International Journal of Nursing Education 2021-04-01T07:01:56-05:00 Prof Amarjeet Kaur Sandhu Open Journal Systems <p> <strong>International Journal of Nursing Education</strong> is an international double blind peer reviewed journal. It publishes articles related to nursing and midwifery. The purpose of the journal is to bring advancement in nursing education. The journal publishes articles related to specialities of nursing education, care and practice. The journal has been assigned international standard serial numbers 0974-9349 (print) and 0974-9357 (electronic). The journal is covered by many international databases. </p> <div> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p> </p> </div> The Relationship between Self-Confidence in Learning and Clinical Educators’ Characteristics by Nursing Students 2021-03-31T14:37:07-05:00 Abeer Mohamed Abdelkader Naglaa Saad Abed El-Aty Safaa Mohamed Abdelrahman <p>Background: Student nurses need to building up self-confidence in learning in order to cope with the<br>complex clinical situations. Individuals with self-confidence be certain of themselves to have the capability<br>to manage a situation or provide nursing care in accurate, relevant and efficient method. Equipping student<br>nurses to provide patients care in getting more complicated healthcare setting is a challenge face nursing<br>instructor, self-confidence is one of the important determinants of successful learning.<br>Objectives: The aim of the present study is to identify the relationship between Self-confidence in learning<br>and clinical educators’ characteristics by nursing students.<br>Method: Correlation research design was utilized in the present study. A convenience sample of 179<br>nursing students was included in the study. The Nursing Clinical Teacher Effectiveness Inventory and Self-<br>Confidence in Learning scale were used to collect the data.<br>Results: The results of the study showed that the majority of study participants had high level of self<br>confidence in learning. Also, the participants reported that their clinical educators had high level of teaching<br>abilities, nursing competences, and personal traits. Moreover, significant positive relationship was existed<br>between self-confidence in learning and clinical educators’ characteristics.<br>Conclusion: Self-confidence in learning is an essential goal in nursing education. Assessing clinical<br>competence and investigating factors influencing it might be helpful in increasing Self-confidence of nursing<br>students.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on Knowledge and Practices Regarding the Importance of Play Activities among the Mothers of Under Five Children During attending OPD in the Selected Hospital, Bardoli, Gujarat 2021-03-31T14:45:43-05:00 Archita Pravinchandra Parmar Manjunath Beth <p>Background: Play constitutes an essential parameter of the normal psychosomatic development of children,<br>as well as their statutory right. Play is the most important activity of a child’s life.METHOD: in this research<br>study a quantitative approach with Pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test design was adopted. 50<br>mothers of under five children were selected by using non-probability convenient sampling technique.<br>Structured interview schedule and inventory checklist both were used to collect data from the subjects.<br>Planned teaching programme was organized to educate the mothers regarding importance of play activities<br>followed by posttest. data was analysed by using descriptive and interferential statistics such as standard<br>deviation, chi- test, and paired ‘t’ test. RESULT: The pre-test knowledge scores showed that majority of<br>respondents 37 (74%) had average knowledge, 13 (26%) had good knowledge and posttest knowledge<br>scores showed that 46(92%) had good knowledge, 4 (8%) had average knowledge. The pretest practice<br>scores showed that majority of respondents 38 (76%) had average practice, 12 (24%) had good practice<br>and posttest practice scores showed that 48 (96%) had good practice, 2 (4%) had average practice. paired t<br>value of knowledge and practice was 13.72 and 18.54 was greater than tabulated value 1.991 at 0.05 level of<br>significance.The study results depicts that, there was significant association between the post-test knowledge<br>score and type of family and birth order of child. And there was also significant association between post-test<br>practice score and education.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of an Educational Training Program in Tracheostomy Care on Nurses’ Knowledge and Skills 2021-03-31T14:52:45-05:00 ELsadig Eltaher Abdulrahman Mohamed Toum Musa Rashida Mohamed Eltayeb Hammad Ali Fadlalmola <p>Background: A tracheostomy is a surgical procedure in which an opening is made into the anterior wall of<br>the trachea.With an increasing demand for intensive care beds more nurses in acute and high dependency<br>wards will be expected to care competently for patients with tracheostomy tubes.<br>Aim: To evaluate Nurses’ knowledge and skills in performing tracheostomy care and to determine the<br>effectiveness of the educational training program on nurses knowledge and skills.<br>Methods: A quasi-experimental study (one group) conducted at Sinnar Teaching Hospital (STH). A total<br>coverage technique was used 45 nurses were included.measurements of the group were made both before<br>and after training program.<br>Results: The total knowledge percentage before training program ranged from (2.2%) to (46.7%), and<br>after training program,ranged from (57.8%) to (88.9%). 91.1% of respondents (41) they were not attending<br>training course in Tracheotomy Care before.There was statistically significant different in the mean total<br>knowledge score of the participants before and after the program at p value level = (0.00).<br>Conclusion: The nurses included in the study do not have adequate knowledge and skills in the evidencebased<br>guidelines for tracheostomy care.There is no correlation between the qualifications or years of<br>experience and knowledge of nurses regarding tracheostomy care.Continuing professional development<br>programme ontracheostomy care should be made compulsory for all nurses.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Comparative Study to Assess the Level of Stress among Staff Nurses working in Psychiatric and Multispeciality Hospitals, Bangalore 2021-03-31T15:00:03-05:00 Jincy. M.Varghese <p>With a view to assess the level of stress among staff nurses working in psychiatric and multi speciality<br>hospitals, a non- experimental comparative study with descriptive approach was undertaken among 120<br>Staff Nurses. Simple random sampling techniques were used in selecting the staff nurses. The result revealed<br>that 56.7% moderate stress in psychiatric hospital nurses and 65% in multispeciality hospital nurses are<br>having severe stress level.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Development of a Professional Competency Evaluation Model of Nursing Students 2021-03-31T15:04:00-05:00 Jiratchaya Laokhompruttajarn Piyatida Panya Arun Suikraduang <p>Purpose: The purpose of this research was to develop a professional competency evaluation model of<br>nursing students.<br>Method: It was conducted through a research and development process divided into 4 steps as follows.1)<br>Studying and analyzing elements and indicators from documents, interviewing experts, focus group and<br>surveying opinions. 2) Drafting a model by 10 experts applying the multi–attribute consensus reaching. 3)<br>Implementing among nursing students, classmates, and teachers. 4) Evaluating by participants engaged in the<br>implementation. The statistics for data analysis comprised mean, standard deviation, median, interquartile<br>range, the Mann–Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis Test.<br>Findings: The results of the research were as follows. 1) The core competency of nursing students consisted<br>of 7 elements and the functional competency included 4 elements. 2) The model had a structure that the<br>evaluation objectives, expected outcomes, indicators, criteria, evaluators, method, duration, and feedback.<br>3) It had a discriminant validity and could distinguish different professional competencies of the nursing<br>students.4) The model was at a high level for all its aspects; feasibility, appropriateness, accuracy, and<br>usefulness.<br>Conclusion: The model was to develop a professional competency of nursing students.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Knowledge Regarding Osteoporosis among Young Adult Women of a Selected Community of Pokhara, Kaski 2021-03-31T15:13:21-05:00 KC Deepti Thapa Bindu Gurung Sunita Poudel Sharmila <p>Background: Osteoporosis is a silent killer disease that is highly prevalent among females. Even though the<br>symptoms of osteoporosis can be identified in later stages of life, it can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle<br>adaptation at an early stage of life.<br>Objectives: The present study aims to assess the knowledge level of osteoporosis among young adult<br>females and examine the association between knowledge level and selected socio-demographic variables.<br>Methodology: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A non-probability purposive<br>sampling technique was used to select 153 samples. The data were collected for 6 weeks using a semistructured<br>interview schedule. Osteoporosis Knowledge assessment tool (OKAT) was used to collect the<br>data. Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation) was used for quantitative data<br>analysis and inferential statistics (chi-square) were used to find out the association between knowledge level<br>and selected socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents.<br>Results: The study concluded that 51 percent of the young adult women had an average level of knowledge<br>and 49 percent had a poor level of knowledge regarding osteoporosis. However, none of them had a good<br>level of knowledge regarding osteoporosis. A significant association was found between the knowledge level<br>and educational status of the respondents (p=0.002).</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Distribution Pattern of Covid-19 in Indonesia: Study Using Spatial Autocorelation 2021-03-31T15:21:28-05:00 Mahmudah R. Azizah Warih Kusumaningtyas Mohd. Talib Latif Cendana Fitrahanjani Fairuz Haniyah Ramadhani <p>COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. The spread of several types of<br>diseases, including COVID-19, is influenced by location or spatial factor. The purpose of this research was<br>to examine the spatial relationship among the spread of COVID-19 in Indonesia. Secondary data is used<br>from the Indonesian Ministry of Health website. The data analyzed was the cumulative number of positive<br>cases of COVID-19 in Indonesia until October 19th, 2020. Spatial Autocorrelation, Moran’s Index, and<br>Local indicators of spatial association (LISA) were used to examine these relationships. Geoda software<br>was used in performing spatial statistical analysis. The spread of the cumulative number of COVID-19<br>cases in Indonesia is spatially related, with a Moran’s Index value of 0.251. Four provinces have significant<br>LISA scores, namely South Sumatra, Banten, West Java, and South Sulawesi. South Sumatera is relatively<br>safe since it is located in the an area with relatively low COVID-19 cases. West Java is perilouse with high<br>COVID-19 cases and surrounded by an area with a high number of cases. Banten needs to be vigilant of<br>the high number of cases’ possibility since the surrounded area can be the main influence. South Sulawesi<br>has a very high number of COVID-19 cases, which can be the new source of infection for the surrounding<br>areas. The Indonesian government needs to act on a regulation in order to decrease COVID-19 distribution<br>by limiting people’s commute between provinces.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Utilization of Research Evidences among Nursing Students-A Multicentred Study in India 2021-03-31T15:56:54-05:00 Maj Tanushree Mitra Maj Radhika Das Brig Amita Devrani Maj Renjini Gopalakrishnan Maj Ranjana Banik Shakira Banu B <p>Background-Nursing services in present era thrives for quality patient care. To maintain the standard<br>of professional practice and best quality care the student nurses need to be updated with recent research<br>evidences. Evidence Based Practice (EBP) in nursing education is inevitable to keep up the pace with the<br>technological advancement and standard nursing practices.<br>Objectives-The present study was designed with the objective to assess the level of utilization of research<br>evidences among nursing students, to find the association of selected variables with the S-EBPQ scores, to<br>compare the mean score of S-EBPQ among the different groups of nursing students and to analyse the low<br>response items(score1-2) of SEBPQ.<br>Methodology-The present study is a multi-centred cross-sectional descriptive design conducted among<br>nursing students(n=276) of selected College of Nursing of India through an online survey. Data collection<br>tool was a standardised self-administered questionnaire of SEBPQ (Students Evidence Based Practice<br>Questionnaire by P Upton, D R Upton &amp; S Evans,2015) consisting of 21 items in four subscales. Statistical<br>analysis was done by SPSS-24 software in the form of mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentage and<br>ANOVA test.<br>Result-Present study revealed that the total mean score of SEBPQ was 3.89±1.22, practice score was<br>3.35±1.53,attitude score was 4.41±1.78, knowledge/skill score was 3.77±1.35 and communication of<br>research score was 4.06±1.48.The utilization of research evidences were high among 31.52% nursing<br>students, moderate among 54.35% and low among 14.13% of nursing students. The negative response<br>analysis for all items revealed that the student nurses had lower utilization of evidences related to lack of<br>critically appraising the evidences (48.2%), tracking down the evidences (45.28%), integrating the evidences<br>with practice (44.6%) and difficulty in formulating clearly answerable research question (41%). There was<br>a statistically significant association between the S-EBPQ score and the place of residence (p value of<br>0.000018) however there was no association found for the age, education level, marital status, years of<br>experience, speciality and designation of nursing students.<br>Conclusion-The study concluded that the nursing students have moderately high utilization of EBP, positive<br>attitude towards research utilization and communication, however institutional support and revised nursing<br>curriculum with emphasis on EBP would be necessary to make nursing students more research oriented and<br>updated.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Supporting a Nursing Program in a Low-Income Country: A Collaborative Project 2021-03-31T16:14:16-05:00 Margarett Alexandre Anne Marie Berthe Leveille-Tulce Keville Frederickson <p>Background: Healthcare professionals’ number in Haiti is reported to be 5,400: 2.8 per 1000, or 1.8 nurses<br>and one physician per 10,000 people. There is a need for well-trained professional nurses to care for the<br>population and educate incoming nursing professionals. The City University of New York’s (CUNY)<br>involvement in a project to strengthen the nursing school at the Université Publique d’Artibonite aux<br>Gonaives (UPAG), is an essential initiative that can help improve Haiti’s health care system.<br>Methods : Members of the CUNY faculty team traveled to Haiti to conduct the initial needs assessment.<br>They met with students and faculty at UPAG. A program was designed to respond to the need’s assessment<br>findings. CUNY faculty for the UPAG project were selected from a core member of CUNY Chancellor’s<br>Haiti Initiative team. It included educational sessions for senior students and an opportunity for UPAG<br>nursing faculty to participate in a professional development program.<br>Conclusion: The project fulfilled the needs for faculty and students’ supports. However, there is still more<br>work to be done. To this end, two UPAG nursing faculty participated in a Master’s in Nursing program at<br>Regis University and CUNY faculty continued to support students through a mentorship program.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Exploring Workplace Bullying and Turnover Intention among Registered Nurses in Tertiary Hospitals, Lahore, Pakistan 2021-03-31T16:24:05-05:00 Mishal Liaqat Iram Liaqat Rizwan Liaqat Awan Rabia Bibi <p>Background: Workplace bullying is common all over the world. However, the medical field is one such<br>field where bullying is more frequent than any other field. Specifically, nurses in the hospitals are identified<br>to be more exposed to workplace intimidation as compare to other health members, yet underreported.<br>Workplace bullying is one of the principal factors following turnover intention among nurses.<br>Purpose: This survey aims to explore the prevalence of workplace bullying and its association with the<br>intent to leave the job among registered nurses.<br>Methods: A Cross-Sectional survey was conducted from September 2019 to April 2020. A convenience<br>sample of 242 nurses employed in two public and two private teaching hospitals of Lahore had been selected<br>for the study. Data analysis was done using the latest version of SPSS 25. Descriptive statistics mean,<br>median and standard deviation were used for the description of data.<br>Results: The prevalence of workplace bullying was 8.02% among nurses. A significant relationship was<br>found between workplace bullying and nurses’ turnover intention. The study found diploma nurses with less<br>age experienced more workplace bullying.<br>Conclusions: It is suggested that workplace bullying is highly rampant in our health care system and is<br>significantly associated with the nurse’s turnover intention. There is an immense need to establish new<br>policies that can control bullying and upsurge nurses’ retention. Further education plays a role in workplace<br>bullying.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Adolescent Food Habits and Its Association with Overweight and Obesity among Female Students in Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia 2021-03-31T16:45:31-05:00 Ola Mousa Aml Sayed Safia Belal Asmaa Saber Ghaly Noora Yousef Alsoqair Fahad Mohammed Algharib <p>Background: Adolescence is a period of extreme growth changes.Malnutrition along with the adolescence<br>growth changes has significant effects for maternal and neonatal wellbeing. Bad sequences in the prenatal<br>period and childbearing are the most important reason of deathsin adolescent girls aged 15–19 years. Aim: To<br>assess the overall dietary “Food Habits” of adolescent girls. Also, to assess the relationship between obesity,<br>food habits and physical activity patterns in adolescents. Subjects and Method: A quantitative-correlational<br>research design was utilized. A Cluster random sampling strategy was used. The study conducted at six<br>middle and high schools, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. The three sectors covered through two schools from each<br>sector.The survey was conducted among 593 female school students between November 2019 –January<br>2020. The questionnaire contained two sections. Ethical approval obtained from the Education Department<br>of Ministry of Education after obtaining approval from the College of Applied Medical Sciences Research<br>and Ethical Committee. Results: The mean of body mass index of the participants was 21.1±3.5. It was<br>clear that (23.6%) of the participants were underweight, while (67.1%) were within normal weight and<br>(7.9%) were overweight and (1.4%) were obese. Near to half of the participants (47.1%) did not make any<br>daily activity.(19.2%)of the participants took supplementation medicine. Adolescent Food Habits Checklist<br>(AFHC) Score was low between the schoolgirls. Conclusion: The current study reinforced that Adolescent<br>Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) Score was at a low level among the schoolgirls. Near to half of the adolescent<br>did not make any daily physical training. While range of the physical activity was from (15-30) minutes per<br>day.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effect of Guided Imagery on Pain and Anxiety in Post Cardiac Surgery Patients in First Ambulatory Stage 2021-03-31T17:31:28-05:00 Pooja Singh <p>Background of the Study: Multiple researches have shown that and an array of mind body therapy e.g.<br>imagery, hypnosis, relaxation when employed pre-surgically, can improve recovery time and reduce pain<br>during invasive medical and surgical procedure.1 Pain and anxiety are significant complaints among patients<br>after cardiac surgery. Guided imagery can be an effective intervention when used as a therapeutic modality<br>for a variety of symptoms and conditions. It can improve health and enhance well-being, particularly through<br>the reduction of pain and anxiety.2 Aim of the Study: so, The present study was conducted on the effect<br>of guided imagery on pain and anxiety in post cardiac surgery patients in first ambulatory stage. Method:<br>a quasi experimental study in selected hospitals of a metropolitan city. A total 50 (25 in each experimental<br>and control group) were included through non-probability purposive sampling technique. The tools used<br>in the study were Numerical rating scale and critical care pain observation checklist for pain Beck Anxiety<br>Inventory for anxiety followed by opinionnaire about guided imagery. Result: frequency and percentage<br>method shows pre-intervention scores (NRS= 76%, CPOT= 96%) 1st post-intervention scores (NRS=48%,<br>CPOT=24%) 2nd post- test intervention scores (NRS=44%, CPOT=44%,BAI= 52%) in experimental group<br>and in control group before receiving standard care (NRS=96%, CPOT=96%), 25 minutes after receiving<br>standard care on bed (NRS= 84%, CPOT= 92%), 25 minutes after receiving standard care on chair (NRS=<br>80%, CPOT= 92%,BAI= 72%)</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Relationship between Mother’s Status Too Young, Too Old, Too Close, Too Much (4T), and Contraceptive Use with Incidence of Maternal Mortality 2021-03-31T17:35:33-05:00 Rina Tri Wahyuni Nunik Puspitasari <p>Maternal Mortality Rate in Bojonegoro Regency in 2019 ranked second in East Java, namely 146.64 per<br>100,000 Live Births. Meanwhile, in the first semester of 2020, there were 24 maternal deaths. This research<br>was conducted to see the relationship between the mother’s status is too young, too old, too much, and too<br>close (4T) to Maternal Death. This study analyzed quantitative secondary data for the first semester of 2020<br>in Bojonegoro Regency using the Risk Ratio (RR) calculation with a significance level of 95% CI. A mother<br>with age too old will likely cause maternal death with RR= 0.443. Mothers with too many children have a<br>risk of dying with RR= 3.153. A mother with the child’s birth spacing is too close has a risk of dying with<br>RR= 1.05. Analysis of maternal mortality based on mothers with 4T who use contraception is that they risk<br>breaking with RR = 19.3, 5. The status of mothers with 4T can be a risk factor for maternal mortality, so it<br>is necessary to monitor and prevent it with a family planning program.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Anxiety and Coping Strategies of Students with Sickle Cell Disease: Three-Year Cross-Sectional Study 2021-03-31T17:44:39-05:00 Suchismita Bhowmik Rani Shetty Shraddha Patel <p>Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most prevalent inherited blood disorder worldwide and<br>estimated 18 million Indians have sickle cell trait1 and 4 million have sickle cell disease2. The study aims<br>to find out the prevalence of sickle cell disease among university students and to identify coping strategies,<br>they have adopted by them to deal with anxiety.<br>Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional survey was done among 2126 students over duration of three years<br>to identify with simple random sampling technique followed by purposive sampling technique. Diagnosis<br>confirmed by DTT and haemoglobin Electrophoresis before assessing the anxiety level and coping strategies<br>using Hamilton-Anxiety Scale and Brief COPE scale through interview technique.<br>Result: Total 143(6.73%) students was found sickling positive while 63(44%) was suffering with mild to<br>moderate level of anxiety and 52(36%) was in the range of moderate to severe. Among them 53(46.09%) has<br>used approach coping strategies whereas 62(53.91%) preferred avoidant coping strategies.<br>Conclusion: Study finding suggest that students with SCD experience anxiety and they developed coping<br>strategies to deal with anxiety. Proper guidance will be helpful for developing effective coping strategies to<br>reduce level of anxiety.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 An Overview of Shift Work Variability among Nurses in Governmental Sectors in Kuwait: Cross-Sectional Study 2021-03-31T17:50:10-05:00 Zafer Alajmi Mukhlid Alshamari MSN Yousef Buresli Eid Amutairi <p>Background: Shift work is a work schedule with a diversity of working time arrangements. The diversification<br>of working time is significantly associated with health problems such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular.<br>Shift work is considered a workplace hazard. It indicated high levels of stress and exhaustion among nurses<br>and a low level of job satisfaction. Irregularity in working hours might compromise nurses’ performance and<br>contribute to low quality of care in health care settings.<br>Aim: This study aims to describe the shift work variability, the sufficiency of sleeping, general aspects of<br>health and performance among nurses working in the governmental sectors in Kuwait.<br>Methods: An observational cross-sectional design was used among nurses working in Kuwait’s governmental<br>health care sectors.<br>Findings: A total of 329 nurses participated in this study. The majority of participants reported rotating shift<br>work 297 (90.3%). The mean and standard deviation of sleeping hours were reported as 5.8±1.15 hours.<br>Of them, 167 (50.8%) nurses reported falling asleep while driving after finishing their work duty. Besides,<br>frequent feeling of fatigue was expressed by the participants 268 (81.5%).<br>Conclusion: The present study revealed a high level of shift work variability among nurses. Fatigue, falling<br>asleep, and work incidences were also reported by nurses. Special attention should be given to nurses<br>working under shift work rotation as this might affect their general health and performance. Decision makers<br>should provide adaptation programs and apply enhamcement measures to promot health and productivity of<br>nurses in Kuwait.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Therapy (PMRT) on Sleep Quality among Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) Patients 2021-03-31T17:56:11-05:00 Himanshi Jithin Thomas Parel <p>Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a progressive deterioration of liver functions for more than six months, which<br>includes synthesis of clotting factors, other proteins, detoxification of harmful products of metabolism and<br>excretion of bile. The chronic liver disease represents a continuous and progressive process of hepatic<br>fibrosis, liver tissue architectural distortion, and regeneration nodule formation. While fibrosis is usually<br>irreversible, but it can be reversible in the initial stage of development. The transition time point of reversible<br>fibrosis to irreversible fibrosis is still not completely understood.1 Sleep disturbances, particularly daytime<br>sleepiness and insomnia, are common problems reported by patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Poor<br>sleep negatively impacts patients’ quality of life and cognitive functions and increases mortality. Although<br>sleep disturbances can be an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), many patients without HE still<br>complain of poor quality sleep.2 Progressive muscle relaxation is based upon the simple practice of tensing, or<br>tightening, one muscle group at a time followed by a relaxation phase with release of the tension and improves<br>sleep quality among patients with CLD.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mental Health Needs and Concerns During Floods 2021-03-31T18:00:16-05:00 Jithin Thomas Parel G. Balamurugan <p>Natural Disasters can happen at any place irrespective of the developed, developing or the least developed<br>status of a country. It can cause massive destruction to the lives and livelihoods of large population and<br>hence, to the national economies. It is experienced that the least developed and developing countries are<br>impacted more severely by large scale natural disasters especially the flood. A number of studies have<br>shown a range of symptoms resulting from exposure to natural disasters such as flooding. Among these<br>consequences, individuals may experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression<br>and anxiety. The aim of this article was to examine the psychological impact of flooding.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Psychological Issues of People affected with Flood: A Systematic Review 2021-03-31T18:03:23-05:00 Jithin Thomas Parel G. Balamurugan <p>Introduction: People experience the psychological impact of a disaster before, during, and after the actual<br>occurrence of the disaster event. In particular, during the period of initial disaster response, the behavior<br>and mentality of the public are temporarily disrupted due to stress. In the following period, not only fear but<br>also physical deprivation is experienced. This systematic review is to determine the impact of psychological<br>issues of people affected with flood.<br>Methods : A thorough literature search from the databases were searched between 2006 and 2020 including<br>MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, The British Nursing Index, and the Cochrane Central<br>Register from the time period 2000- 2015.Total 15 quantitative studies were included in this review. These<br>studies were conducted across the world which comprises six different countries like China (1), United<br>Kingdom (6),India(3), Austrailia (2) and Pakistan (2). Results :The findings revealed that the prevalence of<br>Post traumatic depression was 80% among the different studies. Nearly 67% of people affected with flood<br>were shown symptoms of anxiety. More than half (60%) of them were depressive due to the flood aftermaths.<br>Conclusion : Many of the studies recommended initial treatment and psychological intervention for the<br>people affected with flood. There is also an emphasis on special consideration for the vulnerable like infant,<br>old age and pregnant women.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Impact of Guided Imagery on Depression, Stress and Anxiety among Wives of Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder 2021-03-31T18:06:48-05:00 Jyoti Jithin Thomas Parel <p>The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of Guided Imagery (GI) on Depression, Stress and<br>Anxiety among wives of patients with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). Many studies have examined the<br>protective factors associated with individual’s mental illness. In some studies, consumption of Alcohol had<br>an inverse relationship to mental health problems, whereas in other studies, it leads to serious effects on the<br>family members of the AUD patients. If not properly managed, stress can lead to disturbances in cognitive<br>functioning, mood-related problems, obesity, and heart disease. Guided imagery has been shown to be an<br>effective technique to help people recover from stress. The literature on guided imagery, however, does<br>not take the theme of the guided imagery script into account. Additionally, there are gaps in the research<br>regarding any interaction between rurality and mood, stress, and guided imagery. Guided Imagery describes<br>techniques that use visualizations and draw on the participants’ active imagination and mental imagery.<br>It typically involves a person directing the mental exercises and the participants are guided through<br>suggestions to evoke specific images. It is used as psychotherapy, as a relaxation or meditation technique,<br>or experimentally to evoke specific emotional states.Guided Imagery is cost effective, noninvasive, nonpharmacological<br>complementary and alternative therapy to reduce the level of depression, stress and anxiety<br>among wives of AUD patients.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021