasite <p>The present study was conducted to detect the effect of Enteromorpha intestanalis methanol extract and <br>study of its therapeutic effect in male Mus musculus experimentally infected with Giardia lamblia parasite, <br>The mice infected with the parasite were dosed with the aforementioned extract at a concentration of (2, <br>2.5, 3) mg / ml at a dose rate per day for 25, 20, 15) days, and examining the faeces of the mice to monitor <br>the change in the parasite preparation after the extract with the extract, and the results showed that the <br>extract of the moss was Effective in reducing the numbers of encapsulated and feeding phases in mice <br>infected with the parasite. The highest rate of killing of the feeding and encapsulated phases was recorded at <br>a dose of (3) mg / ml during the twenty-five days’ period. Specific disclosures were made of chemicals for <br>secondary metabolism of the algae extract, which indicated the presence of chemically effective compounds <br>such as alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, cyclosides, turpenoids, tannins, soaps and carotenoids. During the <br>experiment, the therapeutic efficacy of the extract was calculated (64.30%). The chemical compounds of <br>the algae extract were diagnosed using the Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (Gc-mass) technique.</p> Abdul Wahab Raisan Ayal Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Determination of Vitamin D Concentration in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Men and Its Correlation with Age <p>Background Vitamin D is synthesized from precursors” present at the surface of the epidermis and then <br>undergo biotransformation which achieved at the hepatocytes and finally by hydroxylation enzymes in the <br>nephrons “ . “sunrays play a crucial role in the beginning of D vitamin formation processes, parathyroid <br>hormone is an essential hormone secreted by parathyroid glands and play a key role in the activation of D <br>vitamin by renal alfa hydroxylase”. Food sources of D vitamin are also important for supplementation of <br>human body with some requirements. <br>This Study Aimed to compare the concentration of vitamin D in diabetic patients, and non-diabetic men <br>and its association with age.<br>Patients and Methods the current study started at the beginning of june 2018 and continued until the end <br>of March 2019 , at the outpatient unit in especial private hospital at Tikrit city - Iraq. Eighty men have been <br>enrolled in present study.<br>Results Eighty men were participate in the present study, distributed as 40 non diabetic subjects as controls <br>and 40 diabetic patients. The mean and standerad deviation of D vit. levels of non-insulin dependant diabetes <br>and normal physically fit men show there is significant reduction of D vit. Measurements of the diabetic men <br>patients suffering from T2DM, (13.58 ± 5.29) as compared with control subjects, (19.95 ± 6.5). there are <br>significant decrease of vit. D measurements of T2DM young patients. In T2DM patients less than 18 years <br>old have significant reduction in vitamin D concentration, (13.41 ± 5.1), as compare with T2DM patients <br>aged 18-40 years, (17.23 ± 7.3). Measuremets of D vit. Durind heat season and compare to cold months.<br>The evaluation of D vit. During hot monthes show significant rise(26.4 ± 7.1) in comparison with winter <br>status(13.65 ± 4.2). <br>Conclusions the present study conclude that, D vit. Levels show highly important increament in hot months <br>as compare with winter season and there are significant reduction in the concentration of vitamin D in young <br>age type 2 diabetic patients</p> Abdulhadi M. Jumaa, Meqdam Atiyah Khalaf, Hassan Yashar Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Access to Maternal Healthcare Services during the Pandemic in Specialized Hospitals for Mother and Child <p>This research aims to see how is access to maternal services in the pandemic era. Maternal patients with <br>COVID-19 without symptoms (co-incidence) can only access a limited number of health facilities and make <br>it more challenging to access healthcare services. Whereas previously, with the integrated referral system, <br>it was easier for patients to access healthcare services. All childbirth during the pandemic takes place in <br>a Healthcare Facility. Pregnant women with suspected, probable, and confirmed COVID-19 would have <br>childbirth at a COVID-19 referral hospital. Based on our study results, as the conclusion, patients with an <br>integrated referral system will be easy to get access to healthcare services. Maternal patients with confirmed <br>COVID-19 without any symptoms have limited access to the health facilities, making access to healthcare <br>services is not easy as before. Easy access to healthcare services is a patient’s right, including a pregnant <br>women’s right with confirmed COVID-19. Therefore, the government needs to increase the number of <br>COVID-19 Referral Hospital. To provide healthcare services, the Specialized Hospital for Mother and Child <br>can handle the normal childbirth of COVID-19 patients. It is necessary to make regulations on the childbirth <br>of COVID-19 patients at the Specialized Hospital for Mother and Child.</p> Abigael S. Pagatiku, Tentia Vitariani, Ibrahim Shihata, Bambang Ariyanto Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Factors Related to the Prevalenceof Chronic Kidney Disease in Indonesia:An Ecological Study <p>Previous research has found that the cost of chronic kidney disease is relatively high. This study aims to <br>ecologically analyze the factors relatedto the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Indonesia.The research <br>conduct ecological analysis using secondary data from the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia <br>report in 2018. The study takes all provinces as samples. Apart from chronic kidney disease, four other <br>variables analyzed as independent variables were the adherence to taking antihypertensive drugs, dedication <br>to taking anti-diabetic drugs/injections, a habit of drinking soft drinks &gt; 1 time/day, a habit of drinking <br>energy drinks&gt; 1 time/day. Data were analyzed usinga scatter plot.The results showed that the higher the <br>percentage of adherence to taking antihypertensive drugs in a province, the higher the prevalence of chronic <br>kidney disease. The higher the percentage of commitment to taking anti-diabetes medications/injections in <br>a section, the lower the prevalence of chronic kidney disease. The higher the rate of drinking soft drinks&gt;1 <br>timea day, the higher the prevalence of chronic kidney disease. The higher the percentage of regular drinking <br>energy drinks&gt;1 timea day, the higher the prevalence of chronic kidney disease.The study concluded that <br>five independent variables analyzed were related to Indonesia’s prevalence of chronic kidney diseases.</p> Achmad Yudi Arifiyanto, Agung Dwi Laksono, Djazuly Chalidyanto, Nungky Taniasari, Warih Kusumaningtyas Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Efforts to Prevent COVID-19 by Applying Physical Distancing, Handwashing Behavior and Vegetable Fruit Consumption Patterns in Indonesia <p>The phenomenon of the outbreak Covid-19 pandemic in a number of countries, including Indonesia. This <br>condition not only affects the condition of a country, hinders social interaction among community, and also <br>has been impact on the health condition of every human being. To avoid the wider spread of Covid-19, the <br>Indonesian government adopted a policy of social distancing and physical distancing in the form of staying <br>at home, working from home, studying, and worshiping at home.The research’s design used Analytical <br>Observational with Cross Sectional Study design. The independent variables of this study are the application <br>of physical distancing, the application of hands washing behavior and consumption pattern of fruits and <br>vegetables. The amount of sampling in this study were 109 respondents spread across Bogor Regency, <br>West Java using accidental sampling’s and analyzed using chi-square. The results of the study illustrate that <br>efforts to prevent Covid-19 by implementing physical distancing, hands washing behavior and vegetables <br>fruits consumption patterns can reduces the risk of being exposed to Covid-19 in Indonesia. The Indonesian <br>people must apply the Covid-19 prevention appeal that has been set by the government to reduce the spread <br>of Covid-19 in Indonesia.</p> Ade SaputraNasution, Muh ZulAzhri Rustam, Fakhrurradhi Luthf, Nanda Novziransyah, Muchti YudaPratama, Dwi Helynarti Syurandhari, Fitriani Pramita Gurning Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 COVID -19 : The Effects of Distance Learning in Indonesia based on a Commognitive Perspective <p>Distance learning is a learning system that does not take place in one room and there is no face-to-face <br>interaction between the teacher and the learner. This study aims to determine the impact of implementing <br>distance learning in Indonesia from a commognitive point of view. This research is a descriptive type of <br>research with a total of 543 participants who come from high school students in Pasuruan district, Indonesia. <br>Data collection using a questionnaire. After the questionnaire is collected, it is analyzed using the Miles <br>and Huberman method through reduction, display data, and conclusion, then it will be studied based on the <br>commognitive theory. The results show that based on commognitive studies, students are more likely to still <br>need a visual mediator as a visible object to be used as a communication medium, its realization depends <br>on the material context. Students need to communicate to ask questions related to material that has not been <br>understood. So it can be said that visual mediator is important during distance learning.</p> Adika Setyo Budi Lestari, Toto Nusantara, Susiswo, Tjang Daniel Chandra, Nonik Indrawatiningsih Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Doctor’s Legal Liability Against Consultation Via Online if a Patient Experiences Loss <p>Health is need of every human being in living his/her life. Health is also crucial because without good <br>health, it will be difficult for every human being to carry out his/her daily activities. Entering an era of <br>rapid development, the world is faced with the emergence of new technologies in the medical field that <br>allow doctors to practice in a virtual space. To analyze the legal basis of online medical services as well as <br>to analyze the legal liability of doctors in providing online medical services if a patient experiences loss. <br>Until now, there have been no detailed regulations regarding online-based medical services, both in statutory <br>provisions and in the provisions of the medical code of ethics. Law Number 36 of 2009 concerning Health <br>and Law Number 29 of 2004 concerning Medical Practice so far have not been used as a reference for the <br>administration of medical practice using online-based medical services. Furthermore, Law Number 11 of <br>2008 concerning Electronic Information and Transactions also cannot be used as a reference.</p> AdiTio Helga Ramanda, Anak Agung Gede Wahyu Parama Arka, Istanti Siti Rahmawati Hartiwi, Agus Yudha Hernoko Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Production, Purification and Characterization of -Lactamase from Clinical Isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii A7 <p>nn<br /><br /><br /></p> Afrah Jabbar Lazim, Essam Fadel Alwan Al-Jumaili2 Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Characteristics of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Time Intensity Curve in AdvancedMagnetic Resonance Imaging of Malignant Soft Tissue Tumors <p>Malignant soft tissue tumors are usually identified and characterized by conventional magnetic resonance <br>imaging (MRI) due to its high resolution on soft tissues. However,combinationof advanced MRI and <br>conventional MRI increases the accuracy. This study was conducted to assess the characteristics of apparent <br>diffusion coefficient(ADC) and time intensity curve (TIC) in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) <br>in malignant soft tissue tumors. A cross-sectional study was conducted inDr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, <br>Indonesia. Demographic and clinical data, theclassification of malignant soft tissue tumor, histopathological <br>examination results, ADC value, and TIC of DCE-MRI were collected.Between 1st January2018 and 30th<br>August 2020, 30 malignant soft tissue tumors were included of which the most common malignantsoft tissue <br>tumorsoccurred in those who were older than 50 year (30.0%) and located in the femur (33.3%). The most <br>common tumor was synovial sarcoma (23.3%) and undifferentiated pleiomorphic sarcoma (20.0%). Type <br>4 and 3 of TIC were found in 92.0% and 8.0%, respectively. The overall mean of ADC and steepest slope <br>were 0.84x10-3±0.14x10-3mm2<br>/sand 15.8%±19.9%, respectively. The highest and the lowest mean ADCwas <br>observed in squamous cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath <br>tumor (MPNST), respectively. In contrast, the highest and the lowest steepest slopewas found in MPNST and <br>squamous cell carcinomawith 75.43% and 2.45%, respectively.In conclusion, information of TICparameters <br>such as ADCvalue and steepest slope might potentially be used in determining the histopathologic types of <br>malignant soft tissue tumors.</p> Agus Jati Waluyo, Sri Andreani Utomo, Rosy Setiawat Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Castration on Bone Healing in Male Rabbit Model; Clinical, Histopathological and Radiological Study <p>Twenty male rabbits were used in the current study. The rabbits were classified into two groups (castrated <br>and un-castrated). Injected by solution consists from Ketamine HCL (40 mg /Kg/B.W/IM) and xylazine HCl <br>(20mg /Kg B.W/IM). The first group was uncastrated while the second group was castrated and waiting one <br>month. For both groups, at the middle of lateral aspect of the femoral region, a 5mm in diameter bore in the <br>femoral bone was made by a medical drill device. The clinical signs showed some manifested such as pain, <br>edema and fever in the castrated group more than the un-castrated group. The last clinical signs disappeared <br>during two to three days in the un-castrated group and (5-7) days in the control group. Examination of <br>radiological of both groups revealed reaction of the periosteal was begin at 2nd week in the second group <br>while in the castrated group which started at the ending of 3rd week in the first group. The fracture was <br>disappeared at 4th week in the second group. The bony mass was redesigned into the lamellar bone in 4th <br>week in the second group, that characterized by adhesion of the bone with the external callus. Our study <br>showed that the fracture healing morebest quantity and quality in the second group than in the first group. <br>The histopathological examination showed osteoclast, osteoblast and the periosteal reaction started at (15-<br>30) days after operation more in the second group than the first group. Moreover, the osteocytes is a presence <br>in more in the uncastrated group than the first group.</p> Ahlam J. AL-Khamas, Zainab J. Malik Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Immediate Effect of Vibrating Foam Roller on the EMG Amplitude of Muscle Hamstring of Healthy Subject with Hamstring Tightness Ahmad Arif Ridha, Nuniek Nugraheni, Imam Subadi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Leptospirosis Transmission in Ponorogo District of East Java, Indonesia <p>This study aims to identify Leptospira bacterial infection in livestock owners and their livestock, as well <br>as to examine potential risk factors correlated with the incidence. 50 participants were selected and their <br>blood samples were collected. 50 urine samples were collected from livestock owned by the participants. <br>Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to identify the existence of the Leptospira bacteria. The <br>questionnaire instrument was used to obtain information about individual characteristics and hygiene. The <br>Chi-Squared test was adopted to examine the correlation between outcome and explanatory variables. The <br>confirmation PCR test detected the bacterial DNA in 2 out of 50 blood samples examined (4%) and 3 out of <br>50 urine samples examined (6%). Human leptospirosis incidence is significantly correlated with occupation <br>type (p=0.035), personal protective equipment (PPE) use (p=0.044), water puddle contact (p=0.044), cage <br>sanitation (p=0.044) and Leptospira bacteria presence in livestock urine (p=0.007). Insignificant correlation <br>was showed in owners’ age variable. The presence of Leptospira bacteria both in livestock and the owners <br>indicates the real threat of animal to human transmission. Further study with larger sample size and wider <br>range variables and meticulous examination technique is required to comprehend the investigation.</p> Aditya Sukma Pawitra, Khuliyah Candraning Diyanah, Corie Indria Prasasti, Moch Irfan Hadi, M. Yusuf Alamudi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effects of a Multi-Intervention Multimedia Infection Controlmoduleon Critical Care Nurses’ Knowledge and Practice of Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections Ahmad Sabbah, Rohani Ismail, Rehanah Zain, Siti Suraiya Noor, Mahaneem Mohamed , Norazliah Samsudin Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Can the Root End Resective Surgery of Two Different Angles Affect the Apical Microleakage of the Retrofilling Material (In Vitro Study) <p>Introduction: Endodontic surgery become essential to save teeth when the endodontic treatments are failed.<br>It promote root canal debridement and insertion of retrograde filling to make sure tight sealing apically.<br>Aim: Compare the influences of two different resection angles (0 and 30 degree bevel angle to the long axis<br>of the tooth) on the apical micro leakage by utilizing dye penetration technique.<br>Methods: 80 single rooted permanent teeth were amputated 3 mm from the apex at two different resection<br>angles. Retrograde cavities were prepared and filled with Well-ROOT PT® and MTA BIOREP®. All<br>specimens were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours. The specimens were cut longitudinally<br>by microtome and photographed digitally using stereomicroscope. With the use of Kinovea program dye<br>penetration area was measured. Two WAY Analysis of Variance (Two Way ANOVA) were used to analyze<br>the result statistically at P&lt;0.05.<br>Results: No group exhibited complete sealing of root-end zones. The group of MTA BIOREP® demonstrated<br>statistical significant differences with 0 degree angle which showed less leakage.<br>Conclusion: MTA BIOREP® retro filling material with 0 degree angle of resection were significantly<br>superior regarding apical microleakage compared with Well-ROOT PT®.</p> Ahmed Abdulkareem Mahmood, Hassanien Ahmed Al-jumaily Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Incidence of Jaundice in Preterm and Full Term Infants Admitted to Al-Zahraa learning hospital at An-Najaf Province <p>Background: One of the most predominant medical issues is the yellow coloration of the skin and sclera<br>and it called Jaundice. It is occurred mostly in infants and could be either to a normal progress of getting<br>worse in to an irreversible brain damage. It could affect infants before 24 hour after birth and it considered<br>as pathological or after one day and now it regarded as physiological.<br>Methods: One hundred and fifty child had been chosen in a prospective study that had been conducted in<br>Al-Zhraa hospital at An-Najaf province. Those children were either a preterm or full term neonates and their<br>ages were 0-14 days after admission to neonatal care unite or pediatric a ward in the hospital. The study was<br>started from the1st of October 2018 till Jane 30th 2019.<br>The results showed the most of patient suffer from jaundice were those delivered at premature and those how<br>take breast feeding but not bottle feeding. Twenty eight percent of them were suffered from hemolysis due<br>to ABO-incompatibility, sepsis, preterm-maturity and Rh-incompatibility<br>Conclusion: Jaundiceis a serious medical symptoms than should be controlled before induce uncontrolled<br>complication that could be ends with permanent disability or even death</p> Ahmed Hassan Kudhair Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Design and Synthesis of Sulindac New Derivitives as Possible Mutual Prodrug with Potential to Maximized Therapeutic Area <p>The urgent necessity today for development of anti cancer agent is crucial so highly dependent for searching<br>for new anti neoplastic action ,the drug discovery process is costly and consume long time ,in my study<br>focusing my efforts toward drug optimization process using sulindac (NSAID) which has a fantastic<br>attractive area as anti cancer and anticancer in addition to it is anti inflammatory action .<br>The study describes design and synthesis of mutual pro-drug of sulindac in combination with thenatural<br>anti oxidants (menthol ,thymol ,vanillin,guiacol) as a single integral pharmaceutical unit byan chloro acetyl<br>chlorideas spacer to form an ester mutual prodrug with expected to improve the anti inflammatory ,anti<br>cancer , antioxidant action of sulindac by the conjugation with natural anti oxidative integral moiety and<br>minimized the ulcerogenic adverse effect of sulindacit is carboxylic acid functionality .The synthesis is<br>conferred byH1NMR, FT-IR, CHN and physiochemical properties.</p> Ahmed Kareem Hussein Mubarak, Ahmed Wheed Radhi Alhasnaway, Haider F.S. Al-zubaidy Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Possible Role of Neuron Specific Enolase and Neurofilament Light Protein as Markers for Organophosphorus-induced Neurotoxicity <p>Background: Acute organophosphorus (OP) poisoning is a common toxic emergency all over the world<br>especially in the developing countries as Egypt. Neurological damage occurs after exposure to these<br>compounds can lead to respiratory failure and death. Thus, it is important to identify the severity of poisoning<br>and predict the need to ventilation support or death.<br>Methods: A prospective study that included 50 adult patients presented with neurological manifestations<br>after acute OP poisoning admitted to the ICU of Poison Control Center of Ain shams university (PCC-ASU),<br>and 25 healthy volunteers. Meusering levels of Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE) and Neurofilament Light<br>(NFL) protein and correlate this with severity according to APACHE II score and outcome of patients.<br>Conclusion: There was a significant difference between cases and controls among levels of NSE and NFL<br>protein, also there was a significant correlation between NSE and NFL protein levels and prediction of both<br>M.V. need and mortality, so NSE and NFL protein can be used as markers for neurological damage after<br>exposure to OP compounds.</p> Ahmed S. El-Sayed, Ghada M. El-Galad, Mahmoud L. Sakr, Amro A. Saleh Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Histopathological Pattern of Surgically Treated Thyroid Diseases <p>Background: Thyroid diseases are quite common and clinically important not only because they affect<br>the functions of other organs but also since most cases are eminently treatable. The incidence of thyroid<br>diseases varies from one geographical region to another. he present study was carried out to identify the<br>histopathological pattern of surgically treated thyroid disease in our setup and their frequency in relation to<br>age and sex of the patients and to compare our findings with similar works in Iraq and globally.<br>Materials and Methods: Total of 97 thyroidectomy case from Tikrit provine, Iraqwere included in this<br>study. Clinical, gross, and histopathological data were reviewed and analyzed.<br>Results: Most of thyroid lesions were encountered at the age of 31-40 years. The most common thyroid<br>lesion is multinodular goiter (40.21%). All thyroid diseases were more common in women than in men<br>with a male to female ratio of 1:5.93. Neoplastic lesions were found in 12.37% of cases (7.22% follicular<br>adenoma; 5.15% thyroid carcinoma).<br>Conclusion: Results of this study are comparable with several studies on thyroid diseases in other areas<br>of Iraq and globally. Multinodular goiter need to be prevented by appropriate measures since Multinodular<br>goiter of prolonged duration in iodine deficient areas poses a risk factor for the development of follicular<br>carcinoma.</p> Aiad Abdullah Abdulrazak Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Correlation of Management Commitment Regarding Occupational Safety and Health and Personal Protective Equipment Compliance in Production Unit Workers of PT. Nitama Galvanizer Aisyah Afnani, Noeroel Widajati Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Prevalence and therapeutical Study of Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Local Goats in Northern of Iraq <p>The purpose of this study was to study the species and prevalence GINs and detect the efficacy and resistance<br>of some anthelmintics in local goats in northern Iraq. A total of 180 local goats originating from 25 goat<br>farms were examined. As a result twelve species of these worms have been diagnosed, with a percentage<br>of infection 64.44%, The Marshallagia spp. had the highest incidence 53.4%. The efficacy of anthelmintic<br>drugs in the 3rd week after treatment for each the Ivermectin, A sativum, C colocynthis and O oil, reached to<br>95.3, 62.3, 92 and 31.2% respectively, and the study noted that there is resistance to some of these therapies<br>by some types of worms.</p> Alaa Kamil Mahmood, Zeyad Taha Hussein, Omar-Althani S. Saed, Maher S. Owain Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Histological Effect of Onion, Tea Against Lead Acetate in Some Organs of Sprague–Dawley Rats <p>The study aimed to investigate the negative effects of lead acetate on the liver and kidneys tissues of male<br>Sprague Dawley rats. It was conducted on 28 male rats of the aforementioned strain. The rats were divided<br>into four groups, including the control group (provided with regular fodd only), lead acetate group (LD 50),<br>onion group (provided with lead with water and dried onion powder at a rate of 4% with the fodd) and tea<br>group (provided with lead with water and tea powder at 1% with the fodd). The results of the current study<br>showed that the control group was a normal marker of hepatocytes (Central Vein, Sinosoid, Hepatocyte)<br>While we note that the results of the T2 group, we find that there is severe damage to the tissues of the<br>liver cells. Through the results of the study, we find the occurrence of a large grouping of lymphocytes and<br>severe congestion. Hepatocytes, the results of the T4 group showed hemorrhage and no accumulation of<br>lymphocytes, as was the case in the results of the T2 group. Regarding the sections of renal tissue, the results<br>of the study showed that the control group had normal tissues as well as parts of the kidneys (Bowmans<br>Capsule, glomerulus, Distal, convoluted tubule, Proximal convoluted tubules), while the renal tissue for T2<br>suffered from severe hemorrhage and very severe cell damage, and compared with the results of T3, we find<br>that the renal tissue of T3 is distinguished by the presence of partially shrink glomerular and is not better<br>than both T2 and T4 tissues, which are characterized by a clear shrinkage of the glomeruli and the presence<br>of hemorrhage, but with less than T3. Therefore, we find that the best results in terms of therapeutic nutrition<br>for liver cells are T4 (tea 1%) and kidney T3 cells (onion 4%).</p> Ammar Abdulhasan Aldhalemi, Ali Joodi shuna Al-Fatlawi, Zinah Talib Alsallami, Ashraf Raoof Mohammed Ali, Murtadha Abdulhasan Aldhalemi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Relationship of Antral Follicle Count (AFC) with Levels of Estradiol Serum and Mature Ovarian Follicles in Women Undergoing the IVF Program at the Graha Amerta Fertility Clinic of General Hospital of Dr. Soetomo in the Period 2018 <p>Background: In the last two decades, one of the critical factors of assisted reproductive technology (ART)<br>has been identified as ovarian capacity. Consequently, ovarian capacity markers have evolved to be part of<br>diagnostic testing conducted regularly before IVF. Several predictor factors, such as antral follicle count<br>(AFC), is one of several factors to predict ovarian capacity. These diagnostic procedures and tests have the<br>purpose of identifying women at high-risk patient who respond poorly toward controlled ovarian stimulation<br>throughout the IVF cycle. The ovarian response toward ovulation stimulation within this research was assessed<br>by peak estradiol (E2) serum levels and the total number of mature follicles. There is no clear relationship<br>between AFC and levels of estradiol serum and the number of mature ovarian follicles to identify women<br>who respond poorly. Methods: This study is an analytical study with a cross-sectional design. Samples were<br>taken from secondary data of medical records using the total sampling method on women undergoing the IVF<br>program at the Graha Amerta fertility clinic of General Hospital of Dr. Soetomo from January 1 to December<br>31 2018 according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The AFC variables, estradiol serum levels, and the<br>number of mature ovarian follicles in the study were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation. Conclusion:<br>There is a significant relationship between antral follicle count (AFC) with the levels of estradiol serum and<br>the number of mature follicles in women undergoing the IVF program.</p> Anak Agung Renjani Kanya Kumari, RenyI’tishom, Hendy Hendarto, Sri Ratna Dwiningsih Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Facial Reconstruction after Surgical Excision of Basal Cell Carcinoma <p>Background and Aim of Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of different facial flaps<br>used for reconstruction after surgical excision of basal cell carcinoma.<br>Patients and Methods: Patients with BCC of the facial area were 128 cases. The cases were treated, and<br>followed up between January 2012 and April 2018. Results: There was a single case of tumor recurrence<br>in the frontal area. Also scar formation in female patient over 60 years old was noted. The case of scar<br>formation was notes after frontal flap which used for treatment of nasal defect.<br>Otherwise, there was no patient with any complications (like infective wound, keloid, scar formation,<br>ischemia, or necrotic tissues), have been seen among the rest of the cases at the end of our study on 2020. In<br>all male cases that treated with skin graft after excision of the tumor in frontal area which was 8 patients; at<br>the end of follow up period, the color of skin and tissue harmony was coordinated.<br>Conclusion: No specific flap or graft can be done for all the types of BCC, we should choose the most<br>appropriate flap or graft. Recurrent ratio was very low.</p> Anas H. Abed, Mohammed Kh. Abduljalel, Kamal Turki Aftan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Azithromycin, Cefixime, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and Zinc to Treat Mild Covid-19: A Case Report <p>Background: COVID-19 is a novel acute respiratory disease that first emerged in 2019 and exploded into a<br>worldwide pandemic. Symptoms range from dry cough, fatigue, fever, and pneumonia in mild cases to acute<br>respiratory distress in critical cases.<br>Case Report: The aim of the present case study is to illustrate the benefits of using select antibiotics and<br>dietary supplements to treat a mild case of COVID-19.<br>Conclusion: A combination of azithromycin, cefixime, vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc may potentially be<br>beneficial for the treatment of moderate COVID-19 symptoms.</p> Anas Khaleel, Haidar AL Shammari, Mohammad Niazi, Talal Salem Al-Qaisi, Rafat Abutaleb, Amneh H. Tarkhan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Antibacterial Activity Test of Jatropha multifida L. sap against Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro <p>Background: Jatropha multifida L. is a plant that commonly used as a traditional treatment espescially<br>for wounds. It has been proven that its sap had an antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.<br>Staphylococcus aureus has developed resistant strains named MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus<br>aureus). Due to this resistance development, hopefully the sap of Jatropha multifida L. can also performed<br>its antibacterial activity against MRSA. Objective: To determine the antibacterial activity of the sap of<br>Jatropha multifida L. against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA. Methods: A well-diffusion method was<br>performed on several concentration: 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%. From this method, the diameter<br>of the inhibition zone produced by the sap was measured. Results: The average of inhibition zone diameter<br>were 11.29 - 16.00 mm for Staphylococcus aureus and the bigger zone 12.15 - 17.61 mm for MRSA.<br>Conclusion:Jatropha multifida L. had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA. This<br>plant showed higher antibacterial activity on MRSA than Staphylococcus aureus.</p> Anastassya Yuniar Setyo Putri, Marijam Purwanta, DantiNur Indiastuti, Arthur Pohan Kawilarang Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Development of Information System-Based Policy for COVID-19 Affected Students in the Semi-Arid Area of Indonesia <p>This study aimed to provide an overview of the diet of students during the COVID-19 pandemic, socioeconomic<br>status, the physical activities undertook the practiced COVID-19 prevention behavior, and student health.<br>The sample size obtained was 253 participants, who were new students for the 2020/2021 academic year.<br>Structural equation modeling was used for statistical analysis. Students could access nutritious food, but it<br>was not followed by regular daily exercise. Students were also found to have good COVID-19 prevention<br>behavior, for example using masks, washing hands, and coughing and sneezing etiquette, but only 41% of<br>students had sufficient rest or sleep.Students have a good level of health, despite lacking physical activities.<br>COVID-19 preventive behavior and socioeconomic status indirectly had an impact on student health. The<br>right policies are necessary to improve student health.</p> Apris A. Adu, Sarci M. Toy, R. Pasifikus Christa Wijaya, Indra Yohanes Kiling Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Correlation of Prostate Volume with Uroflowmetry and International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS) on Patient with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia without Urinary Retention <p>Objective: To value the correlation of Prostate Volume with Uroflowmetry and IPSS on patients with BPH<br>without urinary retention that would be conducted at Dr. Soetomo 2015-2017. Method: This research used<br>retrospective descriptive study using secondary data from medical records to determine the relationship<br>between Prostate Volume (PV) and Uroflowmetry and the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS)<br>of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) patients without urinary retention. Uroflowmetry basic parameters<br>is Qmax, Vvoid, and PVR. The sampling technique used the total sampling method that used all existing<br>data in a certain period. Result: 86 medical records of BPH patients, the age range 45-64 years: 52 patients<br>(60.46%), and the age range&gt; 65 years: 34 patients (39.54%). PV statistical test with Qmax (r = 0.012;<br>p = 0.913), the correlation was not significant. PV with Vvoid (r = 0.112; p = 0.305), the correlation was<br>not significant. PV with PVR (r = -0.015; p = 0.892), the correlation was not significant. PV with IPSS (r<br>= 0.048; p = 0.660), the correlation was not significant. Conclusion: There is no correlation on Prostate<br>Volume with Uroflowmetry and IPSS on patient with BPH without urinary retention.</p> Arif Rananda, Reny I’tishom, Wahjoe Djatisoesanto, Soetojo Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and Health Services Accessibility of Migrant Workers in Regional Health 8 Office, the Upper North East, Thailand Jarin Yonphan, Terdsak Promarak, Teerasak Phajan, Karl Friedruch Peltzer Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Preterm Delivery: Predictive Value of Salivary Estriol, and Alpha Feto Protien <p>Background: Preterm labor is defined by the presence of painful uterine contractions that lead to progressive<br>changes in the cervix that allow descent and delivery of the newborn before the 37th week of gestation.<br>Objective: To assess the predictive value of salivary estriol and Alpha feto protein in preterm delivery.<br>Patients and Method: A prospective study were carried out in our hospital during the period from 1/1/2020<br>to the 30/8/2020 among the patients who attended for consultation, 120 patients with gestational age between<br>16 and 18 weeks were selected and divided into two groups. Results: The serum level of Alpha-feto protein<br>was (338. 15 ± 182.55 in case group vs. 239. 68 ± 112. 51 in control group) with significant association<br>(p=0.01). In spite of the decrease of the estriol level in preterm group we found no significant differences<br>were found between both groups regarding the estriol level (P&gt;0.05)<br>Conclusion: The increase in free estriol in saliva in this study was not significantly associated with preterm<br>delivery in asymptomatic patients at risk, and there is a significantly increase in AFP concentration in<br>preterm pregnant patients.</p> Aseel Abdulameer Mohammed, Afrah Makki Mohammed, Shaymaa Raouf Tawfeeq Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Hypertension Prevention <p>Background: Hypertension is still high in morbidity and mortality in the world and Indonesia. The number<br>of people with hypertension is increasing every year. Aim: This review summarizes the Theory of Planned<br>Behavior (TPB) in the prevention of hypertension. Materials and Method: The literature search was<br>carried out in February 2021 on the PubMed database using the keywords “theory of planned behavior”,<br>“prevention” and “hypertension”. The articles used are the articles of the last 10 years (from 2011-2020).<br>The search found 30 articles and 8 articles that fit the criteria were discussed. The number of respondents in<br>this study was between 25-306 with a total of 1,331 people. The questionnaire was used in the study for data<br>collection. Results: Respondents are students, adolescents, residents, and communities from Iran, Thailand,<br>and USA. TPB provides benefits in an educational program for people who are at risk of hypertension.<br>Subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), intention increased hypertension prevention.<br>Conclusion: TPB-based interventions are effective for hypertension prevention. All TPB constructs play<br>an important role in hypertension prevention. The TPB model is still feasible and relevant for assessing<br>hypertension prevention behavior.</p> Asep Sukohar, Suharmanto Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Health Belief Model and Hypertension Prevention <p>Background: Hypertension is a cardiovascular disease that contributes to morbidity and mortality. <br>Hypertension is the number one cause of death in the world every year. The prevalence of hypertension in the <br>world in 2015 was 1.13 billion. The number of people with hypertension is increasing every year. By 2025 <br>it is estimated that there will be 1.5 billion people affected by hypertension. Aim : This review summarizes <br>the HBM used as an approach in the prevention of hypertension. Materials and Method : The article uses <br>a questionnaire with a number of respondents between 18-403 with a total of 2,160. Results : Respondents <br>are students, residents, nurses, police from Iran, London, USA, South Africa, and China. The HBM model <br>is still relevant and feasible to be used in predicting hypertension prevention behavior. Conclusion : HBM <br>is still relevant and feasible to use in predicting hypertension prevention behavior.</p> Asep Sukohar, Suharmanto Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of Lecture Cum Demonstration on First Aid Management of Common Ailments in Terms of Knowledge among Accredited Social Health Activist (Asha) Workers <p>Death can occur at any time in which first aid is the initial step of giving care to a person in the emergency. <br>Everyone has the capability to save lives during the emergency situation to reduce the further complications. <br>The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of lecture cum demonstration on first aid management <br>of common ailments in terms of knowledge and practice among accredited social health activist (ASHA) <br>workers. Study was Quasi experimental one group pre-test post-test design. Total 52 ASHA workers were <br>selected by using Total enumeration sampling technique. Data was collected by using structured knowledge <br>questionnaire and observational checklist through paper pencil technique. The mean post-test knowledge <br>score (25.21±2.77) was higher than the mean pre-test knowledge score (11.25±4.24) and mean post-test <br>practice score(64.54± 3.10) was higher than the mean pre-test practice score (9.71± 3.42). There was no <br>significant association of post-test knowledge score with selected variables except marital status and there <br>was no significant association of mean post-test practice score with selected variables. The study concludes <br>that lecture cum demonstration was effective in improving the knowledge and practice of ASHA workers on <br>first aid management of common ailments.</p> Asha Nadar, Uma. J.Deaver, Sunil Kumar Dular, Rekha Chhillar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effects of Iraqi Propolis, Carbimazole and Levothyroxine on the Liver: Histopathological Studyin Normal Female Rats <p>Background: Liver has an essential role in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. Disorders of thyroid <br>hormones level causes’ abnormal liver function, so the liver function and thyroid hormones level affects <br>each other. This study aim to investigate the effect of propolis (PR),carbimazole(CB), levothyroxine (TR) <br>and their PR combinations on the liver biochemical and histopathological parameters in normal adult rats.<br>Methods: Forty-two adult female albino rats randomized into six groups: control, PR, CB, TR, PR + CB <br>and PR +TR. Rats orally treated by gavage for six weeks.Liver biochemical and histopathological analyses <br>performed.<br>Conclusion: TR in a dose of 0.1 µg/g daily for six weeks produced a significant elevation (p &lt;0.001) in <br>serum AST and ALT enzymes level compared to control in normal rats. CB dose of 0.01 mg/g displayed a <br>significant increase in serum AST (p &lt;0.005) and ALT (p &lt;0.05) enzymes level compared to control. PR dose <br>of 50 mg/kg produced a non - significant difference in liver enzymes level compared to control. Moreover, <br>the rats treated with PR+TR or PR +CB combinations show a significant decrease in serum AST and ALT <br>enzymes level compared to TR or CB alone groups. These results confirmed with a histopathological results <br>to indicate a hepatoprotective effect of propolis.</p> Asia S. Abdullah, Muhsin S. G. AL-Mozie, Ghadeer H. Al-Seray Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study the Physiological and Histological Effect of Pulmocodin on the Testis of Male Albino Rats Aya Mohammed Ali, Mukhtar Khamis Haba Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Prevalence of Foreign Body in Ear, Nose, and Throat inImam Khomeini hospital, Iran <p>Background and Objectives: Otolaryngologists usually encounter foreign bodies pediatricians, and <br>preliminary care physicians. In this study,determining the prevalence of foreign body types in the ear, nose, <br>and throat is the goal.<br>Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytic kind of study based on hospital information that was taken <br>from patients with foreign bodies in ear, throat, and nose referred to ENT Emergency Department of Imam <br>Khomeini Hospital in Ahvazduring 1396 and 1397.Registered hospital records are used to determine the <br>number of patients with foreign bodies in the ear, throat, and nose. Also, Socio-demographic data were <br>collected prospectively using a pre-designed questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods <br>(using SPSS version 22.0) were used to input and analyze data collected from 4257 patients. <br>Conclusion: Foreign bodies in the ears, nose, or throat are frequent in the emergency services of <br>otorhinolaryngology (ENT). The most common site of FB accommodation is in the Throat. FB of the ear, <br>nose, and throat should be handled properly to avoid complications.</p> Azam Fazlipour, Mahammad Hossein Toloei Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Efficacy of Five Organic Acids Combination on T2- Mycotoxicosis in Rats <p>Mycotoxins are secondary by-products of mold metabolism and are accountable for human and animal <br>mycotoxicosis. The most serious trichothecenic mycotoxin is the fungal T-2 mycotoxin. T-2 mycotoxin <br>impaired nutrient absorption, metabolism, and then, eliciting severe oxidoreductive stress. Diet plays a key <br>role beyond the supply of nutrients in order to promote animal and human health. Organic acids have been <br>commonly used to exert antioxidative stress capacity in the liver and gut ecosystem. This study is planned to <br>explore, the competence of using (X-MoldCid®) during chronic T-2 mycotoxicosis course in rat. Rats were <br>allocated into 4 main groups, (CN-Gr), negative control and was allowed for the free access to the normal <br>rats chow and the tap water for 90 days. (OAC-Gr), which was assigned as the organic acids positive control <br>and was allowed for the free access to normal rat chow and (X-MoldCid®) in the tap water for 90 days <br>.Group 3 or (T2-Gr) and was given the T2 contaminated chow ad libitum and group 4 (T2+OAC-Gr) .Each <br>one of the four groups was subdivided into two subgroups (n=7) that one was sacrificed on day 45 (Subgroup <br>A) meantime the remaining rats (Subgroup B) maintained until finishing of the entire study period (90 days). <br>In T2 intoxicated group, liver histopathological findings revealed, lesions of reversible types (hydropic and <br>fatty degenerations) while intestinal histopathological findings revealed, lesions of hyperactive goblet cells <br>with sever slaughing of epithelia. In T2+OAC-Gr, the ultimate efficacy of organic acids success in limiting <br>the apoptotic activity and preventing hepatic necroinflammatory changes which were in accordance with <br>the improvement of antioxidative status, liver and intestinal function enzymes and other serum biochemical <br>estimated tests. The total results of this study have been clarified the regenerative and antioxidant potentials <br>of (X-MoldCid®) in coping with T2-toxin mediated intestinal lesions and hepatotoxicityin rats.</p> Ammar A. Fadhil, Suhair Hassan Alkutbi, Eman S. Nassir Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Relationship between Periodontal Health and Adolescent Physical Performance Periodontal Health and Adolescent Physical Performance <p>Background: Oral health problems, including periodontal tissue problems, are important issues <br>that need attention because they can affect a person’s quality of life and performance. The <br>prevalence of the periodontal disease in all age groups in Indonesia is 96.58%. Purpose: This <br>study aims to determine the effect of periodontal disease on adolescent physical performance. Method: <br>This research was conducted in an analytic observational manner. The population of this research is <br>adolescents aged 12-14 years in junior high schools in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia as many as 101 <br>students. Data collection used the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) method and the International Physical <br>Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The data analysis used was the ETA correlation test. Result: In the <br>distribution of dental health knowledge, most of the respondents had a low level of knowledge of 88.1%, <br>low physical activity of 44.6%, and good gingival health based on the Modified Gingival Index of 52.5%. <br>Conclusion: There is a significant difference in the level of respondents’ Modified Gingival Index based on <br>the respondent’s experience of getting dental and oral care and the last time he received dental and oral care.</p> Aulia Ramadhani, Aryo Dwipo Kusumo, Restu Nurhidayati, Nada Fajrina, Fathimah Hanan, Ayu Anggraini B, Faizal Khalis Ramadhani Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Clinical Profile of Poisoning Cases in a Tertiary Care Hospital –A Retrospective Study <p>The present study was carried out to determine the clinical profile of patients presenting with the history <br>of poisoning admitted to the casualty in a tertiary care hospital.The commonest agents involved in the <br>poisoning were due to pesticides followed by therapeutic drugs, of these majority of cases, involved antiinflammatory, analgesic, anti-histamines followed by Sedatives/ hypnotics; accounted for almost half.<br>Among the pesticides, maximum poisoning was due to organophosphates followed by zinc phosphide. It is <br>important to know the nature of poisoning in order to take appropriate preventive measures. Therefore, the <br>knowledge of the general pattern of poisoning in a particular region will be a useful tool in planning and <br>management/proper treatment of critically ill poisoning cases.</p> Badiadka KK, Pramod KL, Hashim A, Kishor Kumar B Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Antiplatelet therapy in Coronary Artery Disease <p>Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Platelets play <br>crucial role for the development of thrombus in the atherosclerotic narrowed arteries. This review article <br>summarizes modern antiplatelet therapies particularly, aspirin and clopidogrel in coronary artery disease, <br>platelet aggregation, possible risk factors, their mechanism of action and pharmacological properties. In <br>addition, it provides up to date information regarding acetyl salicylic acid - aspirin and representative of the <br>thienopyridine – clopidogrel and their role in patients with CAD.</p> Bakhromkhon Aniskhonovich Alyavi, , Kamilovich Uzokov, OminaYusupqizi Mukhitdinova Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Early Complications after Thyroid Surgery <p>Background: In this study we shall deal with the early complications after thyroid surgery and compare the <br>complication rate with the extent of resection (subtotal, near total and total thyroidectomy). <br>Patients and Methods: Early complications after thyroid surgery were studied in A prospective study in <br>One hundred patients. Data was collected in the pre-designed proforma. And they are classified according <br>to age and sex of the patients, clinical conditions and training state of the surgeon. Descriptive statistics was <br>used to calculate frequency of each complication in the early post-thyroidectomy period. <br>Results: Most of the patients were females and lie at the (30-39) age group. Clinically, most of them <br>are presented with simple multinodular goitre. Subtotal thyroidectomy is the most commonly used type <br>of resection. The frequency of complications after total thyroidectomy is more than other types. And <br>identification of the (RLN) will minimize the incidence of injury. These complications were (4%) tension <br>haematoma, (11%) hypocalcaemia, (4%) respiratory obstruction, (8%) developed recurrent laryngeal nerve <br>paralysis, (2%) superior laryngeal nerve paralysis, and (1%) wound infection. Surgeon’<br>s experience is so <br>important, in which there is less complications when the operation is performed by a consultant surgeon. <br>Conclusions: Surgery may be associated with significant numbers of post-operative complications according <br>to the type of surgery. Total thyroidectomy confers certain advantages over less extended procedures, but it is <br>associated with higher morbidity. Due to the risk of an unsuspected malignancy and goiter relapse following <br>conservative surgery and increased risk of complications following reoperation, total thyroidectomy is <br>emerging as an attractive surgical option.</p> Balsam Waleed Hussain Al-Askari Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effects of Indomethacin Administration on Some Biochemical and Brain Histological Changes in Male Rats Ban Ismael Sedeeq, EntedharRifaat Sarhat, SihamAjmee Wadee, ThuraiaRifaat Sarhat, Kasim Sakran Abass Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Risk Factors, Health Related Quality of Life among Hypertensive Patients in Primary Health Care Center- Iraq-2020 <p>Background; Chronic diseases disturb life expectancies, (1) that effect psychological, social, and economical <br>status.(2) The present study evaluated the risk factors and health related quality of life (HRQL) among <br>hypertensive patients. Objectives: Assessment of risk factors, (HRQL) among hypertensive patients in ALAndalus primary health care center in AL-Ramadi city during the period January–March-2020. Materials <br>&amp;methods: a cross sectional study involved 100 hypertensive patients using Flanagan Quality of Life Scale <br>in AL- Andalus primary health care center in AL-Ramadi city during the period January–March-2020. <br>Results: The study revealed that 66% of the patients were males and 67% of them were over 55 years, <br>working, graduated, smokers and from urban area. About half of females were over 55 years that 42% of <br>them completed 2nd school but all of them were not-working and from rural area. Sixty percent of persons <br>had high blood cholesterol level with average mean was 240, 220 mg/dl for males &amp; females respectively, <br>the same percent had cardiac disease while, 40% of them had diabetes mellitus for both sexes. The average <br>body mass index was 39, 36 among males and females respectively. Thirty eight percent of patients had <br>good and very good material and physical well-being with average mean 2.5 ± (0.5), while only twentyfour percent had good and very good relationships with other people, the average mean was 2.0 ± (0.5) with <br>statistical significance with sex. Thirty-two percent of persons had good and very good social, community, <br>and civic activities with average mean 2.4 ± (1.0) and significant with sex. Only twenty-eight percent of <br>persons had personal development and fulfillment with average mean 2.5 ± (0.4) and significant with sex, <br>while forty-two percent of them had recreation with average mean 3.0 ± (1.0) that also significant with sex. <br>Conclusion: High risk factors for both sexes and poor quality of life, mostly among female hypertensive <br>patients.</p> Ban Nadhum Abdul-Fatah, Yaseen Taha Sarhan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Development & Validation of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) Competency Tool for Student Nurses <p>Background: Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) is well-recognized for the treatment of various mental <br>disorderswith many efficacy trials supporting its use; however, there is little discussion of its use in mental <br>health nursing practices. In fact, there is no validated tool to measure the competency of student nurses in <br>administering Interpersonal psychotherapy. <br>Objective: This study was aimed at developing a validated tool to measure the competency of student nurses <br>to administer Interpersonal Psychotherapy. <br>Methods:The competency tool comprised of 30 items which were developed under three phases of IPT i.e. <br>Initial, Middle and Termination Phase. A sample size of 100 nursing students from four different nursing <br>colleges of Punjab were enrolled for the study. General and specific competencies of the participants while <br>delivering interpersonal psychotherapy was assessed on a five-point rating scale after giving one-week <br>training on Interpersonal psychotherapy. KMO measure, Bartlett test, Multiple correlation analysis and <br>exploratory factor analysis were employed for data analysis using SPSS 20 version. <br>Results:The IPT competency tool for student nurses wasdeveloped after thorough literature review and IPT <br>trainings. The tool was validated by six experts with a content validity ratio 0.91. Based on the factor analysis <br>results, the attributesof tool did not meaningfully merge into factors in initial, middle and termination phase <br>of Interpersonal psychotherapy competency rating scale. The total variance among the factors came between <br>70 to 80%.It was concluded that the list of attributes under each phase are independent and valid to include <br>in the IPT competency tool for student nurses. <br>Conclusion: IPT competency tool for nurses is a valid tool to measure student nurses’ competency to <br>administer IPT.</p> Bandana Bisht, Harmeet Kaur Kang Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of OSForensic in Digital Forensic Investigation to Curb cybercrime <p>With the rapid development and higher level of dependence on new information and technology by <br>various organizations across the world, cybercrime issues are increasing, and there are no technologies <br>that seem flawless in combatting the issue. The use of concepts relating to digital forensic investigation <br>of criminal activities and digital forensics will, therefore, tackle the problem with finding digital evidence <br>in cybercrimes. OSForensics is one of the various digital forensic investigation tools that allows the use <br>of Hash Sets for identifying known safe files in program and operating system files. The tool is essential <br>for identifying suspected files like Trojans, viruses, and hacker scripts. The problem presented in this <br>paper, therefore, entails utilizing combinations of digital forensic investigation of criminal activities and <br>investigation concepts. The paper seeks to establish the effectiveness of OSForensic in Digital Forensic <br>Investigation to curb cybercrime. That is, the capabilities of OSForensics and the accuracy of OSForensics <br>with regards to retrieving and analyzing data from a hard drive in order to investigate and curb cybercrime <br>at the workplace. The researcher investigated a case in which a company security had been threatened by <br>an employee whose contract had recently been terminated. The company suspected that this employee had <br>some serious pictures, locations, and employee details belong to company. The image of the employee’s <br>personal flash was sent to the researcher to help initiate the investigation using OSForensicssoftware so <br>as to establish any evidence that the employee still had pictures, locations, and employee details belong to <br>company. In overall, OSForensic was able to identify company details that the employee was having. The <br>research was able to identify sensitive information about the company that the suspect was having, including <br>the names of the employees, images, company system structure and what seemed to be their respective <br>identification numbers.</p> Bandr Siraj Fakiha Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Analysis of Powder Properties and Pharmacopeial Spesifications of Bagasse Cellulose Isolated from Saccharum Officinarum L in Indonesia <p>Saccharum Officinarum L is native to Asian countries, including Asia. Indonesia is the third-largest sugarcane <br>producer in the ASEAN region. The amount of sugarcane production represents the potential amount of <br>bagasse waste obtained. Bagasse has not been used properly and optimally in Indonesia. Bagasse contains <br>43.6% cellulose; hemicellulose 33.8%; lignin 18.1%; ash 2.3% and wax 0.8%. The purpose of this study <br>was to isolate bagasse cellulose with 5% of nitric acid. We determined the organoleptic powder properties <br>and pharmacopeial specifications of bagasse cellulose as pharmaceutical raw materials. As a result, the test <br>parameters as pharmaceutical raw materials for bagasse cellulose met the requirements compared to Japan <br>Pharmacopeia XV except for the ash content value. Bagasse cellulose powder had a white color, a water <br>content of 5.93%, and pH 6.7. It was insoluble in water-ethanol and ether and had Pb-Cr-Cd metal content <br>&lt;10 ppm. The microbial limits were below the specified requirements. The ash content was 0.6, the bulk <br>density was 0.136, the tapped density was 0.158, Carr’s index was 13.92, the Hausner ratio was 1.162, and <br>the angle of repose was 56.4. Based on the angle of repose value, bagasse cellulose powder had fairly good <br>flow properties.</p> Begum Fauziyah, Mohammad Yuwono, Isnaeni Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Bacterial Infections in Male in Male Infertility in Al- Anbar Province / West of Iraq <p>In the male genital tract, spermatozoa and leukocytes, including neutrophils and macrophages, generate <br>reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS is involved in the regulation of sperm functions, such as acrosome <br>reactions and capacitation. Infections result in excessive ROS production, resulting in a ‘oxidative burst’ <br>of neutrophils/macrophages as a first-line defense mechanism. During infection, the imbalance of pro-and <br>antioxidants favoring the former results in oxidative stress that impairs the sperm functions mentioned In <br>addition to motility and fertilization. ROS produced during testis and epididymis infections is especially <br>harmful to sperm due to longer contact time and lack of antioxidant protection. Only very high numbers of <br>ROS-producing leukocytes are harmful to sperm functions in the final ejaculate.</p> Dhuha A. Abbas, Abbas O. Al.janabi , Waleed N. Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>T</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 COVID 19 and Health Systems’ Economy in Western Balkan Societies <p>The researcher is outlined to have a beginning stage for an exploration plan for health financing for <br>COVID-19, recognizing a preliminary addressing four thematic areas, namely mobilization of results, <br>allocation and buying, monetary danger insurance (financial risk protection) equity, and maintaining and <br>empowering advancement for UHC. Every question would require further elaboration and unpacking, with <br>an improvement of proper exploration approaches utilizing a combination of quantitative and qualitative <br>methods. While there is a requirement for fitting of research questions and country-specific analyses to <br>advise local decision-making, there will likewise be incredible worth in bigger cross-country similar <br>examination activities to address these inquiries, permitting finding out about how various frameworks, <br>settings, qualities, and reactions to the plague have shaped health financing results and how these can be <br>reinforced. The results show that heterogeneous effects across occupations and workers in the Western <br>Balkan Societies show that health care occupations that have a higher share of workers working remotely <br>were less affected by COVID-19. Those who did take full measures were more affected.<br>On the other hand, occupations with relatively more workers working in proximity to others were more <br>dramatic. The investigation also dove into the research related to the financial matters of COVID-19 that <br>has been delivered in a relatively short time. The aim is to carry rationality(coherence) to the academic and <br>strategy banter and help further examine.</p> Ermir Shahini, Fabiola Bali Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patient with A Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Co-Infection <p>Infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the most infectious disease in tropic disease infection <br>and co-infection of HIV is very large, one of which is DHF. Research on DENV-HIV is still limited. A patient <br>29-year-old, referred to Dr. Soetomo Hospital with chief complain nausea from yesterday. Accompanied <br>epigastric pain, stomach feel full and decreased of appetite. Laboratory test finding Hb 18,6 g/dL, leukosit <br>2910/mm3, trombosit 9000/mm3, HCT 51,5 %, Anti dengue IgG 29,9 and IgM 10,5 on 2nd day admission, <br>Anti dengue IgG 14,3 and IgM 13,1 on two weeks from out of admission. The most common symptom in <br>HIV patients with co-infection DHF is fever and loss of appetite. Patients with DENV-HIV have plasma <br>leakage. Patient with DENV-HIV found an increase in eosinophil and pulse but found a lower increase in <br>serum hematocrit compared with DENV patients, but lower hematocrit levels in this patients can be caused <br>in patients using zidovudine, which is associated with anemia caused by zidovudin side effects.</p> Dedy Hadi Prawono, Bramantono Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of the Burnout Level in Health Care Worker During COVD 19 <p>Background: Health care workers are considered the first and real resisting line in the face of the COVID19 <br>pandemic, and therefore they have an greater workload, tension and the stress. Understanding the risks <br>of burnout is very important to support healthcare workers and also to maintain high-quality health care <br>through an epidemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study design could be used to assessment the level of <br>burnout during COVID 19. Included 1000 samples as a healthcare worker involved in the study by used of <br>convenience sampling technic , The study has been carried out in Iraqi, conducted throughout the period of <br>April 15th, to July 19th, 2020. A self-questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Service Survey <br>were used to data collect. <br>Results: Overall, burnout were high level among 59.9 % of participation in the study. Workload high <br>and intention to leave were related with burnout at statistically significant (P&lt;0.05), and high significant <br>relationship between demographic characteristics (age, gender, level of education, job title, work place ) and <br>level of burnout (P&lt;0.05).<br>Conclusions: The study found that the increase in the level of fatigue that was identified among health <br>workers was associated with high workload and psychological stress fronting them during COVID 19, as <br>well as the lack of personal equipment necessary to protect themselves from this epidemic.</p> Mustafa Kareem Jawad1, Dhiaa Abd Al-Rasoul Abd Al-Reda, Waleed Ali Armeah, Asmaa Jabbar Abdulhussein Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge toward Neonatal Resuscitation <p>Background: Neonatal resuscitation is the set of interventions provided at the time of birth to support the <br>establishment of breathing and circulation. 136 million births annually, (approx. 5-10%) require simple <br>stimulation at birth to help them breath like rubbing and drying. Basic resuscitation with a bag-and-mask is <br>required for an estimated 6 million (approx. 3-6%) of these babies each year, and is sufficient to resuscitate <br>most neonates with secondary apnea. <br>Methods: A Descriptive cross-sectional design is used through the present study in order to :To assess the <br>nurses knowledge concerning cardiopulmonary resuscitation to neonatal and To find out the relationship <br>between the knowledge scores of the nurses and their selected demographic variables of age, gender, level <br>of education, years of experience, and training session. The period of the study is from The study was carried <br>out from 20th December 2018 up to march 28th, 2019. A Non-probability (purposive ) sample of (60) nurses <br>who are working in the delivery rooms in (Al-Zahra Hospital, AL-Forat general Hospital Al-Hakeem general <br>Hospital and Al- Manathera hospital ) are included in the study sample. The data are collected through <br>using a well-designed questionnaire that consist of (2) parts: Part I: Demographic data. This part consists of <br>(8) items, including age, gender, Marital Status, years of experience, Level of education, Economic state, <br>Residency, Training course in cardiopulmonary resuscitation ,and number of training courses. And Part 2: <br>Information of the Nurses Knowledge toward Neonatal Resuscitation in the Delivery Rooms: This part of <br>the questionnaire is consisting of ( 22) questions about Neonatal Resuscitation in the Delivery Rooms . the <br>validity through (12) experts from different specialties (Face Validity) for reviewing the study instrument. <br>The data was analyzed through using of the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis approaches. <br>Results: The findings of the present study indicate that the Overall assessment for nurses Knowledge about <br>the neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation are Fair. Also there is a there is a highly significant association <br>between the nurses Knowledge concerning cardiopulmonary resuscitation to neonatal and their (Years of <br>Experience, Hospital Name, No. of training course), while there is a non-significant relationship with the <br>remaining demographic and clinical data</p> Zainab Abidzaid Abid AL-Hadrawy, Rusul Ali Khadim, Esraa Shaker Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effectiveness of the Blended Education Strategy in Learning the Skills of Rolling and Suppression Football for Students <p>The world has witnessed a development in all areas of the educational process and physical education is <br>one of these areas and the fact of its effect on the body has been based on different sciences, whether in <br>terms of physical-skills-health-psychological, to reach the high level of performance, hence the importance <br>of research in The use of educational units based on the blended learning strategy to learn the technical <br>performance of my skills (rolling, Suppression) in football, using the scientific foundations and good <br>investment of the content of the material concerned with the study.<br>The research aims to, identify the effect of blended education strategy on learning to perform the skills <br>of rolling and Suppression football. To achieve this goal, the researcher used the experimental method by <br>designing the two equal groups, and the research community was determined by the students of the first <br>stage of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences - Karbala University for the 2017-2018 <br>academic year and their number (141 / students). The researcher chose a lottery (30 / students) by (15 <br>students) for each group of the two research groups (experimental and control).And after processing the data <br>statistically, the researcher reached several conclusions ,the two research groups achieved an improvement <br>in the study variables, but with varying proportions, and the results indicated the superiority of the members <br>of the experimental group that used the mixed education strategy in comparison with the method used in the <br>studied variables.</p> Abbas Abdulhamza Kadhem, Khalil Hamid Mohammed Ali, Ahmed Sekeb Gaeed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study of Biological Indicators and Biochemical Changes Related to Gallstones Formation in Patients in Kirkuk City <p>The study included (29) patients with gallstones who were visiting the New Kirkuk Hospital and whose <br>condition was confirmed by conducting pathological examinations and ultrasound examination (sonar) in <br>comparison to (29) healthy subjects.<br>This study aimed on estimating of some chemical variables in blood serum, including measurement of total <br>Bilirubin, direct and indirect Bilirubin. In addition, measuring the activities of Aspartate Aminotransferase <br>(AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT), blood sugar, in relation to the percentage of patients <br>consuming soft drinks, and the state of intestines and stool samples in both male and female for different <br>age groups.<br>A comparison was made between patients with gallstones and was confirmed to have jaundice and patients <br>with gallstones who did not develop jaundice. A significant increase in blood sugar, the levels of total Bilirubin, <br>direct and indirect Bilirubin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/<br>GPT) was observed regardless to the patient’s gender, rate of soft drink consumption, and the bowel condition <br>didn’t have effect in forming gallstone in comparison to healthy subjects.<br>Comparison between patients with gallstones and healthy people has revealed the presence of significant <br>differences in the bowel condition between two groups. Very high levels of total Bilirubin, direct and <br>indirect Bilirubin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in <br>patients with lethargy of the intestine and indigestion. However, there were no significant differences in the <br>percentage of blood sugar or the amount of soft drinks consumed between two groups. Gender has no effect <br>on the results obtained.</p> Chrow Ahmed Khurshid, Amera Kamal Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge towards Infections of Peripheral Intravenous Cannula in Al-Basrah Teaching Hospital <p>Aimed at assessing nurse’s knowledge regarding infection of the peripheral cannula. Descriptive, hospitalbased study was conducted in Al-Basrah city in Al-Basrah Teaching Hospital from October 24th, 2019, to <br>June 11th, 2020. The study included nurses in the hospital; they were (60) nurses. The instrument used for <br>the study was a self-administrated questionnaire; the data were presented in a pre-designed questionnaire <br>firstly. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge about <br>the infection of a peripheral intravenous cannula. Inferential and descriptive statistics have been utilized <br>for the analysis of data. Data were analyzed manually and then through the use of the statistical package <br>for social science (SPSS, v. 23). The results of the study present that the high percent (61.7%) of the study <br>sample are male, (66.7%) of them at the (20-29) year age group, ( 45.0%) of them nursing institute, (61.7% ) <br>their years of work experience were arranged between (1-9 year), most of them (60.0%) don’t have previous <br>training about cannula infection. There has been a significant correlation between nurses’ knowledge, <br>previous training in infection of a peripheral cannula, and level of education, and there has not been any <br>significant correlation between nurses’ knowledge and nurses’ gender, age group, and years of experience. <br>Recommendation: This study recommended establishing a regular training program and workshops about <br>infection control measures, especially for an invasive procedure</p> Aliaa H. Ali, Ahmed T. Saud Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The effect of a Program by using (Clinical exercise - Medication) for Osteoporosis Patients aged (40-50) Years <p>The research included several axes through the use of a program that includes clinical exercises and drugs <br>to reduce bone density loss in women with osteoporosis, the study aims to identify the proposed program to <br>reduce osteoporosis among women. The study was conducted on three groups of women with osteoporosis <br>(program - exercise - medication) and their ages ranged from 40-50 years and their number was (27) <br>affected, they were divided into three groups, for each group (9) women with osteoporosis, the first group <br>included the program (clinical exercises - medication) and the second group included exercises, while the <br>third group included medicines, the experimental approach was used to design the three equivalent groups, <br>where the program was applied, which includes (24) weeks with a rate of (48) treatment units and the <br>time of the treatment unit (20) minutes, health fitness for the injured, the results of the study indicated an <br>improvement in the loss of bone mass for all groups and a greater improvement in favor of the program <br>group (clinical exercises - medication). The study recommended the use of the proposed program for women <br>with osteoporosis.</p> Esraa kathum Dakhil Al-Ghazali, Muna Talib Thabet Albadry Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Serum Level of Cystatin C and Fetuin A in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure <p>The study found that, serum fetuin-A was significantly reduced in CKD patients before dialysis (19.07±4.24 <br>ng/ml) as compared with healthy individuals (22.5±5.94 ng/ml), P&lt;0.01 and in CKD patients after dialysis <br>(19.74±4.25 ng/ml) as compared with healthy individuals. The study found that, serum cystatin C was <br>significantly reduced in CKD patients before dialysis (12.95±1.54 ng/ml) as compared with healthy individuals <br>(8.16±2.37 ng/ml), P&lt;0.01 and in CKD patients after dialysis (12.39±1.66 ng/ml) as compared with healthy <br>individuals. The study showed a significant negative correlation between CKD patients before dialysis and <br>after dialysis regarding cystatine C (r: -0.37). The study found that, blood urea was significantly increased <br>in CKD patients before dialysis (164.3±30.1 mg/dl) as compared with healthy individuals (24.9±3.7 mg/dl), <br>P&lt;0.01 and in CKD patients after (76.1±29.2 mg/dl) as compared with healthy individuals and there was a <br>significant difference in B. urea between CKD patients before and after dialysis (P&lt;0.01). The study also <br>indicated that S. creatinine was significantly increased in CKD patients before dialysis (5.61±1.99 mg/dl) <br>followed by patients after dialysis (3.43±1.47 mg/dl) as compared with healthy individuals (0.57±0.24 mg/<br>dl) (P&lt;0.01). The study showed a significant negative correlation between of Fetuin-A level with B. urea, S. <br>creatinine and S. cysteine in CKD patients before dialysis and after dialysis</p> Marwa Nabeel Hameed, Khudhair A. Khudhair, Yasir I. abbas Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Contribution of Some Special Physical Abilities and Biomechanical Indicators to the Accuracy of the Front Strike Performance of Junior Tennis <p>The importance of research came in the fact of knowing the contribution of each of the physical and <br>biomechanical variables to the level of performance of the front strikes, as well as seeking to develop <br>some physical and mechanical capabilities of the accuracy of the performance of the front ground strike <br>to improve the performance of the research sample for the junior group (14-16) years. As for the research <br>problem: Despite the development of the tennis game in Iraq, it suffers from difficulties that impede the <br>course of its development, and through the experience of the two field researchers, the research problem was <br>identified and the previous studies and follow-up of the tennis tournaments for age groups were identified. <br>Performing optimally and among these requirements are special physical abilities and biomechanical <br>conditions that must be characterized by the skills of tennis, especially the forehand skill. Accordingly, the <br>two researchers found the necessity to conduct tests on the physical abilities of tennis players, and to conduct <br>a kinematic analysis to identify the biomechanical conditions of the striking and forehand skills, especially <br>for tennis players aged (14-16) years, considering that knowing these variables for these ages can lead us to <br>the correct path of skill performance and the need for Knowing the precise contribution of each variable to <br>the performance to be later emphasized on these variables that contribute more accurately to performance <br>and development, and to reinforce the other variables less contributing to training and development.</p> Zainab Shakir Hammood, Widad Kadhim Majeed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Relative Contribution of the Flexibility for the Hip Joint, the Angle of the Knees, and the Muscular Strength for Arms of Performance of the Front and Back Rolling Skills, Opening on the Floor Movement Mat <p>In order to improve the students’ performance level in some of the skills that are implemented on the mat <br>device of ground movements, including the front and rear rolling, it is necessary to study the most important <br>indicators that have a clear impact on the performance of those rolls. Among the objectives of the research: <br>To identify the percentage of the contribution of flexibility of the hip joint, the angle of the knees and the <br>muscular strength of the arms in the performance of the front and rear rolling skills, an opening of the <br>research sample. The researchers used the descriptive method in the survey method for its suitability to <br>the nature of the work, and the research community was represented by students of the third stage of the <br>Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the College of Education for Girls / University of <br>Kufa, and their number reached (26) students, and the research sample was chosen by the random method <br>by drawing a lot from the original community and their number ( 20) a student, and with this, the percentage <br>of the research sample is (76.9%).</p> Ibtihal Riyadh Omran, Intisar Kadhum Abdulkareem Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effectiveness of Using a Generative Learning Strategy to Learning the Football Dribbling Skill for Youth <p>Learners may obtain high scores while others obtain low scores, the reason for this is due to the failure <br>to take into account the individual differences in learning between members of the same group through <br>technical performance, which appear when applying the educational units, as well as their disparity in the <br>readiness to accept and learn a certain skill, so all learners are subject to the same educational unit and the <br>same repetitions and periods of rest, which leads to the emergence of differences in the ability to learn and <br>performance, but learning by a generative learning strategy works to take individual differences between <br>members of the same group and divide these groups into smaller groups according to the error in technical <br>performance and increase the number of iterations, which helps the learner to reach the degree of automated <br>perfection in the optimal technical performance. Because the generative learning strategy takes into account <br>the time of work and rest between each iteration and another or between a group of iterations, and this is what <br>made the researcher interested in studying this problem resulting from the use of old traditional strategies in <br>learning that make it difficult to accept and learn to apply the curriculum required to learn from the learner.</p> Mohsin Mohammed Hasan AL-ASadi, Kareem Nazm Judi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study the Effect of Hypercholestrolemic Diet on the Histological Changes of the Kidneys in Local Male Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus <p>The presented work is conducted to examine the impact of hypercholestrolemic diet on male rabbits’ <br>kidneys. A total of 10 male and adult rabbits have been divided (randomly) into 2 groups (5/group) for three <br>months, while the first group was allowed to ad labium supply and drinking tap water and was termed as the <br>control group (G1). Second group rabbits have orally administrated 1,5% gm of the cholesterol with the diet <br>throughout the 3 months (G2). This work indicated the occurrence related to tissue changes in the kidney <br>tissue compared with the control group.<br>Conclusion: In conclusion, our study showed that the hypercholestrolemic diet at a dose of 1.5% gm caused <br>pathological changes to the kidney tissue such as fatty changes in the tissue, the presence of fatty droplets <br>within the capillary of the glomerulus, inflammatory infiltration of cells in the interstitial tissue of the kidney, <br>cystic expansion of the renal tubules, and addition to the presence of hemorrhage compared to the control <br>group</p> Batool A. Hussein, Kiaser Abdulsajjad M. Hussain, Intisar Hussain Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Pulmonary Ventilation Exercises and Some Respiratory Indicators in the Preparation for Olympic Lift and Achievement for Advanced Lifters <p>The research aims to identify the effect of pulmonary ventilation exercises and some respiratory indicators <br>on the preparation of the Olympic jacks and achievement for the advanced fourths, so the experimental <br>approach was adopted to treat the research problem, the research sample was intentionally chosen from (20) <br>different players, they were divided into two experimental and control groups using the method of random <br>division.(1) The homogeneity and equivalence processes were performed to initiate one point for the data of <br>the two research samples, after taking pre-measurements for them (height, age, ve. Vs. vo2 max), a training <br>approach was designed to develop pulmonary ventilation and know its effect on other research variables, <br>and the results of the tribal arithmetic media were compared And the dimensionality of the two groups and <br>treating them statistically, as the most important conclusions were reached which are the void filling when <br>inhaling and holding the breath with the need to take adequate inhalation at a rate of (RR10) inhalation and <br>exhalation operations before lifting that lead to the best achievement. .(2)</p> Hayder Jabbar Abd Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of (Mental - Skillful) Exercises According to (Surface - Deep) Cognitive Representation in Attentional Control and Side Pass Skill of Handball for Junior <p>The importance of the research lies in preparing (mental - skillful) exercises according to the cognitive <br>representation (surface-deep), as the researchers believe that they affect the attentional control and side <br>pass skill of handball for junior. Through the researchers’ interest in the handball game and its field followup to many training and educational units and matches, they noticed that a large number of young players <br>face difficulty in focusing and diverting attention during matches, as well as in learning and mastering <br>the side pass skill, which is difficult to perform and also to meet the needs and requirements of the game. <br>As for research hypotheses: There is an effect of (mental - skillful) exercises according to the cognitive <br>representation (surface - deep) in attention control and the skill of pushing to the side with hand reel for <br>juniors. While the experimental method was used in solving the research problem, the research community <br>was represented by the 16 players of the Kufa Junior Handball Club, and they were distributed into two <br>groups equally by random method (lottery method), and then data processing using appropriate statistical <br>means.</p> Ali Radhi Abdul Hussein, Mohammad Jasim Mohammad, Samer Youssef Mtaab Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of (Mental - Skill) Exercises According to (Surface - Deep) Cognitive Representation to Learning Some Forms Shooting Skill of Handball for Juniors <p>The importance of the research lies in preparing (mental - skillful) exercises according to the cognitive <br>representation (surface-deep), as the researchers believe that they affect the attentional control and side pass <br>skill of handball for junior.<br>Through the researchers’ interest in the handball game and its field follow-up to many training and educational <br>units and matches, they noticed that a large number of young players face difficulty to learning and mastering <br>the some forms of shooting skill, which is difficult to perform and also to meet the needs and requirements <br>of the game. As for the most important conclusions, they were: The duration of the independent variable, <br>represented by exercises (mental _ skillful) distributed over the number of training units, was appropriate in <br>the development of the two experimental research groups learning some forms of shooting skill for juniors. <br>The most important recommendations included: The researchers recommend the adoption of (mental _ <br>skill) exercises because of their high impact on the development of learning some forms of shooting skill <br>for juniors.</p> Ali Radhi Abdul Hussein, Samer Youssef Mtaab, Mohammad Jasim Mohammad Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Problem-Solving Strategy to Developing Some Physical Abilities and Individual Rapid Attack for Junior Players <p>The research problem centered through the researchers’ personal experience. They noticed that there is no <br>use of some trainers for age groups of strategies that are based on the interaction between the teacher and <br>1 the learner and giving the learner the opportunity, as well as the problems that accompany the education <br>process and the development of physical abilities, which is reflected negatively on their skill performance, <br>especially in the individual rapid attack with a handball and 2 thus not scoring goals and achieving victory <br>in matches, so the researchers decided to go into this experience by using a problem-solving strategy that <br>includes preparing development exercises for the purpose of solving problems that hinder the development <br>of some physical abilities and the individual rapid attack with handball for junior players. The researchers <br>used the experimental approach to design the two equal groups of pre and post-tests to apply the vocabulary <br>of the problem-solving strategy 3<br>, and the research community was determined to apply the problemsolving strategy to the emerging players of the Al-Qasim club, which amounted to (16) players, the sample <br>was divided equally into two experimental and control groups, and after the pre-tests were performed, the <br>members of the experimental group began to apply the units prepared by the researchers and continued for <br>eight weeks every week, three development units. Statistically in the (spss) program.</p> Hasan Fadhil Hamzah, Mohammed Rashid Najm Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of an Educational Program Using Cognitive Techniques to Performance the Passing and Shooting Skills of Football <p>The current study aimed to prepare an educational program using cognitive techniques and to get <br>acquainted with it for second stage students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at <br>Dhi Qar University for the academic year (2020-2021), and to identify the impact of the program on the <br>performance of my skills (passing and scoring) in football, and it has been the researchers hypothesized <br>that the program had a positive effect on students’ performance. The researchers used the experimental <br>approach in performance for the two skills (passing and scoring) in football, and after dividing the sample <br>into two groups (control and experimental) by (15 / students) for each group, the (control group) used the <br>teaching method within the curriculum of the subject teacher, while the members of (experimental group) <br>used the educational program using cognitive techniques, as for the field experiment, the tests procedures <br>were conducted for (pre-measurement), after which the educational program was applied using cognitive <br>techniques on individuals (the experimental group), where the number of educational units was (12 / unit), <br>and then tests were conducted for (post) measurement, after that do statistical data processing.</p> Mustafa Jawad Mraidi, Hatham Hussein Abed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect an Educational Program Using Cognitive Techniques to Developing Football Dribbling Skill for Students <p>The current study aimed to prepare an educational program using cognitive techniques and to get acquainted <br>with it for second stage students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at Dhi Qar <br>University for the academic year (2020-2021), and to identify the impact of the program on the performance <br>of skill (dribbling) in football, and it has been the researchers hypothesized that the program had a positive <br>effect on students’ performance.<br>The researchers used the experimental approach in performance for the skill (dribbling) in football, and <br>after dividing the sample into two groups (control and experimental) by (15 / students) for each group, the <br>(control group) used the teaching method within the curriculum of the subject teacher, while the members of <br>(experimental group) used the educational program using cognitive techniques, as for the field experiment, <br>the tests procedures were conducted for (pre-test), after which the educational program was applied using <br>cognitive techniques on individuals (the experimental group), where the number of educational units was <br>(12 / unit), and then tests were conducted for (post-test), after that do statistical data processing.</p> Mustafa Jawad Mraidi, Hatham Hussein Abed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Mindfulness and its Contribution to the Performance of the Frontal Pronation Skill on the Horizontal Bar of Gymnastics for Students <p>The study aimed to identify the level of mental alertness and the numerical values of the results of the <br>performance of the frontal pronation skill on the mind apparatus of the gymnastics of the students, and to <br>identify the percentage of the contribution of the mindfulness to the performance of the front pronation skill <br>on the mind apparatus of the gymnastics of the students, the descriptive approach in the method of relational <br>relations was adopted on a sample of (82) students deliberately chosen (89.13%) from their community <br>represented by the third stage students in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at <br>the College of Basic Education / Al-Mustansiriyah University who are continuing in the official working <br>hours for the academic year (2020/2021), in addition, the specialized mental alertness scale was approved <br>by students of faculties and departments of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, and a video recording <br>to test students’ performance of the frontal pronation skill on the barbell device in your gymnastics, and the <br>researchers applied these two tools to the sample and process its results with the (SPSS) system to be the <br>extracts and applications in that the third stage students in the Department of Physical Education and Sports <br>Sciences in the College of Basic Education need to improve the level of mental alertness and improve the <br>level of their performance of the frontal pronation skill on their horizontal bar, mindfulness is positively <br>related, contributes, and influences the improvement of their performance level for this skill, and it is <br>necessary to intensify efforts between teachers of gymnastics and specialists in sports psychology and their <br>cooperation in support of raising the level of mental alertness according to scientific, non-improvisational <br>foundations because of its important role in improving the performance of the frontal pronation skill on <br>horizontal bar device.</p> Zaid Sami Yasir, Yassin Alowan Ismail Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Contribution of Self-Efficacy by Performing the Skill a Front Handspring on the Mat Floor Movement of Gymnastics for Students <p>The study aimed to identify the level of self-efficacy and the numerical values of the results of the <br>performance of the front hands jump skill on the ground movement rug in the gymnasium of the students, <br>and to identify the percentage of the self-efficacy contribution to the performance of the front hands jump <br>skill on the ground movement rug in the homemaking of the students, the researchers adopted the descriptive <br>approach in the method of relational relations on a sample of (82) students deliberately chosen (89.13%) <br>from their community represented by the third stage students in the Department of Physical Education and <br>Sports Sciences at the College of Basic Education / Al-Mustansiriyah University who are continuing the <br>official working hours for the academic year (2020/2021), the self-efficacy scale, which is specially prepared <br>for students of colleges and departments of physical education and sports sciences, and videography to test <br>the students ’performance of the front hand jump skill on the ground movement rug in the gymnastics was <br>adopted, and the researchers applied these two tools on the sample and processed its results with the (SPSS) <br>system to make the conclusions and applications that the third stage students need In the Department of <br>Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the College of Basic Education to improve the level of selfefficacy and improve their level of performance skill a front handspring on the mat floor movement of <br>gymnastics for students, Self-efficacy is positively related, contributes and affects the improvement of their <br>performance level for this skill, and it is necessary to intensify efforts between teachers of gymnastics and <br>specialists in sports psychology and their cooperation to support raising the level of self-efficacy according <br>to scientific principles that are not improvised because of its important role in improving the performance of <br>the skill a front handspring on the mat floor movement of gymnastics for students.</p> Zaid Sami Yasir, Osma Abdel Moneim Jawad, Yassin Alowan Ismail Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Comparative Training on the Achievement and Trajectory among Young Weightlifters <p>This study aimed at identifying the comparative training and its effect on the trajectory and achievement <br>among young weightlifters. It employed the experimental approach to verify research hypotheses. The <br>research sample consisted of (24) players representing the Iskan Youth Club in Iraq and the Iranian Shomal <br>Club. The players were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control). They underwent the <br>processes of homogeneity and equality with their pre-measurements including height, age and the relative <br>achievement of the snatch. The coach method was adapted with introducing training units corresponding <br>to their counterpart Iranian Shomal Club. The data was processed statistically. The results revealed that <br>the comparative training helps to shorten the duration of training because of its specificity by matching the <br>variables of the two samples.</p> Hayder Jabbar Abd Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Use of Different Weights and Resistances and their Effect on Bending the Muscles of the Lower Limbs and the Achievement of the Long Jump Contestants for Al Diwaniyah Clubs in Athletics <p>The research included several topics, where the two researchers touched on the introduction and importance <br>of the research in the first section, as all sources and research confirm the importance of using weights in <br>training programs because of their importance in developing working muscles, especially in activities of <br>jumping and jumping and thus reflected positively on achievement, as for the problem of research lies inferior <br>The level of achievement for the effectiveness of the long jump, especially in the local championships, due to <br>the lack of use of modern methods and means in the training curricula, especially the weighted ones, which <br>negatively affected the achievement. The third was the methodology of the research, where the researchers <br>used the experimental method to suit the nature of the problem. As for the research sample, they played the <br>Diwaniyah clubs with the strong games of the long jump for the applicants and the participants in the Iraqi <br>championships. As for the statistical methods, the researchers used the appropriate statistical means that are <br>compatible with the research paragraphs. The results are according to a solid scientific method to reach the <br>most important treatments and solutions, as for the mass The fifth urge was to include the most important <br>conclusions and recommendations, as it became clear that weight training exercises an effective role on the <br>angles of the body, the movement path, and the achievement.</p> Karim Abdul Hussein Al-Jaber, Basma Abdul Hussein Shandal Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Comparative Study: in Some Physical Traits between the Different Lines of Play in Quintet Football <p>After the development in the level of mathematical achievement in its first version, it is the feature in the <br>lives of peoples because numbers of players and raising their technical, physical, plans and psychological <br>levels are the main goals for which training programs are built, especially attention to qualities more than <br>others, such as strength distinguished by speed and speed of movement here, the importance of research <br>varies. The most important importance of research. As for the most important characteristic of speed and <br>kinetic speed, playing lines. As for the most important researcher, focusing on the page distinguished by <br>speed and kinetic velocity and for all lines of play.</p> Basma Abdul Hussein Shandal Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Cross Sectional Study to Evaluate The Existence of Drop in “Core Body Temperature” of Afebrile Arabic Iraqi Citizens Who are Living Inside Iraq, Applied Study in Private Clinic in Baghdad – Iraq <p>Background: Normal average core body temperature had been established at 37 ºC since nineteenth century. <br>However, recently many researchers point to a decrease in the average normal human body temperature, <br>bellow this level, in certain communities.<br>Methodology: A cross sectional study involved 504 individuals been conducted in private clinics, in <br>Baghdad - Iraq, over period extended from 7 \ 11 \ 2020 - 30 \ 12 \ 2020.<br>Objective: to show if there is a drop in human core body temperature in Iraq or not.<br>Results: human core body temperature drop, in Iraq, bellow standard levels.</p> Ali Mohammed Fadhil, Yousif Jawad Kadom Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Role of Inhibitory Check Point (CTLA-4) in Iraqi Women with Breast Cancer <p>Breast cancer is the most important and frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. The CTLA4 is a member of Immunoglobulin super family and binds to the CD80 and CD86 co-stimulatory molecules.<br>(binds to CD80/86 on APCs with a higher affinity than CD28, thereby inhibiting co-stimulatory signals.<br>CTLA-4 (Gene ID:1493, MIM number: 123890) is a new member of the immunoglobulin super family <br>known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 12 (IDDM 12) ,and cluster of differentiation 152 (CD152).<br>The CTLA-4 protein consists of a 37 amino acid leader peptide, an extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) V like <br>domain or the ligand-binding domain (116 amino acid), a hydrophobic trans membrane region (37 amino <br>acid), and a cytoplasmic domain. The aim of the present study of the association of CTLA-4 serum level <br>and polymorphism with breast cancer in Iraqi women suffers from breast cancer. Materials and Methods: <br>peripheral Blood samples were collected from 45 Iraqi patients women diagnosed with breast cancer patient, <br>and 45 healthy women were matched with patients as a control. ELISA technique has been used to determine <br>the serum level of sCTLA-4.The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on 45 patients and 45 control, <br>to determine the genetic variation in the +49 exon 1 region of CTLA-4 gene. Results: the serum level <br>of understudying groups recorded an non-significant difference increasing in the serum level of CTLA-4 <br>under (p&gt;0.05). in mean ± SE (3.17 ± 0.82 ng/ml) patients as compared to control (2.72 ± 0.29 ng/ml) <br>under (p&gt;0.05). Genetic polymorphism of CTLA.4 gene (rs231775) which illustrated the distribution of <br>genotypes of CTLA.4 in patients and control. The heterozygous genotype AG recorded high frequency in <br>patients (35.56%) than control (0.00%) with a highly significant difference under (P&lt;0.05). Homozygote <br>genotype AA recorded high frequency in control (95.56%) than patients (64.44) and has a highly significant <br>difference, and the homozygous genotype GG frequency (0.00%) was non- significant in patients compared <br>to control (4.44%). The allele frequency for allele A was (0.82%) in patients compared with control (0.96%) <br>while for the frequency of allele G was (0.18%) in patients compared with control (0.04%) with a significant <br>difference. Conclusion: elevation of serum concentration of sCTLA-4 could consider as a clinical biomarker <br>for prognosis breast cancer. There are some difference noticed in CTLA-4 gene with SNP (rs231775A/G) <br>which showed a significant differences between patients and control, A allele of SNP (rs231775A/G) may <br>have role to prevent the risk of breast cancer in Iraqi females, while allele G has an etiological fraction.</p> Hamed Hussein Ali Al- Saadi , Hazima Mossa Al-Abassi, Mohammed Mahdi Jawad Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Intense Match-Speed Exercises on Some Special Physical Abilities and Skills of Volleyball Players <p>Each of the sports has special requirements for female athletes to practice sporting activity, and these <br>requirements develop through training based on scientific foundations to improve the level of physical and <br>skill, and through the experience of researchers in the field of volleyball, they noticed weakness in the skills <br>of serving and crushing during the match, in addition to that, the use of standardized physical exercises <br>according to exercises strongly match the speed of the game during training performance and work in <br>resistance training and according to the components of the training load, and the training is performed in <br>high-intensity doses and develops the level of physical abilities and functional indicators, the aim of the <br>research was to prepare exercises strongly match speed of the game for volleyball players, as well as to <br>identify the effect of exercises strongly match speed of the game on some special physical abilities and on <br>some skill abilities of volleyball players, and the researchers used the experimental approach in the pre and <br>post-test of one experimental group, the research community was identified for the volleyball players for the <br>training season 2020-2021, which numbered (12) players for one experimental group. Strong match speed <br>exercises were applied to the research sample for a period of eight weeks with three training units per week. <br>The SPSS statistical bag was used to process the data and obtain the results, including I found the importance <br>of intense match-speed exercises, a positive effect on some special physical abilities and skills of volleyball <br>players.</p> Marwa Hussein Hasan, Huda Badwi Shbeeb Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Elevation of Some Biochemical and Immunological Parameters in Hemodialysis Patients Suffering from Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Babylon Province Marwa Fadhil Alsaffar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Haplotyping of Echinococcus granulosus Isolates From Human, Sheep and Cattles Hydatid Cysts in Some Central Euphrates Provinces, Iraq <p>This study included nine samples collected from the infected (liver and lung) divided into three equal <br>samples (sheep, cattle and humans) collected from some Central Euphrates Provinces for the period from the <br>beginning August 2019 till February 2020. PCR technique was performed for in detection and genotyping <br>of Echiococcus granulosus hydatid cyst based on mitochondrial Cox1 gene and Nad1 genes in isolates. <br>This technique was carried out according to method described by Nikmanesh et al. (2014). The present <br>study aimed to showed haplotype genetic and the frequency percentage of it in the Central Euphrates <br>region. the result showed the H15 haplotype was a higher frequency followed it ( H10, H11) and then (H5). <br>The frequency percentage of the haplotype genetic in the current study of the taken samples (8) that the <br>prevalence and frequency of haplotype genetic H15 was 37.5%, followed by the genotype ( H10,H11) at <br>25% for both them , and the lowest was the genotype (H5) at 12.5% The human samples registered 100% <br>for (H15) , the sheep registered 50 % for H5, H10.While cattle samples registered 33.3 % for H10 and 66.6 <br>for H11 . Isolation H15 is the essential in the infection to humans as a result of dogs were fed hydatid cysts <br>of cattle origin, and there is no relationship between sheep and humans, while there is a relationship between <br>sheep and cattle in the Haplotype (H10).</p> Nabaa Zahid Sabri Shani Al-Hasnawi, Ahmed Khudhair Al-Hamairy, Huda Jasim M. Altameme Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of the Strategy the Learning Cycle of Higher than the Cognitive to Development the Sense-Motor Perception and Accuracy of the SMASH Service Skill of Volleyball for Students <p>The researchers used the experimental approach to design the two equivalent groups of pre and post- tests <br>to apply the vocabulary of the strategy of the metacognitive learning cycle, and the research community <br>was determined to apply the strategy of the metacognitive learning cycle to the students of the third stage <br>of the University of Kufa / College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, for the academic season <br>2020-2021, whose number is (28) student, the sample was divided equally into two experimental and <br>control groups, and after performing the pre-tests, the members of the experimental group began to apply <br>the units prepared by the researchers and lasted for eight weeks every week, three development units, after <br>completing the units’ vocabulary, the researchers conducted the post tests, then they collected the data and <br>were processed. Statistically in the (spss) program. As for the most important conclusions, they are: The <br>exercises prepared by researchers according to the strategy of the supra-cognitive learning cycle helped <br>greatly in developing the students’ sense-motor perception, as well as the time period in which the exercises <br>were applied according to the strategy of the metacognitive learning cycle helped greatly in developing the <br>skill of overwhelming the ball, the plane is for students.</p> Nuha Yousef Hashem, Muthana Abd Dahash, Mahmoud Nasser Radhi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Graphene Nanoparticles on some Organs of Reproductive System in Male Albino Mice <p>Due to their exceptional physical properties, graphene nanomaterials have gained a great deal of interest in <br>recent years for their application to state-of-the-art technology. On the other hand, nanotoxicity of graphene <br>materials has also rapidly become a major concern, especially in the field of occupational health. There is <br>a lack of evidence that such graphene nanomaterials influence the organs of the male reproductive system. <br>Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of Graphene nanoparticles (GNPs) on mice <br>body weight, reproductive organs weight and sperm quality, as well as certain reproductive organs injuries, <br>after14 days of treatment with oral gavages of 0.1 ml of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg of GNPs in male albino mice. <br>The results showed a decrease in animal body weight and certain reproductive organs, as well as a decrease <br>in the proportion of live sperm and the concentration of sperm in the tail of the epididymis and an increase in <br>sperm abnormalities in all treatment relative to the control group. Injuries in the testes and epididymis (head <br>and tail) were shown by histopathological analysis. This study concluded that oral GNPs gavages at various <br>concentrations have a negative effect on the male reproductive system and can affect fertility.</p> Asawir Saadi AliAL-kazomy, Genan Adnan Al-Bairuty, Mohammed Mahdi Jawad Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Comparison of some Physiological Parameters Determined by Timing Consumption of Breakfast Meal among Adult Women <p>Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Eating a nutritious breakfast sets the tone for the day and <br>promotes weight maintenance and weight loss by maintaining blood glucose levels and our metabolism. <br>The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of timing breakfast consumption on some <br>hematological parameters among some adult female student in college of science for women. Sample enrolled <br>in the present study consist from 40 female with age arranged between 20-45 years , at an early -morning <br>blood sample of 3 ml has been taken to measure the hemoglobin, RBC, BP, WBC, HCT% by hematological <br>analyzer devise and body mass index was measured for subjects to estimate if there any difference between <br>two study groups who take breakfast meal in early morning compared with those students who take breakfast <br>meal at late morning. The results for total parameters measured were non-has significant difference between <br>two study groups, so our conclusion the Keep eating breakfast meal at a limited time at (7 -9 am) and (9-11 <br>am) in regularly have not changed clinically significant in some hematological and physiological test<br>The aim of study: This study was carried to indicate whether the timing consumptions of breakfast if <br>influence on some classical hematological parameters in young women</p> Ghadeer Hamid AL-Ardhi, Noran Jameel Ibraheem, Adil Mohammed AL-Maamory, Ali Mohammed Abd- Alameer Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques and Protocols in Diagnosis and Staging of the Urinary Bladder Carcinoma in Comparison with Histopathological Findings <p>Background: Bladder cancer is the second most common type of cancer of the urinary system in the world, <br>after prostate cancer. Thus, we use a combination of the best imaging technology in the diagnosis and <br>treatment of bladder cancer, because of its accuracy in local staging and grading .<br>Aim of The Study: To determine the accuracy and effectivity of MRI in early detection and diagnosis of <br>bladder carcinoma by using different protocols and to Compare the sensitivity of MRI in staging of urinary <br>bladder carcinoma with histopathological findings.<br>Patients and Method: : A prospective case control study was conducted in an oncology teaching hospital <br>/the complex of Baghdad medical city. This study involved 41 suspected patient (35male &amp;6 female). The <br>participants ranged from (31–83 years) throughout the period of from September 2020 to January 2021.<br>Patients who were referred for examination and diagnosis due to pelvic pain and hematuria, or who had been <br>suspected of having bladder cancer by ultrasound were included in the study and were evaluated by the MRI <br>performed with an MRI scanner (1.5 Tesla ,Siemens).<br>Results: : the study included 41 patients with bladder cancer, mean age was 64.8 years ranging from (31-83 <br>years), about 31.7% was in 61 – 70 years, and about 24.4 was in 71–80 years, 85.4% were males, and 97.6% <br>were smokers.82.9% with chronic renal disease( UTI ),56.1% with heterogeneous enhancement &amp; 39% with <br>homogenous enhancement ,4.9% non-enhanced. 38 patients with symptom of hematuria, the lesion location <br>according to the its site in the bladder wall was 34.1% in the lateral wall,24.4% in the posterior wall. The <br>stages of T-primary tumor in MRI common protocols was(Tis=12% ,Tia=10% ,T1=17% ,T2=18% ,T3=28% <br>,T4=15% ) .the accuracy and sensitivity for early stages (Tis,Ta,T1.&amp;T2) in conventional MRI protocols)<br>T1WI,T2WI) was Inconclusive in the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma accuracy ranging (44% – 57%) &amp; <br>sensitivity ranging (50% – 75%),while in both advance MRI modalities) DCE &amp;DWI) had specificity for <br>diagnosing stage bladder CA with DWI offering slightly higher sensitivity (SN) , negative predictive values <br>(NPV ), positive predictive value (PPV) , and accuracy (SN: 100% vs. 100%, SP: 50% for DCE &amp;100% for <br>DWI, accuracy: 97.6% vs 100%, PPV: 97.5% vs. 100%, and NPV: 100% vs.100%).</p> Raad owaid jassim, Haider Qasim Hamood, Hussein Hasan Nsaif Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Technical Accuracy and Efficiency of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Evaluation of Uterine Masses in Comparison with Ultrasound <p>Aim of the Study: comparing accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the magnetic resonance imaging and <br>ultrasound in differentiating and characterizing of uterine masses.<br>Patients and Method: A prospectively studied has been conducted on 41 female patients with suspected <br>uterine masses. They were subjected to ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. <br>Comparison has been performed between modalities to detect and characterize all masses. Statistical <br>parameters that include the specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and positive and negative predictive value have <br>been estimated for the two modalities in all of the uterine masses.<br>Results: Among 41 female patients, majority were diagnosed as leiomyoma 28 (68%), cervical cancer 1 <br>(2%), adenomyosis 7 (17%), endometrial polyp 2 (5%), endometrial carcinoma 2 (5%) and normal 1 patient <br>(2%). Totally 3 (i.e. 7%) patients have been found malignant while 37 (i.e. 93%) have been found benign. <br>For detection of myometrial mass (leiomyoma), the sensitivity between the ultrasound and MRI is 100%, <br>accuracy was (ultrasound: 92% and MRI: 100%). In the classification of myometrial mass (i.e. leiomyoma) <br>site, sensitivity between the ultrasound and MRI has been 21% and 92% respectively and specificity was <br>(ultrasound: 0 and MRI: 100%). All intramural and subserosal lesions are seen in MRI. For picking up <br>degeneration within the leiomyoma MRI are more useful. There have been considerable differences in the <br>diagnosis of the adenomyosis by the MRI in comparison with ultrasound with sensitivity was (MRI: 100% <br>and ultrasound: 71%), and specificity for both was 100%, whereas accuracy was 75% for ultrasound and <br>100% for MRI. In the detection of the endometrial carcinoma, the MRI has achieved 100% sensitivity and <br>50% specificity whereas ultrasound had zero sensitivity and specificity was 50%. Among two cases of <br>endometrial polyp, one patient is diagnosed correctly by ultrasound &amp; MRI, the sensitivity for both was 50% <br>and accuracy was (ultrasound: 50% and MRI: 75%). MRI and ultrasound was correctly diagnosis of one <br>patient with cervical cancer with sensitivity and accuracy 100%.</p> Hind Moafak Abd-Aljabbar, Haider Qasim Hamood, Hussein Hasan Nsaif Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Third Degree Football Referees’ Health Behaviors at the Referees’ Football Training Centre in Baghdad City <p>Objective(s): The present study aims at evaluating third degree football referees’ Health behaviors at the <br>Football Referee Training Centre in Baghdad City.<br>Methodology: Quasi-experimental design, using one group test-retest approach, is carried throughout the <br>present study for the period of October 25th 2019 through March 10th 2021.<br>Non-probability, convenient sample of (40) third degree football referee while they are attending the Referees’ <br>Football Training Centre for the purpose of training. All subjects who have agreed to participate in the study <br>have signed consent form for maintenance of their confidentiality and ethical considerations. Self-report <br>questionnaire is constructed out of the program for the purpose of the study. Such instrument is comprised <br>of two parts; part I: Socio-demographic Information which include age, education, body mass index (BMI) <br>and socioeconomic status (SES) and part II: Third Degree Football Referees’ Health Behaviors Scale that <br>measures the third degree referees’ health behaviors. It is comprised of (4) sections that include body care <br>and general health, smoking, drinking and drug use, psychosocial well-being and abusive behaviors. Content <br>validity of the questionnaire is determined through panel of experts and test-retest reliability for equivalence <br>is obtained throughout a pilot study.<br>Results: Results of the study depict that third degree football referees have experienced positive health <br>behaviors with respect to studied aspects. Further, there is no significant relationship between their health <br>behaviors and the socio-demographic characteristics of age, education, body mass index and socioeconomic <br>status.<br>Conclusion: The study concludes that the third degree football referees’ health behaviors are improving as <br>far as they are involved in the referees training center.</p> Mohammed Hamzah Mahdi, Mohammed F. Khalifa Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Relationship between some Immunological Criteria and Women with Recurrent Miscarriages Yahaya M. Jabber, Alaa Jawad Hassan, Hussein N. Abdullah Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Isolation and Identification of Bacteria from Urinary Tract Infections <p>A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder and <br>urethra). Most infections involve the lower urinary tract, the bladder and the urethra. Women are at greater <br>risk of developing a UTI than are men. In this study, (50) urine sample were collected from (50) patients <br>with suspected urinary tract infection, during the period from December (2017) to March (2018). The results <br>of this study revealed that (70%) of samples was positive for bacterial culture, while (30%) of sample have <br>no growth. The bacterial culture shown that (18) (51.43%) of bacterial isolates was E. coli followed by <br>Staphylococcus aureus (8) (22.86%) and Klebsiella spp (17.14%) (6) , Proteus spp .(8.57%) (3). In-vitro, <br>the susceptibility of bacteria towards some antibiotics included in this study revealed that the Ciprofloxacin, <br>Gentamicin, and Chloramphenicol are the most effective antibiotics to different types of pathogenic bacteria.</p> Noor Hamid Abbas Al- Marzoog, Heba Saleh Shaheed, Alaa Yousif Oudah Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect the Information Processing Model According to the Error Scale to Learning and Accuracy the Performance of Blocking Skill of Volleyball For Juniors <p>Due to the special features of the volleyball game that differs from the rest of the games in the style of play <br>as any mistake may lead to losing a point unlike the rest of the group games, and this requires the players <br>to be well prepared in all skill, physical, technical and psychological aspects, these are closely related to the <br>skillful performance of volleyball players, and as the barrier skill must be possessed by the volleyball player <br>with the required level of accuracy, mastery and minimizing error to reach the best levels and learning this <br>skill requires time and effort on the part of the coach and the player, so attention must be paid to the use of <br>methods and auxiliary tools that contribute to enhancing the learning process of the juniors and are in line <br>with the capabilities and capabilities of the players at this stage to accelerate the learning process and correct <br>errors in early stages before becoming a method for the player in the advanced stages, the problem of the <br>research is that most trainers identify errors in general and do not rely on scientific foundations and modern <br>methods of learning and training, in addition to that the process of diagnosing errors by trainers does not use <br>objectivity in judgment and error measures are one of the important scientific means in identifying errors <br>clearly and in it some kind of Precision, in addition to the educational and training unit’s lack of multiple <br>educational tools that contribute effectively to the educational and training units. In addition, the blocking <br>wall skill is a very important skill that needs focus and attention in its learning for its mastery and accuracy, <br>the aim of the research is to process the information and reduce the error rate according to measures of error <br>in learning and accuracy of the performance of the wall skill in volleyball for juniors.</p> Firas Kassop Rashd Dwayyeh, Muntadher Mohammed Ali, Mahmoud Nasser Radi Alkoofee Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study of Some Physiological and Histological Parameters of Albino Rats Administrated with a Herbal Obesity Slimmer Product <p>The modern studies on the treatment of obesity have dedicated on the potential activity of plants to control <br>obesity on the metabolism of lipid and glucose. The aim of this study is to investigate about the effect of <br>AB slim on body metabolism of its – takers and determine its safety. 16 female rats (150 - 250) divided <br>equally into 4 groups, the first group considered as control group and administered distilled water, the three <br>other groups daily administered the prepared aqueous solution of AB slim capsule for 45 days. The animals <br>weighed after 24 hr. of the last administration, the animals were weighed. The results showed after weeks of <br>treatment that the animals gain weight instead of losing it and there were no beneficial effects of this remedy <br>on lipid profile, in contrast there was an increase in LDL levels and decrease in HDL. The hisopathological <br>study showed degeneration and necrosis in most organs , liver, kidney, spleen and gastrointestinal tract.</p> Ikhlass A. Al-Hilaly, Meison Abdulbary, Sadeq Jaffer AlZubaidi, Ibraheem Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Tactical Performance Endurance Exercise on the Level of the Hormones ANP-BNP for Young Football Players <p>As for the objectives of the research, they were to prepare exercises that endure the planned performance <br>at the level of the hormones ANP-BNP for young football players, and to identify the effect of exercises <br>to endure the planned performance on the level of the hormones ANP-BNP for young football players, <br>as well as to identify the preference for the effect between the control and experimental groups. Whereas <br>the research hypotheses were that there was an effect of exercises to endure the planned performance on <br>the level of the hormones ANP-BNP for young football players, there were also significant differences <br>of statistical significance in favor of the experimental group in the post-tests. The researchers used the <br>experimental approach in the manner of the two groups equivalent to the pre and post-test for suitability to <br>the research variables. The study research community included the young football players for the clubs of <br>the Holy Kerbala Governorate for the 2019/2020 sports season and its number (10) clubs by (220) players. <br>The research sample was chosen randomly (drawing lots). The selection fell on the players of the Al-Ghariya <br>Sports Club.</p> Mukhald Bejai Attieh, Habeeb Ali Taher, Ahmed Murtda Abid AlHussain Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Nurse’s Knowledge toward Common Mistakes in Blood Pressure Measurement at Baghdad Teaching Hospital <p>The study aims to assess the nurse’s knowledge toward common mistakes in blood pressure measurement, <br>and to find out the relationship between nurse’s knowledge toward common mistakes in blood Pressure <br>measurement and demographic characteristics . An quantitative descriptive design has been used for this <br>study. The study starting during the period between the Nov.30, 2019 to May.30. 2020. Purposive sampling <br>technique was selected. The sample consisted of (60) nurses. The study instrument was composed two parts: <br>The first part is concerned with the demographic characteristics, and the second part includes nurses’ <br>knowledge. Content validity of the instrument was established through panels of (10) experts. Results have <br>analyzed through the use of SPSS ‘’Statistical Package for Social Sciences’’ model 24.0 by using descriptive <br>and inferential statistical method. Finding of the present study revealed that the overall, nurse’s knowledge <br>was poor , false nurse’s knowledge include13 domains of 14 domains, female nurses had more knowledge <br>in most domains than male, the age range (28-37) has more knowledge, majority of nurse’s knowledge were <br>associated with high education level, years of experience rang(6-10), and nurses who work at CCU unit had <br>more knowledge toward common mistakes in blood pressure measurement.</p> Saad Abdul-Ridh Jissir Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of Health Educational Program on Nurse’s Practices toward Care of Neonates with Hypoglycemia at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Al-Nasiriya City <p>Background: In the neonatal age, hypoglycemia is the most common metabolic disturbance. A common <br>problem in newborn infant care is screening at-risk babies and controlling low blood glucose levels in the <br>first hours to days of life.<br>Methodology: A quasi- experimental design used in the present study with application of a (pre-test/ posttest I, post-test II), The study was carried out at NICU in teaching hospitals in Nasiriya city, Iraq (Bint Alhuda Teaching and Muhammed Al-Musawi Children Hospitals). The research sample includes (40) nurses <br>working in NICU. They are selected by using non probability sampling (purposive sample). <br>Results : The findings of the study in this table indicate that, according to the mean of the score level of <br>assessment, there is low level of assessment of 40 (100%) at level (1-1.66) the mean of score and standard <br>deviation are (1.25±0.087) at the pretest. There is high level of assessment of 40 (100%) at level (2.34-3) <br>the mean of score and standard deviation are (2.54±0.097) at the posttest I. There is high level of assessment <br>of 23 (82.5%) at level (2.34-3) the mean of score and standard deviation are (2.47±0.154) at the posttest II. <br>the finding indicated that the improvement the nurses practice toward care neonates with hypoglycemia in <br>the Posttest II .<br>Conclusion: The program has effectiveness on the nurses’ level of practice toward neonatal hypoglycemia <br>during the 2 period of test, the study group have low level of practice before implementation of an educational <br>program and the level of practice ascend to high level at posttest I and stay in high level at posttest II. There <br>is a significant deference between the means of the nurses practice before and after implementation of the <br>program.<br>Recommendation: The researcher suggests that nurses’ practices be assessed on a regular basis to identify <br>any flaws that may be affecting their care of neonates with hypoglycemia. The importance of fully utilizing <br>continuing medical education to provide neonatal hypoglycemia courses for all NICU nurses</p> Hussein Oraibi Hawi, Suad Hassoon Khudhair Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of A Coping Style- related Instructional program on Self - Care of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type II at Endocrinology and Diabetes Center in Al-Basra City <p>Methodology: A descriptive analytic (quasi – experimental) design. Sample composed of (60) patients <br>were divided into two groups study and control group, (30) patients in each one. <br>Results: The study findings Shows that participants’ age group at a level (46-65 years) were (67.7%) of the <br>study group, and (56.7%) of the control group. (56.7%) of the study group were male, while (53.3%) of <br>the control groups were female. <br>The study also confirms that the effectiveness of a Coping style related instructional program on Self - Care <br>of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type II at Endocrinology and Diabetes Center in Al-Basra City, Iraq.<br>Conclusion : The study concludes that A coping style-related instructional program is effective to enhance <br>diabetes patients’ self-care activities, knowledge, and coping style among patients with T2DM. This <br>conclusion is based on the result of our study that reveals significant differences between pre-intervention <br>and post-intervention. <br>Recommendations: Improve knowledge and self-care activities of patients with T2DM, by using our <br>study guidelines.. Encourage the health care provider to improve diabetic patients’ self-care activities and <br>focusing on all domain aspects of self-care.</p> Rajaa Ibrahim Abed, Saja’ Kareem Jassim Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of an Educational Program on Nursing Staff Knowledge towards Priorities of Responsibilities at Emergency Unit in Imam Al-Hussein Medical City in Holly Karballah Governorate <p>The study aims to determine the effectiveness of an education program on nursing staff knowledge toward <br>priorities of responsibilities and to identify the association between nursing staff knowledge and demographic <br>characteristics of (age, gender, education level and year of experiences). A pre-experimental design (one <br>group pre-test –post-test design) has been used. The study has been carried out at Emergency Unit in Imam <br>Al-Hussein Medical City in Holly Karballah Governorate at the period from (26th of September, 2020 <br>to 18th of April, 2021) on a non-probability (purposive) sample consisting of (28 nurses) who work in the <br>emergency unit . A questionnaire was built as a data collection tool and consisted of two parts: First part: <br>The demographic characteristics of the nursing staff (age, gender, level of education, years of experience in <br>hospital, years of experience in emergency and level of education, and second part includes : Knowledge <br>of Nursing Staff about Priorities of Responsibilities at Emergency Unit ,and consist of four domain. The <br>validity of content of program and the study instruments were determined through a panel of (11) experts. <br>The data analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 application of <br>statistical analysis system .The study findings revealed that nursing staffs’ knowledge regards Priorities <br>of Responsibilities at Emergency Unit before application of the program was poor with a statistical mean <br>equal to( 1.28) and after implementing the educational program became good with a statistical mean equal <br>to (1.78). The study show that there is a positive effect of the educational program on the nursing staff’s <br>knowledge, where p-value was (0.000) in two periods of measurements (pre-test and post-test). The study <br>recommended the necessity of improving the knowledge of the nursing staff regarding the priorities of their <br>responsibilities in the emergency unit by the activation of continuing medical education in correctly .</p> Mohammed B. Nadheer, Widad K. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Civil Responsibility in the Medical Industry for Artificial Intelligence Applications: the Legal Rules of AI Responsibility <p>The paper addresses the debate on AI robots’ legal status, which often confuses the jurisprudence and decision-makers <br>between these synthetic drugs’ legal effect and the legal personality status. If only the theories of jurisprudence or <br>philosophers’ opinions contribute to the law’s development, engineers with their inventions also contribute to its effect. <br>It considers the trends in this field and the actions made by specialists in artificial intelligence, and the independence <br>of robots based on the latter. The lack of systems of responsibility traditional to absorb the damage caused by AI <br>technologies. The European civil law commission for robotics is awarded the most sophisticated and independent <br>robot’s legal personality for holding them responsible for themselves and not human beings. Still, this proposal faces <br>many legal, moral, and philosophical challenges. According to this framework, the paper aims to shed more light on, <br>discuss and analyze such an intelligent position robot might have from legal, ethical, and philosophical aspects. The <br>article also explores the possibility of granting autonomous robots a new legal status that removes them from the circle <br>of things and places them within the scope of personal. What is the point of giving this legal personality to robots based <br>on artificial intelligence advocated by international institutions and researchers in law? The results show that granting <br>legal personality within intelligent robots’ philosophical concept is possible as it exists. However, robots’ moral nature <br>differs from a legal person’s existence because we see and feel the latter</p> Ammar Kareim Kadham Al-Bsherawy, Ali Abdul-Jabbar Rahim Al-Mashhadi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Creation of Cervical Cancer Risk Factor Score Card in order to Know the Risk Score for Cervical Cancer in Women of Reproductive Age by Conducting Self-Assessment <p>Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among various cancers in the genetalia <br>of women, and often occurs at reproductive age. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to create a cervical <br>cancer risk factor score card in order to know the risk score for cervical cancer in women of reproductive age <br>by conducting self-assessment. Methods: The design of this research was cross-sectional, with 81 patients <br>as respondents. Data were collected through filling out a questionnaire, then analyzed using Mc Nemar <br>Test and ROC curve. Findings: Obtained a cut-off point 11 with a sensitivity value of 93.8%, a specificity <br>of 90.9%. The results of testing the validity of the score card obtained results with an accuracy value of <br>92.6%, with a significant value of 0.000, which means there was a relationship between the scorecard and <br>the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Conclusion: The score card can be used as a self-assessment in the hope <br>that it can increase women to perform early detection of cervical cancer.</p> A’im Matun Nadhiroh, Budi Santoso, Suhatno, Windhu Purnomo, Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Impact of COVID 19 In Digital Currencies Focused in Western Balkan Societies <p>Virtual communities’ emergence and innovative technologies bring up new types of accounting and <br>transaction methods. These methods go beyond the existing economics knowledge and current legal <br>solutions. Virtual societies develop and share their payment medium for goods and services exchange. The <br>use of cryptocurrency has been enhanced during the COVID -19 era due to the health guidelines to minimize <br>the virus’s spread. Cryptocurrencies bridge the loopholes left by the traditional currency in sorting crises like <br>the Corona Virus pandemic. However, cryptocurrency brings up legal controversies that users are exposed <br>to economic and legal risks.</p> Ermir Shahini, Eugen Skuraj, Fatbardh Sallaku, Shpend Shahini, Fabiola Bali, Ermira Kalaj, Elti Shahini Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Study of Hemodialysis on the Change Rate of Serum Osteopontin, Sialic Acid, and Nitric Oxide Levels <p>Objective : Chronic renal failure (CRF) is one of the most prevalent diseases of human societies, especially <br>in Iraq. Despite all advances that have been made so far, hemodialysis with all its complications is being <br>applied as the novel treatment strategy for such individuals.Osteopontin (OPN) is a multi-functional secreted <br>glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in and inflammatory process.<br>Our aim was to ascertain whether circulating osteopontin,sialic acid ,and NO levels are altered in patients <br>with CRF before and after dialysis.<br>Design and Methods: A total of 126 patients with HD were enrolled in this study. Serum OPN levels were <br>measured using a commercial enzymelinked immunosorbent assay kit.<br>Results: Osteopontin and Sialic acid levels were significantly higher in haemodialysed CKD patients than <br>predialysed CKD patients and normal healthy controls. The levels of NO was significantly lower in CRF <br>patients pre HD when compared with healthy controls and significantly increased in post HD as compared <br>to pre HD. <br>Conclusion: In our study, OPN SA, NO were found to be a valuable marker of severity of CKD.</p> Entedhar R. Sarhat, Takea Shaker Ahmed, Mahde Salih Hamad, Rajaa S. Najim, ThuraiaRifaat Sarhat, Kasim Sakran Abass Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Biochemical Study on the Hypoglycemic Effects of Extracted Phenolic Compounds from Grape Seeds in Streptozotocin -Induced Diabetic Rats Entedhar Rifaat Sarhat, Madlen Qassm Abbas, Gadeer Hatem Aljader, Anwar Rifaat Sarhat, Thuraia Rifaat Sarhat, Kasim Sakran Abass Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Isolation and Identification of Shigella Sonnei from Children with Diarrhea and Detection of the Most Important Virulence Factors <p>Some reports showed that the sensitivity of Shigella species to antibiotics changed dramatically over time <br>due to the indiscriminate use of drugs.The Shigella strains became gradually resistant to most antimicrobials, <br>which led to failure of treatment and increased mortality.This study was conducted in Tikrit city and included <br>the isolated of Shigella sonnei from 530 stool samples were collected from children suffering from diarrhea <br>during the period from March 2018 to March 2019.Stool samples taken from children aged 1-60 month.The <br>study showed that all the fifteen isolates obtained were Shigella sonnei, meaning that the infection rate was <br>2.83% of the total number of patients.The age group from 49-60 months is the group most likely to be affected <br>by Shigella.The results of determining some virulence factors indicated that all Shigella sonnei isolates <br>possess the ability to form biofilms, and 93.3% of these isolates produce beta-lactamase.As for the ability of <br>isolates to cause keratoconjunctivitis,the results showed that 80% of the isolates were positive for the sereny <br>test, that is,it has the ability to cause the disease. The results of the study showed that all isolates were resistant <br>to antibiotics Nalidixic acid and Co-trimoxazole, and 93.3% of the isolates were resistant to Penicillin.<br>Antibiotics Chloramphenicol and Azithromycin showed a significant effect on Shigella isolates,as 93.3% of <br>isolates were sensitive to these antibiotics.The antibiotic Ciprofloxacin showed an asymptotic inhibition to <br>the antibiotics Chloramphenicol and Azithromycin, as the results showed that 86.6 isolates were sensitive <br>to this antibiotic.Antibiotics of the third generation cephalosporins Cefotaxime and Ceftriaxone,showed <br>convergent effects in their ability to inhibit Shigella sonnei isolates, as the results showed that the isolates <br>were sensitive to the antibiotics at a rate of 73.4% and 80% respectively.The percentage of isolates sensitive <br>to the antibiotics Amikacin and Tetracycline were 40% and 46.7% respectively.</p> Hayfaa Rajab Alwan, Mohammed Nadhir Maaroof Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Development and Psychometric Properties of Geriatric Existential Anxiety Scale <p>Objective: The elderly is now struggling with various existential dimensions because they went through <br>difficult life experiences. Due to the absence of any special tool to evaluate the dimensions of existential <br>anxiety in the elderly, this study is aimed to develop a tool to study the dimensions of existential anxiety in <br>the elderly and analyze its factors.<br>Method: This research is a descriptive study, and its statistical population consists of the elderly (men and <br>women) who are 60 years old and above and living in Tehran. In this study, 350 elderly people (male and <br>female) were selected from this population using the multi-stage cluster sampling method. The research tools <br>included the Existence Anxiety Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Psychological <br>Flexibility Questionnaire, and Anxiety about Aging scale. The methods of exploratory factor analysis and <br>confirmatory factor analysis, criterion validity, and convergent validity and divergent validity were used to <br>evaluate the validity of the scale. And its reliability was assessed by two methods of internal consistency <br>(Cronbach’s alpha) and stability of results (retest) with an interval of two weeks.<br>Results: The exploratory factor analysis with the principal component analysis method and Varimax rotation <br>has led to the extraction of 4 factors. The indicators of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the existence <br>of the four factors. It has indicated the acceptable correlations between the scale of Anxiety about Aging <br>and its components with other valid parallel tools of criterion validity, convergent validity, and divergent <br>validity of the scale. The reliability coefficients were obtained by the Cronbach’s alpha method and the retest <br>reliability gained at a satisfactory level. <br>Conclusion: The Anxiety about Aging scale is a valid and reliable self-assessment tool to evaluate the level <br>of existential anxiety and its dimensions in the elderly, and it can be used for future activities and researches.</p> Hemin Saadati, Bahman Bahmani Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study of Some Histopathological and Immunological Analysis in Patients with Chronic Tonsillitis <p>Several histopathological and immunological changes that occur in patients with palatine tonsillitis. Blood <br>and tonsil samples were collected from patients with palatine tonsillitis and (healthy peoples) in Ramadi city. <br>The results of histopathological analysis showed the percent of immunopositive cells for the proliferation <br>marker was low while the percent of immunpositive cells for the apoptosis marker was high. Serum was <br>used to know the effect of palatine tonsillitis on some assays CRP, RF, IL-6 and IgM. The results were <br>showed the following: Significant increase in the levels of CRP and RF in patients compared with control <br>group. Significant increase in the levels of IL-6 and IgM compared with control group. We conclude that <br>patients in Ramadi city have several pathological changes in palatine tonsils.</p> Hetaf Shallal Farhan, Ahmed Sami Farhan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study Effect of Water Fenugreek Extraction to In Vitro Oocytes Maturation in Local Iraqi Ewe Imad Majeed Almeeni, Saad Akram Hatif, Souhayla O. Hussain, Sadeq Jaafer Zalzala, Ahmed Muhammed Mahdi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Dihydrotestosterone and Free/Total Prostatic Specific Antigen Ratio in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Prostatic Disease <p>Background: Both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (Pca) include prostate enlargement. <br>The second most common cancer among men worldwide is prostate cancer. It has been documented that <br>by the time they reach their 60s, most men will experience benign prostatic hyperplasia. There is a real <br>difficulty differentiating between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer, the prostatic specific <br>antigen (PSA) is not used as a reliable marker of prostate cancer. It is a specific biomarker measure specific <br>to prostate tissues and not prostate cancer. Aims In the analysis of the gray zone of tPSA (4-10 ng/ml), add <br>these biochemical markers and differentiate the root cause of prostate tumor in order to minimize painful and <br>intrusive prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional and case control study. It included 110 <br>patients ages range (45-81 years) with benign prostatic hyperplasia (n=55) and prostate cancer (n=55). Forty <br>-five apparently healthy subjects were also included as controls. Peripheral blood samples from controls <br>and patients were collected before obtaining a prostatic biopsy from patients. Serum samples were used <br>for measurements of total Prostate Specific Antigen (tPSA), Free Prostate Specific Antigen (fPSA), and <br>Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by using ELISA technique. Result: Mean (±SD) serum tPSA and fPSA values <br>for Pca were substantially improved compared to both BPH and control (p=0.001 for all), while mean fPSA/<br>tPSA values for PCa were significantly decreased compared to BPH and control values (p=0.001). In PCa, <br>the mean +SD value of the DHT ratios was significantly lower than in each BHP, and controls (P&lt;0.001) <br>were significantly lower in PCa than in each BHP and regulation (P&lt;0.001). The mean DHT values for BPH <br>were significantly higher as compared to control values (p&lt; 0.001). Conclusion: The level of serum tPSA is <br>4.2 ng/ml for prostate tumor screening, while 10.1 ng/ml for PCa and BPH differentiation.</p> Lara Balasim Al-Dahy, Basil O. Mohammed, Saad Dakhil F. Daraji, Mazin M. Farhan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Role of oxLDL in Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Its Relationship with Thiol Homeostasis <p>Intrauterine growth restriction(IUGR) affects about 9% of whole pregnancies.It is known that there is <br>an increased risk of mortality and morbidity in infants.It is a serious disease that causes complications <br>such as acute and chronic pulmonary diseases, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage and <br>retinopathy in the future.We aimed to study the role of oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL), which <br>is an significant risk factor in cardiovascular diseases,in IUGR and its relationship with thiol homeostasis. <br>38 women with IUGR and 38 healthy pregnant were included in this study.Serum total thiol and native <br>thiol levels were analyzed with fully automatic autoanalysers in patients and controls.Serum OxLDL levels <br>were also measured by ELISA method. According to the results of the study,it was found that OxLDL <br>was significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group(27.29±3.32 and 10.64±1.05 <br>ng/mL,respectively,p &lt;0.05).However, there was no significant difference between thiol parameters(p&gt; <br>0.05).In addition, there was a negative correlation between oxLDL and native thiol and OxLDL and total <br>thiol in the IUGR group. Oxidative stress is an important factor in the formation of OxLDL.OxLDL is <br>an effective molecule in all stages of atherosclerosis. It appears that increased oxidative stress in IUGR <br>patients increases OxLDL.Increased OxLDL in pregnancies complicated by IUGR may increase the risk of <br>developing cardiovascular disease for both mother and fetus later in life.Therefore, developing treatment for <br>OxLDL in IUGR patients may protect both mother and child from future dangers.</p> Layla Ali Shareef, Omeed Akbar Ali, Firas Shawqi Abdulrazzaq, Mehmet Akif Bozdayi, Rasha Raheem A. Alkarkoushi, Hasan Ulusal, Seyithan Taysi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Sonchus oleracea Extract on Some Virulence Factor of Klebsiella pneumonia Which Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection in Ramadi Hospital <p>Background: The plant contains vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, and some citrus and saponins. Medical<br>benefits of wrapping Its medicinal benefits are attributed to the similarity between it and chicory Tonic and<br>regulator of sugar level in The blood is a diuretic, a strong purgative, lowers the level of cholesterol in the<br>blood and combats scurvy, as it is anthelmintic Methodology: Klebsiella bacteria were isolated from patients<br>suffering from urinary tract infections in Ramadi General Hospital in selective media (Maconkey Agar),<br>four concentrations of the aqueous and alcoholic extract were made 10%, 20%, 30 % and 40% to test the<br>effectiveness of the extracts in inhibiting growth and virulence factors for bacteria. Result: the effect of the<br>aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the Sonchus oleracea extract on the production of the biofilm of Klebsiella<br>bacteria, where it was observed that there were significant differences in the concentrations of the aqueous<br>and alcoholic extract in reducing the production of the biofilm of the bacteria, and the best concentration of<br>the aqueous and alcoholic extract was 40%, where the biofilm concentration was 31 compared to the rest<br>of the concentrations 3%, 20% and 10%, where its concentration reached .55, .64, and .74, respectively,<br>and compared to the control, where its concentration was .98%. It was not noted that there were significant<br>differences between the concentrations of plant extracts and aqueous and alcoholic extract in Reducing<br>biofilm yield. conclusion the results explain that this plant has many It is one of the effective compounds<br>such as vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, and some citrus and saponins. That destroy the cell wall and thus<br>reduce the production of the biofilm and that these compounds increase by increasing the concentration of<br>plant extracts, and this explains the effect of the high concentration in reducing the production of the biofilm.</p> Najeeb Mohammed Hussein, Rasool Ahmed Khalil, Ghashq Abdul Qadir Haqi Khali, Donia Kreem Mohammed Hamed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Linum usitatissimum on Profile Lipid, total Protein, Albumin, Globulin, and Liver Enzyme Parameters in Female mice Noor Mahdi Fathil Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 CBCT-3D Anthropometric Measurement of Mandibular Bone to Sex Determination in Surabaya Indonesia : a Pilot Study <p>Background : Identification of personal is one of important aspects in forensic odontology, because it is one<br>of the core aspect of forensic science. The one methode of sex determination is measurement of mandibular.<br>The mandibular is a largest and most powerful facial bone in the skull, which is generally resistant to<br>postmortem damage and an important source for personal identification. Previous studies have studied<br>gender and age prediction using CBCT reconstructive images in a different picture.The objective of this<br>study is to determine the sex determination of os.mandibular using CBCT anthropometric measurements.<br>Materials and Methods : This study involved twenty subjects (10 male and 10 female) with age group<br>between 20 and 35 years. CBCT scans were performed on all subjects, and the data obtained is reconstructed<br>for 3D viewing. After getting a 3D CBCT scan, measurements were taken on six parameters.<br>Results : The differential mean of male and female is 1,7 mm (Ramus-L), 2,1 mm (Con-Cor), 6,9 mm<br>(BG-Br), 7,3 mm (BIC-Br), 3,5 mm (BH 1st molar) dan 3,8 mm (BH canine). The collected data were<br>analyzed using SPSS statistical with Independent T-Test and Logistic Regression test and also Discrimant<br>Function. The results showed that of the six parameters, BG-Br and BIC-Br showed 0,0 (P&lt;0,05) statistically<br>significant differences, with the accuracy of the prediction of gender determination on BIC-Br 70% for male<br>and 80% for female and the overall BG-Br yield of 80% to both group.<br>Conclusion : Sex determination using mandibular with 3D imaging methods can be used and helps in sex<br>determination with 80% accuracy.</p> Riki Kristanto, Eha Renwi Astuti, Daniel Haryono Utomo, Mieke Sylvia Margaretha Amiatun Ruth Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Altered Serum Marker of Adipokines Profile in Breast Cancer Women Shaimaa Essa Ahmed, Entedhar R. Sarhat, Neda Awni, ThuraiaRifaat Sarhat, Kasim Sakran Abass Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Impact of OCA2 (rs1800407) and HERC2 (rs12913832) Gene Polymorphisms on Iris Color in a Sample of Iraqi People <p>The study was directed in order to determine Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1800407 G&gt;A)<br>of OCA2 and (rs12913832 A&gt;G) HERC2 genes and their association as a DNA marker with eye color in 60<br>samples of Iraqi people. Samples were collected from College of Science / University of Baghdad and also<br>people from different areas of Baghdad, Iraq; during the two months period from September to November<br>2020. These SNPs determination was carried out by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction<br>(qPCR) of blood samples. The results of rs12913832 genotype showed significantly differences (p&lt;0.05) in<br>the green eye color group. A Survey of HERC2 gene SNP genotypes and allele frequencies in the black and<br>green iris groups showed that there was a significant variation in the wild type (AA) and homozygous mutant<br>(GG) genotype frequencies in (rs 12913832), while the SNP (rs1800407) of OCA2 concluded that gene may<br>have a non-significant effect among a sample of this study comparing with green eye to black eye color.</p> Tabarek Mundher Noaman, Abdul Kareem A. Alkazaz Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) Effect on Polymorphisms gstm1 gene on Thi-Qar Refinery Oil Workers Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Safety Management Practices Through Safety Knowledge Towards Safety Performance on Workers of Pt. Masmindo Dwi Area <p>Accidents in a workplace are caused by many human errors in form of unsafe behavior. One of the efforts to<br>prevent work accidents is to improve safety performance in form of participation and obedience. Improvement<br>of safety performance in workplace is affected by management and individual factors. Management factor<br>is mainly associated with safety management practices while individual factor is associated with individual<br>characteristics and occupational health and safety knowledge and training. This study aims to analyze the<br>effect of individual factors and safety management practices on safety performance among workers at PT.<br>Masmindo Dwi area. This research is a quantitative research using analytic observational and cross sectional<br>design which was conducted in November-December 2020. Interviews were conducted on 72 workers out<br>of 289 workers. The methods used in assessing safety management practices, individual factors and safety<br>behavior are questionnaires, observation and interviews. The results showed that there is a direct (p=0,024)<br>and indirect effect (p=0,001) of safety management practices on safety performance with safety knowledge<br>as a mediating variable. Writer highly advise that in improving safety performance, the management have<br>to be consistent, show commitments to safety rules and procedures that have been made, improve safety<br>training programs, and increase the quantity and quality of training programs.</p> Ummu Kamilah, Syamsiar S. Russeng, Masyitha Muis, Yahya Thamrin, Masni, Fridawati Rivai, Rizky Maharja Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Comparative Study of the Effect of Lipo-6-Black and Caffeine on the Fertility of Male Albino Rats <p>This study was conducted to find out the effect of different doses of Lipo-6-black fat burner and Caffeine on<br>the physiology of parts of the reproductive system of white male rats. The experiment included administering<br>the Lipo-6-black fat burner to male white rats orally at concentrations (16.82, 8.41 and 4.20). Mg / kg)for 3-6<br>weeks , and also giving Caffeine orally, which is considered one of the main components of the fat burner<br>at concentrations (11.42, 5.71, and 2.85 mg / kg) for a period of 3-6 weeks for each concentration. The<br>study recorded the presence of weight changes of testis in addition to physiological changes, as it included<br>the results of the first experiment were a decrease in in the weights of the testis and the levels of hormones<br>(Testosterone, LH, FSH) at the middle and end of the experiment. As for the results of the second experiment,<br>, changes in the weight of the testis , and an increase in the hormone levels themselves were observed at The<br>middle of the experiment, while at the end of the experiment, no effect on hormones was shown.</p> Yasameen Shaker Mahmood, Mukhtar Khamis Haba Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Molecular and Immunological Study of Rotaviral Infection among Children in Anbar Governorate <p>Background: Rotavirus infection is considered one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis <br>in children less than 5 years and may be responsible for approximately 5% of all child deaths yearly. It is <br>very contagious virus that causes diarrhoea in most babies and young children, vomiting and fever are also <br>common. It is transmitted by fecal-oral contact and contaminated surfaces and hands also directly from person <br>to person also. Aim of the Study: The current study aimed to study the role of rotaviral infection among all <br>the clinically diagnosed children with watery diarrhoea, fever and vomiting detect by RT- PCR technique <br>as a cut off molecular diagnosis tool in detection, evaluation the role of some immunological parameters <br>in serum of rotaviral infected children act as mediators in immune response like the level of Interleukin-6 <br>and Interferon gamma by ELISA technique. Patients and Methods: A total of (75) stool samples obtained <br>from children &lt;5 years with acute gastroenteritis were randomly collected from Maternity and Children at <br>al-Anbar governorate from October 2019 January 2020. Rotavirus and Adenovirus was detected by rapid <br>test for stool samples and Rotavirus, Norovirus and Astrovirus detect by real-time polymerase chain reaction <br>. 5 ml of blood sample were also obtained to investigated the level of Interleukin-6 and Interferon gamma by <br>ELISA technique. Result: Out of 75 enrolled in this study , rapid test rotavirus positive Ag was found in 75 <br>(100%) and 28(37.3%) was adenovirus positive Ag (as mixed infection). RT-PCR were used for detection <br>of viral genome from the total rotavirus result was 72(96.0%) as positive, 46(61.3%), Norovirus 29(38.7%) <br>as positive result and Astrovirus 0.0(0.0%) as negative result. From 73 cases have positive rotavirus results, <br>Interferon gamma recorded 31(43.1%) as positive results and 19(40.4%) as negative while IL-6 recorded <br>21(29.2%) as positive results and 51(70.8%) as negative result.</p> Zainab Ahmed Ali, Noor N. Al-Hayani, Mohammed M. Moshrif Copyright (c) 2021 Fri, 16 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Saliva Officinalis L (Sage Tea) on Biochemical and Pathological Changes Improvment in Adult Male Rats Induced by a High Fat Diet Hawraa H. Naji, Eman Jawad Jabber, Adnan M Jasim Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Active Aging, Health Literacy, and Quality of Life among Elderly in the Northeast of Thailand <p>Background: Ageing populations are a global phenomenon public health concerns in developed and <br>developing countries. <br>Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,226 persons aged 60 and older using multistage <br>stratified systematic sampling from twelve districts in four provinces of the Northeast of Thailand. <br>Results: Overall, participants were female (62.97%), the average age was 70.28 ± 7.44 years, and the vast <br>majority only completed elementary school (81.41%). Most commonly, participants did not work (40.86%). <br>49.27% of participants had moderate active aging (active aging index: AAI was 0.69). The majority (72.19%) <br>of the sample had limited health literacy and 42.09% of participants had a good quality of life.<br>Conclusion: Almost two-thirds of the elderly had active ageing in low to moderate levels, almost threequarters of the elderly had limited health literacy and less than half of the elderly had a good quality of life. <br>Appropriate strategies on quality-of-life development project able to live with potential parallel with health <br>management for promoting health literacy.</p> Petcherut Sirisuwan , Surachai Phimha, Pannee Banchonhattakit Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Adverse Effect of Air Pollution with Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) on 8-OXO-DG and gene expression (HOGG1) in Midland Refineries Company-Daura Refinery Workers <p>Introduction: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of different kind of hazardous organic <br>chemicals which are considered to be the top of pollutants that released by petroleum industries exploration <br>activities to the environment. PAH Metabolites that affect initiation of cancer by reaction with DNA are <br>practically modified chemically by enzymes. PAH Mutagenic metabolites include radical PAH cations, diol <br>epoxides, and quinones. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mostly produce by routine oxidation processes in <br>mitochondria is responsible for many types of DNA damage. The aim of study identify the DNA alteration <br>due to air pollution by modulation of gene expression and regulatory gene Human 8-oxoguanine DNA <br>Glycosylase (HOOG1) and association with 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-dg). Methods: there were <br>168 participants included in this study divided in three groups (control, office workers and in field workers) <br>.PAH, 8-OXO-DG and gene expression (HOGG1) detected for each participant by GC/MS, competitive <br>ELISA and quantitative-competitive reverse transcription-PCR respectively. Results: PAH were not detected <br>in the blood of control group, and there was significant difference in the concentration of PAH between <br>office and field workers. The concentration of (8-oxo DG) and (hOGG1) was significantly higher in field <br>worker than in office worker and control group, significant difference was found between office workers <br>and control. Discussion: It is observed that increased levels of PAH and its metabolites when exposed <br>to polluted air. PAHs metabolism is associated with production of ROS as well as oxidative damaged. <br>Among this damage, the most common lesion is (8-OHdG) .Increase in (8-OHdG) levels associated with <br>increase oxidative stress and (HOGG1) gene. Conclusion: (a) increased PAH and its metabolites levels in <br>serum causing high 8-OHdG and (HOGG1) expression levels in refineries workers (b) there is a correlation <br>between 8-OHdG and hOGG1 expression with PAH.</p> Raghad H Al-Ani, Estabraq AR. Al-Wasiti Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Correlation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Buchari Buchari, Cut Murzalina, Nirwana Lazuardi Sary Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Psychiatric Manifestations-A Consise Review <p>Vitamin B12 deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as mental <br>confusion, memory changes, cognitive slowing, mood disorder, violent behaviour, fatigue, delirium <br>and paranoid psychosis. Vitamin B12 plays a crucial role in cell reproduction, normal erythropoiesis, <br>nucleoprotein and myelin synthesis, normal growth, DNA synthesis, and one carbon metabolism. Vitamin B12 <br>helps in synthesis of methionine from homocysteine and conversion of methylmalonylcoA to succinylcoA. <br>Methionine is converted to SAM which donates its methyl group to myelin, membrane phospholipids and <br>various neurotransmitters and free THF is liberated from N5 methyl THF which is used in synthesis of <br>purine, pyrimidine and nucleic acid. An elevated level of Hcy as a neurotoxin was also shown to affect <br>the redox signalling pathways in neurons through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a <br>decrease in endogenous antioxidants. If patterns of DNA methylation in redox-related genes can modulate <br>cognitive impairment caused by vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia is therefore of interest, <br>low levels of vitamin B12 can cause serious cognitive dysfunction. Psychiatric symptoms attributable to <br>vitamin B12 deficiency have been described for decades. The earlier studies are for the most part in accord <br>with more recent ones, despite being diagnostically less precise in psychological and hematologic terms. <br>These symptoms tend to fall into many clinically distinct categories: slow cerebration; confusion; memory <br>changes; delirium, with or without hallucinations and/or delusions; depression; acute psychotic states; and <br>more rarely) reversible manic and schizophreniform states. In conclusion, psychiatric disorders can be rare <br>manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency, which are reversible with therapy. Serum Vitamin B12 level should <br>be checked in patients with psychiatric manifestations as it results in neuro psychiatric manifestations such <br>as peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, optic atrophy, delirium, dementia, psychosis <br>and mood disorders</p> Roshan Kumar Jha, Deepika Kanyal, Ritu Devi, Lata Kanyal Butola Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Association between Physical Characteristics and Locomotive Syndrome in Elderly in Surabaya, Indonesia <p>The locomotive syndrome (LS) is a condition of reduced mobility due to impairment of locomotive organ. <br>The LS was screened by Lococheck in elderly population. Prior research has been shown that physical <br>characteristic such as age, gender, body weight, body height and body mass index has correlation with <br>mobility limitation in elderly. We aimed to asses if the physical characteristic in elderly is able to use as <br>a screening tool for locomotive syndrome in Indonesia. To investigate the association between physical <br>characteristic and locomotive syndrome in elderly. This study was an observational cross-sectional study. <br>A total 63 participants (37 females and 27 males) age 60-78 years participated in this study. This study was <br>conducted by filling the Lococheck Indonesian version and measuring physical characteristic (Age, gender, <br>body weight, body height and body mass index). The correlation between the Lococheck Indonesian version <br>with physical characteristic was analyzed using Kendall’s tau correlation test. Forty participant answer <br>“yes” at least one item of the lococheck Indonesian version questionnaire. The lococheck result showed an <br>insignificant correlation with age r&lt;0.3 (0.01), p&gt;0.05 (0.926), gender r&lt;0.3 (0.061), p&gt;0.05 (0.563), Body <br>weight r&lt;0.3 (0.061), p&gt;0.05 (0.562), body height r&lt;0.3 (-0.104), p&gt;0.05 (0.328) and body mass index <br>r&lt;0.3 (0.122), p&gt;0.05 (0.245). To sum up, these findings confirmed that no correlation between physical <br>characteristic and locomotive syndrome in elderly</p> Benni Azhari, Imam Subadi, Patricia Maria Kurniawati Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 in Patients: A Meta-Analysis <p>An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019, <br>the causative agent is severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-Co-2). The virus spread quickly to <br>other areas and countries and the disease has become pandemic. This meta-analysis study was carried out to <br>evaluate the clinical characteristics and to assess the prevalence of comorbidities in COVID-19 confirmed <br>patients from January 1, 2020 to December 1, 2020. Totally, 5580 cases were involved in this study, <br>(55.2%) of them were males, the predominant clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients were fever, cough, <br>and fatigue (61.9, 50.1%, and 34.1% respectively). The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension, <br>diabetes, as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (13.1%, 7.4 %, and 5.9% respectively). The <br>majority of the patients in this study were male, the most prevalent signs and symptoms were fever, cough, <br>and fatigue. The highly repeated comorbidities in the cases were hypertension, diabetes, also cardiovascular <br>and cerebrovascular diseases.</p> Bestun Ibrahim Hama Rahim, Muhammed Babakir-Mina Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Lead in Painting Workers at Indonesia Land Transportation Manufacture Company <p>Lead is widely used in various industrial purposes, one of which is in the paint industry. Lead plays an <br>important role in the paint industry which functions as a coloring agent or known as pigment. Lead is a <br>heavy metal whose benefit is unknown in the body. In fact, its existence in the body often causes toxic <br>effects on health. In painting activities, lead can more easily interact and poison paint workers through <br>inhalation, ingestion, and skin. Accute lead poisoning can result in haematological disorders. This study <br>aimed to reveal the level of lead in the air in the painting area and to analyze the differences in lead and <br>hemoglobin levels. This observational study used an analytic cross-sectional design. The study population <br>consisted of 2 groups, namely the study group (exposed group) and the control group (non-exposed group) <br>as a comparison. The research subjects were 20 people consisting of 12 respondents from the exposed group <br>and 8 respondents from the unexposed group.The results of this study indicate that the average exposure to <br>lead levels in the air is0.06834 mg/m3. There was a difference between the lead levels of the exposed group <br>and the unexposed group (sig: 0,00). And there was no difference between the hemoglobin levels of the both <br>groups (sig: 0,349).</p> Benny Dwi Prasetyo, Endang Dwiyanti Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Using Sleman’s Verbal Autopsy Health and Demographic Surveillance Data to Distinguish Ways of Death <p>Death can occur anywhere, with or without prior treatment by a healthcare professional. A good and <br>complete death registry will meet the information needs. Such a registry will also enhance community safety <br>efforts and policymaking in the health and population sectors. Analysis of risk factors, signs, and symptoms <br>observed before death provides useful information for estimating diseases or causes of death. Verbal autopsy <br>data must be explored in more depth to protect public law and improve health statistics.<br>Methods: This research used observational design. Data obtained from the Health and Demographic <br>Surveillance System of Sleman. Research subjects were all deaths recorded in verbal autopsy document <br>from 2014-2018. Descriptive statistical analysis was used.<br>Results: Differences in the proportion of gender from 2014-2017 were observed, where the number of <br>women was higher than men. Most deaths were above 65 years of age. Most deaths were natural deaths. <br>Unnatural deaths were caused by traffic accidents, drowning, murder, and others, with the most number of <br>cases occurring in 2014 (12%). Indeterminate deaths occurred annually, with the most cases in 2017 (13%). <br>Conclusions: Verbal autopsy has succeeded in distinguishing between natural and unnatural death.</p> Beta Ahlam Gizela, Idha Arfianti Wiraagni, Suhartini, Nurholis Majid Public Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Deleted <p>T</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on VO2max and Response Reaction Time in Basketball Referees Breklen Risal Ary Wibowo, Deandra Maharani Widiatmaja, Sakina, Abdurachman, Purwo Sri Rejeki Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Response of Human Resources and Health Workers in the Surgical Operating Room Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The COVID-19 pandemic that occurred around the world with infections that spread so fast has changed <br>patterns of life, including social, economic, education, and health. The impact of the pandemic has changed the <br>health system and requires new policies that can adapt to these conditions. K.R.M.T. WongsonegoroHospital, <br>Semarang City, Indonesia, which is a referral hospital for Covid-19 patients, needs to prepare health <br>infrastructure in COVID-19 services. We report the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on surgical service <br>activities and improving the quality of human resources, especially health workers in the Central Surgical <br>Installation. The hospital is preparing a special operating room for COVID-19 patients so that it does not <br>spread to health workers. There are 18 surgeons and 7 anesthetists. Assisted by 30 surgical nurses and 7 <br>anesthetic nurses. Since the emergence of the COVID-19 case in Indonesia in March 2020, surgery is only <br>carried out in emergency cases and has postponed elective surgery. So that there will be a 50% decrease <br>in the number of surgical services in 2020 compared to 2019. Human resources involved in COVID-19 <br>patient surgery activities must also be trained in knowledge in how to wear and remove Personal Protective <br>Equipment, handling surgical linen and know the flow of patients into and out of the room surgery.</p> Cipta Pramana, Kardoyo Kardoyo Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Moderate-Intensity Acute Physical Activity on Decreasing Cortisol Levels in Obese Female Cornelius Coli, RizkaEka Prasetya, GadisMeinar Sari, Purwo Sri Rejeki Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Dynamics of Macrophage Function in Reparation of Natural Immune System in Tuberculosis Disease <p>Macrophages related with pathogen was involved the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to <br>developing mechanisms to prevent macrophage attacks and the aim of this study was to find the relationship <br>between specific role of macrophages in natural immune system in tuberculosis (TB) disease. The research <br>design of this study used literature reviews from various journals and it was accessed in Google Scholar <br>and various medical science websites who bublessed less than 10 years. Localization of mycobacteria in <br>granulomas form and activation of macrophages ability to kill and eliminate pathogens also the movement of <br>M1 to M2 polarization as an important part for the host to prevent widespread tissue damage. However, the <br>loss of the immune system suppression by M1 and Th1 molecules will give benefit to fertility development <br>of Mtb in the environment of immunity M2 / Th2. The results of this study showed that the dynamics of <br>macrophages in tuberculosis disease is a balance of Mtb’s ability to escape from the immune system. The <br>effectiveness of anti-TB treatment repair the immune system and eliminate Mtb</p> Christina Destri, Jusak Nugraha, Muhammad Amin, Djoko Agus Purwanto Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Prevalence of Gestational Hypertension and Pregnancy Outcome <p>Introduction Hypertension during pregnancy is considered as one the high risk as it is one of the cause for <br>maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Aims: This study is aimed to find the prevalence of gestational <br>hypertension and to understand the pregnancy outcome. Settings and Design: Study conducted at tertiary <br>care hospital and descriptive research design was used for the study Methods and Material: Sample size was <br>366 women with gestational hypertension were included. Data was collected by using investigator prepared <br>self-administered questionnaire Statistical analysis used: inferential statistics analytical methods Results: <br>Results revealed that prevalence of gestational hypertension 9.8%. Maternal outcome 53% delivered at 34 <br>to 38 weeks, mode of delivery (52.5%) were delivered by C-section, 56.3% women were induced, 97.3% <br>were singleton pregnancy, About the gender of new-born 51.9% were male, 67.2% were born with Normal <br>(&gt;2500g) weight, NICU admission 20.5% and reason for NICU admission was prematurity. Conclusions: <br>The knowledge of risk factors for gestational hypertension in pregnancy may give tracks for prevention in <br>this population.</p> Bhat AV, Kharde SN Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectivity of Essential Oil Diffuser Blend Aromatherapy for Decrease Morning Sickness in The First Trimester of Pregnancy in Wonokromo Surabaya Fritria Dwi Anggraini, Fauziyatun Nisa, Siska Nurul Abidah Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Radiographic Evaluation of Dental Age in Adults Using Digital Orthopantomograph <p>Introduction: Age estimation isimportant for administrative and ethical reasons and because of legal <br>consequences. Dental pulp undergoes regression in size with increasing age due to secondary dentin <br>deposition and can be used as a parameter of age estimation even beyond 25 years of age.<br>Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying kvaal et <br>al method of age estimation on maxillary second premolar &amp; mandibular first premolar on OPG. <br>Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective study, which involved 100 sample of OPG on KODAK 9000 <br>IMAGING. Measurements were performed on the standardized digital panoramic radiographs based on <br>Kvaal’s method. Different regression formulae were derived and the age was assessed. The assessed age was <br>then correlated to the actual age of the patient using Student’s t-test.<br>Results: In this study, there were no significant difference in estimated &amp; actualage for both males and <br>females.<br>Conclusion: The study was an attempt to use KVAAL et al method of radiographic dental age estimation <br>using OPG with minimal number of teeth.</p> Bhavika Sachin Vhatkar, Mandavi Shailesh Waghmare, Naveen Kumar Shetty, Siddharth Acharya, Kapil Sharad Gavand Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 GATA 3 Reactivity in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma and Pleomorphic Adenoma of Salivary Glands <p>Objectives: The main targets is evaluate clinicopathological distribution and comparison of <br>immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of GATA 3 between in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and <br>pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of salivary . Design and Methods: This retrospective analysis, open surgical <br>specimens of salivary gland that were done , and consisting of 150 cases that divided into three groups: <br>normal salivary gland tissues (n=50), adenoid cystic carcinoma(n=50), and pleomorphic adenoma(n=50). <br>Clinical data (age, sex, previous diseases ), physical examination, and investigations are done for all <br>patients. In addition. These 150 cases of paraffin embedding blocks of salivary tissue were stained by <br>ordinary stained (hematoxylin and eosin staining ). Manual IHC staining of GATA 3 was done. Results: <br>Age groups is younger for normal salivary gland tissues than PA, and ACC . Sex distribution was slightly <br>increase in male in comparison to female in normal salivary gland tissues and PA. GATA 3 staining was <br>showing more positivity in normal salivary gland tissues (43/50 patients) than PA (27/50 patients) and ACC <br>(14/50 patients). This positivity in GATA 3 IHC staining were more in male sex, regarding 55.8% in normal <br>salivary gland tissues than ACC 50% and PA 51.9% . Age group 31-40, 40-50 and 61-70 years were <br>showing more positive GATA 3 IHC staining in normal salivary gland tissues, PA, and ACC respectively. <br>there was insignificant association between GATA 3 IHC staining with either age groups or sex groups <br>distribution . Conclusion: GATA3 IHC is good marker and can used for searching salivary gland tumor <br>origin, assisting in diagnosis Salivary gland tumors subtypes but GATA3 IHC staining has no association <br>to specific sex or age groups in Salivary gland tumors. Usage of surgical operations for histopathological <br>specimens preparation are better and give good efficiency for IHC markers staining.</p> Ali Zaki NAJI, Ammar Eesa Mahdi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Golden Sea Cucumber (StichopusHermanii) Extract on the Healing Process of the White Rat (Rattus Norvegicus) Indicated by Oral Ulcer– A Literature Review <p>Background Indonesia is a maritime country that is rich in marine resources. There are many marine <br>resources that can be used as herbal medicine. One of them is the golden sea cucumber which is thought to <br>be used as an alternative medicine to speed up the healing process of oral ulcers. The purpose of this study <br>was to determine the effect of golden sea cucumber extract (Stichopushermanii) on the wound healing <br>process in rats with oral ulcers.<br>Method This research is a descriptive study with a literature review design. The articles used are articles <br>published in international and national journals in the 2015-2020 period and are indexed by Scopus, Thomson <br>Reuters, Web Science, Scimago and Sinta.<br>Result The results of the scoping article show that there are active compounds in golden sea cucumbers, <br>namely glycosaminoglycans that consist of hyaluronic acid, heparin / heparan sulfate (HP / HS), chondroitin <br>sulfate / dermatan sulfate (CS / DS) and keratin sulfate (KS) which can form proinflammatory cytokines to <br>trigger the emergence of immune defense cells and can bind to growth factors such as FGF2, VEGF, TGF-b, <br>which will provide stimulation to accelerate the angiogenesis process, fibroblast ploriferation, endothelial <br>differentiation, epithelial differentiation so as to accelerate the wound healing process.<br>ConclutionThe conclusion of this study is the golden sea cucumber has the potency to accelerate the wound <br>healing process by increasing fibroblast formation, collagen synthesis, endothelial differentiation and <br>epithelial differentiation.</p> Dio Rafid Prakoso, Diah Purwaningsari, Sihning E.J.Tehupuring, Wachjudi Kurnia Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents and Young Adults in Indonesia: An Analysis of IFLS-5 Data <p>Background:The danger of tobacco use to health has been globally known. However, its prevalence especially <br>in developing countries including Indonesia remains high.This study aims to investigate determinants of <br>tobacco use among adolescents and young adults in Indonesia. These age groups are essential since most <br>regular smokers initiated to smoke at these ages. Methods: This study utilized IFLS wave 5 data. A total of <br>7213 responses on tobacco use from respondents age 15-24 years old were taken into analysis. Association <br>between tobacco use with sociodemographic, religious, and ethnic identity was determined by using binary <br>logistic regression. Results: Prevalence of tobacco use was 25.1%. The fully adjusted model showed factors <br>that associated with tobacco use were age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, having smoking <br>parents, and Madurese ethnicity. Conclusion:Tobacco use was prevalent among adolescents and young <br>adults in Indonesia. Madurese was the only ethnic group associated with tobacco consumption in Indonesia. <br>Appropriate design of interventions, therefore, is needed to target these subgroups.</p> Diyan Effendi, Arief Priyo Nugroho, Zainul Khaqiqi Nantabah, Agung Dwi Laksono, Lestari Handayani Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Iron Nanoparticles (FeNPs) on Some Biological and Hematological Parameters in Albino Rats <p>Background: Nowadays, iron nanoparticles and other nanomaterials are widely used in many fields <br>including industrial and biomedical fields. Yet many concerns remain about their fate and toxicity to living <br>organisms. <br>Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the risk of using iron oxide nanomaterials as food <br>additives for animals to increase its utilization compared to bulk size particles of the same material. <br>Materials and Methods: The study included the effect of two different nano-sized iron oxides (25 nm and <br>50 nm) at two doses (1 mg/kg feed and 10 mg/kg feed) on some biological and hematological parameters in <br>male albino rats. <br>Results: The results indicate that rat’s performance, growth, feed conversion rates were not affected with <br>no sign of toxicity. Most of the hematological parameters in all treated groups were not affected by IONPs <br>except one group which showed a significant difference in the percent of granulocytes compared with the <br>control. <br>Conclusion: It can be concluded that iron oxide NPs of different sizes and doses did not affect their <br>performance, growth rate, hematological parameters with no sign of toxicity.</p> Dilsher. A. Mohammed, Omar A. M. Al-Habib Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Optimizing Role and Synergy of Indonesian National Police for Handling Prevention of Covid-19 Spread: A Case Study in Human Resource Development Perspective <p>Background: The rise in cases of violations and criminal acts handled by the Indonesian National Police <br>during the COVID-19 pandemic recorded 18 cases of hoarding and increasing prices for personal protective <br>equipment and other items. This study aims to describe and describe the optimization and synergy of the <br>Indonesian National Police in handling the prevention of the spread of COVID-19. Method: This study <br>used a qualitative approach with a case study method which is explored and analyzed based on the data and <br>research information obtained. Result: This study showed that the role of Bhayangkara Fostering Public <br>Security and Order of Indonesian National Police as the Development of Public Security and Order can <br>be optimized to educate the public to prevent hoaxes or stigma regarding this corona virus. This synergy <br>between the Indonesian National Police, the Indonesian Army and the Community Health Center is urgently <br>needed to avoid data falsification and vaccine abuse in the community. Conclusion: This study concluded <br>that the Indonesian National Police optimizes the role and synergy collaboratively with the community and <br>the Government by relying on the Sector Police as the basis for early detection of potential security problems <br>in the community, especially related to handling COVID-19.</p> Dimas Agung Trisliatanto, Anis Byarwati, Sri Iswati, Arif Rahman Nurdianto, Fery Setiawan, Heribertus Agustinus Bilo Tena, Hendro Puspito Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Cacao on Plasma F2-Isoprostane Level, CD34 and ICAM-1 Expression of Coronary Arteries in Cigarette Smoking Exposed Rats <p>This research aimed to evaluate cardioprotective effects of cacao in smoking exposure condition that <br>the effects were mediated through the anti-oxidant pathway by measure plasma F2-isoprostane level, <br>Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) enhancement by expression of CD34, while dysfunction endothelial <br>condition was measured by expression of ICAM-1 in coronary arteries. This study subjected rats, divided <br>into four groups: the normal control group (2 ml of aqua bidest, air exposure); the cigarette control group (2 <br>ml of aqua bidest, cigarette smoke); cacao group 1 (1205 mg/kg BW/day, cigarette smoke); cocoa group 2 <br>(2410 mg/kg BW/day, cigarette smoke). The oxidant biomarker, F2-isoprostane level was assessed using <br>ELISA; CD34, and ICAM-1 expression in coronary arteries by immunohistochemistry. Cacao 1205 mg/kg <br>BW/day significantly decreases plasma F2-isoprostane level, and ICAM-1 expression of coronary arteries in <br>cigarette smoking exposed rat (p &lt; 0.05) but there was not a significant increases CD34 (p &lt; 0.05). Cocoa in <br>cigarette smoke-exposed rats can prevent endothelial dysfunction through decrease F2-isoprostane but not <br>increase CD34. The results of this study can be used as a basis for preventing endothelial dysfunction due <br>to cigarette smoke by using cacao.</p> Dina Helianti, Soetjipto, Widjiati, I Ketut Sudiana Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Determination of Antioxidant Compounds, Antibacterial Activity and Minerals Content of Broccoli <p>The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant compounds, antibacterial activity and minerals content <br>of broccoli stem and floret. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring total phenolic content <br>(TPC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The antibacterial activity was determined using paper <br>disc method against two bacteria namely Klebsiella sp, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and P. <br>aeruginosa. Minerals concentrations of broccoli stem and floret were determined using atomic absorption <br>spectrometry. The results showed that floret sample had significantly (P &lt;0.05) higher total phenol content <br>and antioxidant activity compared to stem sample. The result showed that the acetone extracts of broccoli <br>stem and floret were effective against all the bacteria tested. The majority of the broccoli materials were rich <br>in some of the essential minerals like Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn, which are known to be beneficial <br>for health. In general, the concentrations of minerals in the broccoli stem and floret were detected. broccoli <br>floret higher minerals concentration of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn of floret than stem. Results showed <br>part of plant effect of the antioxidant compounds and minerals content. Results of the present study provide <br>vital data on the availability of some antioxidant compounds and essential minerals, which can be useful to <br>provide dietary information for designing value-added foods and for food bio fortification.</p> Dhuha M.A.AL-Altaie, Zuhair Radhi Addai Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Role of Aloe vera and Centella asiatica to the Improvement of Skin Barrier Function in Indonesian Batik Workers <p>Background: The batik industry uses dyes and candles, that can disrupt the skin barrier function and may <br>precipitate skin disease. <br>Objective: To determine the role of Aloe vera and Centella asiatica to the improvement of the skin barrier <br>function in Indonesian batik workers<br>Methods: This was a double blind clinical trial of 30 Indonesian batik workers were divided into 2 group <br>and given Aloe vera or Centella asiatica topical randomly was applied twice a day. Transepidermal water <br>loss (TEWL) level, stratum corneum hydration level, and pH level, were examined using Cutometer dual <br>MP-580. <br>Result: Sensitivity (Sn) of new local compared with imported allergen extracts in this study was between <br>15.38%-84.61%, the highest point was house dust mite extract. Specificity (Sp) was ranged from 81.48%-<br>93.75%, the highest rank was shrimp extract. Compared with IgE results, the Sn of new local and imported <br>house dust mite extracts was good (85.7%; 92.9%). The Sp was good for egg white and cow’s milk new local <br>extracts (86.4%; 84.4%). <br>Conclusion: Aloe vera topical gave significant improvement on palm area of TEWL level (P=0.033; CI <br>95%), stratum corneum hydration (P=0.000; CI 95%), and pH level (P=0.004; CI 95%); while on dorsal <br>hand area of stratum corneum hydration (P=0.002; CI 95%). Centella asiatica topical gave significant <br>improvement on palm area of stratum corneum hydration (P=0.007; CI 95%); while on dorsal hand area of <br>stratum corneum hydration (P=0.001; CI 95%) and pH level (P=0.17; CI 95%). No significant differences <br>of Aloe vera compared to Centella asiatica in the improvement of skin barrier function.</p> Damayanti, Menul Ayu Umborowati, Sylvia Anggraeni2, Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on Prevention of Selected Life Style Diseases in Terms of Knowledge and Attitude among Male Adults at Selected PHC of Kheda District <p>Background of Study: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that life style diseases (with <br>mostly preventable risk factors) are biggest killer across the world. Globally, 60% people die each year from <br>life style diseases. 70% deaths are preventable from all non-communicable diseases by modifying life style. <br>Lifestyle diseases are diseases linked with the way people live their life1. These are non-communicable <br>diseases. This is commonly caused by lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating, alcohol, drugs and <br>smoking2.<br>Objectives: 1. To assess the knowledge and Attitude of male adults before and after administration of <br>a planned teaching programme regarding prevention of selected life style disease. 2. To compare the <br>knowledge and attitude score before and after teaching program. 3. To find out the association of post test <br>attitude score regarding prevention of selected life style diseases with their selected demographic variables.<br>Methodology: The research design adopted for the study was one group pretest posttest, quasi experimental <br>research design3<br>. 50 male adults were selected from selected PHC of kheda district by convenient non <br>probability sampling technique and structured knowledge questionnaire and Likert’s attitude rating scale <br>were prepared to assess the knowledge and the attitude of samples. Reliability of structured knowledge <br>questionnaire and likert’s attitude rating scale were ascertained by using test retest method.<br>Results: The study was conducted at Salun PHC. pre-test knowledge range was 7.27, mean was 14.74, <br>standard deviation was 4.28, median was 14.00 and mode was 12.00 and post-test knowledge range was <br>21.30, mean was 26.12, standard deviation was 2.20, median was 27 and mode was 27.while pre-test attitude <br>range was 43.55, mean was 50.04, standard deviation was 2.83 and median was 51.and post-test level of <br>attitude, 49(98%) had favourable attitude, 1 (2%) had moderately favourable attitude and none of them had <br>unfavourable. The maximum score was 30, mean was 11.38, standard deviation was 2.47 and paired t-test <br>value was 32.53 that hence there exists a significance effectiveness on level of knowledge before and after <br>administration of planned teaching programme among male adults. The maximum score was 60, mean was <br>3.40, standard deviation was 3.03, mean percentage was and paired t-test value was 07.93 that hence there <br>exists a significance effectiveness on level of attitude before and after administration of planned teaching <br>programme among male adults</p> Darshana B. Suthar, Kailash Nagar Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study on Heart Measurements of the People between the age 20-40 Years Present to the Teaching Hospital Colombo North – Post mortem Study <p>Introduction: Presence of an enlarged heart provides a basis for determination of the cause and mechanisms <br>of death. Gender, physical activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI) may affect the size of organs. Knowledge on <br>such normal variations is needed in order to recognize the abnormalities.<br>Objectives- This research was conducted to study the dimensions of the heart(heart weight, left ventricular <br>thickness and valvular circumferences) among the young adult healthy deceased autopsies and evaluate <br>their association with different variables.<br>Methods: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study and 20-40 years of age healthy, young, adult, males and <br>females in equal numbers who had died suddenly were studied by considering the inclusion and exclusion <br>criteria. Details of the past history and the measurements were entered into a proforma and the anonymous data <br>were used for analysis.<br>Results: The study revealed that the mean values of the heart weight was 280.52g (SD+/- 42.60), it was <br>293.94g (SD+/-39.29) for males and 267.10g (SD+/-42.64) for females. There was no significant association <br>of heart weight with gender (P= 0.46410). There was a significant association between BMI and the heart <br>weight of the females (P= 0.0387), no such association for left ventricular wall thickness. Further, there was <br>a significant difference of the tricuspid valve circumference among two genders and the values were 11.6cm <br>(SD+/-0.82) for males and 10.7cm (SD+/-0.6) for females.<br>Conclusions: Majority of the findings was consistent with the findings of the studies globally on Caucasians. <br>Increased body mass index was significantly associated with increased heart weight among females which <br>could probably be explained as a consequence of increased epicardial fat since there was no such association <br>for left ventricular wall thickness.</p> De Silva RLSK, Kitulwatte IDG, Priyanath DC, Gunathilake MMAC, Senanayake TAAW, Kumari MKJK Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Need for Specialist Doctors in the Development of Type B General Hospital at Regional Level <p>Regulation of the Minister of Health No. 3 of 2020 on Hospital Classification stated the classification of a <br>hospital is no longer based on the number of specialist and subspecialty services as in the previous provisions, <br>but rather emphasizes the number of beds. However, type B hospitals’ problem is not the number of beds, but <br>the lack of complete facilities, the availability of human resources such as the need for specialist doctors and <br>the unequal distribution of type B hospitals at the regional level. This research aims to find out programs to <br>fulfil the needs for specialist doctors in developing type B hospitals at the regional level. The results showed <br>that the program to fulfil the needs for specialist doctors of type B hospital in the region could be as shortterm, medium-term and long-term programs. Specialist doctor education scholarship programs are a better <br>solution to fulfil type B hospitals’ needs at the regional level. Thus, the fulfilment of the need for specialist <br>doctors will improve the quality of health services.</p> Desy Martha Panjaitan, Widyana Beta Arthanti, Mokhamad Khoirul Huda Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Individual-Level Factors Associated with Quality of Life among TB Patients <p>Background: Due to the high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in Indonesia, evaluating important factors <br>of the TB patients’ quality of life is crucial. Individual-level factors play an essential role in enabling TB <br>patients to manage their perceived needs and treatments to sustain the Quality of Life (QoL). Yet little is <br>known about the relationships between individual-level factors and the QOL of TB patients in Indonesia. <br>This study aimed to evaluate the association between individual-level factors (physical health, emotional <br>state, social support, spirituality) and quality of life in TB patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was <br>conducted using a simple random sampling strategy, 73 TB patients were chosen based on their availability <br>during data collection, and consent to participate in the study. The data were collected from a community <br>sample of Surabaya City, East Java, Indonesia. In the present study, the following instruments were used: <br>Early Warning Score System (EWSS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-21, MOS Social Support <br>Survey-14, Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life <br>(WHO-QoL). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to discover the association between variables. <br>Results and Discussions: The results showed that there were significant relationships between physical <br>health (p = 0.037), emotional state (p = 0.04), social support, spirituality and QoL (p = 0.001). Conclusion:<br>In conclusion, individual-level factors associated with TB patients’ quality of life: physical health, emotional <br>state, social support, and spirituality.</p> Dhian Satya Rachmawati, Nursalam Nursalam, Rachmat Hargono, Mochammad Amin, Nyoman Anita Damayanti Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Associations between P53, Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1, and Interleukin-10 Serum Levels with Advanced Liver Disease and Hepatitis B Virus Infection Citrawatidyahkencono Wungu, Mochamad Amin, Ulfa Kholili, Gwennyichsan Prabowo, Poernomoboedi Setiawan, Soetjipto, Retno Handajan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Leptospirosis Transmission in Ponorogo District of East Java, Indonesia <p>This study aims to identify Leptospira bacterial infection in livestock owners and their livestock, as well <br>as to examine potential risk factors correlated with the incidence. 50 participants were selected and their <br>blood samples were collected. 50 urine samples were collected from livestock owned by the participants. <br>Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to identify the existence of the Leptospira bacteria. The <br>questionnaire instrument was used to obtain information about individual characteristics and hygiene. The <br>Chi-Squared test was adopted to examine the correlation between outcome and explanatory variables. The <br>confirmation PCR test detected the bacterial DNA in 2 out of 50 blood samples examined (4%) and 3 out of <br>50 urine samples examined (6%). Human leptospirosis incidence is significantly correlated with occupation <br>type (p=0.035), personal protective equipment (PPE) use (p=0.044), water puddle contact (p=0.044), cage <br>sanitation (p=0.044) and Leptospira bacteria presence in livestock urine (p=0.007). Insignificant correlation <br>was showed in owners’ age variable. The presence of Leptospira bacteria both in livestock and the owners <br>indicates the real threat of animal to human transmission. Further study with larger sample size and wider <br>range variables and meticulous examination technique is required to comprehend the investigation.</p> Corie Indria Prasasti, Aditya Sukma Pawitra, Khuliyah Candraning Diyanah, Moch Irfan Hadi, M. Yusuf Alamudi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Diagnostic Value of Serum Procalcitonin in Hospitalized Sepsis Patients Cut Murzalina, Bakhtiar Bakhtiar, Hanifah Yusuf, Buchari Buchari Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Drug Patch Test as a Diagnostic Test to Determine the Culprit Drug of Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction (CADR) <p>Background: Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction (CADR) is a frequent problem in clinical practice since <br>there were new drugs or drug misuse, which leads to high morbidity and mortality rate. It is often difficult to <br>determine the offending drug only from the history. Provocation test, intradermal test or skin prick test are <br>of significant value, but having higher risk to re-precipitate life-threatening reaction. Drug patch test (DPT) <br>is a test, which is performed to CADR patient to determine the culprit drug. The main advantages of DPT <br>are, it gives rarely adverse reaction and any commercialized form of drugs can be used.<br>Methods: This is a retrospective study, aimed to analize the clinical relevance between anamnesis and DPT <br>result in patient with history of CADR. All patient, who were performed with DPT in one year period in Dr. <br>Soetomo General Academic Hospital Surabaya Indonesia, were evaluated in this study. <br>Results: There were 14 patients with history of CADR, who performed DPT; consist of 7 maculopapular <br>eruption cases, 4 Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) cases, 1 Fixed Drug Eruption (FDE) case, 1 Acute <br>Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP) case and 1 Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic <br>Reaction (DRESS) case. There were 9 patients (64.3 %), who got positive result of DPT. The relevance <br>between anamnesis and positive result of DPT were shown in 8 patient (88.9%) of 9 patient with positive <br>DPT result. <br>Conclusion: DPT has important role in identifying the culprit drug in CADR, especially when multiple <br>drugs are involved.</p> Damayanti, Hari Sukanto, Marsudi Hutomo, Sylvia Anggraeni, Menul Ayu Umborowati, Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Insect Growth Regulators “Dimilin25% wp and Match 50 EC” Against House Fly (Musca domestica) Life Stages (Diptera: Muscidae) <p>The study was conducted to identify the effect of growth regulators “Match and Dimilin” using different <br>concentrations on the incomplete life stages of the house fly, and calculating the percentages of egg <br>hatching, incapability of larvae pupation and emergence of adult insects in laboratory conditions. All the <br>concentrations showed different percentages in their effect on the life stages of the insect, whereas the effects <br>were increased with the exposure rate increasing. However, the hatching rate for eggs in the concentration of <br>(1000) mg/l reached to (0.00%) for the Match growth regulator, while it reached (20.50%) for the Dimilin <br>regulator at the same concentration. In the larval stages, the percentage of larvae that reached the pupa phase <br>in concentration of (1000) mg/l for both growth regulators was (0.00%), while the emergence rate of adults <br>for the same concentration was reached in growth regulators Match and Dimilin for (25.33%) and (10.33%) <br>respectively</p> Ezeddin A. Albayyar, Rafraf Abdul Aziz Abdel Qader Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Protective Effect of Xanthone via Malondialdehyde and Superoxide DismutaseExpression on Mice Sertoli cell Induced by 2-Methoxyethanol <p>The antioxidants can be used for protective in oxidative stress that is one of the important mechanisms <br>of 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME)-induced testis toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate The <br>protective effect of xanthone via Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) expression <br>on mice Sertoli cell induced by 2-Methoxyethanolon the Sertoli cell number induced by 2-ME in mice. The <br>study used 35 male mice divided into 5 groups: control group (mice were given daily with water purified <br>by distillation); 2-ME group (mice were given daily with 2-ME 200 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 35 <br>days); and the treatment group ( mice were given the xanthone 60 mg, 120 mg, and 240 mg/kg BW orally <br>once in a day for 38 days, and on the 3th day, were given 2-ME 200 mg/kg BW one hour after the xanthone <br>administration). After 38 days, the testis tissues were collected to evaluate the histological of Sertoli cell <br>number, and also evaluated the immunohistochemical of MDA and SOD expression on Sertoli cell. The <br>result showed that 2-ME administration significantly increased MDA expression, and decreased both SOD <br>expression and the number of Sertoli cells. However, the treatment of xanthone significantly decreased MDA <br>expression, and increased the expression of SOD of the Sertoli cell in the immunohistochemical. Xanthone <br>also significantly increased the Sertoli cell number in histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, From the <br>results of this study demonstrated that xanthone is able to protect Sertoli cell number in mice treated with <br>2-ME through decreasing MDA and increasing SOD.</p> Ernawati, Zufra Inayah, Sri Agus Sudjarwo Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Failure Mode and Effect Analysis: A Technique to Prevent the Risk of SARS-COV-2 Infectionin A Retrocession Unit <p>Securing healthcare workers and patients against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) infection/transmission, require the development of new tools and methods. Several laboratories have <br>started recently clinical trials to develop vaccines and drugs, however these solutions require more time to <br>evaluate and validate them. <br>As an alternative and in order to stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection, our objective is to implement <br>preventive and corrective actions to reduce the infectious/transmission risk of SARS-COV-2 during hospital <br>retrocession, using the failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) method. The criticality of each failure mode <br>was assessed by calculating the criticality index (CI). The obtained data showed 12 fault modes with a <br>total criticality index (CI) of 480, two acceptable risks, four significant risks and six critical risks. Ten risks <br>were identified as priorities (CI &gt; 15): four related to patient reception, two related to personnel, two during <br>dispensation, one related to the end of dispensation and the last related to traceability. These risks were <br>corrected by improvement actions proposed by FMEA and then re-evaluated effectively.<br>This study assessed the feasibility and relevance of the use ofFMEA in the hospital retrocession dispensing <br>process related to the infectious/transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2.<br>Finally, FMEA seems to be an effective method to reduce the infectious/transmission risk of SARS-COV-2 <br>during hospital retrocession.</p> Esso Eric Valery Latt, Youssef Moutaouakkil, ZidaneQriouet, YassineAtbib, YasminaTadlaoui, Jamal Lamsaouri, YassirBousliman Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluating the Knowledge of Moroccan Patients Regarding their Oral Anticoagulant Treatment Admitted in Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery Units <p>Background. Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), the most commonly used anticoagulants worldwide. Our aim <br>was to assessing the moroccan patients’ knowledge regarding their VKA treatment after their hospital stay <br>in Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery units before being discharged home.<br>Methods. One hundred and twenty-three patients were enrolled in this prospective, monocenter study. Their <br>level of knowledge was assessed by a semi-structured interview between the pharmacist and the patients.<br>Results. 75,61% of patients were able to give the name of the drug they were taking, 76,42 % could explain <br>its effect and finally, 79,67% of patient knew their INR target values. 19,51 % of patients were able to <br>describe the symptoms in case of overdose and what to do in that case. 47,15 % of patients were aware of <br>food interactions and 56,09 % of self-medication risks. <br>Conclusion. Our study, as in previous studies among Patients with chronic diseases, identified some gaps in <br>knowledge. These findings indicate the need for better education of patients regarding their VKA treatment.</p> Esso Eric Valery Latt, Youssef Moutaouakkil, Badreddine Moukafih, Yahia Cherrah, Jamal Lamsaouri , Yassir Bousliman Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Role of Forensic Expert on the Albanian Juridical Processes Focused on Minor’s Issues <p>Adapting the legal framework to social change highlighted the necessity of expert involvement in all stages <br>of juridical proceedings. The expertise of the psychologist during the process constitutes an important guide <br>for a fair and right court decision on cases focused on minors. This figure facilitates a lot the work of judges <br>on a responsible decision for the minor’s future.<br>The article highlights some of the duties, responsibilities, and functions of the psychologist during court <br>proceedings, how they operate in the judicial system today, how this function can be improved to support <br>the minor, and the institutions themselves. The article highlights some of the weaknesses of this role on its <br>reposition as a concrete and substantial part of the judicial structure to produce maximum positive effects, <br>as well as enhancing its opportunities and facilitating process services and the minor’s future orientation in <br>cooperation with other institutions in charge or social services</p> Evis Garunja Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Physical Burden among Caregiver of Child with Nephrotic Syndrome in Najaf City in Iraq <p>Caregiver of children with Nephrotic syndrome report negative impact on their physical and psychological <br>health. The descriptive (cross-sectional) research is an investigation done to determine the physical burden <br>among caregivers of children with Nephrotic syndrome. During the time from September 23, 2018 to <br>September 1, 2019, an intended (non-random) samples (115) are select from Al-Sadr Medical City in Najaf <br>city. The tool is present to (21) professionals from different academies to be effective, and the reliable <br>of the tool is determine complete by coefficient alpha implicit, and the consistency of this tool is (r = <br>0.81). Nephrotic syndrome is the greatest cause of burden for patients and caregiver. This may be related to <br>patients, needs that include physical, psychological, and emotional support. This requires much knowledge <br>and more skills from caregivers and developed responsibilities for them. These responsibilities may lead <br>to much burden that includes social and economic burdens. It can be concluded that more than half of the <br>caregiver of child with Nephrotic Syndrome were affect by physical burden at moderate to severe degree.</p> Entesar Abdulameer Fajr Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Gitelman Syndrome in Post-Partum Pre-Eclampsia in Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia <p>Gitelman Syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive tubular kidney disorder. The disorder is rare with a <br>prevalence estimated to be 1 in 40,000 individuals. We closely observed a 28-year-old female with complaints <br>of stiffness and cramps on both hands and feet for 2 weeks and became worse in 3 days before admittance, <br>nausea (+), vomiting (+), shortness of breath (+). Medical records showed that patient underwent post SC <br>32nd day because of severe pre-eclampsia + IUGR + Oligohydramnion. Physical examination showed GCS <br>456, blood pressure 140/80 mmHg, heart rate 96x/minute, respiration rate 24x/minute, temperature 37 o<br>C. <br>Laboratory results showed Hb 9.4 g/dl, MCV 86.8 fL, MCH 29.6 pg, MCHC 34.1 g/dL, WBC 7.83x103/<br>uL, PLT 483x103/uL, potassium 2.8 mmol/L, sodium 138 mmol/L, chloride 95 mmol/L, calcium 8.3 mg/dL, <br>magnesium 1.1 mg/dL, phosphate 3 mg/dL, BUN 8 mg/dL, serum creatinin 0.76 mg/dL, urinary calcium <br>488.4 mg/24 hours, urinary creatinine 488.4 mg/24 hours, proteinuria +1, and blood gas test suggested <br>mixed metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis. Gitelman Syndrome is characterized by hypokalemia, <br>hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypocalciuria. The diagnosis of GS is generally relatively late <br>because of its difficulty to be clinically categorized; therefore, a more comprehensive diagnosis approach is <br>needed. The diagnosis of Gitelman Syndrome is based on clinical symptoms and laboratorial abnormalities <br>and can be confirmed by genetic testing.</p> Erix Agus Hasudungan Telaumbanua, Ferdy Royland Marpaung Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Prevention and Early Detection of Metabolic Syndrome in Household Community, Surabaya <p>Introduction. Metabolic syndrome is a collection of factors believed to increase the risk of atherosclerosis <br>and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in young adults is increasing, especially <br>in Asian countries. Therefore we need efforts to increase knowledge in society about this disease. <br>Aim. We conducted a socialization program on prevention and early detection of metabolic syndrome in <br>household community to increase public knowledge about this disease.<br>Method. This program was conducted in August 2017 in Wonokromo District, Surabaya. The participants <br>in the activity consisted of 32 people from household community. The activity consisted of blood sampling <br>collection, body weight, and abdominal circumference measurement for risk factor assessment, pre-test, <br>socialization of metabolic syndrome, and post-test.<br>Results. From the results of the pre and post test, we found an increase knowledge of 76.9% participants. <br>The laboratory test results for early detection of metabolic syndrome showed 37.5% of participants had <br>metabolic syndrome. We also found a significant positive correlation between body weight and abdominal <br>circumference (p = 0.000, r = 0.867). There was also a significant negative correlation between body weight <br>and HDL (p = 0.004, r = -0.494), between abdominal circumference and HDL (p &lt;0.05, r = -0.376), and <br>between TG and HDL (p &lt;0.05, r = -4.22).<br>Conclusion. Socialization and early detection of metabolic syndrome can increase knowledge, awareness, <br>and detection of metabolic syndrome in the household community.</p> Ema Qurnianingsih, Lina Lukitasari, Ira Humairah, Siti Khaerunnisa, Gwenny Ichsan Prabowo, Suhartati Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Atorvastatin in Knee Osteoarthritis <p>The aim of this, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study is to evaluate the effect of using 40mg <br>atorvastatin on the progression of joint structural changes and symptoms over 3months in Iraqi patients with <br>symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.<br>This study was performed at Department of Rheumatology, Baghdad Teaching Hospital during the period <br>from September 2020 to January 2021.A total of 44 patients with knee osteoarthritis were assigned to <br>the placebo group (n=21) and atorvastatin group (n=23)that was received atorvastatin 40mg once daily. <br>Both groups received etoricoxib tablets 60mg as a rescue medicine on need. Both groups were treated <br>continuously for 12 weeks.Serum levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen CTXII, high sensitive <br>c-reactive protein HS-CRP and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index WOMAC <br>was measured before and after three months of treatment.Resultsshowed that after three months of treatment, <br>the atorvastatin group showeda significant symptomatic improvement in total WOMAC scoring (P&lt;0.0001) <br>associated with a significant reduction (P&lt;0.001) in serum CTXII, HS-CRP level.These results confirmed <br>that the atorvastatin treatment in patients with knee osteoarthritis has clinical efficacy in reducing symptoms <br>through the improvement of WOMAC index and reduction of serum level of CTXII and HS-CRP. In <br>conclusions: Atorvastatin in a dose of 40mg daily can reduce the symptoms of OA.</p> Eman Mohammed Jasim Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Safe Sex Health Awareness: Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Male Condom Protection Role against Sexually Transmitted Infections among Minia University Students, Egypt <p>Background: Condoms are beneficial in preventing certain infections but may not completely protect from <br>other infections, such as AIDS due to having various transmission routes. Providing sex education, focused <br>on enhancing knowledge and attitudes targeting the youth. The aim was to assess knowledge and attitudes <br>regarding male condom protection role against sexually transmitted infections among Minia university <br>students. Design: A quasi-experimental design with pre-posttest was utilized. Settings: conducted initially at <br>faculties of science, literature and education, Minia University, then researcher followed them at staff Minia <br>club. Tool:I- An interviewing socio demographic questionnaire. II- Knowledge and Attitudes questionnaire <br>Results: The level of knowledge among the studied faculties had improved from 40.2 %, 88.9 &amp; 28.2 % <br>to 85.4, 100% &amp; 91.3 % of literature, science and education faculties respectively post intervention. The <br>attitude among the studied faculties had changed positively from 74.2 %, 100 % &amp; 93.5 % of literature, <br>science and education faculties’ pre intervention to 85.6 %, 100 % &amp; 95.7 % post intervention respectively. <br>Conclusion: the highest levels of knowledge were concerning AIDS the least reported one were concerning <br>HPV. Students had a positive attitude and intentions towards limited and localized role of condom.</p> Ekhlass M. Eltomy Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 State of Knowledge and Practices of Health Professionals on the Management of Hospital Waste. Case of Sidislimane Provincial Hospital <p>Knowledge is a resource that health facilities are now seeking to enhance and enrich with the aim of <br>increased performance. The main objective is to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices <br>of the staff of the provincial hospital of Sidi Slimane on the hospital waste management system. Our survey <br>was carried out on 84 people working in the different departments of the hospital. The assessment of this <br>state of knowledge was based on a questionnaire designed for this.The results of this study show that over <br>70% of respondents answered that medical and pharmaceutical wastes (MPW) is a problem for their health <br>and confirmed that they knows the steps of MPW management.However, 70.2% (n = 59) of caregivers <br>responded that they had not received any training in hospital waste management. In addition, 11 out of 25 <br>caregivers who responded that they had received training, they had it as a traineeship, 6 out of 25 said they <br>had attended to seminars. The staff surveyed believes that the awareness actions carried out by the hospital <br>administration are insufficient and that the hospital staffs are not well informed in terms of hospital waste <br>management (news, regulations, etc.).</p> EL Anssari Anas, Chaib Yassine, Aouane Mahjoub, Hamama Samir, Chakhtoura Khalid, Marieme Nehiri, Abdelmajid Soulaymani Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Impact of Educational Intervention on Nurses’ Knowledge, Practice and Attitude Related Prevention Measures of COVID 19 <p>Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has not only caused highly significant challenges for health <br>systems over the world, but also fueled a surge in misinformation. Nurses as the first member at health team <br>must improve their performance about COVID-19 Research Aim: to assess impact of educational program <br>on nurses’ knowledge, practice and attitude related prevention measures of COVID 19 Methodology: A <br>Quasi-experimental research design was utilized from July 2020- November 2020 conducted at Shebin El <br>Koum teaching Hospital and Menofia University Hospital for 50 nurses. A self-administered questionnaire <br>containing four parts (characteristics, knowledge part, Attitude Rating Scale and nurses’ practice) Results: <br>The present study showed mean age of studied nurses was 34.80±4.99 years and 52% of them providing <br>care for COVID-19 patients. 70% of them had poor knowledge at pre intervention, while76% of them <br>had good knowledge at post intervention and only 6% had poor knowledge. Mean score of studied nurses <br>related total attitude at pre intervention was 13.70±3.45, while at post intervention was 25.18±3.66. Total <br>practice, showed that 36% of nurses had competent practice while 90% of them had competent practice at <br>post intervention with p value &lt;0.01 Conclusions: To conclude, the present study reported that educational <br>training program had positive effect on nurses’ knowledge, attitude and practice so hypothesis was accepted.</p> Gehan Abd Elfattah atia Elasrag, Nahed Elnabawy Elsabagh, Asmaa Foad Abdelmonem, Alaa Anwar Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Use of Molecular Method to Detect Giardiasis in Different Animal in Al-Qadissiya Province – Iraq <p>Giardiasis infection main causative agent of humans, companion animals, livestock and wild life is G. <br>lamblia. Thus, a total of 300 fecal samples of cattle, sheep, goats suffered from diarrhea in slaughtering house <br>in AL-Diwanyha province were collected. The multiplex PCR technique applied for G. lamblia detection <br>as well as genotyping. The research findings revealed that 154 positive cases, their prevalence percentage <br>were 35, 35 and 30 respectively. Giardia lamblia E, A, B and AB assemblages genotypes showed significant <br>differences, indicating a potential for zoonotic spread under definite situations where humans living in close <br>contact with livestock, therefore, More awareness urgently needed to eliminate these infections.</p> Ghaidaa Abass Jasim, May Naji Alkhanaq, Musafer H. Al_Ardi, Hanaa Salih Abd Ali Alrammah Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Analysis of the Characteristics of SARS-Cov-2 Spike Compared to SARS-Cov Spike and Its Role in the Pathogenesis of Infection– A Literature Review <p>The spread of COVID-19 that caused by SARS-CoV-2 happened very fast &amp; has infected many people. WHO <br>reported 1,051,635 cases of COVID-19 and 56,985 confirmed deaths caused by COVID-19 as of April 4, <br>2020. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that originates from betacoronavirus together with SARS-CoV.<br>This study aims to find and understand the differences between the SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV spikes in <br>the infection and the spread of the resulting disease. This is a literature studies obtained from national journal <br>articles indexed by SINTA and international journals indexed by Scimago or Scopus and published in 2015-<br>2020. We concluded that there is a difference between the SARS-CoV-2 spike and the SARS-CoV spike, so <br>that it can affect the spread of the disease. SARS-CoV-2 has a furin cleavage site that absent in SARS-CoV. <br>The existence of this furin cleavage site can help the activation and the efficiency of the infection of the <br>SARS-CoV-2 and increases its transmissibility to organs and populations when compared to viruses without <br>furin cleavage sites such as SARS-CoV.</p> Galih Kathleyana, Sihning E.J.T, Diah Purwaningsar, Retno Budiarti Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Disclosure of Medical Secrets in Handling Corona Virus Disease (COVID)-19 Cases <p>Background: Novel Coronavirus or better known as Corona Virus Disease (COVID) 19 is a disease that <br>first appeared in China in early December 2019. The disease quickly spread throughout China to Europe, <br>the United States, Southeast Asia and Africa. Covid-19 is spread through droplets (particles) that come out <br>through the human mouth when talking to others. This virus can infect everyone if the person is in contact <br>with a covid-19 positive sufferer. So much for the ability of this virus to infect and spread is proven by the <br>record that so far there are still many people infected with Covid-19 with increasing numbers.Method: This <br>research method is a juridical-normative legal analysis. Legal research is based on the legal concept used.<br>Results: The key to limiting the Covid-19 virus is that after knowing that something has been confirmed <br>positive, tracing is immediately done to anyone who comes into contact with the patient. After all tracing <br>is found, then a new examination is carried out whether they are also infected or not. Conclusion: There <br>are several laws and regulations governing the opening of Patient Medical Rahasi, namely Law No. 36 <br>of 2009 on Health and Regulation of the Minister of Health No. 269 of 2008 on Medical Records, which <br>explicitly explains that related to the Covid-19 Pandemic is allowed to be opened Medical Secrets of patients <br>concerning the interests and safety of thepublic.</p> Fifik Wiryani, Yusufa Ibn Sina Setiawan, M. Nasser, Mokhammad Najih Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Partial Purification of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 From Human Blood Serum and Study the Inhibitory Effect of Some Nitrile Derivatives on it <p>The research includes the partial purification of dipeptidyl peptidase-4(Dpp-4) from a person’s natural serum.<br>The enzyme was purified in three steps, precipitation by ammonium sulfate (50%), dialysis and gel filtration <br>by Sephadex G-100. The results showed a significant increase of Dpp-4 activity and specific activity,and a <br>decrease in total activity after purification.The descent of the purified enzyme with the highest activity from <br>the separation column was identical to the descending of the protein with the highest activity. The inhibitory <br>activity of nitrile derivatives that were used on the purified enzyme was studied. Nitrile derivatives were <br>used to inhibit the activity of the Dpp-4, selected based on similarity in sites of effective groups between <br>derivatives and anti-hyperglycemic drugs (Dpp-4 inhibitors type). The results show an inhibitory effect by <br>the two nitrile derivatives with different concentrations.These inhibitors can work to reduce the level of <br>blood sugar in people with diabetes. Moreover,Molecular docking was exerted to understand interaction <br>mechanism of the compounds against Dpp-4 at atomic level based on experimental processes.</p> Firas Shawqi Algburi, Nadia Y Al-Tikrity, Hasan Ulusal, Tugba Taskin-Tok Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Differences in the Position of the 135o and 180o Arrows with the Results of Blood Pressure in Indonesia Firdaus, Friska Ayu, Wesiana Herisanty, Nur Ainiyah, Nurul Hasanah Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Relationship between Premature Rupture of Membranes to Neonatal Sepsis: A Literature Review <p>Background: Infection is still one of the highest cause of neonatal death in Indonesia. 30% of neonatal <br>deaths are caused by infection (Kosen, 2005), with numbers ranging from 8,76% to 30,29% with fatality <br>rates of up to 49,9% (Victor,1997). Several journals has discussed the relationship between premature <br>rupture of membranes and neonatal sepsis. The author will review said literatures and conclude them.<br>Aims of the Study: This review aims to analyze how premature rupture of membranes may cause neonatal <br>sepsis and does the former increases risk of the latter.<br>Methods of Study: Data will be appraised from associated literatures and synthesizing the results. Reviewed <br>literatures are taken from Pubmed, NCBI PMC, and Google Scholar. Literature criteria are observational <br>study with control, comparative study, and analytical descriptive study.<br>Results: 13 literatures that discussed the relationship between premature rupture of membranes with neonatal <br>sepsis were reviewed. While neonatal sepsis still occurs in women without premature rupture of membranes, <br>women with premature rupture of membranes has marked a higher incidence of neonatal sepsis. The risks of <br>neonatal sepsis are multifactorial, such as (1) low birth weight, (2) preterm premature rupture of membranes, <br>(3) premature rupture of membranes with longer durations, and (4) healthcare quality.<br>Conclusion: Premature rupture of membranes is shown to increase risk of neonatal sepsis occuring.</p> Fariz Augusta Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Intention for Providing Exclusive Breastfeeding Associated from Self-Leadership and Psychological Capital of Mother <p>Intention is a crucial for influencing a mother’s decision to breastfeeding. With the high breastfeeding <br>intentions, mothers can help achieve the government program, namely exclusive breastfeeding for 6 <br>months, with seeing the importance of influencing mother’s behavior in breastfeeding, it is necessary to <br>study the mother’s intention to provide exclusive breastfeeding. This research was conducted in the city of <br>Surabaya with the researcher’s consideration, there are still many mothers who do not provide exclusively <br>breastfeeding, so the achievement of exclusive breastfeeding in the city of Surabaya still not fulfill the target. <br>The purpose of this research is to examine the intention to provide exclusive breastfeeding in terms of selfleadership and psychological capital of mothers in the city of Surabaya. This research used a quantities <br>approach with observational research and was classified as a cross sectional. The sample of this research were <br>pregnant women of 108 respondents. The independent variables of this research were education, attitude, <br>age, occupation, parity, knowledge, breastfeeding self-efficacy, self-leadership, psychological capital, and <br>family support. Whereas, the dependent variable is the mother’s intention to provide exclusive breastfeeding. <br>The research was obtained through a questionnaire. This research used a logistic regression test with the <br>purpose to identify the factors that influencing between the independent variable on the dependent variable. <br>The results showed that the factors that influenced the intention to provide exclusive breastfeeding were <br>psychological capital (Sig: 0.000, B = 4.255), self-leadership (sig = 0.015, B = 3.482), breastfeeding selfefficacy (sig = 0.004, B = 5.627) and family support (sig = 0.041, B = 2.142). The conclusion is mother’s <br>ability to lead herself, has an important role in the paradigm and psychological capital of mother’s in their <br>behavior, one of the intentions to provide exclusive breastfeeding behavior. Consequently, it is imperative <br>for mother to have strong self-leadership as well as a mother’s psychological capital in intending to do <br>something and realizing that intention in a real action.</p> Fauziyatun Nisa, Nyoman Anita Damayanti, Fendy Suhariadi, Fritria Dwi Anggraini, Siska Nurul Abidah Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Control of Sexual Transmitted Infections in Indonesia <p>Female indirect commercial sex workers who usually work in certain fields of work or have other main jobs <br>and indirectly sell sex in entertainment places such as masseuses, bar waiters. They are included in the high <br>risk group in the spread of cases of Sexual Transmitted Infections and HIV and AIDS. In Indonesia, it is <br>hoped that HIV AIDS will be free from Sexual Transmitted Infection by 2030 with the vision and mission <br>“No more HIV transmission, no AIDS deaths, no more stigma and discrimination in people with HIV / <br>AIDS”. This type of research uses quantitative descriptive research. with a sample of 80 female sex workers <br>in Bandungan, Semarang. The results of this study indicate a significant relationship between customer <br>support, access to health services, health promotion and control of sexually transmitted infections.</p> Festy Mahanani Mulyaningrum, Aris Sudiyanto, Sapja Anantanyu, Argyo Demartoto, Ade Saputra Nasution Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study of Patterns of Lip Prints and Sex Determination in a Suburban Region of Dakshina Kannada District. A 2 Year Prospective Study <p>Cheiloscopy (quiloscopy) is a method of identification of a person based on characteristic arrangement of <br>lines appearing on the red part of lips. Lip prints are unique to an individual, and persist in their characteristics <br>over a period of years. They are like fingerprints reliable method for identification. The aim of the study <br>was to find out various patterns of lip prints and the commonest pattern observed in both males and females. <br>Materials and method: The study was carried out on 200 individuals residing in suburban area in Dakshina <br>Kannada District, of ages ranging from 12-60yrs of both sexes after taking consent. The present study was <br>carried out from 2013 to 2015.The materials used were dark colour lipstick, bond paper, cello tape. Results: <br>The common pattern of lip print observed was Type I in the entire study population in both males and <br>females. In Dakshina Kannada however it was not statistically proved significant. There was no significance <br>between patterns and gender.</p> Fouzia Hameed, Vina Vaswani Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Nutritional Status and Blood Profile amongst Patient withChildand Maternal Leprosy in Endemic and Non-Endemic Area of Indonesia <p>Leprosy remains endemic in several country, where the disease is still considered as a health burden. The <br>development of the disease is determined by several factors, amongst which that play significant role are <br>close household contact and impaired immunity. Maternal index case significantly associated with leprosy <br>case in children and nutritional status plays a pivotal role in shaping the immune response against the <br>bacteria Mycobacterium leprae. Thus, this paper aims to evaluatethe association between nutritional status <br>and leprosy, especially in maternal and child leprosy. The study was conducted in Tuban, Indonesia. We <br>foundsignificant difference in haemoglobin, red blood cells, and haematocrit levels in subject with maternal <br>leprosy in the group of child without leprosy and leprous mother compared to the control group. The <br>difference in haemoglobin and haematocrit level are also associated with child leprosy in the group of child <br>with leprosy and mother with leprosy.In addition, although no significant association on BMI were observed, <br>we found that the child whose mother contracted leprosy has a lower BMI compared to the other groups</p> Flora Ramona Sigit Prakoeswa, Yohanes Aditya Adhi Satria, Budi Prasetyo, Santi Martini, Muhammad Yulianto Listiawan, Anang Endaryanto, Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Influence of Short Pulse Er:Cr: YSGG Laser on the Shear Bond Strength of Cad-Cam Zerconia Material to Resin Cement <p>Background: Surface enhancement of CAD-CAM zerconia for increasing the matching to resin cement, <br>using Er:Cr:YSGG Laser.<br>Materials and Methods: 40 sintered zerconia disc specimens( VITAYZ HT) were prepared. They are <br>dividedinto six groups, each group of seven samples.Laser groups are depending on laser power, laser <br>irradiation time and pulse duration, group(A): 20 s, 60µs pulse duration. Group (B): 30 s , 60 µs pulse <br>duration. Group (C): 40 s, 60 µs pulse duration. Group (D): 20 s, 700 µs pulse duration. And group (E): 30 <br>s, 700 µs pulse duration, for different powers (1, 1.50, 2, 2.50, 3, 3.50, 4) W.Luting cementwas bonded to <br>treated zerconia surfaces and light cured for 40 s.The Shear bond strength was measured using a universal <br>testing machine. The optained results were stastistically analyzed. Thebond failur modes were also examined.<br>Results: There was a clear increment in the shear bond strength especielly in group B (4 W, 30 s,60 µs) <br>reaching to 8.63 Mpa.No crackes were observed.<br>Conclusion: It was detected that the shear bond strength was related to the pulse depth.The pulse duration <br>of Er:Cr:YSGG is a crucial parameter in the enhancement of zirconia ceramic surface.</p> Fateima Sameir Muhammed, Hussein Ali Jawad Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Impact of Timing and Mode of Delivery on the Outcome of Newborn with Gastroschisis <p>There are controversial data about of the most suitable method of delivery for the infants with pre- and <br>ante-natal diagnosis of gastroschisis . The objective of the present study is to investigate the role of the <br>gestational age and mode of delivery on the outcomes of infants with gastroschisis . Twenty seven infants <br>diagnosed with gastroschisis were included in the current study . The study was conducted at Al-Zahra <br>Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf city, in Iraq , during the period between October 2017 to October 2020 . The <br>results of the current study show that there is a significant relationship between each of mode of delivery and <br>gestational age with type of surgery (p value = 0.04) . It also shows a high significant relationship between <br>gestational age and age at presentation (p value = 0.01) . The study concluded that the outcome of newborn <br>with gastroschisis might be slightly affected by timing and mode of delivery .</p> Hayder Neamah Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Estimation the Prevalence of Anemia in Pregnancy in Tuz City, Saladin Governorate <p>Introduction: Anemia is a state of decreased level of hemoglobin below normal. WHO defines anemia as <br>hemoglobin level below 10.5 gm/dl in 2nd trimester, below 11 gm / dl in 1st and 2nd trimesters and below <br>10gm/dl postpartum. The Aim of this study to estimate prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in Tuz city, <br>Saladin governorate. Subjects and Methods:This study was conducted at the beginning of November 2019 <br>to the end of February 2020. 150 women at child bearing age were participated in this study (100 pregnant <br>women collected randomly from those attending antenatal care center in Tuz General Hospital in Saladin <br>governorate and 50 healthy non pregnant women collected randomly as control.). Written consent was taken <br>from each woman participating in the study after expanding the aim of the study for each subject. In the <br>laboratory of the hospital, 3 ml of cubital venous blood had been drawn from each patient using disposable <br>syringes and needles.The same automated analyzer had been used to perform complete blood count (CBC) <br>and 5 parameters had been estimated for each patient. Results: 96% of non-pregnant women had normal <br>hemoglobin level and 4%of them had mild to moderate anemia. Among pregnant women, 4% of them severe <br>anemia, 65% of them had mild to moderate anemia, and 31% of them had normal hemoglobin level. Among <br>pregnant women in 1st trimester, 27.8% of them had mild to moderate anemia and 72.2% of them had normal <br>hemoglobin level. Among pregnant women in 2nd trimester, 8,3% of them had severe anemia, 75% had mild <br>to moderate anemia, 16,7% of them had normal hemoglobin level. Among pregnant women in 3rd trimester, <br>2,2% had severe anemia, 71,7% had mild to moderate anemia and 26,1% had normal hemoglobin level.</p> Hassan Y. Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Some Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Saliva of Dental Caries Hawraa A.Ali AL-Dahhan, Suha S.Al-Kishwan, Alaa Haider Dakheel, Batool Haider Dakheel Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Contribution of the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown Restrictions on Vitamin D Levels among Postmenopausal Women in Kerbala Province <p>Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women in light of <br>restrictions imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic.<br>Methods: This was a single-center cross-sectional study with total of 167 women patients (post-menopausal <br>:133, pre-menopausal: 24) who were divided into two groups according to age.<br>Result: There were significant negative links between serum T4 hormone levels and each of serum calcium <br>values (r=-0.049, p &lt;0.001) in post-menopausal. Serum T4 hormone levels are negatively correlated to TSH <br>hormone levels (r=-0.032, p &lt; 0.001) but T3 hormone levels shows significantly negative correlation (r=-<br>0.277p&lt;0.001). The correlation between serum T4 hormone levels vs Glucose in patients was significantly <br>negative (r= -0.017, p &lt;0.001),The results show that significant decrease(p&lt;0.01) in serum levels T4, T3 <br>hormone, vit. D in post-menopausal women compared as compared to pre-menopausal, correlation of <br>vitamin D with serum calcium (0.23 and T4, hormone (0.137) was significantly positive, and high fasting <br>glucose in post-menopausal as compared to pre-menopausal . <br>Conclusion: Baseline serum vitamin D levels are inversely related with thyroid hormone in post-menopausal <br>women</p> Hayder B. Al-Ghreaty, Wasim T. Mahdi Al Masoodi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Detection of Anti-Infliximab Antibodies and Identifying Factors affecting their Occurrence Using Elisa Method among Patients with Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases Hala F. Kasim, Souzan H. Eassa, Hishyar M. Salih Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of (Ki-67) a Cell Proliferative Marker for Distinguishing Overlapping Skin Lesions <p>Background: it has been always a challenge to differentiate keratoacanthoma (KA) from squamous cell<br>carcinoma (SCC) and trichoepithelioma (TE) from Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC). K-i67, a nuclear marker, is<br>a protein whose expression is strictly related to cell proliferation. Therefore, this can be used as an excellent<br>proliferative marker to differentiate between benign and malignant skin lesions.<br>Aim of the Current Study: this study was conducted to investigate the quantitative differences in nuclear<br>expression of the proliferative index (Ki-67) in SCC, KA, BCC and TE.<br>Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study enrolling 65 patients selected from private dermatological<br>outpatients clinics at Ibn-Sina Teaching Hospital, Mosul, Iraq diagnosed clinically by dermatologists as<br>BCC, SCC, KA, and TE during the period from Jan 2019- Jan 2020. Their biopsies were sent for routine<br>histopathological study and additional Immunohistochemical staining using a Ki-67 marker.<br>Results: Ki- 67 expression was seen in all cases ranging in intensity between 3-70%. Moderate expression<br>was noticed in (79%) of BCC cases whereas (43%) of well-differentiated SCC cases had mild expression.<br>Quite the reverse, the intensity of Ki-67 immunostaining ranged from 1-20% and 1-5% in KA and TE<br>respectively.<br>Conclusion: Ki-67 can be used as a significant biological marker to differentiate between benignity and<br>malignancy of overlapping</p> Hala N. Al Salman, Qasim S. Al Chalabi, Anfal L. Al Harbawi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Profile of Pediatric Hydronephrosis in Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Malang, Indonesia Hamdan Yuwafi Naim, Besut Daryanto, Pradana Nurhadi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Estimation of IL-6 and IL-8 in the Urine and Serum of Children with Urinary Tract Infection <p>Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine along with symptoms of infection.<br>UTIs occurs in 1.1% of girls and 1.4% of boys in the first year of life. The aim of the study was to assess<br>the usefulness of measurement of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 and IL -8 concentrations in the urine<br>and serum of children with UTI. A total of Eighty serum sample and seventy tow urine sample have been<br>collected from children with urinary tract infection, Their age ranged between 33days- 12 years old, fifty six<br>children of the same age collected as controls .Urine and serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations of both groups<br>were measured and compared. Urine and serum concentrations of IL -8 were significantly higher in children<br>with UTI compared with controls group (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0002) respectively, while there was no significant<br>different in urine and serum concentration of IL-6 of children with UTI and controls group(P = 0.1199 , P<br>=0.572) respectively. The results demonstrate that IL-8 is a good biomarker for urinary tract infection, while<br>IL-6 is not.</p> Haneen A abed, Khalid O Mohammed Ali, Sinan B. Alrifai Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Socioeconomic Factors and The Incidence of Maternal and Child Leprosy: A Study in Endemic Areas in East Java, Indonesia <p>Background: Leprosy is one of the neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Endemic<br>areas are still found due to incapability of MDT regimen alone to eradicate leprosy. The good understanding<br>of high-risk population characteristic to plan elimination strategy of leprosy is needed, especially in<br>vulnerable populations such as mothers and children population. This study aims to find association between<br>socioeconomic factors and the incidence of leprosy in maternal and children leprosy in endemic areas.<br>Methods: This is a case-control study in endemic areas in Tuban Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia.<br>The obtained data was done using structured questionnaire and direct measurement. Chi-square, t-test/<br>Mann-Whitney test was used to assess the association between socioeconomic factors and the incidence of<br>leprosy in maternal and children leprosy in endemic areas.<br>Results: 22 pairs of cases and 57 pairs of controls were analyzed. This study found that education is<br>associated with the incidence of leprosy. Significant results were observed in father’s education (p value=<br>0.023) with the incidence of maternal leprosy and mother’s education (p value= 0.003) education) and<br>father’s education (p value= 0.013) with the incidence of children leprosy. Family income also associated<br>with the incidence of maternal (p value= 0.040) and children leprosy (p value= 0.036). Occupation is not<br>associated with the incidence of leprosy.<br>Conclusion : The result of this study shows that education and family income are related with the incidence<br>of leprosy in both, mothers and children population.</p> Hari Basuki Notobroto, Flora Ramona Sigit Prakoeswa, Anang Endaryanto, Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Risk Factors of Recurrent Febrile Convulsions in Children in AL-batool Teaching Hospital <p>Background: Febrile seizures are the most common convulsive disorder in infants and children. Its occur<br>between the age of 6 and 60 mo.There are two type of febrile convulsion simple and complex; A simple<br>febrile seizure is a primary generalized, usually tonic-clonic, attack associated with fever, lasting for a<br>maximum of 15 min, and not recurrent within a 24-hour period. A complex febrile seizure is more prolonged<br>(&gt;15 min), focal, and/or recurs within 24 hr .<br>Aim of the study: To identify the risk factors for recurrence of febrile convulsions in children.<br>Materials and Methods: This was a case-controlled study done at Al Batool teaching hospital .Study<br>conducted over a period of five months , from August 2018 to December 2018 . All children with febrile<br>seizure belonging to age group of 6 months to 6 years were included in the study.<br>Results : Compared to children with first attack of febrile convulsion, children with recurrent seizures were<br>younger at onset (12_24mo.) (26% vs. 54%), mainly male (72% vs. 62%) and had more often family history<br>(second degree relative), low degree of temperature (78% vs. 36%),simple febrile convulsion (52% vs.<br>68%),duration of fever less than12 hours (78% vs. 70%), and frequent febrile illnesses (74% vs. 20%). first<br>degree family history of febrile convulsion and family history of epilepsy were not significant risk factors.<br>Conclusions: The risk factors associated with increased incidence of recurrence FC are: male sex, age<br>between12_24 months at the onset of the first FC, family history of FC in a second degree relative, duration<br>of fever &lt;12 hours ,simple type of convulsion &amp;frequent attack of febrile illness(&gt;4per year).</p> Hailah Othman Habeeb Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Cost Analysis of Human Resources Development Stunting Prevention <p>Background: The basic health research report in 2018 stated that stunting in children in Indonesia had<br>reached 30.8%, some public helath centre have not got a particular allocation of funds for the development<br>of maternal and child health workers to prevent stunting. It can slow down the program to accelerate the<br>reduction in stunting rates that has been promoted by the government. analyzing direct and indirect costs of<br>developing human resources for stunting prevention in Enrekang District, Indonesia. Material and Methods:<br>The research method used is qualitative research with an analytic survey approach. The data used in this<br>study are secondary data and primary data obtained from interviews with related parties. Results: This type<br>of qualitative research was collected using in-depth interview techniques. The results show that the direct<br>cost selection and recruitment is IDR. 10,484,000, indirect cost is IDR. 1,800,000 and Total cost IDR.<br>12,284,000; the direct cost for one-time training and human resource development is IDR. 9,500,000 and the<br>indirect cost is IDR. 33,600,000.Conclusion: Reaching the Human Resources Development (HRD) budget<br>of IDR. 304,086,533 can only effectively reduce stunting by 3.1% so that achieving the 2023 target of 15%<br>is difficult to meet. The government concerned is expected to increase the HRD Fund to achieve the 2023<br>target.</p> Hairuddin, Reza Aril Ahri, Nurmiati Muchlis, Masriadi, Nurul Susanti Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Duration of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation and Total Dose of Gonadotrophin and Its Effect on Oocyte Maturity, Embryo Grades Resulted and Clinical Pregnancy in IVF Cycle Hala M. Th. Tufiak, Azhar Mousa Al-Turaihi, Bushra Jawad Majeed Al-Musawi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Radiographic Examination of Third Molar Development for Biological Age Assessment in Java Population, Indonesia <p>Background: The individual age as documented in the birth certificate shall be authorized as a chronological<br>age. In several countries, falsification of documents relating to an individual age is becoming a major problem,<br>since it is correlated with monetary, marriage, and education matter. Forensic dentistry works to minimize<br>the possibility of individual age falsification by studying the tooth developmental stages. The objective of<br>this study is to observe the applicability of the third molar development related to the biological age.<br>Materials and Methods: A total of 93 OPG (orthopantomogram) of subjects (16 – 23 years old) from the<br>Java population were involved in this study. Third molar developmental stages of the mandibular were<br>evaluated using the Demirjian et al. method. The statistical analysis was carried out using IBM® SPSS®<br>Statistics version 23.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA).<br>Results and Conclusion: The result showed that the average Java population reached the final stage at an<br>average age of 21 ± 1,39 years in females and 20 ± 1,9 years in males. The present study indicates that the<br>development of mandibular third molar is slightly earlier in males than in females. Besides, Demirjian’s<br>method is considered as a reliable method for dental age estimation in the Java population.</p> Fitri Rizki Amalia, Arofi Kurniawan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 In Vitro Inhibition of Blood Cholinesterases by the Organophosphate Dichlorvos in Typ-2 Diabetic Patients Hussein M. Rashid, Fouad K. Mohammad, Daniele S. Persike Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 An analysis of Mean Arterial Pressure, Roll Over Test and Body Mass Index as Predictors of Hypertension in Pregnancy <p>Background: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the three causes of maternal mortality in Indonesia,<br>which proportion increases every year. More than 25% of maternal deaths in Indonesia in 2017 were caused<br>by hypertension in pregnancy (Profil Kesehatan Indonesia, 2018).<br>Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between MAP, ROT, and BMI on<br>hypertension in pregnancy and to find predictor models of hypertension in pregnancy.<br>Method: This research was conducted at Kedungadem Public Health Center, Bojonegoro Regency with a<br>cross sectional study method. The sampling technique used purposive sampling with subjects consisting<br>of 100 samples (50 normal tension and 50 hypertension). Data analysis used Chi Square, Logistic Binary<br>Regression and Area Under Curve.<br>Results: The results showed that a history of preeclampsia (OR 10.29; 95% CI 2.21–47.9), MAP (OR 3.38;<br>95% CI 2.36 4.84), ROT (OR 19.94; 95% CI5.47) -72.71), excess BMI (OR4.06; 95% CI 1.58-10.44), BMI<br>of obesity (OR 4.8; 95% CI 1.26-18.24), were significantly associated with hypertension at 27 weeks of age.<br>The main predictors of hypertension at 27 weeks were positive MAP (AUC 0.874; 95% CI 0.832-0.966; p =<br>0.000) and for predictors at 32 weeks, positive ROT at 27 weeks, 28 weeks and 32 weeks (AUC 0.851; 95%<br>CI 0.914-0.993; p = 0.000).<br>Conclusion: The history of preeclampsia, MAP and BMI were able to predict at 27 weeks of gestation and<br>ROT was able to predict at 32 weeks of age.</p> Hidayataun Nufus, Evi Rosita Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Serum IL-6 and FABP Levels in Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Patients Following Cardiac Catheterization <p>Acute kidney damage is a severe condition common in patients who have undergone heart surgery<br>(catheterization) and secondary injury is also referred to as being synonymous with surgery. The goal of<br>this research is to determine the rate ofinterleukin-6 (IL-6) and fatty acid-related protein (FABP) in patients<br>with acute renal injury (AKI) following cardiac catheterization. The study is performed on (81) patients (64<br>males and 17 females) aged 40-75 years. Data from most patients are reported in the form of age, gender<br>and smoking background questionnaire. The results indicate a significant increase in serum levels of IL-6<br>and FABP in patients with severe renal insufficiency after cardiac catheterization by (79%) males versus<br>(21%) females. In this study, improved risk prediction could enhance patient monitoring and treatment after<br>surgery, direct patient treatment and decision making, and enhance participation in AKI interventional trials.</p> Hind F. Aref, Nazar A. Naji, Hadaf D. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study of the Chemical Composition, Amino Acid, Flavonoids and Vitamin C of Moringaoliefera Leaves Extract Grown in AL-Ramadi- Iraq <p>This study was conducted to reveal the chemical components, amino acids, flavonoids and vitamin C of<br>the aqueous leaves extract of Moringaoliefera plant grown in AL-Ramadi city in Iraq, because these herbal<br>plants have medicinal and nutritional importance.material and method.The leaves were collected from<br>MoringaOleifera tree grown in the home garden, aqueous extract was prepared and GC-MS analysis, amino<br>acid diagnostics, flavonoids diagnosis and vitamin C analysis were performed. Results sixteen chemical<br>constituents were identified in the leaf aqueous extract; The most important of these compounds Decanoic<br>acid(1.14%),17- Octadecynoic acid (29.24%), (7.51%). 12 types of essential and non-essential amino<br>acids were diagnosed.Extraction of phenolic compound showed presence of quercetine(245.7 ppm) and<br>kaemferal(299.6 ppm). Vitamin C content in fresh samples of leaves of M. olifera were determined by the<br>HPLC method was (250.2 ppm).</p> Hind YounisKhalaf, Abid Ali Thaker, Mahdi Salih Shalal Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Subclinical Cardiovascular Presentation in Covid19: A Case Report <p>The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), elicited by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2<br>(SARS-CoV-2) infection, is a pandemic public health emergency of global concern. Other than the profound<br>severe pulmonary damage, SARS-CoV-2 infection also leads to a series of cardiovascular abnormalities,<br>including myocardial injury, myocarditis and pericarditis, arrhythmia and cardiac arrest, cardiomyopathy,<br>heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and coagulation abnormalities. mechanisms have been postulated for<br>COVID-19-associated cardiovascular damage including SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting<br>enzyme 2 (ACE2) activation, cytokine storm, hypoxemia, stress and cardiotoxicity of antiviral drugs. In<br>this paper we reported a patient with severe Cocid 19 pnumonia that had very high level of Troponin I<br>without history of cardio vascular and other underlying diseases expect mild HTN with use of amlodipine.<br>She had a ECG with old LBBB without significant ST-T bnormality and normal data in Trance thoracic<br>echocardiography(TTE). We named this condition subclinical involvemet of cardiovascular system in<br>Covid19 and our discussion is about reasons and origination of this Troponin elevation.</p> Hossien Shiebani, Homatash Saba Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Preliminary Study of Reproductive HealthEducation Model for Indonesian Migrant Workers <p>Background:It is estimated that around 4.5 millions of Indonesians work abroad, and 70% of themare<br>women, aged ranging from 18 to 35 years old. Mostly are employed in the domestic sector as housemaids.<br>They are prone to exploitation, extortion, physical and sexual abuses, due to human trafficking. Up to present,<br>there is no reproductive health education programmesfor Indonesian migrant workershas been established.<br>Thereforeit is necessary to provide education modules on reproductive health for them, which targetsspecific<br>education levels and socio-economic background.<br>Methods: We evaluated the effectiveness of three models of reproductive health education on 24 Indonesian<br>migrant workers as subjects. The subjects were classified into 3 groups, 8 subjects for each group. Group<br>A received conventional model (modules without case), group B received moduleswith few cases given<br>alongside, and group C received modules with many cases added to the modules. The modules included: (1)<br>Female and male reproductive organs, (2) Fertile window, menstruation, pregnancy and abortion, (3) Human<br>sexuality and sexual abuse, (4) Sex educationand sexually transmitted infections. Each modulewere given<br>in the scheme of 4x120 minutes,twice every week. The evaluations were conducted using pre-test post-test<br>design. The effectiveness of intervention was assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, we<br>also conducted focussed group discussion(FGD) regarding the models and modules of the training in the<br>fifth week of the experiment.<br>Results: There was a significant differences between subjects received module without case (Group A)<br>compared to subjects received module with a few cases added (Group B)and modules with many cases<br>added (Group C) at a&lt;0.05, while there was no significant differences between subjects received module<br>with few cases (Group B) compared with many cases added (Group B vs Group C) compared to Group A<br>and Group B (a&lt;0.05). Our results showed that modules with many cases added has the highest intervention<br>effect in the reproductive health education models.<br>Conclusion: Our study concludes that the most effective model to builtcompetencies in reproductive health<br>for Indonesian migrant worker is specific modules with many cases (Module C).</p> HudiWinarso, RenyI’tishom, Hanna T. Silitonga Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Adding Aqueous Extract of Opuntia Ficus Indica Leaves To Tris Extender on the Criteria of Awassi Rams Semen Stored at Cooling Husam Jasim Hussein Banana, Hasanain Jihad Neamah, Ahmed Younis Saieed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Prevalence of Cancer in Indonesia: An Ecological Analysis <p>Cancer is one of the catastrophic diseases with the most considerable absorption of costs in the National<br>Health Insurance-Indonesian Health Card (JKN-KIS) program. The study aimed at analyzing ecologically<br>the factors related to the prevalence of cancer in Indonesia.The research carried out ecological analysis using<br>secondary data from the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia in 2018. The study sampled all<br>provinces. Apart from cancer, five other variables analyzed as independent variables were the percentage<br>of preserved meat/chicken/fish, the percentage of fatty/cholesterol/fried foods, the percentage of e-cigarette<br>smokers, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, the prevalence of hypertension. Data were analyzed using<br>scatter plots.The study results found that the higher the percentage of preserved meat/chicken/fish food<br>consumption habits in a province, the higher the prevalence of cancer. The higher the rate of fatty/cholesterol/<br>fried food consumption in an area, the higher the prevalence of cancer. Likewise, the higher the percentage of<br>e-cigarette smokers in a province, the higher the prevalence of cancer. The higher the prevalence of diabetes<br>mellitus in an area, the higher the prevalence of cancer. Finally, the higher the prevalence of hypertension<br>in a province, the higher the prevalence of cancer. The studyconcluded that the five independent variables<br>analyzed are related to the majority of cancer in Indonesia.</p> Hendrik Santoso, Djazuly Chalidyanto, Agung Dwi Laksono Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Influence of Employee Relationship Unit on Team Intention:A Case Study in Implementation of Patient Safety Program <p>Incidencesregarding patient safety still occur,and not all are reported to the Hospital Patient Safety<br>Committee. The aim studyto analyze the employee relationship influences the work unit staff’s intention in<br>implementingthe patient safety program—the study was conducted bythe quantitative design of observational<br>analytics and through a cross-sectional staff approach. The research sites includedSidoarjo Regional Hospital,<br>Anwar Medika Sidoarjo Hospital, and Ahmad Yani Surabaya Islamic Hospital. The research collects data<br>during May–July 2019. The variables consist of employee relationship as the independent variable and<br>intention as the dependent variable. The results show that the development stage’s employee relationship<br>was broadly establishing (46.51%), whereas, for the relationship stage, it was a majority of trusts (72.09%).<br>The source intention stage was mostly personal intention(62.79%), and at the intention level, most of the<br>distal intention was 84.88%. The leadership type affects theworking unit staff’s discretionto implement<br>patient safety programs in hospitals, with employee relationships as a variable mediator.The study concluded<br>that the employee relationships had a significant influence on the working unit staff’s intention in hospitals<br>to carry out patient safety programs. However,employee relationships affect the work unit staff’s intention<br>to carry out the patient safety program.</p> Heru Suswojo, Usman Hadi, Widodo Jatim Pudjirahardjo, Fendy Suhariadi, Agung Dwi Laksono Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Comparison between Conservative Treatment Andappendectomy for Managing Appendicular Mass in Children <p>Appendectomy is considered the first treatment choice for appendicitis. However, controversy existssince <br>conservative therapy is associated with fewer complications than appendectomy for patients with <br>appendicular mass. Twenty onechildren underwent to appendectomy (Group I) , and sixty children on <br>conservative therapy (Group II)were included in this study . The study was conducted at Al-Zahra Teaching <br>Hospital in Al-Najaf city, in Iraq , during the period between October 2020 to January 2021 .The results <br>of the current study show that there is a significant difference in laboratory Investigation (p value = 0.04) <br>, Fever(p value = 0.001), hospital stay/ days(p value = 0.02) and duration of symptoms(p value = 0.003) <br>between group I and group II .The study concluded that the appendectomy may result in better outcomes and <br>less complication than conservative therapy in children with appendicular mass .</p> Hayder Neamah Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Medico-legal Concerns of Common Sexual Dysfunction in Partners among Egyptian Sample <p>Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as affection of erection; it ranges from mild to severe degree while <br>impotence is an absolute erectile dysfunction. ED affects physical and psychosocial health and has a <br>significant impact on the quality of life of sufferers and their partners and families. It is a common disorder <br>of men; however vaginismus is a recurrent or persistent involuntary spasm of the musculature of the outer <br>third of the vagina that affects the quality of life and sexual satisfaction level. <br>Objectives:The aim of the current study is to determine the real causes of common sexual dysfunction cases <br>in Egyptian courts which the alleged male impotence and whether it is due to actual organic/vascular causes <br>in male partner or vaginismus of the wife among Egyptian candidates.<br>Subjects &amp; Methods: a comparative study was taken over between the processing of the researched <br>cases on the level of the legal authority and that of the private sector, based on laboratory and radiological <br>investigations to diagnose the causes of apareunia of the couples subject to research in both spouses.<br>Results: (96.7%)with incapability to perform the sexual intercourse were having the problem of <br>vaginismuswhereas a very small percentage of the husbands were suffering from an organic reason with <br>variable degrees of erectile dysfunction (3.3%).<br>Conclusion &amp; Recommendations: hymen is not a reliable sign to indicate male impotence, examination <br>for vaginismus should be done in every case of alleged male impotence and examination for vaginismus.</p> Heba Gamal Kotb, Walaa Abd el Hady Abd el Halim Abo-Zeid Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Medical Ethics among Physicians and Nurses in Fayoum University Hospitals and Fayoum General Hsspital, Egypt <p>Background: Medical ethics is a system that applies values to practice clinical medicine and in scientific <br>research. This study aimed to assess knowledge and practice of medical ethics among physicians and nurses <br>in Fayoum General Hospital and Fayoum University hospitals.Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study <br>was carried out at Fayoum General Hospital and Fayoum University Hospital. The study was conducted <br>from July2019to December 2019. <br>Result: Our Study showed that there is statistically significant higher mean of ethics score among University <br>hospital physicians and nurses than General hospital physicians and nurses. In each hospital physician show <br>higher ethics score than nurses. There was no effect of gender on ethics score. There is statistically significant <br>higher mean of ethics score among physician of surgical department more than medical departments. On <br>the other hand there was no statistically significant difference in ethics score between different hospital <br>departments in nurses in both study hospitals, also in each hospital and in each staff. Generally regardless <br>type of hospital or staff there was statistically significant positive correlation between ethics score and age. <br>Conclusion: Medical ethics learning courses must increase for physician and nurses especially for general <br>hospitals.</p> Heba H Rohym Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Difference in Interleukin-12 (IL-12) on Degrees of Acne Vulgaris Severity <p>Introduction: Acne vulgaris (AV) is a common disorder of pilosebaceous seen mainly in adolescents. Most <br>cases of AV present with a pleomorphic lesion array, consisting of blackheads, papules, pustules, and nodules <br>of varying severity. Acne is one of the three most common skin disease, especially in adolescents and young <br>adults, with an estimated prevalence of 85% (aged 12-25 years). Acne vulgaris (AV) is still a health problem <br>in the world and Indonesia. The causes of AV are multifactorial and can lead to various complications. Aim: <br>This study looked for the difference in interleukin-12 (IL-12) on degrees of AV severity. Materials and <br>Method: This study was an observational analytic study with a cross-sectional approach. The research was <br>conducted at the Diniyah Putri Islamic Boarding School, Lampung Province, Indonesia, in August 2020. <br>The independent variable in this study was the AV degree, while the dependent variable was the IL-8 level. <br>The sampling method in this study was consecutive sampling, as many as 63 AV patients. The research <br>material is serum from venous blood. Examination of interleukin-8 levels using the ELISA method. Data <br>analysis was univariate to find the mean and standard deviation of IL-8 levels, as well as the frequency <br>distribution to determine the degree of AV. While the bivariate analysis was to determine the difference in <br>the mean of IL-8 levels in AV patients. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 15.49 ± 1.07 years, <br>the mean IL-12 level was 48.22 ± 15.62 and most of the AV degrees were in a severe category as much as <br>61.9%. Conclusion: Statistically there is no difference in the mean IL-12 levels in moderate and severe AV <br>patients, but IL-12 levels are higher at severe AV degrees than moderate AV degrees.</p> Hendra Tarigan Sibero, Eryati Darwin, Yan Wirasati, Satya Wydya Yenny, Suharmanto Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Difference in Interleukin-8 (IL-8) on Degrees of Acne Vulgaris Severity <p>Background: Acne vulgaris (AV) is a follicular disease that occurs most often and affects the area containing <br>sebaceous gland follicles, including the face, back, and body. This is a multifactorial condition. The <br>prevalence of acne vulgaris (AV) is still high both in the world and in Indonesia. As many as 80% of AV is <br>found at the age of 11-30 years and almost 100% in adolescents. Various factors can trigger the onset of AV <br>which can lead to severe complications. Aim: This study looked for the difference in interleukin-8 (IL-8) on <br>degrees of AV severity. Materials and method: This study was an observational analytic study with a crosssectional approach. The research was conducted at the Diniyah Putri Islamic Boarding School, Lampung <br>Province, Indonesia, in August 2020. The independent variable in this study was the AV degree, while the <br>dependent variable was the IL-8 level. The sampling method in this study was consecutive sampling, as <br>many as 63 AV patients. The research material is serum from venous blood. Examination of interleukin-8 <br>levels using the ELISA method. Data analysis was univariate to find the mean and standard deviation of IL-8 <br>levels, as well as the frequency distribution to determine the degree of AV. While the bivariate analysis was <br>to determine the difference in the mean of IL-8 levels in AV patients. Results: The mean of IL-8 levels in AV <br>patients was 38.53. Most of the AV patients are in a severe category. Further analysis found no difference in <br>the mean of IL-8 levels between moderate and severe AV degrees. Conclusion: There was no difference in <br>the mean of IL-8 levels in moderate and severe AV patients, but the IL-8 levels at severe AV degrees were <br>higher than moderate AV degrees.</p> Hendra Tarigan Sibero, Eryati Darwin, Yan Wirasati, Satya Wydya Yenny, Suharmanto Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Patient Satisfaction and Complaints Handling in Health Services Quality Improvement Effort at Sijunjung Public Hospital in West Sumatra, Indonesia <p>Complaint handling is one of the many strategies for improving health services. It is recognized that patients’ <br>satisfaction is an indicator of the quality of care. A survey on public services revealed that public satisfaction <br>at Sijunjung Hospital was 43.78% in the year 2015 but decreased to 40.18% in 2016. This decrease in public <br>satisfaction is due to patients’ complaints. From 2015 to 2016 there were 198,739 complaints while from <br>2016 to 2017 the number increased to 208,415. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors of <br>patient’s dissatisfaction with health care services and complaint handling to improve health services quality <br>at Sijunjung Public Hospital. This study uses the mixed method. The initial phase of this research is done by <br>quantitative approach using a cross-sectional design in the form of data collection and analysis. The study <br>involves a qualitative approach using observation method, in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions. <br>The study reveals that only half of the inpatients, outpatients, and Emergency Unit patients get excellent <br>health services at Sijunjung Public Hospital. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction of patients <br>requires an individual analysis of the patient’s needs; implementation in the health care system of functions <br>that meet these needs.</p> Isniati, Rizanda Machmud, Nusyirwan Effendi, Rima Semiarty Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Ecological Analysis of Stroke in Indonesia in 2018 <p>Stroke is one of the significant causes of disability and death worldwide and is classified as a catastrophic <br>disease in Indonesia. The study aims to analyze ecologically the factors related to theprevalence of stroke <br>in Indonesia. The authors conduct a research using secondary data from the 2018 Indonesia Basic Health <br>Survey that used all the provinces as samples. Apart from theprevalence of stroke, four other variables <br>analyzed as independent variables were diabetes mellitus, theprevalence of hypertension, theprevalence of <br>obesity, and the percentage of the population with alcohol consumptionin the past month. Data were analyzed <br>using a scatter plot.The study results found thatthe higher the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, <br>and obesity in a province, the higher the prevalence of stroke. However, the higher the population percentage <br>with alcohol consumption, the lower the prevalence of stroke in that province. The three variables, which <br>are the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity, were positively related to the prevalence <br>of stroke in Indonesia. The population percentage with alcohol consumption was negatively associated with <br>the majorityof stroke in Indonesia.</p> Izza Dinalhaque Pranatasari, Agung Dwi Laksono Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Addressing Drug Demand Uncertainty in a Pandemic Outbreak <p>This investigation is based on the application of Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model <br>to simulate the number of diseases spread in a region, along with a historical approach of epidemic outbreak <br>cases. Dengue fever pandemic outbreak is used to apply the proposed model for drug demand uncertainty in <br>a pandemic. The aim of this research is to predict the number of drugs needed in a hospital for the treatment <br>of dengue fever cases during the epidemic outbreak. The SEIR model is used to simulate the number of <br>dengue fever patients in a hospital atGresik district, East Java in Indonesia. This analysis was carried out <br>in a comparative way with the other forecasting methods. The result showed that the simulation’s result is <br>different from other forecasting methods, depending on the context in which it is used, such as the disease <br>type and the area of epidemic under study. In the future research, the proposed model is could applied in <br>Malaria, COVID-19 pandemic, and another in order to ensuring the applicability of proposed model.</p> Irwan Syahrir, Iwan Vanany Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Mechanism of Corneal Epithelial Cells Death by Infection of pseudomonas Aeruginosathrough Analysis Expression of Caspase-1, TNF, RIPK1, RIPK3, Caspase-3 in Rats Model <p>Ba</p> Ismi Zuhria, Nurwasis, Eddy Bagus Wasito, Winarto, I Ketut Sudiana, Reny I’tishom, Nyilo Purnami Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Brown Seaweed (Sargassum sp.) Extract on Apoptosis Process in Breast Cancer – A Literature Review <p>Breast cancer was one of the most common types of cancer in women and the major cause of death. <br>Chemotherapy in breast cancer caused toxicity to the normal cells, resistance to the drugs, and several other <br>side effects. Seaweed had many functional compounds that could be used as adjuvant therapy in breast <br>cancer because of its anti-cancer properties called the proapoptotic agent. These compounds were fucoidan, <br>phloroglucinol, and fucoxanthin. Their proapoptotic mechanisms shown by the journal were through <br>increasing proapoptotic protein expression, decreasing antiapoptotic protein expression, inducing oxidative <br>stress production on the cancer cell, and inhibiting the PI3K pathway. This review concludes that the brown <br>seaweed (Sargassum sp.), which contains fucoidan, phloroglucinol, and fucoxanthin, could increase breast <br>cancer cells’ apoptotic process.</p> Ismylatifa Devi, Diah Purwaningsari, Nita Pranitasari, HerinSetianingsih Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Reducing Natrium Chloride Concentration by Using the Alkali from Banana Stems in Bracket Water <p>Objective: This study aims to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride using banana stem media with <br>a thickness of 10 cm, 15 cm, and 20 cm. Method: This type of research is quasi-experimental research <br>by conducting trials of hard water management using banana stem media with variations in the thickness <br>of the media, namely 10 cm, 15 cm, and 20 cm by replicating 3 times. Sampling was carried out in rivers <br>containing chloride levels in Makassar. The sampling method is using Grab Sample which is taken directly <br>from a river flow which is classified as brackish water. The data analysis technique was carried out by using <br>the ANOVA test. Result: The results obtained are banana stem media with a thickness of 10 cm can reduce <br>levels of chloride (Cl) 2377, 69 mg/l, a thickness of 15 cm can reduce levels of chloride (Cl) 1772.27 mg/l, <br>and a thickness of 20 cm can reduce levels of chloride (Cl) 1166.18 mg/l. Conclusion: The decrease in <br>chloride levels in water is due to the presence of 4.60 grams of charcoal hydrate content in banana stems <br>which functions to bind chloride levels in the water, besides that there is also a membrane in the banana <br>stem in the form of cellulose which plays a role in binding chloride levels in water and also as an osmosing. <br>Banana stalks can bind chloride levels.</p> Inayah, Wahyuni Sahani, Syamsuddin S, Agus Erwin Ashari Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Detrimental Effect of Alprazolam on Sperm Viability ofMice (Mus musculus) Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress <p>Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of alprazolam administration on sperm viability of mice <br>(Mus musculus) strain Balb/C following CUMSfor 53 days. Method: This study used a true experimental <br>design through randomization. Control group kept undisturbed without treatment and therapy throughout 60 <br>days. K1 and K2 were exposed to a 53 day period of CUMS along with 7-day pretreatment adaptation. K2 <br>was adapted for a week, stressed for 53 days along with cotreatment of alprazolam (4 mg/kg BW). Results: <br>K1 and K2 showed insignificant improvement of sperm viability (p &gt; 0.05).Meanwhile, K0 and K1 showed <br>significant value compared to K2 (p&lt;0.05). K2 showed little increase of sperm viability in CUMS group <br>along with subsequent treatment of alprazolam. Conclusion: Overall, the results indicate an insignificant <br>effect of alprazolam on sperm viability of CUMS-induced mice.</p> Intan Indah Permatasari, Reny I’tishom, HanikBadriyah Hidayati, Irwanto Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Mixed Methods Analysis: Traditional Medication,Stigma, and Leper’s Family Support Roles in Level II Leprosy Disability <p>People with a level II leprosy disability have limited functions in society. In Nagan Raya District, there is <br>a 41% leprosy endemic area with a 5% level II disability rate. The goal of this research was to prove the <br>relationships of traditional medication, stigma, and leper’s family support to level II leprosy disability. This <br>research used mixedmethodsand a case-control design with 84 respondents42 case respondents (level II <br>leprosy disability) and 42 control respondents (level 0 leprosy disability)chosen by consecutive sampling <br>under some inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data collection used the in-depth interview method. This study <br>used bivariate data analysis with the chi-square test and multivariate data analysis with the logistic regression <br>test and the Miles and Huberman’s model. The results of the chi-square analysis indicated that traditional <br>medication had p value=0.014 (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 0.2–7.7), stigma p=0.04 (OR:3.6;95% CI: 1.5–8.9), and <br>family’s support p=0.192 (OR:2.0; 95% CI: 0.7–5.8). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed <br>that stigma was a risk factor for leprosy level II disability with p value=0.006, (OR=4.9; 95% CI: 1.6–<br>15.1) and probability of 99.96%. Based on the interview results, lepers were feeling uncomfortable with the <br>society’s not acceptingthem in a good way. This was especially the case with khanduri(feast) when it came <br>down to food in that the society assumed lepers would transmit the infectious, disgusting disease. The Nagan <br>Raya District Health Office is expected to encourage the societyto accept lepers and provide information <br>regarding the process of leprosy transmission so as to appease the community’s fearand to prevent further <br>disability.</p> Irwan Saputra, T.M. Rafsanjani, Said Usman Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of A Nutritional Instructional Program on Health-Related Outcomes for Hemodialysis Patients <p>Objective: the study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutritional instructional program on healthrelated outcomes for hemodialysis patients through utilization of quality of life, and subjective global <br>assessment in pretest; posttest1, posttest 2 and posttest 3.<br>Methodology: quasi-experimental design was conducted at Al-Najaf Al–Ashraf, Specialized Center for <br>Kidney Diseases and Transplantation. The study has been carried out during the period 1st September 2019 <br>to 20th May 2020. The dietary instructions program constructed by researcher to measure the purpose of <br>the study. The study sample of (76) patients referred for dialysis to the Specialized Center for Kidney <br>Diseases and Transplantation. During the period of the study patients were selected through non-probability <br>(purposively) and were randomly divided into two groups of (40) patients for study group and (36) patients <br>for control group. The study group have been exposed to dietary instructional program by the researcher. <br>The group that has not been exposed to dietary instructional program by the researcher are considered the <br>control group. The measurement of effectiveness of dietary instructional program on patients undergoing <br>hemodialysis through used of Quality-of-Life form and consisted of (5) main items. The subjective global <br>assessment checklist questions and consisted of (6) items. Data was analyzed by using of descriptive data <br>analysis (frequencies, percentages, mean, standard deviation, and graphical presentation) and by using of <br>inferential analysis (chi-square, independent t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA test, and binominal test). <br>Results: The results of the study demonstrated that there was non-significant difference between the <br>study and control groups for quality-of-life score in pre dietary instructional program while; there was <br>highly significant difference between the study and control groups for quality-of-life score in post dietary <br>instructional program. The present study illustrated that there was non-significant difference between study <br>and control groups in pretest at p-value (0.05), while there was highly significant difference in posttest (1,2, <br>and 3) between study and control groups at p-value (0.05) regarding SGA.<br>Conclusions: The study concluded that implementation instructional session will demonstrating a positive <br>change in nutritional status and dietary habits. Difference between the two groups is due to the effectiveness <br>of the dietary instruction program that given to the patients in the study group and not given to the control <br>group. <br>Recommendation: The study recommended that establishing of educational center for the patients in the <br>hospital provided by adequate related materials, medias, audio-visuals aids and booklet for educating all <br>patients how to cope with their medical conditions, when giving information to patients and relatives, nurses <br>have more choices to make information clear and easily understandable</p> Ibrahem A. Al-Ashour, Widad K Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Oil Supplementation on Hematotoxicity Induced by Benzene in Gasoline Vapors from Gas Stations in Male Wistar Rats <p>This study aimed to prove the effect of black cumin oil supplementation through analysis of levels of <br>CYP2E1, MDA, GSH, and hematological profiles in experimental animals, Wistar rats, which were exposed <br>to benzene in gasoline vapors from gas stations. Sixty-four experimental Wistar rats were divided into eight <br>groups with eight rats each, two control groups (C1 and C2), and six experimental groups (T1, T2, T3, T4, <br>T5, and T6). Blood samples of experimental rats were taken through intracardiac with ketamine-xylazineacepromazine anesthesia on day 15 for group C1, C2, T1, T3, and T5; and day 29 for group T2, T4, and T6. <br>The ELISA method measured the levels of CYP2E1, GSH, and MDA in this study, while the hematological <br>profile used a hematology analyzer. This study indicates that benzene in gasoline vapors exposure caused <br>significant hematotoxicity (P &lt;0.05). Supplementation of black cumin seed oil at a dose of 2.5 ml/kg, 5 ml/<br>kg, and 10 ml/kg, all of which have the potential to provide a protective effect against the hematotoxicity of <br>benzene in gasoline vapors through increased internal antioxidants (GSH). The GSH can play a role in the <br>mechanism of vapor metabolism of substances in gasoline vapors in the body through decreased CYP2E1 <br>levels and decreased MDA levels. Further research is still needed with a more extended treatment duration <br>to ascertain the chronic effects of benzene hematotoxicity on the genomic pathway to assess black cumin’s <br>role, whether in the form of oil, powder, or other forms of extraction.</p> Ikhram Hardi S, Merryana Adriani, Tri Martiana Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Knowledge and Health Behavior about Vitamin D during Epidemic COVID-19 among Female University Students <p>Background:Vitamin D deficiency it considers a global health problem and a significantly linked with <br>skeletal and non-skeletal problems. Prevention can be kept by sun exposure or supplementation and to lower <br>extent by dietary intake.<br>Objective: to assessedknowledge and health behavior regarding the vitamin Dduring epidemicCOVID-19 <br>among female university students<br>Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted, total of 400femal student aged between 20 and 30years <br>who study in university,institute, from7thJuly 2020to 30September2020,by using electronic formand freely <br>agree to participate in the research project. The validity was estimated through a penal of experts related <br>to the field of study. Datawasanalystthrough the implementation of descriptive and inferential statistical <br>analysis.<br>Results: The results of this study show that the knowledge of thestudy samplewaslow regarding student <br>knowledge in some item while thereis high score about the importance of vitamin D, so us the grand mean <br>above the cut of point duo to the behavior <br>Recommendations: It was recommended increasing awarenessabout the importance of vitamin D <br>and guidelines on how to obtain it were necessary by (food, sun exposure)especially in period of <br>epidemicCOVID-19.</p> Iman A Jaber Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Excessive Ginger Intake on the Health of Mice and Liver Tissue <p>Introduction: Spices are one of the main ingredients frequently used in Arab and Asian kitchens. Therefore, <br>we must research their harms in the service of society. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the <br>effect of excessive ginger consumption on the phenotypic and histological structure of the mice liver. It <br>is important to have a clear view of the spices that play a major role in damaging organs. Methodology: <br>About 20 mice were used. I was orally (1g) to ginger for 50 days. that anesthetization, separating the liver, <br>fixing by formalin, using the routine method to preparation block and sectioning (5um) then coloured with <br>H&amp;E. Results: Symptoms was the loss of weight, high temperatures, as well as the Gangrene at ends of <br>the Ear, Tail. the liver appearance of severe congestion with a dark red colour, accompanied by bleeding <br>and the appearance of fluid-filled swelling in the liver, forming what is called the liver abscess. Microscopy <br>indicated a loss of the normal structure of the liver tissue. The sections also showed the emergence of the <br>stages of programmed death of cells.Conclusion: We concluded that consuming spices in large quantities <br>will lead to toxic liver toxicity, but it is not dangerous.</p> Khloud Adnan AL-Lehaibe, Tamara Amer Taha Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Extreme Consumption of Clove on the Morphology of Mice and Liver Tissue <p>Introduction: Flavors are one of the main materials used in the world kitchens. Therefore, we must research <br>their harms in the service of society. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of too much cloves <br>consumption on the morphological and histological structure of the mice liver. It is important to have a clear <br>view of the excitements that play a major role in damaging organs. Methodology: About 20 mice were used. <br>I was orally (1g) to ginger for 50 days. that anesthetization, separating the liver, fixing by formalin, using the <br>routine method to preparation block and sectioning (5um) then coloured with H&amp;E. Results: symptoms was <br>decrease in weight and signs of dehydration and hair loss,. the liver appearance of severe congestion with a <br>dark red colour, accompanied by bleeding and the appearance of necrosis in the liver. Microscopy indicated <br>a loss of the normal structure of the liver tissue. The sections also showed the emergence of the stages of <br>programmed death of cells.Conclusion: We concluded that consuming spices in large quantities will lead to <br>toxic liver toxicity, but it is not dangerous.</p> Khloud Adnan AL-Lehaibe Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Questions of Compulsory Organ Donation: The Trolley Dilemma - A Discussion From Ethical, Legal, and SocialEconomical Perspectives <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has inflicted disastrous damages on various aspects of human lives, especially <br>the healthcare sector. The shortage of beds, medical staff, and other facilities in hospitals posed an acute <br>dilemma over who should be given precedence in the treatment process and whether a more seriously ill <br>person should sacrifice for people with less severe illness. With an interpretative approach, this short research <br>article discusses the above questions by using compulsory organ donations as a proxy. After evaluating <br>the compulsory organ donation from the ethical aspect, researchers then dig into the issue from legal and <br>socioeconomic perspectives. The authors are convinced by Kant and Nozick’s proposals on ethics and <br>justice regarding organ donation and patient sacrifice. The research also found out that the problem is not <br>merely limited to the question of morality but also extended to an opt-out system for ensuring social welfare. <br>Finally, the paper encourages medical practitioners, legislators, and social activists to make decisions about <br>medical-legal issues based on interdisciplinary views.</p> Khoa Tran , Anh Tuyet Nguyen Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Commonest Clinical Presentation of Gallstone Disease in Laparoscopically Cholecystectomized Patients <p>Cholelithiasis is the presence of one or more gallstones within the gallbladder. Gallstone disease is a common <br>cause for surgical intervention all over the world.The objective of the study is to determine the order of <br>frequency of clinical presentations for cholelithiasis in laparoscopically cholecystectomized patients in ALKarama teaching hospital.A total sample of 156 clearly documented gallstone disease and laparoscopic <br>cholecystectomized patients were involved in the present study. In the current study, 156 laparoscopic <br>cholecystectomized patients; (34) males and (122) females, ages range between 20 and 69 years with a <br>mean (m=39.24±11.7). Common factors that justified the indication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) <br>were found in the majority of patients with asymptomatic and mild GI presentation those factors include <br>microlithiasis &lt; 3mm, risk for gallbladder CA, history of bariatric surgery, coexistent morbidities like diabetes <br>mellitus (DM) and hemolytic anemia (HA) or the LC was done in concomitant with another laparoscopic <br>surgery.From the present study, we concluded that the mild GI symptoms represented by dyspepsia, nausea, <br>flatulence and constipation, were at the top of clinical presentations for gallstone patients who underwent <br>LC. The distribution of cases was higher in the 4th decade of life with female predominance.</p> Khairallah Muzhir Gabash, Hawra Khairallah Muzhir Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Effectiveness of Project-Based Learning atThe Level of Health and Sports Awareness for Students of The College of Applied Studies and Community Service <p>Effectiveness of project-based learning at the level of health and sports awareness for students of the College<br>of Applied Studies and Community Service. the research aims to identify the effectiveness of projectbased<br>learning at the level of health and sports awareness for students of the College of Applied Studies<br>and Community Service. researchers used the experimental method for its suitability to the research. The<br>research sample was deliberately chosen from first-level students, who are (113) students from the College<br>of Applied Studies and Community Service, whose ages range from (18-20) years. Measurements were<br>taken and data collected through questionnaire forms.<br>Among the most important findings of the research is the existence of a statistically significant relationship<br>at the level of (0.05) in all aspects of students’ health and sports awareness, the effectiveness of the project<br>learning method as one of the health education methods in the learning process.<br>Through this, the following recommendations were reached to activate the project learning method for<br>different academic courses and use it on different groups in society, to pay attention to the practical aspect<br>as a basic method in teaching health and fitness, which helps to confirm the practical practice of information<br>related to sports and health in the daily life of students andintegrating educational messages in the curricula<br>courses at different academic levels.</p> Khalid Hassan Alshehri, Mona Mostafa Abdo Sakoury, Haitham Fayez Mahmoud Akl, Nagwa Ibrahim Albadaly, Hana Ahmed Saud Ababtain, Yahia Mohamed Mohamed Ali Abd El Gaid Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Serum Vit D and Serum Ferritin in Female Pattern Androgenic Alopecia <p>Introduction: Androgenic Alopecia (AGA) is a non-scarring alopecia that affects both men and women. It<br>is characterized by a progressive miniaturization of hair follicles with a characteristic pattern distribution in<br>genetically predisposed men and women.<br>Aim of the study: To assess the level of serum ferritin and vit D3 in female pattern of androgenic alopecia.<br>Patients and method: A prospective case control study carried out at Department of Dermatology in<br>Baladgeneral hospital, Iraq at the period from the first of January 2019 to the end of Dec 2019.<br>Results: serum vit D3 for patients was (22.8 ± 11.5) in case group and (34.4±5.7) in control group, while<br>for S. ferritin was (35.7±5.0) in control group and (44.8±7.3) in control group. Vit D3 deficiency (&lt;20 mg/<br>dl) were found in 68% of patients while 30% with vit D3 insufficiency.<br>In three grades of severity, it was found that vit D3 level in grade I was (24.2±6.9), in grade II (20.7±7.2),<br>and in III (18.9±9.2). While for ferritin was (37.4±10.8) in grade I, (30.7±9.4) in grade II, and (25.9±12.1)<br>in grade III.<br>No significant differences were found between the three grades groups regarding serum vitamine D3, while<br>significant difference present among S. ferritin. The sensitivity of the vit D3 test to predict the disease were<br>(90.9%), the specificity was excellent (95.1%), while for ferritin the sensitivity was (88.3%), the specificity<br>was (89.0%).<br>Conclusion: Serum Vit D3 and Ferritin concentrations were significantly decrease in female with androgenic<br>alopecia.</p> Khalid Ibrahim Jasim, Abdul Satar Mohammed Ali Khidhair, Ghassan A Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Study the Effects of Heavy Metals (Lead and Cadmium) on Some Biochemicalparameters of Dairy Cattle in Baghdad Province <p>This study investigatesthe effects of heavy metals (Lead and Cadmium) on some biochemical parameters<br>of dairy cattle in Baghdad province(Taji, Abu Ghraib, Al-Fudilia, Letifia and Youssoufia)regions.Thirty<br>samples of blood from dairy cattle in five different regions were taken to measure the Lead and Cadmium<br>concentration by atomic absorptionwhile serum were collected for measuring, liver enzymes (aspartate<br>aminotransferase AST and alanine aminotransferase ALT) activity,Serum total protein, serum albumin,<br>serum globulin and serum creatinineconcentration.The results showed a significant increase (p&lt; 0.05) in the<br>leadand cadmium ion concentration in the blood sample of the dairy cowsin Youssoufia region compared<br>with other region. On the other hand, the total protein and globulin concentration of the dairy cattle in Abu<br>Ghraib region recorded significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher value compared with Letifia region. While Albumin<br>and creatinine concentrations showed non-significant (p &gt; 0.05) differences among the different regions.<br>Liver enzyme AST concentration showed significant increase (p &lt; 0.05) in the serumof dairy cows in Letifia<br>and Youssoufia regions. However, serum ALT were increased significantly(p &lt; 0.05) in Letifia than Abu<br>Ghraib region.Concluded from thisstudythatdairy cattle inLetifia and Youssoufia regions were subjected to<br>pollution with heavy metals which caused Increased heavy metal content in the blood of cattle and affect<br>their health by increased the concentration of liver enzyme and reduction of total protein in the blood of<br>dairy cattle compared with other region in Baghdad province.</p> Khalid Sh. Salman, Tamara N. Dawood Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of IL-6 , IL-23 and Serum amylase Levels in Patients with Enteric Fevers <p>The study was carried out during the period of March 2019-January 2020 for the detection of Salmonellosis in<br>102 suspected patients with age group ranged from 17 - 69 years, who attended Baghdad teaching hospitals,<br>that had been examined and defined as suspected cases by a specialized physician with the recording of<br>clinical manifestation. The diagnosis is done by the immunochromatography method, a blood sample was<br>taken from each patient as well as other 30 healthy control matching in age and gender. The study included<br>measurement of the level of interleukin -6,23 and Amylase activity in sera of patients and healthy control.<br>The result indicated that anti –salmonella IgM positive in 54 cases, anti- salmonella IgG positive in 50<br>cases, and 18 positive cases with both IgM and IgG. The Level of interleukin 6,23 increased significantly<br>while the serum amylase activity decreased significantly in patients sera in comparison with healthy control.</p> Khalil Ismail A. Mohammed, Wifaq M. Ali Al-Wattar, Suha A. Al-Fukhar, Saad Hasan Mohammed Ali, Jinan M. Mousa Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Investigation of the Predictive Determinants of Social Well-Being in High School Teenagers: An Iranian Study in 2019 <p>Background: Considering the importance of social well-being and the associated factors, this study was<br>designed to investigate status ofsocial well-being and its predictive determinants in an Iranian group of high<br>school teenagers during first half of 2019.<br>Methods:An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 680 participants. Demographic information<br>were collected consisting of age, gender, birth rank, weight, height, economic status of family, education of<br>parents, place of living and family size. The Persian version of Keyes’s social well-being questionnaire was<br>used.This questionnaire had parts for social actualization, social coherence, integration, social acceptance<br>and social contribution.<br>Results: Overall status wise, 13.1% had good status, 80.4% had average status and 6.5% had poor status of<br>social well-being. Urban residency was associated with better score (P=0.036). No significant association<br>was observed for age, gender, year of education, having health insurance and birth rank. Educational status<br>of mother was significantly associated with the overall score in favor of positive association for university<br>education (P=0.046). No significant association was found for father education, mother job and father<br>job. Chronic disorders of the students were associated with decreased overall score (P=0.019). History of<br>smoking was associated with decreased overall score (P=0.001). History of regular physical activity was<br>associated with increased overall score (P&lt;0.001). No significant association was found for existence of<br>parental chronic disorder.<br>Conclusion: In the present part of Iran, social well-being has an average status among high school students.<br>Knowing the related factors help us for better planning.</p> Khatereh Anbari, Javad Tarhani, Seyyed Amir Yasin Ahmadi, Pardis Ghanadi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Boswellia Serrata Extract Against some of the Oral Pathogenic Bacteria Khawlah A. Salman, Sahar M. Jawad, Saddam Hussein Abbas Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Implementation of a Room Temperature Control System in Patient Rooms with Positive COVID-19 Patients <p>Technology development triggers the development of human thought to be able to create innovations to<br>improve performance. The increasing cases of COVID-19 infection mean that you should seek to break<br>the chain of this virus by self-isolation. However, the purpose of self-isolation rooms should be considered<br>especially at rooms without air conditioning. These technological innovations are needed to provide comfort<br>for patients and families. The goal of this study is to give families of COVID-19 positive patients easy<br>access to their loved ones’ rooms without having to physically enter the room. The procedure is artificial<br>intelligence with Arduino programming using Arduino IDE that is part of the micro controller board. Microcontrolled<br>systems can be thought of as being like an integrated computer system packaged in a single chip.<br>The result showed the temperature control system tool was able to work well with a temperature error rate<br>of 1.13%. It is known that in COVID-19-positive patients it is very helpful for families to monitor room<br>temperature and for patients to rest comfortably.</p> Khaeriyah Adri, Jamaluddin Ahmad, Zulkarnain Sulaiman, Pratiwi Ramlan, Mardhatillah, Madaling Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Ascorbic Acid Drink after Submaximal Physical Activity can Maintain the Superoxide Dismutase Levels in East Java Student Regiment <p>Objective - This study aimed to analyze the effect of ascorbic acid after submaximal physical activity on<br>reducing levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increasing levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) to Student<br>Regiment in East Java.<br>Methods - This study was a true experiment with a randomized control group posttest-only design used 28<br>male subjects aged 19-23 years with body mass index (BMI) 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, and randomly divided into<br>four groups. Namely G1 (n=7, control without submaximal physical activity+placebo), G2 (n=7, submaximal<br>physical activity+placebo), G3 (n=7, submaximal physical activity+AA 500 mg), and G4 (n=7, submaximal<br>physical activity+AA 1,000 mg). The submaximal physical activity was 2.400 meters running in 12 minutes<br>or when the 60-70% of HRmax achieved. The drinks containing 500 mg and 1.000 mg ascorbic acid (AA)<br>for G3 and G4 was given after exercise test. Measurement of serum MDA and SOD used the Thiobarbituric<br>Acid Reactive Substances (TBARs) method. The data was statistical analyzed using SPSS software with a<br>significant level (p&lt;0.05).<br>Results - The results of MDA levels showed in G1 (308.18±61.81 ng/mL), G2 (338.42±125.78 ng/mL), G3<br>(290.54±69.18 ng/mL), G4 (279.83±39.10 ng/mL) and there was no significantly difference among groups<br>(p=0.557). The mean levels of SOD was significant among groups ((p=0.000), and the SOD level in each<br>group was G1 (23.19±0.77 units/mL), G2 (24.81±0.87 units/mL), G3 (25.27±0.79 units/mL), G4 (25.57±0.47<br>units/mL).<br>Conclusion - It can be concluded that 500 mg and 1.000 mg ascorbic acid drinks after submaximal physical<br>activity can increase SOD levels of students regiment in East Java. Ascorbic acid drink may maintain the<br>SOD level by lessening the use of antioxidant endogen and it may also increase the SOD level, however<br>futher research is needed to be conducted to figure out the mechamism.</p> Junian Cahyanto Wibawa, Muhammad Zainul Arifin, Lilik Herawati Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Clinical Trial of Black Seeds Against COVID – 19 in Kirkuk City/ Iraq <p>In order to cope with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is an urgent need for effective<br>prevention and control measures. This study aims to explore the positive action of black seeds (BS) against<br>COVID-19 in patients involved in the trail. It is a descriptive, comparative, and open-label study. In our<br>study, (419) participants were divided into two groups.The studied participants included patients which<br>received standard care treatment as a control group (CON) , while the (BS) group were patients received<br>black seeds at a 40 mg/kg dose orally, once daily for 14 days plus standard protocol of treatment. The<br>evidence of BS efficacy was obvious in the severity and outcome of infection with covid-19. A significantly<br>higher severity of infection among control group 44 (17.0%) than the black seed group were noticed; the<br>control group also showed 14 deaths (5.4%), while there were no deaths in black seeds group (0.0%). Thus,<br>we can conclude that black seed is very effective in reducing the severity of covid-19 and preventing death<br>in infected patients.</p> Kadhim Ali Abbas Al-Haidari, TunjaiNamiq Faiq, OzdanAkram Ghareeb Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation the Level of Interleukin 2 and 6’ Receptors in Hepatitis-C Patients in Wasit Province / Iraq <p>Viral hepatitis type C, is a disease happened due to entering of Hepatitis C virus the body and reaching the<br>liver. It will multiplication and stimulates the patient’s immune system to attack the infected cells, therefore<br>will caused the liver inflammation. Our study included (35) HCV patient’s blood samples and had been<br>compared with (30) control’s blood samples. When the interleukin 2 receptors’ and interleukin 6receptors’<br>level and some of a biochemical test (ALT, AST, ALP, TSB) had been measured. We observed a significant<br>increasing (P&lt;0.05) in the value of biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, TSB) of patients compared to<br>healthy. Also there was a significant increasing (P&lt;0.05) in Interleukin 2&amp;6 receptors in patients compared<br>to healthy. From the results a presence of a direct correlation had been indicated between the interleukin-2<br>receptors and (ALT, AST), and reversed correlation between Interleukin 2 receptors and (TSB, ALP)a<br>presence of a direct correlation indicated between the interleukin-6 receptors and (ALT, TSB), and reversed<br>correlation between Interleukin-6 receptors and (AST, ALP)Hepatitis C virus, HCV, Interleukin-2, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-2 Receptors, Interleukin-6<br>Receptors, IL6, IL2, IL2Rs, IL6Rs.</p> Kadhum J. Gattia, Noor M. AbdAlhasan, Haethem Q. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Analysis of Refusal of Inpatients by Government Hospitals Causing State Administrative Disputes <p>This research is based on the fact that in the community shows that there are still many hospitals that haven’t<br>provided health services to society without the element of discrimination, many mass media are preaching<br>rejection of the patient until so that causes death. Rejection of patients in government hospitals in the form<br>of direct action falls into the category of state administrative disputes if it is article 87 of Law number 30<br>of 2014 concerning government administration point, which is a written determination that is also a factual<br>action of a government hospital. The methodology in this study uses normative juridical types as well as<br>using statute, conceptual, and case approach. On this research, using primary legal materials in the form of<br>the Constitution, AP Law and PTUN Law.This research relates to the involvement of state administration<br>officials if there is any refusal of patients at government hospitals and authority and the act of granting<br>decisions without authority (Factual Actions) reviewed from the AP Law that causes material and immaterial<br>losses towards the community. Administrative sanctions on government officials who perform factual acts<br>that article 81 of the AP Law, namely light, moderate, and severe administrative sanctions.</p> Jhouharotul Faradisah, Siti Lukmanah, Akbar DioSasqia Putra, Asmuni Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Patient with AIDS and Embolic Stroke: A Case Report <p>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a global concern. Globally, 36.7 million people are<br>living with HIV and 1 million people died at the end of 2016. There is an association between human<br>immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with neurological manifestations. Between 1% and 5% of patients<br>with HIV develop stroke. The pathogenesis of AIDS with stroke is still controversial. A 37-year-old male<br>patient with AIDS had an embolic stroke. The diagnosis of the patient was based on clinical condition and<br>the CT scan results of the head with contrast. The stroke-causing mechanism in patients is HIV-associated<br>vasculopathy that results from accelerated atherosclerosis. After administration of antiplatelet and statin, the<br>patient’s condition improves.</p> Troy Fonda, Usman Hadi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Bestiality: A Cruelty Towards Animal <p>Bestiality is a kind of sexual deviance in which an individual is involved with an animal for the gratification<br>of his/her sexual desires.It can be considered as a severe form of cruelty towards animals. Few societies in<br>the world perceived bestiality as a cure for the sexually transmitted disease. However, such conduct is a<br>punishable offense in the Indian legal system under Section- 377 IPC. For many years, animal cruelty has<br>been a concern of both legal and mental health care professionals. The psychological culture in the 1960s<br>acknowledged childhood animal cruelty as a possible risk factor for violent conduct againsthuman beings.<br>The present study aims to provide and explore the issue of human-animal sexual interactions and their<br>consequences in society. For this purpose, doctrinal research design has been applied and relevant research<br>articles, news reports,and blogs were collected from free online resources and analyzed. This research<br>discusses the various sexual deviations and the types of animals involved, accompanied by a comprehensive<br>account of the results from the few more recent studies. The studyexplains the possible motives for sex with<br>animals. Besides, how these motives can influence the psychological forensic assessment of offenders who<br>have sex with animals.</p> Mabel Chandra, Nitin Nishad, Mahesh A Tripathi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Most Important Native Iranian Medicinal Plants Affecting The Bacteria that Cause Tooth Decay; A Systematic Review <p>Background: Tooth decay is an infectious disease that is caused by various microorganisms. Chemical<br>drugs used to control and treat tooth decay mainly have side effects. On the other hand, many plants have<br>antimicrobial effect against microbes that cause tooth decay. Therefore, the aim of this study was to introduce<br>Iranian medicinal plants with antimicrobial properties in tooth decay.<br>Method: To reach this purpose, we searched keywords containing Iranian medicinal plants, medicinal<br>plants, Tooth decay, essential oils, and extracts in Pub Med, Web of Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific<br>Information Databases, and Google scholar.<br>Results: The results of our study led to the achievement of 17 articles that intensive on the study of Iranian<br>medicinal plants affecting the bacteria that cause tooth decay.<br>Conclusion: This article introduces a number of plants that have been introduced in different regions of Iran<br>for the treatment of tooth decay, which based on the knowledge of traditional and ethnobotanical medicine<br>of Iran, we believe that they can be used as a drug against tooth decay.</p> Mahsa Oboodiat, Ronak Bakhtiari, Pegah Shakib, Neshatafarin Manoocheri, Atefeh Khakpour Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Applications of Non-thermal Atmospheric Plasma in Restorative Dentistry: A Narrative Review <p>Plasma-related technologies are essential in modern industries. Recently, plasma has attracted increased<br>attention in the biomedical field. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is widely used for various therapeutic<br>applications in health care. Particularly in dentistry, this paper supplies an essential knowledge of plasma<br>and a narrative review of plasma uses in restorative dentistry. There have been efforts to use NTP technology<br>in restorative dentistry involving modifications of dental surfaces, adhesion, treatment of dental caries, and<br>tooth bleaching. Although various investigations were in the recent stages, the prospective value of NTP<br>for dental uses has been occured. To extende the scope of plasma approaches and put suitable research to<br>practical use, interdisciplinary research with the participation of dental professionals is recommended.</p> Maitham Yahya Al-Tufaili, Sara Valizadeh Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis and Renal Tubular Acidosis in Patient withHypothyroidism <p>Hypokalemiaperiodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare disorder characterized by acute muscle paralysis. Based<br>on its etiology, HPP can be classified as primary and secondary types. One of the most common causes of<br>secondary HPP is renal tubular acidosis (RTA) which may be also present in thyroid disease. We observed a<br>case of a 48-year-old female, with complaints of weakness in both lower extremities for two days. Difficulties<br>in walking and weakness in both arms were also present. Patient also experienced nausea, vomiting, and<br>diarrhea 4 days before coming to the hospital. She had a history of thyroidectomy in 2009 and in 2019 was<br>admitted for similar symptoms. Medication consumed by the patient were Euthyrox 100 mg one time daily<br>and KSR 600 mg three times daily. In the last week, Euthyrox was discontinued by the patient due to her<br>diarrhea. The patient’s general condition was weak and vital signs were BP 120/80 mmHg, pulse 84 bpm, RR<br>18 times per minute and temperature was 36.6°C. Motoric strength was 4/4 in both arms and 3/3 in both legs.<br>No pathological neurological reflexes were found during examination. Inverted T wave and prominent U<br>wave were seen on electrocardiogram (ECG) results.Laboratory results showed hypokalemia (2.0 mmol/L),<br>Blood Gas Analysis: Metabolic Acidosis (pH 7.42, pCO2 32 mmHg, HCO3 20.8 mmol/L, BE -3.7 mmol/L)<br>with anion gap of 14.2 meq/L. Urinalysis results were pH 8, urinary anion gap 18.29 mmol/h. Decreased<br>thyroid function was also shown in the endocrine laboratory panel FT4 0.57 ng/dl and TSH 32.097 IU/<br>mL.HPP is a disorder characterized by muscle weakness and may be present in distal type RTA. Clinical<br>symptoms of distal type RTA are hypokalemia, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, urinary pH &lt;5.5. Distal<br>type RTA can be caused by endocrine disorder i.e., hypothyroidism. Observation of patient condition and<br>laboratory results lead to the conclusion that the patient is diagnosed with hypokalemic periodic paralysis<br>and renal tubular acidosis based on hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap, and alkaline<br>urine with positive urinary anion gap.</p> Laurensia Goretti, Soebagijo Poegoeh Edijanto Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Relationship of Complications During Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight in Indonesia: An Ecological Study <p>Low birth weight is classified as one of the children’s health problems in Indonesia. Theauthorsconducted a<br>study to analyze the environmental factors associated with Indonesia’s low birth weight. Thestudy conducted<br>an ecological analysis using secondary data from the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia report in<br>2018. The study takes all provinces in Indonesia as samples.Besidesthe proportion of low birth weight, there<br>were 3 other variables analyzed, the proportion of hypertension in pregnancy, the proportion of birth canal<br>bleeding, and the proportion of amniotic fluid discharge. Data were analyzed using cross-tabulation.The<br>results show that all three variables tend to affect the proportion of low birth weight and the previous studies.<br>The study concluded that the three independent variables analyzed tend to correlate with the proportion of<br>low birth weight in Indonesia.</p> Leonny Charisso, Hario Megatsari, AgungDwi Laksono, Mursyidul Ibad Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Study on Female Victims of Burn Injury at Rims, Ranchi, Jharkhand <p>Burn injury is one of the most common cause of unnatural deaths worldwide. While survival after occurrence<br>of burn injury has drastically increased in past decades especially in developed countries like India, burn<br>injury continues to be a common cause of unnatural deaths. Though both males and females may be victims<br>of burn, females are more susceptible as they are more involved in household activities .Often the manner<br>of burn is closed in mystery and unreliable statements. The reason behind this action may be domestic,<br>personal, occupational or social tragedy and more recently dowry deaths. Burns in married female where<br>death of female occurs below 30 years and within seven years of her marriage. Such death cases are to<br>be investigated by Magistrate under CrPC 176 and other female burn and male burn deaths are routinely<br>investigated by police as per section 174 CrPC.</p> Lishu Chaure, Nawal Kumar Singh, Kumar Shubhendu, Tulsi Mahto, Ajit Kumar Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021